International Journal of Educational Management

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0951-354X
Publications
Article
Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the dynamics between innovators and the communities they attempt to change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper offers brief case studies/vignettes that demonstrate the theoretical construct: “what communities will always negotiate to what they can bear during the change process.” Findings – Experiences of the practitioners featured give some credence to the theoretical construct. Originality/value – The paper provides an original and valuable lens through which change can be considered and navigated.
 
Article
Purpose - The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach - This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings - A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision making was identified to facilitate and improve day-to-day decision making in schools. Practical implications - The rules are proposed as ways for administrators to respond rapidly to problems without sacrificing quality or efficiency in the process. Originality/value - The inquiry identifies a set of heuristics for decision making that are not well-known in the literature in educational administration.
 
Article
Purpose - The aim of this article is to examine the empirical literature on irrationality and identify a set of concepts to help administrators cope with irrationality in decision making. Design/methodology/approach - This analysis is a synthesis of the selected research literature on irrationality. Findings - A set of seven concepts and propositions was indentified that are critical in understanding the influence on irrationality on decision making. Research limitations/implications - The propositions proposed are ways to deal constructively with irrational behavior in decision making, but it is only a beginning. Practical implications - The concepts, propositions, and their application to practice are not well-known in educational administration and are useful tools for educational leaders. Originality/value - The paper discusses the power of seven concepts: perception; simplification; decisiveness; deadlines; norms; ownership; and emotional expectation.
 
Article
Understanding the milieu in which successful change decisions have been made in the past can help to prepare the way for future successful change efforts. The circumstances surrounding successful innovations or “conditions” presented are not intended to be a definitive list. Drawing from related research, we can identify clearly the primary conditions which greatly enhance the success of a specific innovation. The conditions can serve as a useful analytical tool for the educational leader who would like to see a specific innovation implemented in a school or district. Too often we have seen innovations introduced with little forethought, and too often, for the wrong reasons. The conditions can be utilized as significant predictors of future success.
 
Article
A new approach to assessment of the leadership skills, which are seen as being essential to effective and efficient management of further education in a fast changing environment, is described. A practical and down-to-earth model is offered, based firmly on current educational philosophy, which, it is hoped, will cause many managers to pause and rethink their basic approach to their role.
 
Article
Purpose – Aims to report on the 60th ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show 2005, held in Orlando Florida, 2‐4 April 2005 by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Design/methodology/approach – Discusses the presentations such as the obesity epidemic in children, educational progress in schools, creating capacity for learning, the human face of technological change, the implications of research and practice in school improvement for the design and implementation of accountability systems and the multiple intelligences of leadership. Findings – The presentations gave excellent opportunities for teachers and researchers to share good practice and dialogue, as many of them were highly interactive. Originality/value – The paper provides a good overview of the 60th ASCD Annual Conference and Exhibit Show 2005.
 
Article
A fully integrated and responsive instructional management system, based upon a continuing analysis of data, is necessary if the “whole is to be greater than the sum of its parts”. This outcome-based system (in this case for the management of mathematics instruction) consists of: (1) An empirically validated curriculum for mathematics instruction, pre-school through algebra (quadratic equations); (2) Individual assessment and criterion referenced evaluation instruments (pre-test, post-test, placement, cumulative review tests) for all 231 clusters of skills and mathematical concepts, that have been established for validity, reliability, item discrimination and efficiency; (3) A hierarchy of mathematical objectives that graphically displays all skills and concepts and describes the dependency and prerequisite relationships found among the objectives; (4) Computer management software that: maintains an individual history for each student in the programme; identifies objectives in greatest demand; identifies each student's changing eligibility; matches and optimises individual eligibilities with programme options; monitors each student and signals anomalies if and when an individual student exceeds a historically generated norm.
 
Article
The increasing trend for the globalisation of business has highlighted the need for a better understanding of the factors that influence levels of intercultural awareness within organisations. Within the higher education sector, one initiative that aims to address this issue is student study abroad programs. This paper reports on a study that investigates factors that influence Australian students' propensity to engage in these programs. Using both qualitative and quantitative analysis, we examined the role of students' personality in the decision to participate in study abroad programs. The implications for education in international business are discussed.
 
