International Journal of Digital Literacy and Digital Competence

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Print ISSN: 1947-3494
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or the past 25 years, digital inequalities have been analyzed by several scholars. Many empirical studies have shaped a theoretical framework that identifies three main digital divides. However, most of the scientific contributions have been focusing on digital inequalities within countries, leaving inequalities among countries behind. This paper aims at analyzing what kind of digital inequalities emerge among European countries, focusing on the trends that characterized Europe in the last decade, to consider whether some of the main elements of the digital divide literature replicate at the continental level. The paper analyzes secondary data, mainly retrieved from Eurostat. It emerges that inequalities in digital skills and use of the web persist in Europe, and some of the trends that scholars found among individuals are identifiable among countries as well. These findings contribute to the description of digital inequalities, a social phenomenon notso deeply studied at the continental level.
 
Getting a journal indexed reflects high-quality scientific integrity, which differentiates it from a non-indexed journal. Quantitative analysis of indexing status of a randomly selected sample of 121 predatory journals listed on https://beallslist.net/standalone-journals/ was carried out to ascertain their presence in various reputed bibliographic databases. The study's findings divulge that the presence of predatory journals in bibliographic databases is not significantly widespread. However, some indexing databases such as Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) and PubMed reflect slightly greater values than anticipated and need to be scrutinized and reviewed regularly. Further, the study found that these journals incorporate many metrics under indexing/ abstracting information which are not in a true sense suitable to be categorized as indexing abstracting databases. Further, Index Copernicus, Scientific Journal Impact factor (SJIF), National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), Global Impact Factor (GIF) are the most used Counterfeit indexing services by the journals. Article Preview
 
The complex postmodern hyperstimulation exacerbated by the pandemic crisis from Sars-Cov19 is producing a proliferation of psycho-social paradoxes not always consciously managed. Through an investment in the transformative power of education for a permanent organizational the flipped inclusion model didactically transpose the design architecture of computational thinking and affects both the transformation of identity (by acting on learning, communicative, relational, and attribution styles) in an inclusive plural perspective, and indirectly for the promotion of inclusive contests, as emerges from the data of multi-research method being tested since 2014 at the University of Salerno. The activation of experiential training strategies, which affect the promotion of prosocial value, allows to foster an education in the management of potential risks deriving from unconscious transductive processes, generated in hybrid social systems formal, non-formal, and informal, virtual and real.
 
This study was aimed at investigating the impact of lecturers' level of knowledge and skills of e-learning, pedagogical attitude, and learners' performance in South African private institutions of higher learning by applying the ends-means relationship conventional leadership and supervision model. The intention was to solve challenges associated with the implementation of e-learning programs in South African higher schools of learning. The study applied an explanatory research design in the form of the mixed method (quant-qual). The results indicated that the lecturers' level of knowledge and skills, as well as pedagogical attitude in the aspects of e-learning components, were low. This is one of the reasons why e-learning is having a negative impact on the quality of teaching and learning. It is therefore recommended that lecturers get involved in e-learning innovation programs regarding policymaking and implementation in order to acquire enhanced e-pedagogical skills.
 
Most people in modern working life are exposed to new technologies and by implication information overflows and expectations of continuous learning. Ongoing technological changes demand constant updating of competencies, such as digital literacy, but how is technologizing work viewed by those temporarily absent from work? Metacognitive worries over technologized work were explored among the employees laid off, on a study leave, or on a sick leave. Individuals on an extended sick leave were more likely to have negative metacognitions than those who were absent for another reason. Self-efficacy in learning new technologies and the perceived capability to handle information overflow are metacognitions that should be acknowledged in an attempt to reintegrate employees back from long-term sick leaves. The findings also imply that worries over performing in technologized work are associated with lower perceived work ability. Recommendations emphasise briefing absent employees about possible technological changes and supporting digital competencies and literacies of the returning ones.
 
The study revealed that awareness and acceptance of scholarly databases by undergraduates is still relatively low in Nigeria. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed exploring perceptions of students. Descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, and cross-tabulation were carried out in the analysis of data using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software. Science Direct was revealed to be the preferred scholarly database of students with the highest satisfaction level. Findings showed that Agora and Teal were used by agricultural sciences while JSTOR and Ebrary were used more by business and social sciences. However, factors that limited acceptance were challenges of information retrieval skills and student preferred interest for general search engines persist. Undergraduate students were also noted to be more interested in the relevance of the information source than the currency and authority and accuracy of the source. There is a need to improve the information literacy skills and the information retrieval skills of undergraduate students.
 
