International Journal of Early Years Education

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 1469-8463
Publications
Article
Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. The present study examined the amount, content, and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the United States. Parents of 308 infants aged 6 to 18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and 24-hour television diaries to provide an accurate measurement of household television usage. Television exposure during infancy varied as a function of infant age, sibling status, socioeconomic status and parental attitudes toward television. Regression analyses indicated that parental attitudes were not associated with the amount of television exposure, but were associated with the content of television exposure. These findings indicate that television exposure changes rapidly across infancy and is associated with parental attitudes.
 
Article
The aim was to examine cross-cultural variation in linguistic responsiveness to young children in 10 English-speaking mother-child dyads and 10 Italian-speaking mother- child dyads. All 20 children were late talkers who possessed delays in expressive vocabulary development but age-appropriate cognitive and receptive language skills. Dyads were filmed in 15 minute free play contexts, which were transcribed and coded for measures of maternal linguistic input (e.g. rate, MLU, labels, expansions) and child language productivity (e.g. utterances, different words used). The results revealed that the Italian mothers used more utterances, spoke more quickly and used a more diverse vocabulary than the Canadian mothers. The Italian children mirrored their mothers and also used more utterances and a more diverse vocabulary than the Canadian children. Mothers in both groups used similar percentages of responsive labels and expansions. However, Italian mothers responded to fewer of their children's vocalisations, using a smaller percentage of imitations and interpretations than the Canadian mothers. Correlations between maternal input and children's language productivity revealed that contingent language measures (e.g. imitations, interpretations, expansions) were related to high levels of productivity in children in both cultural groups. The results support the use of language interventions based on increasing maternal responsiveness for these children at the one-word stage of language development. They also point to differences that may be culturally based. For example, Italian mothers use faster rates of interaction and appear to have higher expectations for their children's verbal participation in interaction. This is reflected in higher rates of language production from their children, even though children in both cultural groups have similar vocabulary sizes.
 
Article
In addition to play, a significant part of the children's day in day care centres consists of more 'serious' activities, such as adult-initiated, structured activities and daily routines. Children also have small chores to do. In this paper a closer look is taken at these activities. Are they, in fact, serious? What is the role in them of play and playful actions? How do playful actions contribute to the feeling of togetherness between children? Answers to these questions were sought by making use of observations carried out in a Nordic cooperative research project on the quality of children's lives in Danish, Finnish and Swedish day care centres. These data comprise non-participant observations of 16 five-year-old children during their daily activities in seven day care centres. The analyses were carried out by using interpretative methods. It is self-evident that in their play children are subjects and active agents in creating their own culture. However, the observations show that this occurs not only in play but in all types of activities during the day, often realised by means of humour, fantasy, dramatic gestures, joking with language and exaggeration. Moreover, a playful action is also an object as such: it is a way to communicate, express positive feelings to another person and feel togetherness. En plus du jeu, une partie importante de la journée des enfants dans les écoles maternelles consiste en des activités plus «sérieuses» telles que les activités structurées initiées par les adultes et les activités quotidiennes. Les enfants ont aussi de petites tâches à effectuer. Dans cet article, on examine de plus près ces activités. Sont-elles réellement sérieuses? Quel y est le rôle du jeu et des actes ludiques? Comment les actes ludiques contribuent-ils au sentiment de «togetherness» entre les enfants? Les réponses àces questions ont été explorées par le biais d'observations exécutées pour un projet de recherche collaboratif nordique sur la qualité de la vie des enfants dans les écoles maternelles danoises, finlandaises et suédoises. Ces données comprennent des observations non participatives de 16 enfants de cinq ans au cours de leurs activités quotidiennes dans sept écoles maternelles. Les analyses ont été effectuées selon des méthodes interprétatives. Il est évident qu'au cours de leurs jeux, les enfants sont des sujets et des agents actifs dans la création de leur propre culture. Les observations, cependant, ont démontré que cela se passait non seulement au cours du jeu mais dans tous les types d'activités de la journée, et que cela se réalisait souvent par le biais de l'humour, de la création imaginative, de gestes expressifs, de jeux de mots et d'exagérations. En outre, un acte ludique est aussi un objet en lui-même: c'est une façon de communiquer, d'exprimer des sentiments positifs envers une autre personne, et de ressentir de «togetherness». Además de jugar, una parte importante de la jornada de los niños de las guarderías consiste en actividades más "serias", como actividades y rutinas diarias estructuradas e iniciadas por los adultos. Pero, ¿son verdaderamente serias? ¿Qué papel tienen las acciones de juego y traviesas en estas actividades? ¿Cómo contribuyen las acciones traviesas al sentimiento de unión entre los niños? Se buscaron respuestas a estas cuestiones haciendo uso de observaciones realizadas en un proyecto de investigación conjunta nórdica sobre la calidad de vida de los niños en las guarderías danesas, finlandesas y suecas. Estos datos constan de observaciones sin participantes de 16 niños de cinco años durante sus actividades diarias en guarderías semanales. Los analisis se realizaron usando métodos interpretativos. Es evidente que en sus juegos, los niños son sujetos y agentes activos en la creación de su propia cultura. Sin embargo, las observaciones demostraron que esto occurre no sólo en el juego sino también en todo tipo de activadad durante el día, a menudo ejecutado por medio de humor, fantasía, gestos teatrales, haciendo bromas con el lenguaje y la exageración. Además, una acción traviesa también es un objeto como tal: es una forma de comunicarse, expresar sentimientos positivos a otra persona y sentirse unido
 