Article
Purpose – Leadership in educational settings has been established as a key factor that impacts student learning outcomes, consequently it is important to understand how academic leadership is conceptualised and enacted. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – This qualitative study investigated the nature and demands of academic leadership in the New Zealand polytechnic sector by analysing documentary evidence and investigating the perceptions held of the role by 15 academic leaders in four institutions who were interviewed. Findings – Findings of the study highlight the four roles of organisational leadership, curriculum leadership, academic management and academic currency. Participants confirmed that they struggle with ambiguity and tensions. The importance of teams, collaboration and communication are established and the study concludes that an understanding of role complexity to reduce ambiguity and provision of support to perform the role should be key institutional concerns. Originality/value – This is one of very few research studies into conceptualising and researching the enactment of academic leadership in a polytechnic setting. The findings could impact the design of future leadership development.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of new managerialism on junior academic-managers (defined as those having informal leadership or management roles below the level of head of department). It aims to discover: whether junior academic-managers experience the same tensions as Heads of Department; whether distributed leadership is possible and/or desirable in Higher Education; and what types of support junior academic-managers might welcome. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws upon previous literature and a small case study of one university department in a mid-ranking UK university. Findings - Junior academic-managers experience similar kinds of tensions to heads of department. Although distributed leadership is considered a necessity in higher education, in practice, devolved leadership is more common than genuinely distributed leadership. Junior academic-managers would benefit from the same types of support as heads of department, but increased administrative assistance would be particularly helpful. Some, though not all, of the tensions felt by both groups could be alleviated if higher education institutions (HEIs) adopted a modified form of workforce remodelling, similar to that being implemented in English and Welsh schools. Research limitation/implications - The empirical data come from within one department of one university. It is debatable how far the findings of this study are generalizable to other contexts. Originality/value - There are relatively few studies looking at academic heads of department, and virtually none looking at junior academic-managers. The argument that school workforce remodelling might be adapted for the HE sector is not made elsewhere.
 
Article
It is generally accepted that irrespective of training, motivational programmes, and the development of positive work environments, not all personnel will perform at acceptable levels. In an effort to change behaviour, many organizations attempt to develop formal disciplinary procedures that include a number of possible disciplinary actions, with each disciplinary action identified as a reasonable response to defined levels of unsatisfactory performance. Unfortunately, few academic organizations have developed or implemented “appropriate-response” disciplinary procedures or programmes. Without such reasoned disciplinary procedures, organizational responses to unacceptable performance may take on many of the characteristics of punishment rather than discipline. Explores the barriers to such disciplinary programmes in academic organizations.
 
Article
Purpose – Higher education, including research, depends crucially on the people involved, their talents and human capital. Therefore, a university can improve or at least maintain its standing by hiring only the best available academics. Hiring the absolute best may be too expensive for most and is impossible for all. However, it is not too difficult to recognise the relatively best scholars. The real problem is to act on this knowledge instead of following other objectives. That is why detached decision makers like managers, politicians or academics from other institutions may be in a better position than faculty members with respect to senior hirings. This paper aims to address these issuesDesign/methodology/approach – The argument is explained in detail and historical examples are given.Findings – It is shown why and how to hire the best available academics. The existence of many deviations from this rule offers opportunities for those who follow it.Research limitations/implications – Besides some practical problems, the key intellectual problem is to measure or even define quality in academia. The principle holds nevertheless for any kind of academic quality.Practical implications – Universities can improve their status by hiring the best available academics.Originality/value – One simple (formal) principle can structure the recruiting process and thereby change universities for the better.
 
Article
Purpose – Despite the increasing attention of organizational commitment in the management literature, most studies predominantly focus on full-time workers in traditional work settings. This paper examined the antecedents of organizational commitment among casual academics working in the tertiary education sector in Australia. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was developed and distributed to casual academics working in a large Australian public university. Findings – Analysis of the data shows that personal characteristics (gender, marital status, family responsibilities and education), job-related characteristics (supervisor support, co-worker support, role clarity and resource availability) and job involvement characteristics (tenure, second job and post-graduate study at the employing university) all impact on organizational commitment. Research limitations/implications – Australian tertiary institutions are prominent employers of casual workers, however, very little is known about the work behavior of this group of academics. The results of this study highlight important directions for implementing strategies to increase casual academic's organizational commitment. Organization commitment is important because it is known association with other important organizational variables such as turnover, absenteeism and work effort. Originality/value – Given the increasing reliance on casual academics in tertiary institutions, this study provides the first step in better understanding the factors that affect the organization commitment of casual academics.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold, to answer two questions: how do senior educational administration (EA) field members perceive the field's scholarly aims and boundaries and the meaning of their intellectual work? and what are the similarities and differences between “outsider” and “insider” perceptions of the field's major purposes and directions? Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli academics who work in departments of EA in varied universities and colleges. Findings – The field members in the study shared similar views of the field's purposes and challenges, but were divided about the field's desired knowledgebase and scholarly boundaries. Some implications for the field's future development are suggested. Originality/value – The exploration of academics’ perceptions of their own field of study may increase the intellectual and theoretical understandings of major epistemological aspects of EA as a field of study.
 