Through interviews, this research investigated the business logic of two legal technology (legal tech) startup companies and revealed the crucial value of human-centered thinking for technological innovation. In this research, the social values of technological innovation are described from the humanistic perspective. Based on the practical achievements of the companies, a new humanistic dimension was verified, which involved combining technological innovation and a human-centered path and adopting altruistic thinking, which was of great value in traditional thinking. Such practice contributed to the companies' achievements and carried profound significance to artificial intelligence (AI) development in the age of big data. Moreover, incorporating human-centered into businesses is crucial in controlling the use of AI to prevent the possible social destruction caused by AI applications. This research maintains that an approach combining data-driven and human-centered thinking is based on technological advances and social influences.
 
In this study, the relationships between literacy, computer experience, and age among and between the general (i.e., "household") and prison samples were examined using the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (2012, 2014). Literacy scores and computer experiences were significantly lower (p < .001) for the prison sample than for the household sample. There were significant differences in the mean literacy scores between the household and prison samples for those with no computer experience, t(2048) = -3.58, p < .01 and for those with computer experience, t(7721) = 8.99, p < .01. Computer experience predicted literacy proficiency across both samples (R-squared = .10, SE = .01, p < .01). Lastly, there was an inverse relationship between age and computer experience, with a widening gap between the household and prison samples as age increased. The inequalities in the essential skills of print and computer literacy between the general and prison populations are concerning and indicate a need for literacy and computer education in prisons.
 
Using the SCOPUS database, this paper aims to quantify global research output on digital literacy (DL) from 2011 to 2020. In addition, there were 7388 documents and 42504 citations. The average number of citations received per publication was 5.63. The result of the study `depicts that the growth of publication on digital literacy has an incremental trend, and year-wise citation is also found to increase from 64 to 13163 during the study period. Furthermore, the research found that Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (DT) had a fluctuating pattern throughout the study. "Internet skills and the digital divide" were learned to be the leading article among the most important source titles used for the publication of DL studies, with 368 citations. However, the "Journal of Medical Internet Research" received the highest mean citation per document (24.26), and G. Merchant was identified as the most prolific author with a mean citation per document of 24.38.
 
The concept of “digital literacy” has been much discussed and variously misunderstood in our society. Owing to digital communication technologies, it is often confused with other literacies and skills necessary for utilizing and evaluating digital information. As information and communication is increasingly produced, accessed, and controlled in digital formats, there is significant need to clarify among “information literacies” what “digital literacy” means and demands. In order to accomplish this, the author reviews what is meant by literacies in human society, examines the nature of the digital as a language, describes genuine digital literacy, and elucidates the sociopolitical importance of the growing digital illiteracy in global citizenry and how this might be addressed.
 
This systematic review defines a framework for educational robotics in kindergarten. We performed our search in online databases via keyword search and snowball sampling. At the end of the process, we analyzed 46 papers. In-depth analysis of them has led to the identification of a four dimensions framework: (1) design and execution of robotics curricula: most of them used programmable floor robots, like Bee-Bot, but also more sophisticated tools, like KIBO; and tend to be created from scratch, often designed and carried out by researchers directly; (2) design and implementation of the research studies: there is a balance among adopted research methodologies (qualitative, quantitative and mixed); most studies are non-experimental; data are mainly collected by observations, tests, and interviews; (3) outcomes on the participants' skills: a large share of papers reports outcomes other than technical skills; it has also investigated the impact on soft and cognitive skills, learning engagement, and emotions; (4) the gender dimension: around one in five papers investigated it.
 
A key figure as an interpreter of the spirit of the time, the educator needs continuous training. This is an essential requirement for carrying out what is one of the main aspects of his work: facilitating inclusion, limiting any type of marginality and social exclusion. The role of the educator, based primarily on humanistic and social knowledge, is also rich in ethical values. Two valuable allies that the educator cannot help but resort to are observation and active listening; in fact, while observation allows us to collect the necessary information, by listening we welcome the other, with his strengths and weaknesses. To educate is also to communicate, to be close to the student, to communicate also with looks and gestures. In his action, the effective educator must also follow the path of dialogue, reciprocity, and communicative integration. This chapter explores these forms of education.
 
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are the unconventional and latest means of education in the present society. MOOCs are the strong alternative to traditional education and latest development in the area of open and distance learning. MOOCs are the online courses which are delivered with little rigidity in place of learning, time of learning, pace of learning, etc. Learning management in MOOCs is one of the prime features of MOOCs that helps for the delivery of MOOCs. Learning management in MOOCs plays a vital role for the success of MOOCs. The stakeholders of MOOCs must be well conversant with different aspects of learning management in MOOCs for achieving the success of the MOOCs. Referring to these contexts, in the present paper, thematic discussions have been made on different aspects of learning management in MOOCs. In the paper, special emphasis in discussion is given on different components of learning management in MOOCs, learning management in different platforms of MOOCs, and issues in learning management in MOOCs.
 