Article
Communicative approaches are considered effective in Western countries for developing the English language skills of learners for whom English is a second or third language. This inspired the Namibian Ministry of Education's efforts to devise a new lower primary English syllabus upon independence from South Africa in 1990. The syllabus proposes the use of a communicative approach to teaching speaking and listening skills. In this article the extent to which this approach is appropriate to the Namibian context will be explored. This exploration is based on a 3 year (1995-1997) action research study of an INSET programme, which sought to support unqualified and underqualified primary teachers' efforts to implement the communicative approach. The research study's findings raise the issue of transfer. They suggest that communicative approaches are transferable to the Namibian context if they are simplified and adequate prescriptive guidelines are provided to support teachers. Otherwise, they are beyond the professional capacity of teachers to implement. Les approches communicatives sont considérées comme efficaces dans les pays occidentaux pour développer les compétences en Anglais deuxième ou troisième langue. Ceci a incitéle ministère Namibien de l'Education, lors de son indépendance de l'Afrique du Sud en 1990, àfaire élaborer un nouveau programme d'enseignement de l'Anglais dans les petites classes primaires. Ce programme propose l'emploi d'une approche communicative à l'enseignement de la langue parlée et de la compréhension orale. Dans cet article, nous examinerons si cette approches est appropriée au contexte Namibien. Cette étude se base sur trois ans (1995–1997) de recherches sur un programme INSET, dont l'objectif e´tait de soutenir les efforts des enseignants non-qualifie´s et sous-qualifie´s dans l'application de l'approche communicative. Les re´sultats de l'e´tude soule`vent la question du transfert. Elles sugge`rent que les approches communicatives peuvent eˆtre transfe´re´es au contexte Namibien si elles sont simplifie´es, et si des directives ade´quates sont fournies pour aider les enseignants. Autrement, leur application de´passe les capacite´s professionnelles des enseignants. En los páses occidentales, se considera que los enfoques comunicativos son efectivos para el desarrollo de los conocimientos idiomáticos de Inglés de los aprendices para quienes el inglés es un segundo o tercer idioma. Esto inspirólos esfuerzos del Ministerio de Educación de Namibia para concebir un neuvo programa de Inglés para los primeros an~os al independizarse de Sudáfrica en 1990. El programa propone el uso de un enfoque comunicativo hacia las destrezas docente, oratoria y auditiva. En este art´culo se estudiará hasta quépunto este enfoque es adecuado dentro del contexto Namibio. Este análisis se basa en un estudio de investigación de un programa INSET que durótres an~os (1995-1997). Este estudio intentaba asistir en los esfuerzos de profesores de primaria no cualificados y subcualificados a implementar el enfoque comunicativo. Los descubrimientos del estudio de investigación de medidas plantea el tema de la transmisión. Sugieren que los enfoques comunicativos pueden transferirse al contexto Namibio si se simplifican, y se facilitan adecuadas l´neas directrices prescriptivas para asistir a los profesores. Si no, están más allá de la capacidad profesional de los profesores para que las implementen.
 
Article
Curriculum based on contextual orientation to child's growth consists of three aspects: contextual consciousness of child's growth, theory based early learning guidelines beyond teaching process and children as meaning makers for learning. Those issues form a hypothetical model indicating how theories that guide the early childhood practice—the teaching and early learning processes in a complex setting are connected to each other. The guidelines for teaching and tutoring early learning are: • Child-centredness and acknowledgment of the child as an actor • Recognition of the interactions within among the child's growth environments and • Acceptance of the educator's responsibility to provide an active growth environment for children. According to the contextual curriculum theory early learning process is defined as a co-operation between people involved in curriculum implementation, where the child is seen as an actor having opportunities to meaningful, child-initiated experiences and tutored by peer group and by the adult is learning and growing up and finding out his own metacognition for learning and managing his own life. Important quality requirement for teachers is contextual consciousness about how the view of child and view of adults as well as the context are integrated and how the child finds out his own meaning making process. Le programme scolaire basé sur l'orientation contextuelle de la croissance de l'enfant comporte trois aspects: la conscience contextuelle de la croissance de l'enfant, les principes théoriques du premier apprentissage au-delà du processus d'enseignement, et les enfants en tant que fabricants de signification pour l'apprentissage. Ces questions forment un modèle hypothétique indiquant comment les théories guidant les pratiques de la première enfance—les processus d'enseignement et d'apprentissage dans un cadre complexe—sont liées les unes aux autres. Les principes d'enseignement et de tutorat du premier apprentissage sont les suivants: • le pédocentrisme et la prise en considération de l'enfant en tant qu'acteur; • la prise en conside´ration des interactions au sein des environnements de croissance de l'enfant; • l'acceptation qu'il incombe à l'éducateur de fournir un environnement actif aux enfants. Selon la théorie du programme contextuel, le processus du premier apprentissage se définit comme une coopération entre des personnes chargées de la mise en application du programme, dans lequel l'enfant, considéré comme un acteur ayant des possibilités d'expériences constructives engagées par les enfants avec le tutorat de ses pairs et des adultes, apprend, grandit et trouve sa propre métacognition pour l'apprentissage et la gestion de sa propre vie. Il est essentiel que les enseignants aient une conscience contextuelle de la manière dont le point de vue de l'enfant et le point de vue des adultes, ainsi que le contexte, sont intégrés, et de la manière dont l'enfant trouve son propre processus de fabrication de signification. El programa de estudio basado en la orientación contextual del crecimiento del niño consta de tres aspectos: la conciencia contextual del crecimiento del niño, los principios teóricos del primer aprendizaje más allá del proceso docente, y los niños como creadores de significado para el aprendizaje. Estos temas forman un modelo hipotético indicando como las teorías que guían las prácticas de la primera infancia—los procesos de enseñanza y del primer aprendizaje en un entorno complejo—están relacionadas entre sí. Los principios de la docencia en la asignatura del primer apredizaje son los siguientes: • El reconocimiento y la educación en torno a las inquietudes del niño como actor. • El reconocimiento de las interrelaciones en el entorno del crecimiento del niño. • La aceptación de la responsabilidad del educador para proporcionar un entorno activo para los niños. Según la teoría del programa de estudio contextual, el proceso del primer aprendizaje se define como una colaboración entre las personas encargadas de la puesta en práctica del programa, en el que el niño, es considerado como un actor teniendo posibilidades de experiencias constructivas iniciadas por los niños con la ayuda/tutoría de sus compañeros y de los adultos, aprende, crece y encuentra su propio metaconocimiento para el aprendizaje y la gesti&oacut
 
Article
The 'global' quality of the caregiving environment for young infants and toddlers in day care centres in Athens, the 'structural' and 'dynamic' features in terms of group size, the adult child ratio, the caregiving style and, finally, the interaction patterns developed between the caregivers and the children, were all factors evaluated for potential developmental effects. Participants in the study were 60 toddlers, experiencing full-time (more than 20 hours/week) day care provision, and for at least 6 months out-of-home care, while attending 25 day care centres located in the greater Athens area. Children's assessments included measures of cognitive, language and socio-emotional development. Interviews and observational techniques were used to assess the quality of the day caregiving environment and the interaction processes between caregivers and the children. Children's development was considered in terms of the quality of out-of-home care experience. It was found that the course of development could be predicted by the overall day care centre quality index as measured by the ITERS scale, with the separate contribution of some other variables according to the examined developmental aspect.
 