Article
Empirically compares the emphasis given to writing topics by business communication textbooks and business communication professors with the writing topics that accounting practitioners believe are most important. Addresses the questions: (1) Is there an agreement between the perceptions of accounting executives concerning the importance of certain written communication topics and the space devoted to those topics in the business communication textbooks most commonly used by undergraduate accounting students? (2) Are business communication professors teaching accounting students the writing skills that accounting executives perceive to be the most important? Findings indicate that the business communication courses taken by accounting majors are not emphasizing the writing topics that accounting practitioners believe to be most vital to accountants. The implication is that these courses may not be teaching accounting students the practical writing skills they will need on the job.
 
Article
The results of an investigation into the possibilities with regard to the accreditation of the prior achievements of instructors in community workshops in Northern Ireland are detailed. A number of instructors were interviewed to determine whether they would be interested in accreditation and what kinds of evidence of prior achievement they would be able to offer. It was found that instructors would welcome the introduction of an accreditation procedure but that, in most cases, they would be unable to supply documentary evidence of prior achievements. It is suggested that managers of further education colleges should make provision for accreditation, as this will be an important source of clients in the future provided that they are able to offer appropriate facilities in terms of counselling and assessment of experiential learning.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to determine possible grouping of similar MBA programmes offered by 45 British and French business schools accredited by the Association of Master Business Administration (AMBA) as of January 2006. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses the statistical co‐plot method reported in a similar study of leading full time MBA programmes in the USA. The method is used to map/group the schools according to both core and elective units offered by the business schools. Findings – The paper outlines the features of the six groups of MBA programmes found (Cluster 1: Manchester and Bath; Cluster 2: Warwick, Lancaster and London; Cluster 3: five top French business schools and Cranfield; Cluster 4: two French schools – Grenoble and Audiencia‐Nantes; Cluster 5: two French schools – ENPC‐EAP and IEP; Cluster 6: the remaining UK MBA programmes). The differentiating characteristics of core and option units offered by business schools in each cluster are described and discussed. Originality/value – The study makes a contribution under the application area of international business education (specifically the design of MBA programmes), as well as in the area of statistical analysis by using co‐plot cluster analysis, an approach not used before when comparing UK and French Business schools to explore aspects of curriculum design.
 
Article
A study of concept acquisition and development in children at 8 and 11 years using five assessment of performance unit (APU) science tests: 30 children from each age group completed the tests and 15 from each group were interviewed. The oral and written responses were analysed. It was found that the “languages of experience”, as opposed to the “language of schooling”, issues were a salient feature of the children's oral responses. Misconceptions were evident in written and oral responses of both age groups. Results indicated that Piaget's stage theory still has a significant contribution to make to science teaching. Oral testing must be given due stress in assessing pupil achievement.
 
Article
A presentation is given of the design, implementation, evaluation and follow-up of a successful faculty development programme that is effectively and efficiently meeting the needs of both part-time and full-time professors at a private university in Mexico. It illustrates some features of effective programmes such as presentation of theory of skills, use of variety of delivery strategies, practice in simulated and actual settings, teaching performance feedback, coaching for application, individualisation, incentives for participation, and administrative support. Some advantages and disadvantages are also identified.
 
