International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment

Published by Emerald
Print ISSN: 1759-5908
Publications
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to discuss selected aspects of the design of post-disaster housing building on current guidance in this area. The paper focuses on the use of appropriate materials and technology to suit the climate and site and draws lessons from traditional housing types and settlement patterns. Design/methodology/approach – A case study of a design project is used to illustrate an approach toward sustainable design. The approach is structured and could therefore fit into the wider structures and frameworks of providing such housing. Findings – A design was generated that meets many of the desired environmental criteria. It was also found that important design resources are required by the design team not mentioned in the existing guidelines. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the paper is that the design is hypothetical and there has been no input from prospective inhabitants or other groups. Practical implications – The design approach illustrated here may be of use to relief organizations working in the field and also could be used to develop further awareness of sustainability. Organizations that provide for and coordinate post-disaster construction could consider making further design resources available as part of a project. Social implications – The study addresses the design of housing, which itself is an activity located in society. Originality/value – The paper adds to the discussion on the design of post-disaster housing and supports the argument that such housing can help to support wider and longer-term development.
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the vulnerability of communities prone to earthquake hazards in Baluchistan at the community and household levels and identify the determinants accounting for the vulnerability of the communities. Baluchistan is vulnerable to potential seismic risk and has recently suffered huge economic and property losses due to the October 2008 earthquake. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on household surveys, field observations, key informant interviews and focus-group discussions for the assessment of community vulnerability to earthquakes. Findings – The analysis revealed that the community is vulnerable to earthquake hazards both at the community and household levels. The logistic regression model identified three variables, namely, ownership of residential unit, family size and household income, as the most important factors in influencing community vulnerability to earthquake hazards. Practical implications – The paper may help emergency managers, policymakers and local government authorities to implement building codes, urban planning by-laws and projects and activities to empower communities for disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction. Originality/value – The paper concludes that for earthquake safety, building regulations and spatial planning by-laws should be implemented and monitored rigorously. Community preparedness is essential for enhancing people’s awareness against future earthquake hazards in the area.
 
Map of San Francisco 1905  
La Perouse Plan of the Bay of Concepción 1,779 showing its natural features: water supply, hills, forest, river  
Concepción's polycentric/modular urban form urban  
Purpose – This paper aims to propose the concept of resilience as a way of aligning these disciplines. Theories of recovery planning and urban design theories have a common interest in providing for the health and safety of urban communities. However, the requirements of safe refuge and recovery after a disturbance, such as an earthquake, are sometimes at odds with theories of urbanism. Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses the data from two case studies: the earthquake and fire of 1906 in San Francisco and the Chile earthquake of 2010. It uses a set of resilience attributes already embedded in the discourse of urban theory to evaluate each city’s built environment and the way people have adapted to that built environment to recover following an earthquake. Findings – The findings suggests that resilience attributes, when considered interdependently, can potentially assist in the design of resilient cities which have an enhanced capacity to recover following an earthquake. Originality/value – They also suggest that the key to the successful integration of recovery planning and urban design lies in a shift of thinking that sees resilience as a framework for the design of cities that not only contributes significantly to the quality of everyday urban life but also can be adapted as essential life support and an agent of recovery in the event of an earthquake.
 
Purpose – The UK Government is spending an increasingly large sum on flood protection to protect communities and businesses. Flood events are predicted to become more frequent and severe as a result of global warming, and the government is seeking to find ways to ensure that individual householders are prepared for this. Attitudinal studies have shown that there is an interest by homeowners to respond to motivational behaviour change strategies and accept incentives such as non-cash rewards in return for investing in flood protection measures for their houses. This paper builds on a study trialling the measures suggested in the earlier attitudinal studies in a flood-threatened community in North West England. Design/methodology/approach – The hypothesis of the research has been formulated from the findings from the earlier phase of the project and was further supported with a comprehensive literature review. The data collection was carried out using survey strategies. During the data analysis, the research adopted descriptive statistical methods. The information gathered by the survey of 50 householders in the study area was analysed using statistics software. Findings – Policymakers in the UK are beginning to consider the theories and methods that have been proposed by behavioural economists and social psychologists when designing strategies to influence action on climate change. The Timperley Green Homes trials and the attitudinal work that underpinned it are examples of how some of this thinking can be applied in the field. A combination of information delivered at key moments in the decision-making process, incentives and norm-based influences have the potential to help motivate the owners of domestic property to invest in flood protection measures. However, this strategy needs to be delivered within the context of affordable materials and installer costs. In addition, regulators and local government will need to devise more effective ways to communicate both the likelihood and the significance of a flood incident on householder’s properties because, at present, there is little evidence to suggest that the population thinks that flooding is a high priority concern. Research limitations/implications – The Trial was designed to be a limited sample experiment that was commissioned as a proof of concept study. However, policymakers may require a larger sample and an extended period before the proposals are rolled out on a national scale. Practical implications – The study was commissioned by the UK flood management regulator and a local authority to help design future strategies to influence householders who are sceptical or are underactive to messages about the effects of climate change. The study provides evidence for some fresh thinking on how to mount future-influencing strategies by government bodies. Originality/value – There have been some attitudinal studies around flooding and behaviour, but the authors know of none that have used non-cash incentives as the central proposition to be tested. The Trial was also original in the way it incorporated other influencers including norm-based tactics and facilitation in a combined strategy with incentives.
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify practical lessons for urban managers involved in the post-disaster field, drawing on research about ethnic division, conflict and reconstruction in five divided cities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyses the original case study fieldwork in the five divided cities to identify how the concept of “urban contract” can be used to explain the impacts of different levels of resilience to conflict or disaster. It also examines the importance of rebuilding the urban contract for community resilience as the key to “building back better” in urban reconstruction. Findings – This analysis indicates three important lessons about the importance of the “urban contract” in building disaster resilience. The first is that disasters, like conflict, can be anticipated and strategies put in place to strengthen the social networks on which community resilience depends – and that such anticipatory behaviour provides the time to do this. The second finding is that dispersing people away from a damaged neighbourhood for any period but the absolute minimum necessary to ensure public health and community well-being should be avoided at all costs. The third finding relates to the importance of using skilled public consultation and engagement in physical reconstruction as a way of enhancing social reconstruction. Originality/value – This is the first paper to draw parallels between the impacts of conflict and disasters on the urban contract between city managers and citizens. As well as identifying key lessons for disaster resilience, the paper makes a strong theoretical contribution by pointing to the significance of the urban contract in wider studies of cities and disasters.
 