Article
In this article we discuss verbal strategies used by children to express and construct a sense of togetherness. In a case study the language of one child was audiotaped over 2 years (at the start he was 3 years old) in his interactions with other children and teachers. Brown and Levinson's theoretical model for analysing the politeness strategies of adults is used to analyse the verbal strategies of these children. Three general mechanisms for expressing togetherness are distinguished: expression of common ground, of cooperation and of care. The expression of common ground seems a specific domain for 2- and 3-year-olds at the day care centre. Young children use imitation and repetition of (nonsense) words and the explicit reference to sameness as a favourite mode of expressing common ground. Dans cet article, nous examinons les stratégies verbales utilisées par les enfants pour exprimer et construire un sens de «togetherness». Dans une étude de cas, le langage d'un enfant a été enregistrésur deux ans (à partir de l'âge de trois ans) dans ses interactions avec d'autres enfants et ses enseignants. Le modèle théorique d'analyse des stratégies de politesse des adultes de Brown et Levinson est utilisé pour analyser les stratégies verbales de ces enfants. On distingue trois mécanismes généraux d'expression de la «togetherness»: expression de points communs, de coopération et d'affection. L'expression de points communs semble être un domaine spécifique pour les enfants de deux et trois ans de l'école maternelle. Les jeunes enfants emploient l'imitation et la répétition de mots (dépourvus de sens) et la référence explicite à la similitude comme mode préféré d'expression de points communs. En este artículo hablamos de las estrategias verbales usadas por los niños para expresar y elaborar un sentido de unión. En un estudio de caso, se grabó el lenguaje de un niño durante dos años (al inicio tenía tres años) en sus interacciones con otros niños y professores. Su usa el modelo teórico de Brown and Levinson para analizar las estrategias de buena educación de adultos a fin de analizar las estrategias verbales de estos niños. Se distinguen tres mecanismos generales para expresar unión: expresión de puntos en común, de cooperación y de atención. La expresión de puntos en común parece un dominio específico para los niños de dos y tres años en la guardería. Los menores usan imitaciones y repeticiones de palabras (sin sentido) y la referencia explícita a identidad como un modo favorito de expresión del punto común.
 
Article
Togetherness is seen as a function of shared activity, not just proximity in physical space. In the case of make-believe play, this activity is assumed to take place in three interrelated contexts: the physical, social and symbolical. Togetherness implies that each player has access to these contexts in order to participate in the process of co-construction and collective symbolisation characteristic of play. Through the study of blind and sighted pre-school children in play interaction the differences in the way players have access to physical space, experience social interaction and create meaningful symbols are demonstrated. Transcribed episodes of play negotiations illustrate how differences in visual ability may impede togetherness. As a conclusion it is posited that to understand such impediments differences in apprehension of the situation as opposed to disabilities defined as individual characteristics should be highlighted and made the focus of educational practice and intervention. «Togetherness» est considérée comme une fonction de l'activité partagée, et non seulement de la proximité dans l'espace physique. Dans le cas du jeu de «faire-semblant», cette activité est supposée avoir lieu dans trois contextes interdépendants: physique, social et symbolique. «Togetherness» implique que chaque participant a accès à ces contextes, afin de participer au processus de co-construction et de symbolisation collective qui caractérise le jeu. Par l'étude d'enfants non-voyants et voyants d'âge préscolaire dans une interaction de jeu, on démontre les différences dans la manière dont les participants ont accès à l'espace physique, ont l'expérience de l'interaction sociale, et créent des symboles significatifs. Des épisodes transcrits de négociations de jeu illustrent comment les différences d'aptitude visuelle peuvent faire obstacle à «togetherness». En conclusion, on pose que, pour comprendre ces obstacles, les différences d'appréhension de la situation plutôt que les handicaps définis comme caractéristiques individuelles devraient être soulignées et rendues centres de convergence de la pratique éducative et de l'intervention. El sentimiento de unión se ve como función de una actividad compartida, no sólo como proximidad en el espacio fisico. En el caso de hacer-creer-jugar, se supone que esta actividad tiene lugar en tres contextos interrelacionados: el físico, el social y el simbólico. Unión implica que cada jugador tiene acceso a estos contextos, a fin de participar en el proceso de co-construcción y simbolización colectiva, característico del juego. A través del estudio de niños preescolares ciegos y videntes, se demuestran las diferencias en la manera que los niños tienen acceso al espacio físico, experimentan la interacción social y crean símbolos con signifícado. Episodios grabados de negociaciones de juego ilustran cómo las diferencias en habilidad visual pueden dificultar la unión. Como conclusión se plantea que, para entender dichos impedimentos, deberían ponerse en relieve las diferencias en apreciación de la situación en oposición a discapacidades definidas como características individuales y convertilas en el centro de la práctica educativa e intervención.
 
Article
Describes a longitudinal study of four Vietnamese-speaking 4-year olds' acquisition of English as a second language in a bilingual preschool over one year. The research examined the learners' English-language output in interaction between the teacher and peers, and identified the key factors that influenced their development of English. (TJQ)
 
Article
This paper describes how early childhood teachers' incorporation of pauses raises the quality of talk-in-interaction during play-based mathematics activities. Responses of both children and teachers are shown to be more contingent and expansive when conversations include protracted pauses than during interactions in which pauses are largely absent. Pauses provided children with opportunities to initiate topics and facilitated more equitable access to discourse moves for children. By pausing before responding to a child's conversational gambit, teachers gained opportunities to assess children's demonstrated numeracy-related skills and understanding, and could thus provide authentic, individualised scaffolding. Pauses were not necessarily silent: a pause in an interaction with one child could be used strategically to model the learning interaction with a second child before returning to the first child in order to continue the discourse sequence.
 
Article
Examined whether activities in the preschool curriculum across Northern Ireland are more adult-directed or child-directed. Findings from observations of 71 preschool settings showed that the curriculum of most reception settings was more adult-directed, while most nursery schools, play groups, and private day nurseries adopted a child-initiated approach. (JPB)
 
Article
Free play patterns of black South African children in 16 day care centres were observed before and after the introduction of an enrichment package. The package consisted of a range of educational toys and cost US$12 per child. Results indicated that the enrichment was associated with changes in social interaction and play patterns, though not all these may have been positive. Results are discussed in terms of often unexpected impacts that intervention schemes can have in the developing world, even those specifically designed for a particular population.
 
Article
This paper is about learning in a multicultural context. It is not an outcome of academic research nor has it been composed in the tradition of armchair anthropology. It describes the development of a project which set off as an initiative in the field of pre-school education to improve opportunities for Turkish migrant children, without expecting them to accomplish a one sided process of assimilation. Hence the work of the project and its co-operating partners involved and affected a much wider range of people than the original Target group’, which accounts for the fact that in the following relatively little will be said about Turkish children.
 