Article
This article argues that a major review of the theory of educational administration is required if it is to regain a credible role in academic and practical circles. It does this by considering the case of regional directors in Victoria, Australia, a role similarly endangered on present assumptions and trends. The argument has four major parts. First is a brief summary of some reasons why the dominant theoretical perspective of the field is losing the credibility it once had. Second is a description of the context of a case study about what it is, or was, to be a regional director of education (RDE). Third are some of the major practical and theoretical implications of the case study and how they relate to other recent research projects. Four, on these bases, it is proposed that a new practical theory of educative administration will require a non-foundational epistemology, a Deweyan moral theory as well as an economic-political and sociological imagination.
 
Article
The management and leadership of education provide formidable challenges and new opportunities due to the constant changes taking place all over the world. There are several factors giving rise to this change, such as the relationship between education and the world of employment, and the ever-expanding growth of knowledge and education technology. It is therefore not surprising that attention is currently being given internationally to the problems of educational administration. This article examines administration as a process, and the role of the educational administrator as a leader.
 
Article
The operation of political systems with management systems in salary administration is contrasted. This comparison will clearly show that political systems are dysfunctional in salary administration and should be replaced by management systems. But bureaucrats who operate with position power in political systems are resisting the transition to management systems. This is because these latter authority structures are designed to hold superiors strictly accountable for the quality of their performance. Additionally, management systems require salary administration decisions to be rooted in third wave principles, ethical standards and objective analysis. Efforts to perpetuate political systems as the dominant authority structures in collegiate organisations will promote waste, inefficiency, mismanagement and sometimes fraud in salary administration. These conditions undermine the productivity and commitment of personnel in their university.
 
Article
The generally held belief that the extension of participative administrative arrangements within education systems has necessarily led to democratic educational reform is critically examined. Although restructured systems may afford greater community involvement in educational governance, such involvement is generally bureaucratically mandated and occurs within a social and political context in which power relationships, including the relationship of education to other social spheres, are largely unexamined and remain unaltered. Using the case of Victoria, Australia, as an example it is demonstrated that versions of participation in education need not disturb patterns of managerial control.
 
Article
Incl. abstract, bibl. Little has been reported in the literature on the perception and understanding of administrative staff regarding the processes involved in performance appraisal within the higher educational establishments. At the University of Bradford appraisal for this cadre of employees has hitherto taken a voluntary form. In response to this vacuum, an empirical survey has been carried out in four departments in order to explore the perception, views and preferences of the administrative staff of the entire process and its related issues. The results indicated that lack of provision for formal appraisal has often resulted in inconsistencies, little or no provision for establishing formal dialogue between management and the staff concerning their performance expectations, misplacement of personal goals, and realistic opportunities for personal and career development. Therefore concludes that there is an urgent need for the university to disseminate its policies widely and maintain uniformity of practice throughout its departments. Moreover, attention ought to be paid to the effective training and the role and responsibilities of line managers.
 
Article
Proposes that the improvement of educational management practices at the operational level requires the adoption of an approach based on needs analysis, evaluation, and training. Assumes that educational managers are accountable to the public for their actions and performance and that they seek improvements in the quality of the educational services they provide and stresses the importance of understanding and attempting to measure the results of such services. This in turn requires an analysis of educational programme dynamics and the limitations upon managers in working to achieve increases in service quality. In constructing a training scheme aimed at management improvement, this aspect is referred to as a “needs analysis based on programme dynamics”. Identifies factors involved in the design of a training scheme for educational administrators, namely: needs analysis based on programme dynamics: key competences for administrators: training design: a HRD agenda: and an implementation plan. Discusses only the first of these, given the current constraints of time and space, with the other factors being the subject of a subsequent article.
 
Article
A pilot project which aimed to develop the management and leadership abilities of 51 senior staff members from 17 secondary schools in the Aoraki region of New Zealand is described. The action research approach was used to identify local hopes and needs and as a basis for developing and testing a programme model for staff development based on a set of relevant elements such as regular sessions, interschool interaction, freedom from responsibilities, enjoyment of learning and exploration of the central concept of school culture. The project was led by a consultant-co-ordinator team. Participants examined issues related to management, leadership and change and they developed strategies for increasing the management effectiveness of their schools. The aim shared by all participants was to develop management and leadership skills in order better to support teachers and learners. The background to the project and its underpinning professional development model are described.
 