Owing to the higher usage of internet post and during COVID-19, attacks on IT infrastructure and digital payment have surged. This work undertakes the empirical study on mobile-based payment and determines the impact of post-demonetization, during COVID-19 and post COVID-19. Number of banks supporting digital payment, value in each transaction, monthly values are the factors that have been undertaken for this study. Data revealed higher usage of mobile-based payments. On the other hand, security challenges on payment have been explored by considering the world's leading regulations and standards prevailing on mobile-based payment. Major recommendations of financial regulators and CERT-IN have been included for the deeper understanding of employed security. This work will be immensely helpful to all the stakeholders aiming to understand the mobile payment trends on multi dimensions and strengthening the security in mobile-based payment to avoid any losses that may be incurred due to cyber-attacks.
 
Open educational practices (OEP) are being enriched with many repositories to support teaching and learning activities in the modern era. Hence, the study aims to understand the trends of such repositories at global level by making analysis of 782 repositories categorized under learning object repositories (LOR) in directory of open access repositories (OpenDoar) with a focus on identifying open educational resources repositories (OERR) specifically possessing ‘open educational resources' for reuse, modification, and adaption. The authors looked into LOR under different facets like global distribution, operational status, interface language, etc. A total of 78 OERR identified from the LOR focus mainly on open teaching learning materials when their availability was ascertained by visiting each repository and browsing randomly through “collections and communities,” “content types,” “license statements,” etc. The results reveal that these hail predominantly from North America and Europe with different distribution patterns, while little visibility is evident among other geographical locations.
 
In order to reduce children's online risks as well as promote online opportunities, provide digital literacy, mediation, and internet safe use, it is imperative to acquire a better understanding of digital children's rights. In order to address this problem and to provide a representative voice for the millions of Turkish speaking children, the authors developed T-GKOS, a reliable and validated digital children's rights scale in Turkish adopted from GKOS (the English version). The Turkish digital child right scale (T-GKOS) was designed, tested, and validated with numerous factors regarding digital children's rights. Two hundred seventy-seven Turkish-Cypriot children answered the question on digital children's rights. it was noted that mediation plays a better role than digital literacy when it comes to children risk and online security while gender does not play a vital role.
 
Older adults are facing an increasingly technological society which can make them feel excluded. This work aims to evaluate computer skills of Europeans within the age group of 55+, using data from the SHARE project. Computer skills were assessed based on the answers to the question “How would you rate your computer skills?” Globally, an average of 28% of participants showed good computer skills, 36.1% demonstrated basic computer skills, and 35.9% had no computer skills whatsoever. Men showed higher levels of computer skills and higher age is associated with less computer skills. Sweden and Denmark had better computer skills, while Portugal and Poland had lower computer skills amongst 55+ people. Two-thirds of all countries register rates above 30% regarding the 55+ population with no computer skills. These results showed that computer skills are low amongst older adults in Europe, being this domain now identified as a field for action and intervention.
 
The problem of fake news has underscored the importance of stimulating critical thinking skills (i.e., information literacy) in the educational setting. Students should be trained in these competencies, which will be useful to them in their schooling, as well as in their later work and lives. The paper presents the findings of an exploratory survey of 185 third- and fourth-year upper secondary school students aged 16 to 18. The findings show students overestimate their critical skills and are overexposed to information flows from the old and new media that make fact-checking difficult. There is also strong demand for an approach that is both technological and humanistic towards educating about fake news.
 
Mean differences and significance between pro-milk and anti-milk participants when exposed to an anti-milk news story
Given the vast amount of incorrect health information circulated online, it is reasonable to question how everyday audiences process the health news they see shared on social media. This study identifies the mechanism behind evaluating a piece of health content shared on social media to be fake. An online experiment in Hong Kong exposed participants (N = 135) to a simulated Facebook news post claiming that the consumption of milk could be harmful, manipulating the source to be either a legacy media outlet or an unfamiliar online health source. Individuals with different prior views on milk consumption assessed the fakeness of the same fake health news item significantly differently. The findings contribute to digital literacy research, such that practitioners should take motivated perception of health news into account. Further, online sources which are less seen to be motivated by financial profits are likely to be trusted.
 