Factor loadings from full information factor analysis of indicators from language and reasoning scale of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition. 
Item response function for item examples on Factor 1.  
Test information curve for Factor 2.  
Article
Evaluating the psychometric properties of the indicators that comprise the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) language-reasoning scale from an item response theory (IRT) perspective on a sample of observations from 334 Caribbean classrooms, Stout's procedure revealed that all indicators on this dimension are not part of a single essentially unidimensional construct. IRT-based factor analyses on the indicator scores yielded two factors--named "Language-Reasoning Activities and Language-Reasoning Materials". IRT analyses conducted on these two factors revealed that their indicators provide adequate psychometric information and have no floor effects--although they demonstrate evidence for ceiling effects. IRT also revealed that at least within the Caribbean context: (a) the ECERS-R authors have ordered the indicators inappropriately; (b) administration of all indicators is unnecessary; and (c) equally weighting indicators might yield spurious results. IRT-based scoring might improve the psychometric soundness of indicators on this ECERS-R scale. (Contains 3 tables, 6 figures, and 8 notes.)
 
Overview of the stages of the study and sample.  
Parents' and teachers' assessments on children's readiness for school 2009–2011.  
Article
In multicultural societies, much attention is given to children's language learning possibilities. In Estonia, the early language immersion programme for kindergarten children was started in the year 2000. The programme, while considered to be successful, has raised the question of whether the children participating in it are adequately prepared for school. The objective of the present study is to observe the readiness for school of those children who have participated in the early language immersion programme, taking into consideration the objectives of the curriculum and their teachers' and parents' assessments. The method of this study was a questionnaire employed over a three-year period (2009–2011) involving the teachers and parents of those children who were beginning their primary school education. The results of the study revealed that, according to the assessments of their teachers and parents, the readiness for school of the children having completed the early language immersion programme was very good. Data prove that language immersion programmes provide children with enough preparation to make a smooth transition from kindergarten to school life.
 
Article
This paper aimed to explore how preschool teachers' experience their strengthened teaching mission, specifically when working with scientific exploration. The study was based on the philosophy of the life-world, a branch of the phenomenological movement. Life-world philosophy focuses on the concrete reality humans inhabit and is responsive to its inherent ambiguity. The data consisted of written teacher responses and follow-up interviews. The findings showed a broad and multidimensional way of working with science and exploration in which embodied experiences and intertwined relationships were prominent. Teachers' notions of what constitutes scientific exploration and learning represent a combination of science as literacy and science as inquiry, emphasising democracy, aesthetics, experimentation and reflection. Being present and focusing children's relationship with the phenomena seem to be teachers' strategies of handling their strengthened teaching mission.
 
Article
Infant caregivers in centre-based child care were videotaped as they interacted with the children during routine and non-routine activities. During a subsequent interview, the video provided a stimulus for discussion and reflection on practices. Caregivers were also asked to write about their beliefs on good practice in caring for infants. Transcripts of the interviews and the written statements were then analysed for evidence of nave and informed beliefs about caregiving. Most caregivers held nave beliefs and only one caregiver had an informed understanding of professional practice with infants. The usefulness of the analytical framework used in this research is discussed as a means for understanding caregiving practices. It has important implications for approaches to initial professional education of early childhood teachers and for professional development programmes.
 
Article
Children's health situation is generally good and stable. However, child abuse and negligence are growing problems. For many parents their children's education has not the priority it should have. Specialists say parents lack educational skills and motivation. Another part of the story, however, is that stabilising and compensating relationships, which were available in the traditional extended family, broke down. The end of the extended family meant the end of shared responsibility for child care and education within the family. At present Curagao has about 120 creches and play groups. The creches are rather safe places, but not all are places for developmental enrichment. Play groups generally lack qualified staff, good materials and attention for children. There is a growing need for good quality child care centres. The study reported in this article was financed by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. The foundation wanted to know whether there is a need for further financial involvement in ecce programmes in the Netherlands Antilles.
 
Article
Family day care or childminding involves a particularly transient workforce. This paper introduces Eco(logical)-Cultural Theory (ECT) to examine the cultural organisation of childminding and presents an ECT analysis of pilot survey results: asking minders about their daily routines and their career paths. Reasons for becoming a minder and aspirations for the future varied and were associated with the organisation of daily routines. Among minders who wished to continue childminding, daily routines were related to cultural models. Those aspiring to work in centres rather than homes tended to organise daily activities high in structure (i.e. similarity from day to day). Most reported dissatisfaction with home-based facilities, suggesting dissonance between models of care and local ecology. The childminding workforce is diverse and an ECT approach focused on asking childminders about their daily lives may yield valuable empirical data to inform professional development efforts.
 
The analysis process.
Article
Research has shown that early childhood science education is based on education and care, sometimes stressed as a dichotomy. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relations between teachers' teaching and children's learning in preschool practice, both in terms of educative processes and nature-oriented content. The ambition is also to develop and present an analysis method that facilitates these investigations. Outdoor nature experiences of preschool children (aged one to three) were video-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The methodology is based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy. Here, epistemological move analysis (oriented towards teachers' guiding processes as moves) and substantive learning quality analysis (oriented towards multi-dimensional learning qualities) are developed and used as analysis tools. The analyses show that the relations between teaching and learning processes and nature content are intertwined and include education and care. The teachers guide towards aesthetical, moral, cognitive and physical qualities in learning by challenging, admonishing, instructional, confirming, generative, reorienting and reconstructing moves. The results contribute to nature-oriented teaching practice and nature-oriented preschool research when discussing and investigating teaching and learning processes and nature content.
 
Article
Existing research in Jamaica on children and families has focused on family structure and function. The recent worldwide focus on the rights of children, particularly young children, has highlighted the absence of research on child rights in Jamaica. This article explores the implementation of protection and participation rights within the family, with a specific focus on protection from harsh punishment and abuse, including harsh work. Six child focus groups with 60 children and eight parent focus groups with 44 adults were held, with focus groups being socio-demographically representative of urban inner-city, urban middle-class and rural groups. Children were between 7 and 12 years and parents between 24 and 45 years. The children described a wide range of family structures. Harsh discipline was more common than demonstrated affection and approval, and levels of meaningful child participation were low across classes. The majority of parents believed in exercising strong authority, valued obedience and manners in their children, and defended the use of corporal punishment. Many parents described the interventions to amend their own life scripts in the ways they raised their children. This resulted in parental attention to children's education and economic advancement, provision of physical comforts and emotional support, altered approaches to corporal punishment and guidance on relationships. Using reflections of their own childhood, the development of amended scripts for parents is recommended as a powerful tool to encourage greater participatory rights for children and improve protection rights by reducing the use of harsh disciplinary measures and requirements for adult forms of work.
 