Article
This study found that 10 of 16 measures of interpersonal communication showed statistical significance between male and female administrators in a university environment. Using the FIRO-B questionnaire, females preferred to initiate more inclusion and affection in interpersonal activities; also, they wanted other people to include them and to be friendly to them in inter-personal relationships. Beyond the comparison of males and females, however, it is evident that all scores (both male and female) exist within the mid-range categories. Thus, it is concluded that interpersonal communication capacity is lacking throughout the sample, and definite actions are needed to increase interpersonal communication effectiveness in organisations.
 
Article
Traces progress in introducing information technology to support administrative and managerial functions in local education authorities and their schools since 1983. Notes the move towards preparing information technology implementation strategies and the somewhat belated recognition of the need for information management of the system. Outlines some likely areas of future difficulty.
 
Article
Purpose: Although the importance of shared leadership to school success has been widely recognised in the literature, only scant attention has been paid to the feelings of vice-principals over undertaking more responsibilities. Maintained by the researchers in this somewhat neglected area is the assertion that vice-principals who find their jobs more satisfying have stronger desire for principalship whereas those experiencing less job satisfaction were more likely to wish to remain in their present roles. The feelings of vice-principals towards their jobs thus warrant further investigation given the current shortage of principal applicants, which is predominately comprised of vice-principals, in many places of the world. This paper aims to investigate this issue. Design/methodology/approach: Taking into consideration that most of the studies on vice-principalship in the literature have been descriptive and provided little empirical support, this study attempted to empirically verify the job satisfaction and desire for principalship link based on a quantitative survey covering vice-principals in all Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings: The results suggest that professional commitment, sense of efficacy and sense of synchrony are the three satisfaction factors affecting the desire of vice-principals for becoming principals; the effect of the first two is positive whereas that of the last one is negative. Practical implications: The negative relation between sense of synchrony and desire for principalship is worth noting; it suggested vice-principals in Hong Kong who upheld the Chinese cultural value of workplace harmony had found it hard to strike a balance between maintaining a harmonious working relationship with colleagues and seeking for career advancement and thus chose to remain in their vice-principal positions. The perceived tension between school performance and work harmony held by vice-principals in Hong Kong is a crucial issue to be addressed by policy makers. Originality/value: This paper is the first of its kind to investigate the direct link between job satisfaction and the career aspiration of vice-principals using a quantitative methodology. (Contains 6 tables, 1 figure and 2 notes.)
 
Article
Purpose This paper demonstrates the need for the higher education sector to develop and implement scaleable, quantitative measures that evaluate community and establish organisational benchmarks in order to guide the development of future practices designed to enhance the student learning experience. Design/ methodology/ approach Literature regarding contemporary Australian higher education policy and community development is critiqued to illustrate the need for universities to adopt scaleable quantitative measures to evaluate stated strategic imperatives and establish organisational benchmarks. The integration of organisational benchmarks guides the implementation of future practices designed to enhance the student learning experience. A current active exemplar methodology is discussed to demonstrate applicability to both higher education administrators and teaching staff across the various organisation levels. Findings While universities are promoting and investing in the concept of community to enhance the student learning experience there are as yet, limited scaleable evaluative measures and performance indicators to guide practitioners. This paper proposes an effective measurement tool to benchmark current pedagogical performance standards and monitor the progress and achievement of future implemented practices designed to enhance the sense of community experienced by the student cohort. Originality/ value This paper identifies and addresses the current absence of effective scaleable evaluative measures to assess the achievement of stated strategic imperatives implemented as a consequence of reducing government financial support, increasing accountability, and increasing student expectations as result of educational consumerism.
 
