International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research

Online ISSN: 0976-822X
Schiff bases have been exposed to reveal a wide range of biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Mixed ligand complexes can be a synthetic challenge to tune the properties of the transition metal complexes. The review of this paper covers updated information on the most active mixed ligand metal complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives that have been reported to prove considerable pharmacological actions such as, antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral and other biological activities. In the present study, we summarized the biological aspects, chemistry and applications of some important mixed ligand complexes. This review is balancing to earlier reviews and aims to review the work reported on various biological activities of mixed ligand complexes bearing 1,10-phenantroline derivatives from the year 2000 to the beginning of 2016.
One of the most important branches of medical science, until past time, law and consequently to medical ethics. Patients' satisfaction of their rights, one of the most important indicators of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity and quality of healthcare services. The goal of this study was to Check the Observance of the rights of patients in surgical patients admitted to Shohaday Ashayer hospital in 2015-2016 from the perspective of patients. This cross-sectional study included 800 patients admitted to Shohada Ashayer Hospital in 2015 and 2016. Respecting patient’s bill of rights from their viewpoint was determined by a questionnaire using a Likert scale from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). The results obtained in this study showed that the rate of patients' rights in all aspects of the %15.8 patient's view was poor, from the %67.4 patient's perspective was middle, and from the %16.8 patient's view was good. Most patients' satisfaction with their rights in respect to the axis of the right to choose and decide freely and the lowest levels of satisfaction was at the core of respect for patient privacy and confidentiality principle. Level of satisfaction in all axes was significantly associated with age, type of substrate in the third axis, history of hospitalization in the fourth axis and duration of hospital stay in the second axis(P>0.O5). Between gender and place of residence and educational level found no significant relaion(P>O.O5). In total, based on the obtained results and comparing them with the results of other studies, it may be concluded that respecting patient’s bill of rights from the viewpoint of patients is considered as optimal and to enhance the implementation of the Charter as well as patient satisfaction is essential that solutions be identified barriers to implementation
The present work deals with the synthesis of tetra substituted imidazoles using environmentally benign and green catalyst H-ZSM-22. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD and the products by FTIR and 1 HNMR. H-ZSM-22 has been used as an efficient catalyst for an improved and rapid synthesis of 1,2,4,5 tetra substituted imidazoles derivatives using reactants: Benzil, Aldehydes, Amines and Ammonium acetate having excellent yield under solvent conditions. Different derivatives of aldehyde have been used in this reaction. For all the synthesized derivatives, ambient reaction time was found to be of 15-30 min. The main advantage of this reaction is small reaction time, high purity yield, easy work up and pollution free.
The study was aimed to characterize protransfersome gel as TDDS of ketoprofen for effective and sustain deliver of drug. The various formulation parameters were optimized by preparing 18 formulations using Sodium deoxycholate and brij 35 as edge activator. All protransfersome formulations were characterized and found that, in physical appearance protransfersome gel was Yellowish semisolid compact mass and the mean particle size of transfersome varied from 938-1374 nm. TEM micrographs transfersome suspension showed that the vesicles have a uniform spherical shape with a smooth surface. The formulation PTdC3-I have higher rate to produce transfersome than all formulations (12.331±0.246) X 103. Formulations with cholesterol have good entrapment capacity and formulations with isopropanol have a little advantage of higher entrapment in comparison with others either with butanol or ethanol. Release rate study through cellophane membrane indicate that the % cumulative release in 48 hr was found ranging in 34.9 to 64.35%, PTdC3-I formulation has shown highest percentage release.
In single center, open labeled, randomized, two-way, two-period, two-treatment, crossover, single dose bioequivalence study, test and reference formulation of Febuxostat were orally administered in twenty-six +2 (standby) healthy adult male human subjects under fasting condition, with five days washout period. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected periodically following drug administration. Febuxostat was measured in plasma samples by using validated high performance liquid chromatography method. The pharmacokinetics parameters C max, T max, AUC (0-t), AUC (0-∞) and C max/AUC (0-∞) were calculated applying non-compartmental analysis, followed by ANOVA of logarithmically transformed and untransformed values. The test versus reference ratio of geometric mean of Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) for febuxostat in both formulations were within the acceptance limit of 80-120%. No adverse event or clinical significant changes were observed in any of the subjects during the two runs of the study.
Effect of Abutilon indicum on swimming endurance test.
Effect of Abutilon indicum on biochemical parameter on swimming test stress induced in albino rats.
Effect of Abutilon indicum on weight of organ on cold stress induced in albino rats.
Effect of Abutilon indicum on gastric ulceration in cold stress induced albino rats.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Abutilon indicum on swimming endurance test and cold induced stress in albino rats. The effect was assessed by swimming survival time and estimation of various biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood cell count (WBC) and also the differential count. In cold stress by determining the ulcer index and weight of organ such as, liver, spleen, testes, adrenal gland at a dose of and 400mg/kg body weight per oral. It was found that ethanolic extract significantly (p<0.001) increases the swimming time, showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN and plasma cortisol levels. A significant (p<0.01) decrease in WBC count, polymorphs, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In cold stress significant (p<0.001) decrease in ulcer index, protection increase in PH of gastric juice. weight of organ was observed to control group. Thus the obtained results revealed that the Abutilon indicum has got a significant anti stress activity.