Purpose – This paper aims to propose an alternative strategy for preparing, recovering and conserving cultural built heritage (CBH) in the context of natural disasters. It presents the idea that disaster preparedness is integral to CBH protection and conservation. Design/methodology/approach – Building upon a review of existing scholarship on CBH, resilience and disaster management, a conceptual model is proposed to assist key stakeholders preparing for the recovery of CBH after natural disasters. It is argued that the protection and recovery of CBH in the wake of natural disasters require a holistic approach and that the theoretical framework of resilience thinking can support such an approach. Findings – The paper discusses how the process of adaptive cycles has a role to play in the development of a holistic understanding of the conservation process. It proposes an adaptive cycle model that is supported by four critical factors: reordering, conserving, shifting and transforming. Originality/value – Through exploration of systems thinking and resilience theory, the research presented in this paper explores a new approach to the conceptualisation of CBH. The paper presents the first stage of a research project that aims to develop strategies that can support the protection and recovery of CBH in the wake of natural disasters. The proposed model represents a holistic approach for reconceptualising CBH and may, as such, have potential implications that extend from the field of post-disaster recovery into the domain of CBH conservation and protection.
 
Purpose – This paper aims to identify stakeholder issues on disaster restoration projects from a contractor perspective. Disaster occurrences normally warrant substantial restoration and reconstruction efforts. These projects involve the mitigation and repair of disaster-affected buildings and structures. Design/methodology/approach – This study is essentially exploratory in nature. It reviews relevant literature and then presents empirical research findings garnered from disaster restoration practitioners. A survey using the Likert rating scale method was used. The data were collected via an online questionnaire survey. Findings – The results confirm that disaster restoration projects contain significant stakeholder issues and challenges. Furthermore, these can differ from conventional construction and the work of “first responders” to disaster situations. Hence, disaster restoration projects are seen as having their own unique identity. Research limitations/implications – This paper has only set out to uncover stakeholder issues on disaster restoration projects. Future research that delves into the issues in greater depth would be useful. Practical implications – Disaster restoration practitioners need to be aware of conflicting stakeholder interests. These need careful management so that stakeholder issues do not impact successful project outcomes. Hence, informing industry (and academia) on these issues carries significant importance. Originality/value – Past research has tended to adopt macro perspectives on disaster preparedness, response and management. This research focuses on repairing and restoring disaster-affected buildings and structures from a restoration industry standpoint. The findings should be useful to the global disaster restoration community and those in associated fields.
 
Purpose – Lifelines (also referred to as critical infrastructure) are referred to here as the essential infrastructure and services that support the life of our community. In a disaster response and recovery situation, provision of Lifelines, is essential. New Zealand has several mechanisms to improve the responses of lifeline service providers in a disaster situation, including pre-event planning and coordination groups and legislative provisions for timely response in an emergency. Currently, waste management is not formally included in either the coordination process or the legislative provisions for Lifelines. This paper aims to address whether or not waste management should be included in these. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative and semi-qualitative matrix-based assessments were used to determine the relative importance of provision of waste management services in a disaster-recovery situation. Findings – The paper argues that waste management should be included in Lifeline planning in New Zealand. Organisational complexity in the waste management system and the likely need to expand pre-disaster waste management services to deal with large amounts of disaster generated waste, however, mean that inclusion in the legislative provisions for Lifeline service providers would be challenging. Research limitations/implications – The research context is specific to New Zealand; however, the general challenges, principles and overall approach and may be transferable to other jurisdictions. Practical implications – Organisational and regulatory approaches recommended in this paper, if adopted, will help waste and emergency managers respond and recover more effectively in a disaster situation. Originality/value – This paper is the first to attempt to examine in detail the importance of waste management on disaster recovery in New Zealand. The findings of the paper are of relevance to countries with similar organisational and legal structures.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a method and results of evaluating damaged building extraction using an object recognition task in pre‐ and post‐tsunami event. The advantage of remote sensing and its applications made it possible to extract damaged building images and vulnerability easement of wide urban areas due to natural disasters. Design/methodology/approach The proposed approach involves several advanced morphological operators, among which are adaptive transforms with varying size, shape and grey level of the structuring elements. IKONOS‐2 satellite images consisting of pre‐ and post‐2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami site of the Kalmunai area on the East coast of Sri Lanka were used. Morphological operation using structural element are applied for segmented images, then extracted remaining building foot print using random forest classification method. This work extended further the road lines extraction using Hough transform. Findings The result was investigated using geographic information system (GIS) data and global positioning system (GPS) ground survey in the field and it appeared to have high accuracy: the confidence measures produced of a completely destroyed structure give 86 percent by object‐based, respectively, after the tsunami in one segment of Maruthamune GN Division. Research limitations/implications This study has also identified significant limitations, due to the resolution and clearness of satellite images and vegetation canopy over the building footprint. Originality/value The authors develop an automated method to detect damaged buildings and compare the results with GIS‐based ground survey.
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) campaign on Making Cities Resilient. Design/methodology/approach – An opinion piece written by the Director a.i. of UNISDR and the Editors of the International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. Findings – The campaign will continue and the focus will shift to more implementation support, city‐to‐city learning and cooperation, local action planning and monitoring of progress in cities. Originality/value – Continued advocacy will seek to commit more cities and increase the support by national governments to support city resilience and local capacities.
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study of a post‐flood reconstruction project conducted in 2003 in the village of Bousalem in Tunisia, a country that is poorly documented in reconstruction literature and that is known for its high levels of centralization in decision making. It examines the relations between project stakeholders, the structure of the team established to conduct the project (the Temporary Multi‐Organisation, TMO) and the most important concerns of end‐users. It particularly shows the drawbacks of neglecting a participatory approach and favouring instead the centralization of decision making at different levels of the TMO organisational structure. Design/methodology/approach – Users' satisfaction was assessed through technology transfer indicators, based on the qualitative analysis of several interviews with end‐users. The analysis of the organizational system was based on a qualitative analysis of the TMOs' formal and informal structuring. Findings – The results confirm the need to decentralize decisions at a level that: optimizes the efficiency of local stakeholders; facilitates the participation of end‐users; and allows an appropriate distribution of responsibilities and risks among stakeholders. Originality/value – The results show how certain decisions related to the structure and functioning of the TMO affect the match between the project initiators' capacity to provide an adequate solution and the users' expectations and requirements after the disaster.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of a total understanding of the manufacture, before approaching any structural intervention. Design/methodology/approach The adopted methodology consists of a non‐invasive kind of structural retrofit, in accordance with the history of the manufacture and, at the same time, giving effective respect to seismic solicitations. Findings The results are very important for demonstration purposes, and they may be taken as examples in many similar problems. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this research principally consists in the old datation of the study case, because it could be approached more easily with the help of modern concepts. Practical implications Many applications can be carried out from the study case: first, the respectful approach to the cultural heritage, in the sense of knowledge and understanding of the “art rule” belonging to the ancient constructors. Social implications The paper has implications for the safety and conservation of historical heritage. Originality/value The originality consists in showing the almost unknown work of a master: he reasoned anticipating the technological progress.
 