Article
A survey assessing to what extent teachers in primary schools were using computer adventure games in their teaching and how their use helped or hindered the teaching of other subjects in the curriculum is outlined. The interest of pupils in such games was also sought, as was their ability to learn from them. Questionnaires were circulated to 30 randomly selected teachers in six primary schools, as well as to 60 pupils. The results of the survey indicated that teachers found computers in general and adventure games in particular to be of use in their teaching. There was evidence to support the contention that teachers were integrating the use of such games into their overall teaching strategy. Pupils clearly enjoyed such games and could make conceptual links with other subjects from puzzles that they encountered in an adventure game. Although INSET was strongly favoured by teachers, the view that computers in general, and adventure games in particular, had a considerable contribution to make to teaching and learning in the primary school was strongly supported.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international student recruitment at their institutions. Interview data are analysed by NVivo and categorized into four institutional factors: marketing department size, employee qualifications, institutional recruiting experience, and institutional focus. Findings – Differences are found to exist between universities and secondary schools in terms of their current international education recruitment practices. The percentage of international student cohort appears to be largely responsible for sectoral differences. Research limitations/implications – Findings presented are from a sample of secondary schools and universities in Australia and New Zealand. Further research is required to determine applicability of the findings to other education sectors. Practical implications – Implications are considered from the viewpoint of the international education marketing practitioner, education manager and policy makers. The theoretical contribution of the study is also discussed. Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified research and practitioner gap through investigating international student recruitment from an institutional perspective. Keywords Students, Recruitment, Education Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose and value of management education was always under the critics’ scanner but the proliferation of institutes impelled a serious debate on its quality. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting quality of management education in India and explains their nature, significance and mutual influences using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach – The factors were listed through literature review. They were then validated by empirical research conducted through questionnaires administered electronically and personally to 220 master of business administration students and alumni. On 13 such factors finalised, a qualitative and interpretive tool, ISM was applied. Findings – Leadership emerged as the most important factor followed by organisational structure and practices. Interrelations otherwise not easily observable established their prominence. An important fact that evolved is that almost all the factors have strong interdependence and have to be seen in coherence when analysing their impact on students. Originality/value – The literature until now has been highlighting the factors and their association with management education largely in isolation. This paper contributes to the existing literature by proposing a framework of the interrelationships of the factors which have a role in improving the quality of management education.
 
Article
Incl. abstract, bibl. The Kenyan Government, being concerned about the quality of school education, is attempting to increase teacher effectiveness and student learning. To achieve these goals, current in-service programs need to be improved for all head teachers and teachers. Also, the role of the head teacher in promoting relevant teacher development requires greater recognition and administrative training. Organizations such as the Kenya Education Staff Institute need to be more involved in providing up-to-date staff development for all educational administrators and other educators. More attention also must be paid to effective induction, internships, strategic staff placements, financing, collaboration among provider organizations, and opinions of teachers concerning in-service needs. Head teachers can do much to improve teaching and learning by using professional formative evaluation of their teachers.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in International Journal of Educational Management, published by and copyright Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Proposes the use of relationship management as a perspective on student retention management in higher education. “Good practice” that might aid in the management of student engagement with learning is hungrily shared, but there are some inherent contradictions amongst these recommendations. Previous work on withdrawal identifies some of the factors that influence the withdrawal decision; this approach aligns with transaction based marketing and study of consumer behaviour. This article proposes that the relationship marketing and management approach that focuses on customer loyalty and commitment may offer different insights. This model is used to describe the development of the relationship between the student and their college or university. An important facet of this relationship development is that it needs to be maintained by different “service agents” through different stages of the relationship, and therefore communication, and student record systems that share student knowledge across the university are crucial.
 
Article
Discusses the situation of Catholic aided schools following the 1988 Education Reform Act with emphasis on school governing bodies. Governors need training, information and guidance on school management plans and devolved budgets, new flexibilities in staff salaries, teacher appraisal and morale, buying in inspection. Further classification of new grant maintained status may be needed. A proper balance must be found between education authorities, governors, Church, parents and teachers that best suits individual community needs.
 
Article
b>Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elucidate information on what creates the different types of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – In the conceptual model it is argued that the concept of social capital provides an interesting view on the creation of market-specific and firm-specific knowledge. Findings – The major finding from the paper is that knowledge is an important by-product of an alliance forming process, a process commonly termed as alliance learning. Research limitations/implications – Both market-specific and firm-specific knowledge have implications on two main types of alliance learning, that of mutual and non-mutual learning. Practical implications – Alliance managers need to be aware that knowledge is a key driver as well as a beneficial outcome in the formation of alliances. Originality/value – This paper examines how the different types of knowledge evolve and how these different types of knowledge impact upon alliance learning.<br /
 
Article
Incl. abstract, bibl. Beginning in the early 1970s Trinidad and Tobago adopted a policy of putting all of its junior secondary schools "on shift". The method allows for two schools conducted in the same facility at different times of the day, and has the advantage of accessing a large number of students to secondary school. The method, however, has generated a number of problems and, as a result, has been earmarked for alteration. Current plans in Trinidad and Tobago include dismantling the shift system through construction of new, single shift, schools in new locations. It is argued that proposals to build new facilities in new locations as a means of resolving problems associated with the shift system may be ore effectively accomplished through application of the method of location-allocation modelling.
 