Article
This paper offers a framework for the analysis and evaluation of intervention on children's behalf against which to analyze actions upon their environment. The first section looks at the complex issue of defining suitable child development outcomes for intervention programs, noting that because the concept of childhood varies across cultures and classes, definitions of developmental outcomes need to take into account cultural and class variables. The second section examines two examples of environmental conditions that threaten children's development, poverty and prejudice, and explains how both situations involve complex systems of adverse circumstances that tend to be chronic and that interact in a multiplicative fashion with respect to negative effects on children's development. The third section summarizes briefly the characteristics of a general model for planning and analyzing the results of interventions on children's behalf, recommending that interventions be: (1) child-entered; (2) culturally sensitive; (3) multi-faceted to combat multiple afflictions; (4) support families, improve health care and schools, and enhance neighborhood conditions; and (5) demolish societal barriers to child development, such as ethnic prejudice. An afterword examines the implications of the findings for future program development. Contains 87 references. (MDM)
 
Article
Despite the documented importance of parental engagement in early learning, little is known about how parents in the Middle East and North Africa understand child development. To inform the literature, a small-scale study involving four focus groups was conducted with parents of children aged six years and under living in Casablanca. The purpose of this study was to explore parents' understanding of and support for their children's early development. Results reveal that parents see a vital role for themselves in their children's upbringing as supporters and nurturers, but little role as teachers. Across different education and income levels, parents in this small-scale qualitative study believe that children's experiences in their first years of life do not affect their longer-term intellectual development or school success and see little value in early intellectual stimulation or formal preschool education. Our results suggest that parents need to understand their role as their child's first educators. Also, it is essential that parents are taught how to promote their children's early cognitive development without undermining their nurturing roles.
 
Article
Editorial introduction to the International Journal of Early Years Education - Special Issue 'Creativity and Cultural Innovation in Early Childhood Education'. This introduction describes current UK educational policy and initiatives relating to creative teaching and learning approaches for the Foundation Stage (pre-school)of education. The introduction sets the context for and describes the main themes of the Special Issue and locates these within a social constructivist theoretical framework.
 
Article
Examined the extent to which the differences between home or nursery school and primary school may cause difficulties to children in their psychological adjustment to first grade. A survey of nursery teachers, first grade teachers, and parents found that children faced a very different environment when entering first grade and often had significant difficulties adjusting to it. (MDM)
 
Article
This article troubles the established discourse of free choice and free play in early childhood education, and develops post-structural approaches to theorising children's agency in the context of institutional and relational power structures. It is widely accepted that planning a curriculum based on children's needs, interests and patterns of learning promotes agency, self-regulation and control. However, contemporary research extends this discourse through critical examination of child-centred and developmental perspectives, and by theorising children's agency as a means of enacting power relationships in play. Using naturalistic, interpretive methods for documenting children's choices of play activities, this small-scale study focuses on 10 children in an Early Years Foundation Stage setting in England. Combining contemporary sociocultural and post-structural theories, the findings indicate that children's choices are situated within shifting power structures and relationships, involving conflict, negotiation, resistance and subversion. These activities create opportunities for exercising and affirming group and individual agency. The study raises critical questions about how children make and manage their choices, and examines the implications for policy and practice in light of restrictive curriculum frameworks.
 
Article
In this empirical study, we investigate an early childhood education activity in mathematics on the concept of ‘pattern’. The children participating in the study attend an intermediate form of schooling in Sweden called ‘the preschool class for six-year-olds’, intended to facilitate their transition from preschool to school. Following a prolonged activity over 45 minutes, we analyse for what the children are supported in discerning and what they give as evidence of having discerned in and about patterns. The theoretical point of departure is variation theory, conceptualising learning as increased discernment. The results show that in terms of the important Vygotskian distinction between ‘pseudo concepts’ and ‘concepts (proper)’, the children's discernment and what they are supported in discerning are of the former kind. Pseudo concepts are discussed as integral to the institutional form of the preschool class and premised to be important to the child's further conceptual development.
 
Article
Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to favour direct instruction over more appropriate teaching practices for early childhood. This paper reviews the implementation and renovation of the revised curriculum over the past 10 years in Vietnam, and examines the changing realities of early childhood teachers' work to explore ways to implement and sustain changes in pedagogy in Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. The paper explores how changing societal expectations and the changing educational philosophies and resultant pedagogy have impacted on the beliefs and practices of early childhood teachers. The teaching profession, as a whole, is facing ongoing change and challenge; not only are ongoing educational reforms redefining teachers' work, but increasing teacher attrition and turnover also creates problems for Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in Lam Dong province. The paper concludes with suggestions for areas for future research in Vietnam in the field of ECEC.
 
Article
Examines possible solutions for improving the status of children in India. Suggests that there is a need to focus on child rights issues related to public awareness, attitudinal change, political commitment, mass sensitization, and outreach. Suggests an appropriate strategy for the restoration of the rights of children in India. (AA)
 
Article
This study primarily examined the effects of thematic fantasy play on the perspective-taking ability of preschool children. A secondary investigation addressed the effects of play on the spontaneous play behaviour of young children. Based on the pretest-posttest control group design, 54 children (mean age=5.0 years) from two intact classes (n=27) of a private kindergarten were administered measures representing three areas of perceptual, cognitive and affective perspective-taking. Results of analysis of covariance indicated that subjects in the thematic fantasy play condition performed significantly better than the control group on total and perceptual perspective-taking measures (p<.05). In addition, chi-square analysis indicated that changes in spontaneous play was significant for the experimental group (p<.05) Findings were discussed in terms of their practical implications for curriculum design and teacher training, and further research to ascertain the permanency of play effects was recommended.
 
Article
The study Improving Language And Reading Skills (LARS) in children with German as a first or second language evaluates a newly developed differentiating programme for reading in terms of its effects on the reading and language ability of second graders with German as a first or second language. The participant group consisted of 105 children. Fifty-five children belonged to the group that received the programme (LARS-group) and 50 children received traditional instruction (TI-group). The reading, spelling and language ability of each participating child were assessed before and after the programme period. The children of the LARS-group were supported over three months in terms of reading texts and completing the corresponding tasks. The texts and the tasks were adapted to the students' ability levels (three different ability levels: above average, average and below average level in reading). The results indicate that the learning outcomes for children in the LARS-classes were significantly higher for reading fluency and comprehension, but no effect was observed for language and spelling. The results suggest that the LARS programme was equally effective for children with German as a first or second language.
 