Purpose – Natural disasters often destroy hundreds of homes that leave victims homeless and leads to community displacement. In the USA, such disasters happen over 60 times per year. This leads to logistical and contractual nightmare for the planning agencies and political/community leaders required to provide shelter for displaced citizens. One of the most important challenges for the policy makers and aid providers is to make homes available to the homeless victims in as short a period as possible. Temporary shelter is costly and often excessively delayed. Also quality and long stay (more than four years for the Katrina victims) in temporary shelter affected victims both mentally and physically. The aim of this paper is to propose a strategic framework that assists responsible entities to provide housing to the disaster victims in a short period of time, for example to construct 200 homes in 30 days after disaster (representing a subdivision). Design/methodology/approach – The main objective of this research is to perform feasibility study of implementing such a strategy that would enable agencies to provide better solutions for post disaster housing assistance. This paper mainly explains four phases that constitute the development of the strategic framework. The first two phases of the framework carry out pre‐disaster planning and establish relationships among the participating entities. Whereas, the third phase includes simulating post disaster processes identified in the previous phases to evaluate response trade‐offs. The last phase is about the real implementation of this strategy after disaster that also incorporates its outcomes and experiences into previously planned strategy. Findings – It was found through second part of research, simulation studies, that such a strategy can be prepared before the disaster and activated when needed. This would drastically reduce the housing response time. Originality/value – This would help in improving the strategy for future disasters. Successful execution would facilitate opportunities to reduce stress for the victims and encourage faster recovery.
 
Purpose ‐ Disaster response and recovery is implemented through multiple projects with traditional project management approaches criticised as too time consuming and inflexible in circumstances of high uncertainty, requiring rapid reaction for multiple stakeholders. This research aims to understand the role of project and stakeholder management in the management of disasters as an opening for identifying improved disaster resilience opportunities using participatory project management approaches. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Using the 2011 Queensland floods as a case study, the positioning of project management in disaster management discourse was investigated through summative content analysis. Findings ‐ Results demonstrate that project and stakeholder engagement are poorly positioned in current disaster management discourse, although risk management appears more central, closely associated with disaster response. Research limitations/implications ‐ This is the first stage of more extensive reviews of the positioning of project management in disaster management policies and practice. Further stages will involve a wider range of texts and textual analysis. Practical implications ‐ Results confirm poor recognition of traditional project management approaches in disaster management discourse indicating potential for more innovative and participatory approaches integrating multiple stakeholder perspectives to support disaster resilience. Social implications ‐ Achieving improved community safety and disaster resilience requires multiple stakeholder collaboration for capability development in effective management of projects required to predict, respond and recover from disastrous events. Originality/value ‐ The paper addresses the sparse overlap between project and disaster management literatures identifying potential for more participatory management of disaster events.
 