The paper presents the results of a study on the attitudes of young Slovenian foreign language learners. The survey was conducted in five public elementary schools from different regions of the Republic of Slovenia. Four hundred six pupils aged 7 to 12 years (grades 2 to 4) declared their willingness to participate. One hundred thirty-eight of them or 34% (4th grade) were asked whether they used ICT during English lessons, homework, and vocabulary study. A quantitative research paradigm using crosstabs was conducted. In the case of gender, the results of the Chi-square test show a statistically significant difference in attitudes towards the use of mobile phones during English lessons and homework, while no statistically significant differences were found for the variable age. Such results should motivate language teachers and policymakers to adapt their teaching methods and allow for a careful use of ICT in language teaching.
 
This article aims to illustrate a 7-month trial of digital book subscription services in teacher education. Student teachers of the University of Turku in Finland were encouraged to implement the service as part of their free time reading. The experiences of the digital subscription service were investigated using a questionnaire, and data were analyzed through a combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The aim of the study was to consider the value of digital book subscription services in terms of reading for pleasure and to describe the readership of teacher students as well as their assessment of digital book subscription services as a pedagogical approach for supporting the reading of primary school students. The results indicated that digital book subscription services might enhance the readership of occasional readers and that audiobook services should be implemented more frequently in education since they seem to connect reading to other free time activities. More effort should be placed in supporting the readership of teacher students in teacher education. Currently, the attitude and amount of reading rely primarily on childhood experiences.
 
A retrospective case study design was used to analyze online instructional technology courses at two US universities. A project-based learning design model was used for both complete online delivery and emergency remote teaching formats. Although deep areas of scholarship exist for online learning, project-based learning, and digital media literacies, research in the area of project-based learning designs to support technical learning in online courses is nascent. A review of these areas of literature is presented, and results from this case analysis are presented as recommendations to faculty who wish to design project-based learning for online technical courses, or for those who are planning emergency remote teaching conversions for similar technical courses.
 
This study was aimed at addressing implementation challenges associated with constant development of educational technologies including use of social media in higher institutions of learning. Results from two focus group interviews each comprising of 10 purposefully sampled facilitators/lecturers from one of the higher learning institutions of learning in the Gauteng province indicated that blending social media, learning theories, and teachers' knowledge is an effective way of promoting innovative pedagogy. Implementation of the partnership staff development model with supportive external and internal monitoring teams as additional intervention strategies ensure a complete blending of social media implementation competencies with pedagogic practices aligned to teaching and learning theories for improved scholarship of teaching learning. In conclusion, a staff development program characterised by collegiality and participation ensures an enhanced teaching and learning process.
 
The introduction of digital technologies and the emergence of electronic reading devices have expanded the concept of literacy and shaped how readers consume information from texts, as well as how they perceive and interact with digital materials vs. print materials in academic settings. Several years ago, reading was merely a characteristic of print. However, with today's advances in technology, the vast majority of people are reading blogs, journals, newspapers, and other materials on digital screens. This study reports the findings of a survey on the effects of digital technologies on learning behavior and reading motivation among Moroccan EFL university students. Results showed that the majority of students reported using digital materials for studying, research, and recreational purposes. The majority of students also reported using desktop/laptop computers or smartphones to access digital materials and claimed that they frequently consult PDF documents and Google books for coursework materials. Additional findings suggest that print reading is favored when the reading task includes lengthy texts and demands more learning engagement activities such as highlighting and notetaking; and that digital reading is preferred when the reading task demands less effortful engagement activities, and includes short texts and accessible materials via the Internet at a preferential cost. Students reported that their motivation to read online is driven by the need to keep up with recent information as well as the need to use usability features embedded with e-texts such as the ‘Find' function and built-in annotation tools. A great number of students rated their overall online reading experience as satisfactory or enjoyable. In contrast, students reported that eyestrain, discomfort with online reading, as well as the credibility and quality of texts encountered online are major challenges and barriers to digital reading. Results revealed that students' satisfaction with online reading is positively correlated with the frequency of using digital texts. Additional implications and directions for future research are considered.
 
Data security in the information age is a critical facet in the integrity and reliability of the various information systems making up value structures of businesses, organizations etc. Aside from professionals directly involved with securing data within these systems, the importance of data security is not readily apparent to the everyday user of devices in the information systems. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight challenges related to data security and business information systems in conjunction with digital literacy. An extensive literature review was conducted with the aim of identifying and describing scenarios of technology misuse as well as vulnerabilities in vital business information systems. A gap in awareness continues to plague those who leverage information systems for its myriad uses because everyday users will in most cases dismiss data security advice as alarmist or jargon-laden. This falls in line with a 2018 cyber security survey from Statista which showed that 22% of data security tasks was preventing malware while 17% of tasks were dedicated to preventing social engineering and phishing attacks. This literature review will describe possible data insecurity solutions as well as potential areas of further research. The paper will point out the importance of digital literacy as well as recommendations for its improvement in society and also ongoing research in that regard. The essence of this literature review is to identify certain everyday information systems such as decision support systems and transaction processing systems; while pointing out vulnerabilities and threat nature i.e. technical or non-technical and also demonstrating the importance of digital literacy and lack thereof.
 