Article
Ninety-six 5-year-old girls and boys and their mothers (n = 87) participated in a cross-cultural study on prosocial behaviour in Germany and the former USSR. Each child was observed interacting with a playmate who appeared to be sad. The mothers' educational belief systems were examined on the basis of:(i) a semi-projective instrument (So-Sit) depicting everyday conflicts between mother and child; (ii) an interview on a recent conflict. The intensity of prosocial behaviour was higher in German girls than in German boys or Russian girls. More Russian boys than girls showed at least some kind of prosocial behaviour. Russian mothers described their handling of conflicts as more harmonious than German mothers, whereas sex differences occurred within each culture. The results are discussed with regard to the impact of different child-rearing belief systems in individualistic versus collectivist cultures on the social behaviour of children. 96 filles et garçons âgés de cinq ans et leurs mères (n = 87) ont participé à une étude de comparaison culturelle du comportement pro-social en Allemagne et en ex-URSS. Chaque enfant était individuellement observé au cours d'une rencontre avec un camarade de jeu qui était triste. Les systèmes de croyances d'éducation des mères ont été étudiés au moyen d'un instrument semi-projectif (So-Sit) relevant les conflits quotidiens entre la mère et I'enfant, et grace à une interview de la mère sur une conflit récent. L'intensité des comportements pro-sociaux s'est avérée plus importante chez les filles allemande que chez les filles russes ou les garçons allemandes, tandis que plus de garçons russes que de filles ont montré au moins une sorte de comportement serviable. Les mères russes ont décrit la gestion de conflits plus harmonieux que les mères allemandes, bien qu 'on note des différences suivant le sexe de l'enfant dans chaque culture. Les résultats sont discuté par rapport à l'importance de différents concepts d'éducation pour le comportement social de l'enfant dans les cultures individualistes ou collectivistes.
 
Article
This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n=254), Hong Kong (n=246), and Singapore (n=130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and compare quantities (i.e. relational skills), and the other pertaining to their ability to operate with number-word sequence (i.e. counting skills). The results showed significant age-related gain on the relational and counting scales. No gender or language differences were found. The children in Hong Kong and Singapore outperformed those in Finland in relational and counting tasks starting at the age of four years. The children in Singapore also had better relational and counting skills than those in Hong Kong. Differences in teaching were assumed to explain the findings.
 
Article
There is much in the literature reporting details of children's experience of their preschool educational setting as perceived by adults; however, few reports exist with regard to children's own perceptions of their experience. This article discusses some of the problems associated with interviewing young children and suggests an interviewing technique involving the use of role play. Children in three nursery classes were interviewed in order to ascertain their perceptions of their nursery experience. Phenomenography has provided a useful framework for the interpretation of findings. This approach is based upon the theory that there are a limited number of qualitatively different ways in which people perceive or understand various aspects of, or phenomena in, the world (Marton, 1988). The present study has attempted to identify the qualitatively different ways in which children perceive aspects of their experience in nursery education.
 
Little fairy song 3  
Transcription of The wizard song no. 1 Figure 4. Transcription of The wizard song no. 2  
Transcription of the Loud and quiet song
Article
This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for 'elaboration', and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity in music. The argument is explored through the analysis of data generated in a longitudinal study of young children's (aged four to six years) early music making as composers, song makers, and notators. Focusing specifically on children's invented song, the article provides case study analysis of the song making of a four-year-old girl that explores the musical and lyric content, and the environmental features (context) that support and shape her song making (process) and invented songs (product). The implications of such a view for early childhood theory and practice are discussed.
 
The average total scores for each of the nine quality indicators for year 1.
Article
As more countries align their curricular frameworks with play-based and experiential pedagogies, this paper provides a critical insight into the benefits and challenges that arise in practice when a play-based approach to learning and teaching becomes a political directive in Northern Ireland primary schools. Drawing on socio-constructivist and post-structural thinking, the messages from Foundation Stage teachers and the learning experiences provided are unravelled through the researchers' interpretive lens, exposing for critique two key discourses about the relationship between play as policy and practice – namely play as learning and play as pedagogy. Although this study may have raised more questions than answers about the debate, the authors conclude, in so doing, it has facilitated an original troubling of the established discourse and added to the knowledge base about the politicisation of play as practice in the early years of primary schooling.
 
Article
Drawing on existing work in the area of creativity and early years education, this paper maps the process of an exploratory study which sought to identify what characterizes 'possibility thinking' as an aspect of creativity in young children's learning. With the aim of developing a framework for identifying 'possibility thinking' in the contexts of three early years settings, the authors explore key tenets of a model for conceptualizing (and rethinking) 'possibility thinking' and attempt to reconcile some of the methodological challenges inherent in documenting this aspect of creativity in early years contexts. With the co-participation of five early years teachers as researchers, three university-based researchers worked collaboratively, in a funnel-like process, over the three-phase development of the project. With the emphasis on mapping the developing conceptualizations of 'possibility thinking' and the appropriateness of multimodal methods in naturalistic enquiry, the research team explicates and argues the need for sharing methodological approaches in researching young children's thinking. The data arising from this research provide powerful insights into the characteristics of 'possibility thinking' which most successfully promote creativity, and the authors conclude with a consideration of the implications for future research, practice and practitioner research in early years contexts.
 
Article
Experiences relevant to emergent literacy and numeracy in 2-year- old and 3-year old children were examined in 10 public nurseries. The research was guided by three aims, ie. to describe the frequency and variety of such experiences and investigate the contexts in which they occur; to gauge the quality of the experiences in terms oj the type of adult-child interaction in which they are embedded: and to examine variation between nurseries with regard to the frequency of relevant experience. Observations showed numeracy experiences to be infrequent relative to literacy experiences; both were highly context- dependent and related to adult input. Variation between the nurseries on a number of measures was examined and showea consistent patterns between variables relating to staff background and nursery organisation on the one hand and the frequency of literacy and numeracy experience provided for children on the other. In those nurseries with smaller groups, more effectively implemented staff-child assignment systems and younger staff, the children were more frequently observed involved in some kind of literacy or numeracy experience, and more often seen having positive and less often negative interaction with adults around these experiences. The importance of the interactive basis of early learning is stressed by these findings.
 