Purpose The aim of this paper is to add a new dimension to urban resilience by exploring how representations of disasters, reconstruction and human settlements are made, and how, by shaping plans and programs, they ultimately influence resilience. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on James Scott's notion of “legibility” to ask how different representations simplify complex realities and how they are transformed into plans and programs. The paper first outlines the various broad analytic lens used to examine legibility to portray post‐disaster reconstruction, drawing on international literature and policies. The paper then focuses on post‐earthquake Haiti and analyzes eight reconstruction plans and reviews design proposals submitted for the Building Back Better Communities program to explore how different stakeholders portrayed the disaster, identified the reconstruction challenges and proposed to address human settlements. Findings Representations of the disaster, the reconstruction challenge and the housing problem were quite varied. While the plans assumed a very broad view of the reconstruction challenge (one that goes beyond the representations found in the literature), the BBBC program adopted a very narrow view of it (one that the literature condemns for failing to achieve sustainable resilience). Research limitations/implications The empirical research is exploratory, suggesting an approach that throws a new light on the analysis of plans and programs for improved resilience. Practical implications The study suggests that the representations that decision makers, institutions and organizations make of the world ultimately establish the framework in which resilience is constructed. Originality/value The lens of legibility confirms that the expression of different representations makes the world legible in different ways and therefore transforms the way in which resilience can be improved.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand through the qualitative assessment, how the current strategy plans are geared toward reducing urban flood risks and achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 11 and 13. Design/methodology/approach The Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) plays a major role in Thailand’s economic development. Thus, when the 2011 Thailand flood disaster occurred, BMR suffered major economic and social losses, which impacted the rest of the country. This mega disaster prompted policymakers, the academe and other relevant stakeholders to reevaluate and amend the current urban flood risk reduction measures and governance. The present study attempts to evaluate and compare the post-2011 Thailand flood disaster strategy and master plans, policies and reports that directly and indirectly reduce urban flood risks in the provinces of BMR. Basing on SDGs 11 and 13 targets that impact urban flood risk and resilience, a set of criteria was developed to screen, score and asses the selected documents. A screening process of three levels are conducted to limit the documents to be reviewed, and subsequent content analysis for scoring also has been done. Findings The projected results indicate the need for improved and increased number of localized strategic plans and policies, which are more comprehensive and integrated as risk governance documents. Research limitations/implications Furthermore, it is projected that there is need to integrate measures to increase adaptive capacity for BMR. Originality/value This study is original, and methodology can be replicated for other urban areas for flood risks and resilience assessment.
 
Purpose This study examines the websites of central government ministries, prefectures and municipalities to obtain a comprehensive bird’s-eye view of how they are preparing for natural disasters in the context of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Design/methodology/approach This study examines the websites of central government ministries, prefectures and municipalities in Japan to survey the actual status of information dissemination on “evacuation and sheltering” in the context of COVID-19. Findings This study found that the central government issued many notices, notifications and administrative communications to prefectures, cities with public health centers and special wards, which were mainly related to opening, securing and operating evacuation centers and improving the environment. It was found that most prefectures disseminated information on both survival and living evacuation and did so from June onward, when the flood season was approaching. Among the municipalities, there were differences in information dissemination tendencies by prefecture, and it became clear that smaller municipalities were especially incapable of fully disseminating information via the Web. Research limitations/implications The data from the prefectures and municipalities surveyed in this study were collected from websites and do not necessarily represent the actual response to disaster-related evacuation in the context of COVID-19 in those areas. To clarify this evacuation, more detailed surveys are needed. Originality/value This study is unique because no research has been conducted on the response of Japanese administrative agencies to disaster-related evacuation in the context of COVID-19; the actual situation was analyzed in this study by examining central government ministries, prefectures and municipalities as administrative agencies and comparing their responses.
 
Purpose Foreign residents in Japan are classified as one vulnerable group at risk of disasters. Therefore, various measures are in place to engage, educate and offer first-hand experiences of disaster countermeasures required to overcome systematic disaster preparedness problems. However, the need for Japan to prevent the spread and infection of COVID-19 has necessitated measures that prohibit public gatherings and other social activities. This study aims to look at how these arrangements have impacted public engagement approaches to disaster preparedness for foreign residents within the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Design/methodology/approach This study identifies local organizations and examines their methods of engagement that enhance the disaster preparedness of foreign residents in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The activities are examined in the context of when there was no COVID-19 pandemic and the current state of the pandemic. A change in activities attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic is then extracted and explained through field surveys and interviews with the relevant organization. Findings This study reveals that most disaster preparedness activities were best accomplished through in-person engagements. Nevertheless, online engagements have become the alternative option because of COVID-19 infection prevention. This change has widen the coverage of some activities but major setbacks include events cancelations and technical and technological challenges attributed to using online platforms. Research limitations/implications This study did not examine the effectiveness of pre-COVID-19 pandemic engagement approaches and current changes attributed to the pandemic; many public engagement literatures acknowledge success to include the number of participants, the abilities of organizations to find ways to effectively and positively engage their stakeholders for meaningful partnerships, the number of clicks, access to a website and comments made online. Therefore, as organizations in this study have shown a glimpse of the above characteristics, there are indications of some level of effectiveness in their engagement approaches even amid a pandemic. Practical implications To avoid such situations in the future, there is the need for the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, local governments and associated organizations to develop public engagement approaches that are flexible to resist or cope with in-person, remote encounters, or sudden circumstances that could potentially derail planned activities. Social implications The most effects attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic are the cancelation of many disaster drill exercises, community disaster walks, training of volunteers for foreign residents’ assistance and many hours of “Yasashii Nihongo” lesson. The cancelation of activities is a setback to the efforts of self-help and mutual aid campaigns by authorities to reduce the impacts of disasters. Originality/value The spirit of inclusion has been an embodiment of disaster management approaches in Japan for years for which policy recognitions have been tagged along the dimensions of public aid, self-help and mutual aid. These are aimed at engaging the populace, especially foreign residents in disaster training and exercises, language study and other communal activities for disaster preparedness. However, to prevent the spread of COVID-19, there have been a series of restrictions on gathering and inter-personal public engagement activities in Japan. As foreigners are classified as the most vulnerable to disaster in Japan, it is important to understand how these restrictions will/are affecting the efforts of integration and disaster preparedness, which are a crucial part of the Government’s effort to reduce casualties and damage in the anticipated Nankai megathrust earthquake. Besides the results being useful for government interventions, it also adds to the knowledge of the repercussion of COVID-19 and how to plan for emergencies.
 