In light of the increasing recognition of digital literacy in learning and education generally, and in English Foreign Language (EFL) instruction specifically, the purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of digital literacy on EFL students' academic writing performance. The subjects of this study were 80 third year EFL students from M'sila University. The research instruments included a digital literacy questionnaire and a writing performance test which were given to the study participants to answer. The relationship between students' digital literacy and their academic writing performance was analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. The results revealed that there is a high positive correlation coefficient between the research variables, which was statistically significant at the level (α = 0,01). Therefore, it was concluded that digital literacy is an effective factor for the development of English academic writing performance.
 
Digital competence percentage score for each age group
The proficiency level obtained by each age group in five competence areas including the mean score by all groups (Dimension 1)
Graphical representation of a complete profile (in percentage) for each generation in five core competence area
The distribution of the age groups in the sample
Based on the European framework(DigComp),aself-assessment tool digital competency wheel is used for this quantitative study to measure the individuals' perceptions toward digital competence. With a sample of 197 individuals from different generations in Finland, this study aims to provide empirical evidence that generational technological abilities are diverse.The data in this study show that "Net Generation," also coined as "digital natives," has obtained the highest level of digital competence. Nevertheless, when looking at the performance of all the investigated groups, the slightinter-generational difference was found in the case of problem-solving, whereas programming was found as the least developed competency among these groups. Based on the results, the study concludes that digital competence is very much distributed across generations.This also contributes to intergenerational learning that may enhance technological skills across generations.
 
The vast majority of adolescents own and use mobile devices on a daily basis for learning and other everyday activities. Mobile digital literacy is a term that captures the various capabilities that these young people have to interact effectively and safely with information and people in virtual environments, as well as to sustain their formal and informal learning across time and space as they develop into independent, self-directed lifelong learners. As part of understanding adolescents' mobile digital practices, this research developed a framework for investigating the students' mobile digital literacy. This research used a quantitative methodology and adapted a generic digital literacy framework to investigate Years 7-10 Australian students' perceptions of their ability to use mobile technology for learning and everyday activities. The results show that the framework can effectively capture students' perceptions of themselves as having high levels of mobile digital literacy in all the three components (technical, cognitive, and social-emotional) of the digital literacy framework. The implications are discussed.
 
The present research work describes the use of the electronic resources by the teaching community at Mekelle University, Ethiopia. The survey was conducted by using questionnaires to collect the data. The questionnaires were administered to a total of 1,516 on-duty teaching faculty of seven colleges. This is including the College of Natural and Computational Sciences, the College of Veterinary Medicine, the College of Health Science, the College of Law and Governance, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Language and Social Sciences, the College of Dry Land Agriculture and Natural Resources as well as nine regular institutes including: the Ethiopian Institute of Technology, Mekelle Institute of Technology, the Institute of Paleo Environment and Heritage Conservation, the Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, the Institute of Geo-Information and Earth Observation Sciences, the Institute of Environment and Gender Development Studies, the Institute of Population Studies, the Institute for Climate and Society, and the Institute for Water and Environment at Mekelle University. The survey also examines the purpose of use, frequency, difficulties, and availability of electronic information resources subscribed by Mekelle University Digital Library. Finally, the data has been interpreted, concluded and suggestions have been given for the improvement of electronic information resources at the library web portal.
 
In the global economy, the use of ICTs in everyday activities enables individual or communities to reduce the social divide and also enable them benefit from the internet and other information and communication technologies (ICTs), thereby competing effectively in the global economy. This study examines the concept of digital divide, types and manifestations globally and in the Nigerian context and the role of the library in bridging the persistent gap. The chapter further highlights previous attempts to bridge the digital gap in Nigeria and concludes with a range of recommendations.
 
This article aims to investigate the relationship between technologies and disabilities in the field of special education. In particular, this article discusses the role of aiding technologies, such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), in the learning and integration processes of people with disabilities, with a focus on autistic spectrum disorders. To facilitate the accessibility of tools and IT products, various types of aiding technologies are now available, namely a set of hardware and software technical solutions that provide working configurations suitable for the special needs of users, allowing them to overcome the disadvantage gap resulting from a specific disability. The AAC, as an aiding technology, in addition to fostering communication processes, allows the user with autism spectrum disorders to interface in a more functional way with the computer tool, and thus to implement its digital literacy and consequent learning possibilities.
 