Article
Purpose – Program efficacy and outcomes can often be determined through an examination of collaborative activities between and among inner city school districts with high dropout rates and private, public, and nonprofit organizations. Kettl (2004) adeptly describes additional collaborative practice trends that not only transform governance structures, but blurs the line between and among sectors. These trends illuminate the need for governmental agencies to collaborate with nonprofit and for-profit organizations to address “wicked problems” where no single organization has sufficient resources and the consequences are enormous. The paper aims to discuss theses issues. Design/methodology/approach – Utilizing a quantitative approach, this research compares the efficacy of a newly developed collaborative alternative education program to existing programs in New Jersey's Newark Public Schools during 2008-2009. Findings – The results indicate that the overall performance of the students enrolled in the new research models is significantly higher than in the existing program due to incentives and not administrative collaboration. Research limitations/implications – Implications for future research include: first, the need for studies to reveal enduring, universal effects of collaboration; second, longitudinal studies of the effects of collaboration on alternative education issues; and third, an evaluation of the effectiveness of collaborative training. Originality/value – This research intends to contribute to the literature concerning these distinctive types of partnerships – specifically the integration of three very different systems into a collaborative service. This single case study presents support of how these services subsist within four settings and what force they have on special services for students in alternative education in the public schools.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in International Journal of Educational Management, published by and copyright Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Emphasizes the controllability of customer-to-customer interaction in the higher education environment. Argues that students' satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their experience of a university may be significantly influenced by their experience of other students. Customer compatibility management supplements other approaches to quality management, such as TQM. Tutors and managers of the educational environment have always recognized that some features of student-to-student interaction need to be managed. Borrows some concepts from the services marketing literature and proposes a more focused and comprehensive customer compatibility management programme. Uses the theatrical metaphor to illustrate the roles and functions that need to be adapted in a compatibility management programme.
 
Article
An extract from a book manuscript highlighting the specific challenge which Greenfield posed to established thinking. Discusses how the study of education administration has been characterized by attempts to develop a theory which describes, explains and predicts administrative behaviour within the school context. Assesses the contribution of the “theory movement” and Kuhnian concepts; the movement of research towards finding a phenomological alternative to explain administrative behaviour; and the development of interpretive approaches which look towards subjects such as the humanities for a possible solution. In the light of this background discusses in depth the contribution made by T.B. Greenfield to the debate and considers the viability of an interpretive alternative.
 
Article
Incl. abstract, bibl. Corruption is a major but neglected problem in international development literature. From a review of available literature and the author's experiences within consulting services for various educational projects in developing countries, proposes an anticipatory strategy that will help professionals to protect an education project from corruption. Finds that there is no universal definition of corruption; thus, in anticipating corruption, one should be aware of possible disparities in recognising corruption, and avoid imposing inappropriate culturally defined ideas when administering a project. Suggests that an anticipatory strategy is not a direct anti-corruption strategy, and may exist as a "hidden agenda" within the main project. Thus, attention should first be paid to diagnosing rather than redressing a system that is thought to be corrupt, adopting prevention rather than punishment, informal rather than formal approaches, and situational norms rather than formalised legislation. The protection of students from corruption should be a priority throughout the strategy.
 
Article
Examines the context for management studies of Gulf schooling, indicates areas of concern, suggests topics for research and discusses field research in Dubai. Most staff are Arabic‐speaking expatriates, and reliable statistical information is not at present available. Education is a free gift to citizens who are not taxed, and is thus unaccountable. A public policy tradition hardly exists. Decision making is in the hands of a heavily bureaucratic local ministry, and tends to lack coherence. There is a pressing need for research in management, particularly in the key area of reducing educational wastage rates. Management of contract expatriate staff, policy at institutional level, staff development, curricular issues and teacher training also merit study.
 
Article
The demographic changes taking place within society, accompanied by reduced resources and increased unemployment, are given as the reason why some authorities have developed a new vision of education. Educational change requires a complete review of tasks and functions by authorities. Teamwork is an essential ingredient for effective organisational development, allowing authority to be delegated without releasing central control.
 