Article
This paper highlights the differences and similarities between a Kindergarten outside Bremen in Lower Saxony, Germany and a Primary School Junior Infant Class in County Cork, Republic of Ireland. Both are concerned with the education of the young child but whereas the Kindergarten is attended by three to six year olds, the Junior Infant Class caters almost exclusively for four to five year old children. A case study account of both groups is given and an analysis of the activities which took place in each using the 'Target Child Observational Schedule' is presented in bar-graph form. The paper concludes that Erzieherinnen, Kinderpflegerinnen and Junior Infant Class teachers need to engage in more interaction with the children in order, in particular, to raise the frequency and quality of linguistic interaction. An increase in the structure of the children's play would help to enhance cognitive development. Accepted Version Peer reviewed
 
Article
This metadata relates to an electronic version of an article published in International Journal of Early Years Education, 2007, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 67-81. International Journal of Early Years Education is available online at informaworldTM at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a778774306~db=all~order=page In England, since 2000, teachers of children aged three to five (the Foundation Stage) have been bound by the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage produced by central government. Initially, we were interested to learn of the responses of early years teachers to that document. We found that teachers welcomed the Curriculum Guidance, not least because it recognized that there exists a valuable and separate stage in children's education. However, in relation to ensuring that quality learning experiences were provided, teachers identified two issues of concern to them—professional training of early childhood teachers, and the leadership and management of the Foundation Stage. Concerns also remained that not all stakeholders were yet aware of the needs of young children and of the staff training resources necessary to meet these needs. Upon our return to the respondents three years later, we found that, despite the incorporation of the Curriculum Guidance, some practitioners continued to feel that both colleagues and managers sometimes had limited understanding of the unique nature of the early childhood curriculum. Concerns about resources and an appropriate learning environment also continued to be evident.
 
Article
This study seeks to determine how and to what extent the core principles of the early childhood education programme at Levinsky College of Education in Israel were applied by a third-year student teacher in a traditional fieldwork placement. At the beginning of the school year, the student planned to engage two small groups of children in her field placement in a learning project focused on children's literature related to witches, believing the children would be enthusiastic about the topic. Despite employing a meticulous traditional teaching plan, her attempts to engage the children failed. This led her to seek advice and form an authentic emergent teaching plan that was influenced by the children's preferences and social conflicts in the group. Furthermore, the student gained the teaching staff's approval and encouragement to develop a kindergarten curriculum very different from the traditional one. In this paper, we show an evidence of the learning processes undergone by both the children and the student.
 
Article
Through a three-stage thematic model this research has examined the evolution of the Senior Practitioner, a term introduced by the UK Department for Education and Skills (DfES) Surestart Unit, which advocates the promotion and recognition of the importance of staff with advanced and specialist skills, knowledge and experience. This status is gained through both formal and informal learning. The responsibility and cohesion of the traditional learning alongside the extension and development of relevant workplace practice has to be seen by the Quality Assurance Unit (QAA) and Higher Education Funding Council of England (HEFCE) to be both explicit and implicit, and weighs heavily on the awarding institution and those at the point of delivery. This programme of study provides challenge to non-traditional students who have in the past curtailed their studies at National Vocational Qualifications equivalent of level 3 in further education, and are somewhat removed from the familiar sense of tangibility and description of further education studies to the abstract, reflective and critical stance required for professional credibility and higher education studies in their unique opportunity to become the first Senior Practitioners in Early Childhood Studies and Practice. This original cohort began a Foundation Degree, which was not sector endorsed at the commencement of the programme. However, minor modifications were made that largely impacted on the second-year modules, and an additional module at level 1 was studied, thereby meeting the requirements for sector endorsement by the DfES Surestart Unit. The Senior Practitioner pathway has the potential to enable teachers and other staff to provide genuine support systems and learning opportunities for children. However, the professionalism and status appear somewhat opaque as the Government, whilst front loading the pilot programme, has failed to provide guidance and financial structure at the rear in terms of consolidating a framework in which the role of Senior Practitioner is not only visible but clearly understood.
 
Article
Evaluated the effectiveness of a drawing program called "negotiated drawing" with children aged 5-7 years. Compared drawings of children using this program with those of children given normal drawing lessons. All the children improved their drawings, but the children using the negotiated drawing program improved more than the children who were given traditional drawing lessons. (TJQ)
 
Article
Within the development studies framework, empowerment involves increasing individual agency vis-à-vis the formal and informal opportunity structure. The Open Society Foundation's Early Childhood Programme developed the Getting Ready for School programme specifically for parents of preschool-age children to use at home in the year before school to build early math and literacy skills in their children. In Tajikistan, parents met on a regular basis with teachers in their local schools to learn activities to use with their children at home. Focus group reports indicated that parents gained knowledge and self-confidence as a result of programme participation, considered foundational aspects of the empowerment process. Responses also demonstrated that parents displayed characteristics of empowerment as they used programme activities and skills not only with their six-year-old child, but with siblings, extended family members and community children. They also shared the skills they learned with family members and neighbours.
 