The Digital India program is envisioned to transform the way business is carried out and how the government services are delivered. Under this programme, government offices to maintain, publish, and store records in a digital form. It is believed that promoting digital India will lead to an ease of information access, at the same time a swiftness in government function. This work argues with the help of secondary data collected from internet. Progress and gaps in the initial investment planning and the one covered is presented. Based on the data gathered, present implementation of this programme is deeply assessed, and wherever gaps exist are highlighted. In addition, challenges to various pillars of Digital India are explored. Finally, this work suggested methods to address the identified challenges in order to achieve the effective implementation of this scheme.
 
The purpose of the exploratory study was to investigate teacher value beliefs of integrating digital literacy into their classrooms. Participants were forty-six teachers enrolled in an educational technology course. Data was collected from online survey and asynchronous online discussions. Findings suggest that teachers' value beliefs for integrating digital literacy into their classrooms are influenced by increasing student motivation and engagement in the classroom, modernizing the curriculum, making it more relevant to the students, and building student ability to be thoughtful readers and interpreters of the media messages. These results recommend that professional development activities should emphasize the potential impact of digital literacy on student learning and to take advantage of specific digital tools that support teacher value beliefs.
 
This essay aims, through a hermeneutic-argumentative approach, to present some ideas for inclusive teaching, starting with an educational re-evaluation of video games, for years considered a mere form of entertainment. Their use as educational mediators is a useful response to the needs of a school that is increasingly aware of the educational needs of all pupils. Through the recovery of the recreational dimension and the Accessibility paradigm, it is possible to offer teachers guidance and design insights in order to create educational itineraries of inclusion, finding in video games a possible tool capable of engaging the class in common activities, on the basis of equal opportunities and active participation, additionally for the development of digital skills.
 
Biometric heart-rate information is increasingly proliferating through simple wearable technology. However, this technology presents a need for contextual information to guide interpreting physiological responses in lower and higher levels of cognitive abilities. In this paper, the author introduces HeartBit, a sensor-based intervention used for non-obtrusive heart-rate observation of elementary age children within the creative and critical thinking contexts. The author describes the Sandbox as single-session workshop with individual children, the development of HeartBit, and results from Sandboxes with 35 K-1 students (ages 6 and 7). Findings reveal how children's in-situ levels of creativity and critical thinking were observed through an interplay of system design, heart-rate monitoring, and Bloom's Taxonomy educational learning objectives, and how this differed between the individual children.
 
Technological advancement and rapid expansion of internet services have resulted in making people digitally literate. This paper attempts to take an in-depth look at the data of internet users in South Asia with a precise focus on gender perspective. South Asian communities enjoy relishing modern technologies with traditional socio-cultural practices; in some sections, women still do not get equal status and rarely participate in the decision-making processes even at the household level. Therefore, it would be noteworthy to identify whether technological expansion has helped in minimising the existing gender gap in the region or it has worked adversely! This paper is based on the secondary data and relevant literature available in the public domain. Data of the five South Asian countries—Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka—have been analyzed here. The paper has reflected the existing scenario and emerging trends in the current digital world..
 
School is more and more engaged in giving an importance to all that concerns the emotional aspects of an educational process with the goal to promote a total emotional development of the students. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of audio-visual technologies and products as instruments to help the socio-emotional education and to develop the digital competence in the educational field. The audio-visual communication has specific peculiarities that make it fit to reproduce the real world, so favouring the involvement of the public. In particular, the authors discuss the educational use of the movies in order to participate and commit in the digital culture, improving emotional awareness, controlling emotions, helping students to utilize their emotions in a positive way, developing their empathetic capacities, and controlling in a more functional way their own interpersonal relationships. The acquisition of all these capacities in the developmental years should have direct repercussions on the educational processes of the students.
 
For the students and scholars belonging to any trade and level, exercising of information and its sources becomes inevitable. The university education in focus, identifying exact information, selecting the right source and authorized use of the same is being practised very often. This the authors call ‘Information Literacy Skill'. Considering the MLISc students, the future LIS professionals in making, this would certainly be an indication of respite that they are learning IL theories and practice during their second year course. An evaluative study on the targeted MLISC students can provide a substantial solution to this. The present study focuses on the LIS schools of state of Odisha (India) and tries to find out answers to various questions: Are the students of MLISc in LIS schools of Odisha possess adequate IL skills? Are the modules included under master degree syllabi enough for them and their skill requirements as information providers? Can IL be taught at the classroom level? Or is a meticulous practical exposure obligatory?
 