Conceptual model of the study
Demography of the respondents
Purpose Nowadays, nearly the whole globe is confronting a severe threat of the COVID-19. The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictors of environmental concerns during the COVID-19 among the entrepreneurs during a second pandemic wave. Design/methodology/approach The deductive approach is applied based on cross-sectional data. An online response is gotten from entrepreneurs of Pakistan. A convenience sampling is applied to target the entrepreneurs. In total, 220 usable answers ensue for the outcome. The structural equation model (SEM) is used for the assessment of hypotheses. Findings The results of this study highlight a significant and positive effect of uncertainty of COVID-19 (U19), Perceived vulnerability (PV), Risk perception of COVID-19 (RP) and Fear of COVID-19 (F19) on environmental concerns (EC) among the entrepreneurs. Practical implications The research outcomes would provide the guidelines to policymakers and planners to develop the policies for reducing the fear, vulnerability, risk and uncertainties during the waves of the COVID-19. The findings of the study would make disaster resilience which COVID-19 creates. The results would provide the re-built environment guidelines by reducing fear, vulnerability, risk and uncertainties. Besides, the findings would help provide the knowledge and practical aspects of disasters in terms of anxiety, exposure, risk and uncertainties, which are hazardous for humans and the environment. Originality/value This study provides the empirical evidence which is the first time conducted among the entrepreneurs. Besides, this study highlights the predictors such as fear, vulnerability, risk and uncertainties towards EC in the COVID-19 scenario.
 
Purpose The concept of multi-purpose cyclone shelters has been found effective in saving various lives during past cyclones. The recent cyclone Amphan, which hit the Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal in the middle of pandemic COVID-19 has posed severe issues related to cyclone shelter management in the rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the case of Odisha in a pandemic and draw some key lessons of cyclone shelter management, which can be useful for future cascading risks in other parts of the country and the region. Design/methodology/approach Cyclone shelters are critical infrastructures in the management of cyclones, associated hazards and saving crucial lives. The effective management of shelters during emergencies is dependent on the existing institutional mechanism, local stakeholders and their understanding of the key functions of the emergency shelters. This paper reviews the key challenges through literature, reports and direct interviews of field professionals and practitioners. Findings In normal times, cyclone shelters are used as schools and their management lies with the local communities and/or elected bodies. Some of the key emerging issues include: the convincing population at risk for evacuation with proper care, existing emergency shelters being repurposed as COVID-19 facilities, need for hygiene and safety material, special arrangement and segregation of population at higher risk of COVID-19 and large destruction of social infrastructures. Originality/value During cascading disasters, adaptive governance becomes important. With the study of cyclones during the pandemic period, the paper draws key decision-making and governance points of cyclone shelter management. This case analysis can be useful to other similar situations during the prolonged pandemic time.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the key challenges, approaches and lessons of the higher educational institutions (HEIs) in the context of COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted to understand the key challenges being faced by the HEIs around the world during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 150 responses were collected from 65 universities, located in 29 countries. Findings The results show that 47% of respondents with defined universities believe their institutions lacked a permanent or dedicated emergency management office, and 41% said their HEIs lacked a general business continuity plan for an emergency. In universities with BCPs, 33% of the plans do not cover biological hazards and pandemic risk management, and 60% of the plans did not include conducting any advanced simulation exercises. More than 70% the responded said their instruction, information sharing and decision-making process were timely and open. The major challenges identified were a lack of adequate preparedness for pandemic and of pandemic-specific advanced simulation exercises. The next major challenges were the change in the mode of teaching to online lectures and working from home. Based on these challenges, a set of short- and long-term recommendations were proposed. Originality/value This was the first survey in academic institutions in post COVID-19 context. The findings will be useful for preparing for biological and other related hazards.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the influence of the role of the central government, the role of local government, community participation, governance on the success of post-COVID-19 food security policies. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a quantification study related to phenomena related to the success of post-COVID-19 food security policies. The data used are primary data with a research instrument in the form of a questionnaire. Data analysis using the measurement model Structural Equation Model (SEM). The population in this study was all people in the city of Bandung, Indonesia. Findings The role of the Central Government (X1), the role of the Local Government ( X 2) and Public Participation (X3) is very important for improving Governance (Y1) and Food Defense Policy (Y2). Thus, the conditions of the role of the Central Government (X1), the role of the Local Government ( X 2) and Public Participation (X3) must always be maintained. Efforts to maintain the role of the Central Government (X1) and the role of the Local Government ( X 2) can be done by paying attention to the organizing aspect. This indicator is known to have a very important influence in reflecting the role of the Central Government (X1) and the role of the Local Government ( X 2). On the other hand, efforts to increase Public Participation (X3) can be done by paying attention to the Psychological indicators (X31). Originality/value The government must take steps to prevent a food crisis. Apart from that, the government is also deemed necessary to map existing agricultural potentials, stabilize food prices, carry out consolidation related to agricultural land and also make regulations related to existing food problems. Apart from the role of the government, the public can also take part in maintaining food security to avoid a food crisis. Communities have the opportunity to build food sovereignty and self-sufficiency. During a pandemic like this, people tend to be more creative and can be creative to outsmart existing situations. This includes maintaining access to food. The community is expected to have the awareness to undertake at least independent planting to meet their own food needs.
 