Article
Phonological awareness has been demonstrated by numerous researchers to be one of the most powerful predictors of subsequent reading success. By considering these predictors as a starting point, the relations between children's phonological awareness developed at the pre-reading stage and their reading skills were examined and the influences of the features of various language systems and orthographies upon children's phonological awareness and subsequent reading abilities were studied. The results are important for developing new methods for teaching reading. In this research, besides studying the relationship between the development of children's phonological awareness and their subsequent reading skills, how the children's linguistic and orthographic characteristics of English and Turkish effect phonological awareness and subsequent reading success were also analysed. The aim was to recommend the most appropriate method for teaching reading and writing to children acquiring literacy in Turkish. The research was designed as a survey model. The participants of the study were 94 Turkish students (46 girls and 48 boys) attending two public primary schools and two public kindergartens in Istanbul during the 1994-95 educational year and 44 American students (17 girls and 27 boys) at different ages attending a public primary school and its kindergarten in Duluth, Minnesota. In this study, their scores in letter identification tasks (upper-case and lower-case letter identification), letter usage tasks, decoding tasks and various phonological awareness tasks were compared. Turkish and American students' scores in all tasks, as to grade, language and language unit variables were also analysed, and two-way ANOVA and correlations were also obtained. Whether grade, language and language unit independent variables and their interactions cause significant distinctions between the groups' scores was examined. The results of this study indicate that while Turkish kindergarten students are less successful than American students in the decoding tasks, Turkish primary school students score higher compared with American children at the same grade level. When the scores of Turkish and American students in phonological awareness tasks were compared, it was found that Turkish students scored higher in both grade levels than American students and it was ascertained that, particularly as the children became literate, the phonological awareness ability of Turkish students increased considerably. These results point to how the spoken language affects the development of phonological awareness and the contribution of this ability to learning to read in alphabetic writing systems. Il a été établi par de nombreuses études que la reconnaissance phonologique est l'un des prédicteurs les plus puissants de la réussite ultérieure en lecture. En prenant ces prédicteurs comme point de départ, on a examiné les relations entre la reconnaissance phonologique développée par les enfants à l'étape de la pré-lecture et leurs compétences en lecture, ainsi que l'influence des caractéristiques phonologiques et orthographiques de certaines langues sur la reconnaissance phonologique des enfants et leurs compétences ultérieures en lecture. Les résultats sont importants si l'on veut élaborer de nouvelles méthodes d'enseignement de la lecture. Dans cette étude, en plus de l'examen des relations entre le développement de la reconnaissance phonologique des enfants et leurs compétences ultérieures en lecture, on a analysé les conséquences des caractéristiques linguistiques et orthographiques de l'anglais et du turc sur la reconnaissance phonologique et la réussite ultérieure en lecture. L'objectif était de recommander des méthodes appropriées d'enseignement de la lecture et de l'écriture aux enfants de l'enseignement primaire turc. L'étude a été conçue sur le modèle d'une enquête. Les participants étaient quatre-vingt quatorze élèves turcs (46 filles et 48 garçons) de deux écoles primaires publiques et deux écoles maternelles d'Istanbul pendant l'année scolaire 1994-1995, et quarante-quatre élèves américains à divers âges (17 filles et 27 garçons) d'une école primaire publique et sa section maternelle à Duluth, Minnesota. Dans cette étude, on a comparé les notes qu'ils ont obtenues lors de tâches d'identification des lettres (reconnaissance des minuscules et des majuscules), tâches d'emploi des lettres, tâches de décodage et diverses tâches de reconnaissance phonologique. On a également analysé les notes obtenues par les élèves turcs et américains pour toutes les tâches, par variable d'année d'études, langue et unité de langue, et des analyses de variance et des corrélations dans les deux sens ont été obtenues. On a étudié si les variables indépendants d'année d'études, langue et unité de langue et leurs interactions causaient des distinctions significatives sur les résultats des groupes. Les résultats de cette recherche indiquent que, bien que les élèves turcs de maternelle réussissent moins bien aux tâches de décodage que les américains, les élèves turcs de niveau primaire obtiennent de meilleurs résultats que les américains de même année d'études. Lorsqu'on a comparé les notes des élèves turcs et américains en matière de reconnaissance phonologique, on a trouvé que les élèves turcs avaient de meilleures notes, aux deux niveaux scolaires, que les américains, et on a observé que, surtout à mesure que les enfants apprenaient à lire et écrire, la capacité de reconnaissance phonologique des élèves turcs augmentait considérablement. Ces résultats indiquent comment la langue parlée affecte le développement de la reconnaissance phonologique et le rôle joué par cette capacité dans l'apprentissage de la lecture dans les systèmes d'écriture alphabétiques. Numerosas investigaciones han demostrado que la conciencia fonológica es uno de los predictores más poderosos del éxito para leer subsiguiente. Teniendo en cuenta estos predictores como punto de partida, se examinaron las relaciones entre la conciencia fonológica de los niños desarrollada en la fase de prelectura y sus habilidades de lectura y se estudiaron las influencias de las características de los diferentes sistemas de lenguaje y de las ortografías en la conciencia fonológica de los niños y las habilidades de lectura subsiguientes. Los resultados son importantes para desarrollar métodos nuevos para enseñar a leer. En este trabajo de investigación, además de estudiar la relación entre el desarrollo de la conciencia fonológica de los niños y sus habilidades de lectura subsiguientes, también se analizó cómo las características ortográficas y lingüísticas del inglés y del turco de los niños afectaron a la conciencia fonológica y al éxito para leer subsiguiente. El objetivo fue recomendar el método más adecuado para enseñar a leer y a escribir a los niños que estuvieran aprendiendo a leer y a escribir en turco. El trabajo de investigación se diseñó como si se tratara de una encuesta. El número de participantes fue de noventa y cuatro alumnos turcos (46 niñas y 48 niños) de dos escuelas primarias del estado y de dos jardines de infancia también del estado de la ciudad de Estambul durante el curso académico 1994-1995 y de cuarenta y cuatro alumnos americanos (17 niñas y 27 niños) de diferentes edades que asistían a una escuela primaria del estado y a su correspondiente jardín de infancia en Duluth, Minnesota. En esta investigación, se compararon los resultados que obtuvieron en las Tareas de Reconocimiento de las Letras (Reconocimiento de las Letras Mayúsculas y Minúsculas), en las Tareas de Utilización de Letras, en las Tareas de Decodificación y en varias tareas de Conciencia Fonológica. También se analizaron los resultados de los alumnos americanos y turcos en todas las tareas, en lo que respecta al grado/curso, lenguaje y variables de la unidad de lenguaje y también se obtuvieron correlaciones y "two way ANOVA" (análisis de variaciones bidireccionales). Se estudió si el grado/curso, lenguaje y las variables independientes de la unidad de lenguaje y sus interacciones causaron diferencias importantes en los resultados de los grupos. Los resultados de esta investigación indican que aunque los alumnos turcos del jardín de infancia tienen menos éxito que los alumnos americanos en las tareas de decodificación, los alumnos turcos de enseñanza primaria obtuvieron mejores puntuaciones comparados con los alumnos americanos del mismo nivel de curso. Cuando se compararon los resultados de los alumnos americanos y turcos en las tareas de conciencia fonológica, se encontró que los alumnos turcos obtuvieron mejores puntuaciones en ambos niveles de curso que los alumnos americanos y se estableció que especialmente a medida que los alumnos aprendían a leer y escribir, la habilidad de la conciencia fonológica de los alumnos turcos aumentaba considerablemente. Estos resultados indican como el lenguaje hablado afecta al desarrollo de la conciencia fonológica y la contribución de esta habilidad para aprendar a leer en los sistemas de escritura alfabética.
 
Article
Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social equity. In implementing the new policies, the developmental goals that the local governments set appear divorced from reality, and the developmental paths collide with the current macro social and economic system. This means that the development mode that many local governments exploited is not sustainable. It is suggested that the government should design developmental goals according to actual conditions, reform the public revenue and tax system, and the ECE funding system and introduce a new way to provide public ECE service.
 
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