The main purpose of the study in hand was to assess the impact of advent of electronic information resources on some core aspects related to the research activity across agricultural libraries of Northern India. Six aspects have been covered in this study. Seven sampled universities were surveyed personally by the investigator for collecting data about the questions under investigation. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Filled out questionnaires from 1,200 respondents were collected and processed with the help of SPSS statistical package. The response of the users for each statement under investigation has been collected through a simple ‘Yes'/‘No' option. Chi squared test has been administered to work out the significance of association between the parameters under study and the user opinion thereof. The majority of respondents are of the opinion that due to advent of e-resources and in view of the ICT developments the ‘literature survey' (92.94%) and ‘problem identification' (51.81%) has become easy and fast. The ‘spirit to conduct more and more research' has increased among respondents (86.62%). Moreover, this has also enabled the users to ‘complete' (84.31%) and ‘publish' (89.97%) their research work in a lesser time than required in print era. A good percentage of respondents (46.26%) also agree that the ‘cross comparison of findings of one's study with those of other studies has become easy and fast' (46.26%) in electronic era.
 
The Jisc Digital Capabilities model (Source: Jisc, 2016)
The DigCompEdu framework areas of action (Source: European Commission's Joint Research Centre, 2017)
This article argues that models for the integration of ICT in teacher training should be based on a holistic understanding of digital literacy that considers the ongoing change in knowledge production, management and consumptions connected with the generalised rise of open and participatory societies. In order to understand how this could be done, the article analyses a few digital literacy frameworks, including the recent DigCompEdu framework by the European Commission, looking for the space given to competencies related to openness and collaboration, and proposes some reflections on how critical competences could be included in contemporary digital literacy frameworks for teachers. The article concludes that more should be done by teacher training initiatives to transform educators into critically literate actors able to participate competently in digital practices but also to transform these practices into an active, inclusive and open way.
 
The aim of the work is to present the potential use of various technologies in special needs teaching, demonstrating how their use may enhance some basic learning processes in individuals with disabilities. A detailed analysis of national and international literature revealed that most studies have demonstrated that ICT use plays an important role in supporting students with intellectual disability. This article presents two studies. The main objective was to study the role of eye-gaze digital games to improve attentional and motivation abilities in two groups: girls with Rett Syndrome (RTT) and children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
 
Contemporary children live in the digital environment and develop very quickly the natural ability in using technologies. At an international level, scientific research confirms the widespread use of mobile devices in the family and the increasing children exposure to these. This study mainly focuses on the following aspects: the benefits of touch devices for games and creativity and the risks related to possible delays in social and linguistic development and to addictions. In Italy, statistical surveys reveal a contradictory scenario: on the one hand, the digitization of citizens complies with international trends, especially regarding the use of the smartphone; on the other hand, there is a strong technological backwardness in the institutional area. The survey has analyzed the relationship between digitods and touch media, paying attention to usage profiles, usage behaviors, interaction, app selection and fruition processes. It has also been observed the parent-child interaction during the use of touch media, in order to figure out media educational guidelines in kindergarten.
 
We explore how digital tools can support children's creativity in classroom. In response to a growing need for tools to support children's digital literacy, we take a step forward to explore digital tools to support children's digital creativity. We draw insights from interviewing twelve K-6 teachers about their experience using digital tools in the classroom. Findings uncover teachers' perceptions of the role digital tools play in the classroom, intersections between accessibility, usability, and developmental appropriateness of digital tools. The article generates insights on the role of digital tools used by teachers, pedagogic methods, school contexts, and access to interactive technology.
 
School has a major role in preparing young people to participate meaningfully in a context where digital technologies are increasingly mediating the way people interact with the surrounding environment. The goal of the research reported in this paper is to study how children can participate in school environmental health, using eco-sensors and digital technologies in scientific inquiries. Eco-sensors are used by children to acquire, analyze, interpret, and communicate data, as a support to the identification of problems and to their own environmental health decisions. This paper presents two case studies, one centered on noise and one on indoor air quality, in Portuguese elementary schools. It is a qualitative research that highlights that children can participate in authentic and meaningful environmental health problem solving in schools. Problem solving is developed through scientific inquiries that include children epistemic practices, scaffolded by teacher mediation and epistemic mediators, such as eco-sensors and other digital technologies.
 