Purpose This study aims to evaluate the functional readiness of selected hospitals in Tehran in the face of biological events focusing on the Coronavirus. Design/methodology/approach The current study is a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study, with the research population consisting of four hospitals in Tehran (Ministry of Health, Social Security, Azad and Military University). This study used data collection tools, standardized functional preparedness tools for hospitals using a biological approach and a standardized checklist of biological event preparations for the American Hospital Association. Interviews with the incident and disaster committee director and observation of each hospital’s existing documents, were used to collect data, which was then analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Findings According to the results, the average percentage of total hospital preparedness in biological events is 36.9%. With 53.3%, the selected military hospital has the most preparation, whereas the Ministry of Health has the lowest preparation with 28.3%. Surge capacity management and communication had the most remarkable preparedness rate of 68.75% (adequate preparedness), biological consultants, meeting management and post-disaster recovery had the lowest preparedness rate of 0% (extremely weak preparedness). Practical implications The average functional preparedness of selected hospitals in Tehran was assessed at an insufficient level in this study. Given the recurrence of disease waves, these results are helpful in increasing hospital preparedness for impending events. Improving preparedness in most areas, especially in post-disaster recovery seems necessary. Originality/value Given the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to assess hospitals’ readiness to increase capacity and respond to this scourge. Few studies have been done in this field in the world. This study investigates this issue in the capital of Iran. The finding of this study suggest authorities’ attention to this issue and the creation of severe and prompt solutions and measures and the use of military hospital experiences to improve biological threat preparedness.
 
Purpose The study aims at enriching the existing cooperative education sector in Thailand. Adequate cooperative education has direct impacts upon graduates’ future professional development, employability and enhanced professional skills. The cooperative education framework in Thailand is relatively a recent concept and lacks detailed research. Design/methodology/approach The methodology adopted in this study is mixed-method, inclusive of qualitative methodology where data were collected through key informant interviews and; quantitative methodology involving survey questionnaires with a sample of 350 respondents. The data analysis included the quantitative analysis with Chi-square and excerpts from the key informant interview respondents. Additional strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis is performed to provide for gaps at various levels of cooperative education and the potential opportunities to the graduates in Thailand. Findings The findings depict a lack of legal framework for effective skill development, uncertain moral and physical security of the interns and absence of legal rights for interns, minimal support and assistance from the government sector, reduced future employability and insufficient financial resources among poorer students. Research limitations/implications Lack of student and cooperative database with the government departments. Practical implications The Thai Qualification Framework has been adopted in a majority of universities, however, the quality assurance does not cover the student’s perspectives, financial and social limitations towards attending the cooperative education. Social implications With enhanced vulnerabilities due to the Covid-19 pandemic, adverse impacts are analysed and recommendations are provided for enhancing cooperative education opportunities towards students. Originality/value This research aims to understand the perspectives of the students who graduated with cooperative education and are currently working professionals.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to clarify changes in people-place interrelationship and hidden layers of survivors psychological challenges in the reconstructed housing environment, the 2003 Bam and 2017 Ezgeleh-Sarpol Zahab earthquakes occurred in Iran, because perception of earthquake risk in residential dwellings and traumatic experiences during and after its occurrence are among stressful events making communities face with various spectrum of emotional and cognitive consequences. Such events shape memory “traumascapes” and cause changes in mental schemas and as a result, altering decisions and behavioral responses in long-term familiar environments. Because, in the disaster-affected communities, psychological recovery will be greatly influenced by residential experiences. Design/methodology/approach The current research was performed with a qualitative and multicase study design, and data were collected using deep and semistructured private interviews and discussions in focus groups with participation of 33 people by narrative technique. Findings According to findings, people are facing enduring cognitive disruptions regarding home concept and its location as a safe and secure paradigm. Findings showed that there are a considerable amount of behavioral responses and emotional consequences in the form of protective behaviors, severe sensitivity to environmental stimuli, fears, phobias in residential dwellings and disturbances in place attachments. Originality/value It is noteworthy that despite all time and place differences, the two studied communities had significant similarities in earthquake traumatic experiences and perceptions and also resulting conscious and subconscious responses.
 
Purpose The purpose of this study is to address the key factors for the sustainable process of long-term recovery from disaster, with focus on interdependent decisions of various players. Design/methodology/approach The consistency among strategies of recovery players, who make a decision based not only on direct motive but also on various complex motives and interactions with other players, is considered. Interactive decision-making during the housing reconstruction project in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami is analyzed using game theory. Findings Regarding two important decisions defining the result of recovery, players’ possible decisions are evaluated, and by using the game theoretic approach, the reasons for poor output and the conditions to shift equilibrium to that which is suitable for the long-term goal of recovery are discussed. Originality/value These analyses show that motive compatibility among players should be considered when we design processes for recovery from disasters.
 
Purpose This paper aims to explore the complex relationship between post-earthquake reconstruction processes and gentrification in neighborhoods of intermediate cities, calling on the critical role of recovery strategies in altering neighborhoods physical and social urban structure identities. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a case study; the reconstruction process of the neighborhoods post 2010 earthquake in Talca, Chile and analyses in a six year timeline its socio-spatial changes. The latter based on mixed methods; primary data from strategic interviews with key stakeholders, cadasters of land value and real estate housing projects and neighborhood polls, and secondary data from official documents such as plans and policies. Findings Findings suggest patterns of incipient gentrification are an outcome of the reconstruction strategies. Acknowledging the intricate interplay among urban neoliberal conditions, historical heritage and identities, and post disaster recovery, inadequate housing subsidies and normative plans are causing the displacement of hundreds of historical residents and resistance, arrival of newcomers with higher debt capacity in new housing typologies, and increasing land value. Process related to neoliberal politics of state led new-build gentrification. Originality/value Gentrification and reconstruction are both processes that modify urban structures, society and perceptions, and yet their socio spatial effects have never been studied in a cumulative and integrated manner, even more, in intermediate cities. The value is to rethink the critical role of recovery strategies in halting and containing gentrification in fast transforming secondary cities.
 