Article
Discusses current methodological problems with principal performance appraisal and evaluation methods which have received considerable attention in the literature. Suggests that administrative performance appraisals can be conducted using a measurement technique called generalizability theory (”G” theory). Introduces “G” theory as a method for improving the dependability of principal performance appraisals.
 
Article
Presents selected findings from an ongoing investigation of relationships between changes in student test scores and specific actions taken by principals in regard to student learning. Uses a list of 20 open-ended questions to elicit from school principals verbal descriptions of their behaviours associated with student test scores. Each of the 20 questions deals with a different behavioural step belonging to a rational decision-making model and were addressed to two samples of elementary school principals of schools which experienced either a continuous improvement or a continuous decline in student test scores in reading, writing and mathematics over a three-year period. Differences found between the two groups included those related to the principals' perceptions of the need to improve student test scores, and those related to the nature of principals' involvement in this area. Also discusses selected issues concerning the research design and methodology used in the study - e.g. the cyclical nature of the two central variables (change in test scores and change in principal behaviour) – and the study's internal validity. Concludes with a brief analysis of the possible contributions of the findings to the debate regarding the usefulness of the rational model of administrative behaviour. Argues that, under conditions which force an emphasis on outcomes, the concept of rationality in administrative behaviour has both practical and theoretical implications.
 
Article
Argues that the quest for quality is international in scope, with many nations adopting the total quality management (TQM) principles as a way of achieving educational reform. Early indicators of TQM’s success are increases in student achievement, student self‐concept and teacher morale. However, quality programmes are not free and the concept of accountability is ever‐present in the minds of stakeholders who demand positive returns on their investments. Without a means to demonstrate successful returns on quality investments, public support and confidence in the schools may drastically decrease and TQM may be perceived as too expensive for public support. For those implementing TQM, the question is: how do I demonstrate the return on quality investments? The answer lies in measurement. This involves assessing customer need and expectations; producing quality outputs which meet or exceed customer satisfaction, and then documenting these returns by directly linking quality education outputs with the inputs of time, money, and effort.
 
Article
In all forms of workplaces, especially in the English-speaking world, administrators have been exhorted to introduce what are perceived to be the “best practices” operating in the more successful economies. The education “industry” in Australia appears to be no different in this regard from other industries, and the “best practices” appear to originate from Japan. Japanese management practices are promulgated as having abandoned the old methods of scientific management, offering new ways of managing workplaces in general, and schools in particular. Seeks to examine this proposition critically through an examination of two proposals which have been advanced as bringing “best practices” into the administration of schools. The two areas which have been given currency recently are the introduction of salary packages for teachers and the formation of work in schools. Concludes that these seeming innovations may not differ markedly from the principles advocated earlier this century by the proponents of scientific management. Nevertheless, they may still provide some means towards more democratic administrative practices.
 
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivators for Taiwanese students to study higher education in a western society. The behavioural motivations of Taiwanese students intending to undertake higher education in Australia and the USA were analysed using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach - Taiwanese students intending to study overseas were surveyed with an instrument based on the theory of planned behaviour. Data from 518 students were subjected to principal components analysis to ascertain factors related to their intention to study overseas. Findings - The TPB was validated as an appropriate model for examining selection of transnational education destinations as a form of consumer behaviour. For Australia, the attitude or perceptions of Taiwanese students towards higher education in the destination country was of greatest importance in shaping their intentions for overseas study. The influence of family and friends was more important than consideration of resources necessary in shaping intentions to study in the USA. These differences provide a basis for considering tailored marketing plans for these countries. Originality/value - The research demonstrates the usefulness and the insights that can be gained from the application of the model to the marketing of transnational education services. Institutions could adapt and apply this methodology to develop their own marketing plans.
 
Article
An attempt is made to redefine educational leadership and to create a new “practical theory” of educative leadership which is of relevance to all concerned with the management of education. The approach, techniques and early outcomes of a research project in Australia designed in 1985 and mounted in 1986 to create the new “theory” are reported.
 
Top-cited authors
Geoffrey Soutar
  • University of Western Australia
Tim Mazzarol
  • University of Western Australia
Felix Maringe
  • University of the Witwatersrand
Gaston Leblanc
  • Université de Moncton
Nha Nguyen
  • Université de Moncton