Digital, web-based texts as a resource for the classroom present new ways of making meaning as learners draw on a wide range of communicative resources such as gaze and gesture to access and read them. This study employed a multimodal interaction analysis framework to examine an English language class of Japanese university students explaining online video stories face-to-face in a university in Japan. The findings identified a gap in the digital literacy skills the teacher assumed the learners possessed and the actual digital literacy skills required for successful completion of the classroom activity. The findings challenge the assumption that young learners are ‘digital natives', being capable of using technology for the specific purposes required in the class task. Implications for the planning and implementation of digital media for talk in language classroom tasks are discussed.
 
This article discusses the use of digital storytelling to enable pre-service teachers to develop critical digital literacy skills. Digital storytelling and new literacies share the same set of abilities: 1) finding, evaluating and consuming digital content; 2) exploring identity and cultural landscapes; 3) creating new digital materials drawing from multiple media; and 4) communicating what was found or created with an audience. The study is based on the essays of pre-service teachers enrolled in Cultural Foundations of Education, who produced two digital stories. Responses showed that they believed the assignments helped them become more reflective, culturally aware and media savvy, and led them to a critical and practical knowledge of multimodal content production. Digital storytelling, then, utilizes almost all of the critical digital skills and literacies pre-service teachers are expected to bring to diverse, globalized, and technology-infused 21st century classrooms.
 
Students now have information processing behaviors characterized by rapid shifts in attention, less reflection and failure to deploy metacognitive processes, preferring activities that bring immediate rewards for their information needs, even if the quality of the information they obtain is low. Consequently, they run into significant difficulties in the selection and critical evaluation of the information they find during university learning activities. This article presents two information literacy training initiatives addressing these issues at the University of Padova (Italy): one in a course in educational technologies offered as part of a second-cycle degree program, and the other in two of the university library system's training facilities. The training workshops sought to be complementary, covering both the search engine and the library OPAC approach to information seeking.
 
The aim of this research is to deepen how digital education has been intertwined with spatial education throughout the evolution of technology resources. In the last years, the user experience has been improved by open-source, collaborative user-generated, and immersive content – starting from multimedia/hypermedia architectures to synthetic learning environments. This research analyses which spatial design principles have influenced multimedia/hypermedia, collaborative web 2.0 interfaces, and more recently the synthetic environments of virtual worlds. The evolution of technology resources supports the hypothesis of a continuous intertwining between digital and spatial education since multimedia/hypermedia architectures, in which spatial knowledge may play a significant role in web-based design according to individual differences in hypermedia fruition, prior knowledge in the field, and personal experience in web-based instruction. In collaborative user-generated content technology, visual presentation facilitates learning co-construction and spaces are intended as synchronous and asynchronous virtual knowledge spaces of communication. In 3D virtual learning environments, spatial interaction is really developed and may open full accessibility to further studies on digital and spatial education. In the joined field of learning and ICT, the main scope of digital technology knowledge sharing, and re-shaping, is the enhancement of digital skills based on experiences in educational activities and the re-thinking of the nature and the format of educational curriculum to implement more experiences in the digital – and, possibly, spatial – fields.
 
The ability to use social media as a job skill among several industries is growing increasingly prevalent. From social media managers to digital content coordinators to fan engagement specialists, graduating students have tremendous opportunity to thrive professionally due to the popularity and ubiquity of social media. In collegiate and professional settings alike, a clear emphasis on the importance of effective social media management is now critical. As a result, educators are now challenged to find creative and innovative ways to prepare students through theoretical knowledge and practical experience relating to the ever-changing landscape of both the technical and industrial demands. This article presents a critical review of existing information on the use of social technologies in the classroom, a discussion on relevant perceptions, techniques, recommendations for interdisciplinary classroom implementation and student engagement, and considerations for educators incorporating social media practice into their curricula.
 
Early childhood education instruction and assessment practices for emergent literacy were established in an era that prioritized standardization of knowledge based on age and stage of development. The evolution of 2.0 technologies has shifted culture within developed societies to prioritize digital literacy that is synonymous to political, social and economic capital. This article asserts two positions: the first is to shift the pedagogy of early childhood toward cultivating both emergent and digital literacies using traditional strategies in conjunction with technology. The second position is the efficacy of working e-portfolios to develop and assess multi-literacy. Fundamental attributes of working e-portfolios are outlined and applied to goals for multi-literacy in democratic early childhood classrooms. The three-pronged theoretical framework is the learner-centered approach espoused with Vygotsky's social-constructivism, and Marie Clay's theory of emergent literacy development in social contexts.
 
Top-cited authors
Valentina Dagiene
  • Vilnius University
Antonio Cartelli
  • Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale
Maurizio Sibilio
  • Università degli Studi di Salerno
Athanassios Jimoyiannis
  • University of Peloponnese
Gerald Futschek