Purpose – The purpose of the present paper is to explore the political discourse present in the show Chile Ayuda a Chile [Chile helps Chile] to support the survivors and victims of the last earthquake hit Chile in 2010. Based on the belief that nationalism plays a vital role in cementing the process of recovery by making survivors believe that they, after all, have a new opportunity to be on feet again. Design/methodology/approach – The visual methodology (enrooted in the analysis of content) is the chosen technique to develop five indicators which replicates the nationalist sentiment of Chileans post-disaster context. The archetype of nationalism is activated whenever the community is in danger. Findings – As Baudrillard put it, the post-modernity is witness of a much wider nation-state’s declination. Nonetheless, current information presented in this report very well contrasts a thesis of this caliber. Far-away of being experiencing a decrease of Nationalism, we argue that in contexts of emergency and chaos, nationality plays an important role to maintain a firm bondage and prevent social fragmentation. Five indicators are found in the discourse of Chile helps Chile, beautiness, sport, coercion, stratification and materiality. Research limitations/implications – The outcome of this research, because of its qualitative nature, does not allows statistical or broader inferences. For this, further investigation is needed. Originality/value – Much of disaster-related texts have been influenced by Jean Baudrillard and his thesis of nation state decline. The originality of this research shows the opposite. As a process of resiliency, the national being still plays a crucial role in revitalizing the social tenets of community in context of uncertainness.
 
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on the communication strategies used by the information volunteers of Jalin Merapi during the Mt. Merapi disaster in Indonesia 2010. Design/methodology/approach In all, 18 information volunteers are interviewed to find out about their strategies in organising crisis communication, and follow-up interviews are conducted with several donors and media professionals to understand the wider context. The questions cover how the information is sourced, published and verified and the reasons behind their decisions. The concept of mediated suffering helps to analyse how their strategies construct with whom, with what subject and how the media users engage with the survivors. Findings This study finds that information volunteers of Jalin Merapi focused on the overlooked survivors and issues of Mt. Merapi disaster based on their observation of the mainstream media’s coverage of the previous disaster in 2006. The needs of the refugees, rather than the availability of donor’s aid, were foregrounded to encourage the wider public to donate. And access to connect directly with the survivors was provided to enhance the efficacy of aid and to facilitate repeat donations. Research limitations/implications Further empirical studies in other disaster contexts are called for to assess whether similar or different strategies are used in participatory crisis communication. Originality/value This study presents a rare case of participatory crisis communication in a disaster. The perspective of the media audience helps situate the findings in the context of the wider media environment and in the context of collective action as often seen in response to disaster.
 
Haas, Kates and Bowden recovery model
Pakistan Floods 2010, adapted from UNOCHA (2010)
List of study participants
Purpose This paper aims to describe an in-depth study conducted on transition of recovery into subsequent recovery phases after the 2010 super floods in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The objectives of this research were to examine the post-disaster activities after the floods and highlight the critical areas hindering the transition into an effective recovery phase. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach based on literature reviews with semi-structured interviews with disaster management stakeholders were applied as the primary source of data. Findings The study found that long-term recovery was the most neglected phase of post-disaster recovery (PDR). The factors hindering successful transition following short-term recovery activities are lack of following: community-level involvement, local administration and community capacity, disaster governance, different stakeholders and coordination, information and knowledge management. Research limitations/implications This paper examines the long-term disaster recovery after the 2010 super floods in three districts of Sindh. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to investigate the factors in other areas for different types of disasters. Practical implications These findings are critical to planning future post-disaster recoveries in the region. It also provides a basis to investigate other types of disasters. Originality/value The transition of recovery into long-term phase has never been investigated before. The recovery phase is an opportune time to incorporate strategies for building back better, resilience, mitigation and preparedness. A PDR that does not incorporate these strategies in the long-term leaves affected communities in more vulnerable conditions for future disasters.
 
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between flood exposure and levels of social trust among a cohort of adult men from refugee backgrounds who were affected by the 2011 floods in Queensland, Australia. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative questionnaire was administered to 141 men from refugee backgrounds almost two years after the 2011 Queensland floods. The survey was administered in-person by trained peer interviewers, and included a number of standardized instruments assessing respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, levels of social trust toward and from neighbors, the police, the wider Australian community and the media and exposure to and impact of the floods. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between flood exposure and social trust adjusting for pre-disaster levels of trust and other potentially confounding variables. Findings – Participants with higher levels of flood exposure were significantly more likely to report greater levels of trust both toward and from their neighbors, the wider Australian community and the media, and they were also more likely to believe that most people can be trusted. Research limitations/implications – Although the study reports on data collected two years after the floods, the analysis has adjusted for pre-disaster measures of social trust and other socio-demographic variables. Originality/value – This paper has highlighted the important place of social trust and social capital for refugee communities in a post-disaster setting. Disaster responses that support social capital among marginalized populations are critical to increasing community resilience and supporting recovery.
 
Purpose – The purpose of the present paper is to explore the political discourse present in the show Chile Ayuda a Chile [Chile helps Chile] to support the survivors and victims of the last earthquake hit Chile in 2010. Based on the belief that nationalism plays a vital role in cementing the process of recovery by making survivors believe that they, after all, have a new opportunity to be on feet again. Design/methodology/approach – The visual methodology (enrooted in the analysis of content) is the chosen technique to develop five indicators which replicates the nationalist sentiment of Chileans post-disaster context. The archetype of nationalism is activated whenever the community is in danger. Findings – As Baudrillard put it, the post-modernity is witness of a much wider nation-state's declination. Nonetheless, current information presented in this report very well contrasts a thesis of this caliber. Faraway of being experiencing a decrease of Nationalism, we argue that in contexts of emergency and chaos, nationality plays an important role to maintain a firm bondage and prevent social fragmentation. Five indicators are found in the discourse of Chile helps Chile, beautiness, sport, coercion, stratification and materiality. Research limitations/implications – The outcome of this research, because of its qualitative nature, does not allows statistical or broader inferences. For this, further investigation is needed. Originality/value – Much of disaster-related texts have been influenced by Jean Baudrillard and his thesis of nation state decline. The originality of this research shows the opposite. As a process of resiliency, the national being still plays a crucial role in revitalizing the social tenets of community in context of uncertainness.
 
Many readers of IJDRBE will agree that the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) has provided important guidance to reduce disaster risk and strengthen cooperation across stakeholders at multiple levels. However, its implementation has also highlighted important gaps in the formulation of goals and priorities for actions. For example, while priorities 1,2,3 and 5 were often deemed to be directly actionable and specific, priority 4 has proven to be challenging. As a result, a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction is now being developed to update and reorder the strategic goals and priorities, giving appropriate visibility to all levels and placing greater emphasis on stakeholders and their role in advancing the priorities. Since the adoption of the HFA, countries in all regions have been reporting steady progress in strengthening their institutional, legislative and policy frameworks. Many have suggested that this has contributed to decreasing mortality risk, especially from floods and tropical storms. Progress has also been made in risk assessment, education, research and public awareness, and many countries have been increasing their investments in risk reduction, as well as developing risk-transfer mechanisms. Such reports suggest that the HFA has been an important instrument in raising institutional awareness and understanding, while also instilling political will.
 
Purpose This paper aims to ask: What was the state of building-code enforcement and citizen–government collaboration in disaster preparedness when an earthquake hit Kathmandu metropolitan city (KMC) in 2015? It reviewed government documents, analyzed media reports, interviewed building-code monitoring officers and carried out a detailed case study of the earthquake-damaged Park View Horizon Housing Apartment (PVHA) Complex. The research found several earthquake-resilience issues. They were enforcement-vulnerability – Building bylaws, planning permit and building code; institutional-coordination vulnerability; Apartment-regulation vulnerability: technological vulnerability; and citizen-government-collaboration vulnerability. Design/methodology/approach The study area of this research is KMC, and this research is based on content analysis, field observation and interview. It has reviewed all the newspapers and media reports that had covered earthquake issues during and after the 2015 disaster, as well as the articles published in Nepal, South Asia, the USA, New Zealand and Haiti. The literature on Nepal’s building code, seismic history and institutional arrangements for governing earthquake-related issues were reviewed. After field observation of some of the damaged apartments, a detailed case study of PVHA Complex was carried out. Findings The research found several earthquake-resilience issues. They were enforcement-vulnerability – Building bylaws, planning permit and building code; institutional-coordination vulnerability; Apartment-regulation vulnerability: technological vulnerability; and citizen-government-collaboration vulnerability. Research limitations/implications A limitation of this study was its heavy reliance on content analysis, one case study and a few interviews and discussions with affected residents, local governments and developers. Practical implications This study would help enhance disaster governance in developing nations. Social implications The citizen–government collaborative approach to earthquake resilience would enhance human resilience to disaster at individual and community levels. Originality/value How the existing building codes and the institutions responsible for disaster interacted with the 2015 earthquake is original and useful for earthquake resilience policymakers.
 
Purpose This paper aims to understand the recovery process after the 2018 floods in Kerala, India, and it determines whether the recovery efforts were aligned with Build Back Better (BBB) concepts. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach was adopted to collect the data from the officials of Government and NGOs involved in Kerala recovery. The participants were interviewed on the challenges faced during the recovery process and the actions taken by them to overcome it. Findings The study identified that the Kerala Government was proactive at making the community resilient from future disasters by – encouraging owner-driven reconstruction among flood-affected households; supporting locals to rejuvenate their business; and by creating a local-level recovery authority. Further, this paper identifies the areas that Kerala was lacking in terms of BBB and where resilience-based plans and actions are needed for the future. Research limitations/implications The participants were employees of Government and NGOs at a state level as they were the primary decision-makers to implement any recovery actions. Researchers believe that the authorities at district and village level could have had a different perspective towards implementing the recovery actions. Practical implications The best practices presented in this paper for effective BBB will assist the government to build/improve resilience in the community. Originality/value The implementation of BBB concepts in the areas of disaster risk reduction, community recovery and effective implementation was never studied extensively. The research provides valuable information on what extent Kerala’s post-disaster recovery and reconstruction activities were in-line with BBB practices.
 
Purpose As a flood-prone region in Iran, Golestan province has encountered various disasters in its history. The last one occurred in March 2019, affected Aq-Qala County and caused irreparable physical, economic, social and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the process of providing shelter in emergency, rehabilitation and reconstruction phases after the floods in the villages of Aq-Qala. Design/methodology/approach A research method is a hybrid approach. The collection of data involved a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches in addition to reviewing the documented texts in resources to collect the required data using observations, field survey activities, questionnaires and in-depth interviews. From April 2019 to December 2019, nine separate visits have occurred to collect the needed information. Findings This paper shows dissatisfaction with providing shelter and attempts to identify the factors which caused the challenges. The findings revealed issues such as hygienic problems in collective camps, lack of thermal resistance in temporary accommodations and rising material prices. These findings lead to a contributive list of suggestions avoiding the recurrence of the harms in the future. Originality/value This study proposes solutions and approaches to improve the post-flood settlement process for possible floods in the future such as equipped camps, proper temporary housing, monitoring the reconstruction and the price of the materials. If these approaches are used by authorities and people in similar rural areas, the long-term effects of inadequate post-flood shelter can be reduced.
 
Top-cited authors
Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga
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Richard Peter Haigh
  • University of Huddersfield
Suzanne Wilkinson
  • Massey University
Frank Thomalla
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Chaminda Pathirage
  • University of Wolverhampton