Aceclofenac spherical crystals were prepared by using a three solvent system comprising ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM), and water (good solvent, bridging liquid and bad solvent, respectively). Polyvinyl Pyrollidone (PVP-K-30) in different concentrations was used as hydrophilic polymer. The effect of speed of rotation, agitation time, temperature, mode of addition of bridging liquid, amount of bridging liquid as well as effect of different amounts of non-solvent (water) on spherical crystals were studied. The crystals were subjected to various evaluations such as %yield, drug content, particle size and particle size distribution, % fines, crushing strength, friability, packability and compression behaviour of spherical crystals(agglomerate) The agglomerates showed improved micromeritic properties as well as dissolution behaviour in comparison to conventional drug crystals. The optimized agglomerates showed good sphericity as well as high drug release, and hence they were compressed into tablets by direct compression.
Achyranthes aspera is an important medicinal plant found throughout India. The antifertility activity of the ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera is now being investigated. The activity such as antizygotic activity, blastocystotoxic activity and abortifacient activity were investigated. The data suggests that the Achyranthes aspera extract exerted antifertility and antiestrogenic effects in female rats. The results revealed that ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (ACE) treatment caused reduction in reproductive organ weights, number of implants. The effects brought by Achyranthes aspera extract are non-toxic and transient.
Sesame oil, natural foods rich in active compounds that have been used since ancient times and popular tradition for the treatment of many diseases. Used in the current study, 64 male rats to determine the effect of sesame oil affordable doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 ml divided into 8 groups. The first group as positive control was no treatment for the purpose of controlling with second group was treated material acrylamide as a negative control for the purpose of comparison with the third, fourth and fifth treatment groups textured acrylamide , sesame oil, while the sixth, seventh and eighth groups treated material only sesame oil. And showed the results of the current study significant effect on physiological blood criteria ( RBC, WBC, LYM, MONO, GRANO) and hormonal (FSH, LH, Testosterone ), as well as the weight of the genitals (Epididymis and testis) , the weight of total body and cells in spermatogenesis processing , especially when the dose of 2 ml when compared with the control. The study concluded that the possibility of the use of sesame oil in improving fertility in humans, especially those who suffer infertility and when eating sesame oil without the emergence of any side effects.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a predominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by debilitating movement as a result of dopaminergic (DA) neurons loss. Currently used therapies improve only the disease symptoms without halting or inverting DA neurons deterioration. For this purpose, this study was goaled to explicate the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in promoting dopaminergic neurons repairment in rodent model of PD after 2 months. ADMSCs were engrafted into injured brains and enhanced serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain DA levels. Moreover, they amplified the expression level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and increased the number of survivin expressing cells. Finally, they were able to recover the neuronal degeneration of striatum. The aforementioned data clearly demonstrated the promising therapeutic action of ADMSCs in PD through their neurotrophic, neuroregenerative and anti-apoptotic properties.
Objective: In the present investigation antidepressant and antianxiety activities of aqueous leaf extracts of Senna alata (200 mg/Kg) were carried out to establish the species as a potent natural antidepressant and anxiolytic drug. Methods: Antidepressant activity was carried out using forced swim test and tail suspension test. In both these tests, the animals were subjected to external stress that results in alteration of the behavior of animal due to fear. The antianxiety activity of aqueous leaf extracts of S. alata has been studied by the elevated plus-maze test in rats. The mean number of entries and the time spent in the open arm after 45 min of the administration of test drug was noted to determine the antianxiety effect of the test drug. Results: For antidepressant activity administration of test drug (200 mg/Kg) showed a significant decrease in the time spent by the animal in state of depression in both the assays which clearly indicates that the aqueous leaf extracts of S. alata exhibited a strong antidepressant activity similar to that of the control drug (Imipramine). In the antianxiety activity, administration of aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/Kg) of S. alata significantly increased the mean number of entries (2.25±0.98) in the open arm and the time spent in open arm (2.23±0.04) compared to the control group. The activity of the extract was slightly greater than standard drug Diazepam. Conclusion: From the above-presented results, it can be concluded that administration of Senna alata aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/Kg) showed a considerable decrease in both antidepressant and antianxiety activities in all the test animals and can be used in the replacement of commercially available synthetic drugs in the near future.
Objective: Opuntia ficus indica is a medicinal plant belonging to family Cactaceae. It is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The fruit and stem are used to prepare worth added products, fruits jam, squash, drinks, preserve product of pickle, body lotion, shampoo and creams, etc. Methods: For the preliminary study, various extracts of stem and fruit has been used to check the efficacy of antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria of gram-positive and gram-negative strain respectively using disc diffusion method. Results: The stem and fruit extracts showed various levels of activity on different test organisms. The methanol fruit extracts showed high antibacterial activity against Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis compared with other extracts. Aqueous extract of stem and fruit showed less antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the methanol extracts of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica contain compounds that can form the basis for the development of a novel broad-spectrum antibacterial formulation.
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. (family Convolvulaceae), commonly known as "Ivy leaf morning glory" has long been used as a traditional medicine. This study was intended to characterize the antioxidant properties and the total phenolic compounds (TPC) of four extracts of I. pes-caprae obtained by hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and methanol solvents respectively. Extraction with hexane (1.3 ± 0.03 gm) and DCM (0.48 ± 0.02 gm) showed the highest yield. The highest amount (20.02 mg/g dry wt. gallic acid equivalent) of TPC was observed for methanol extract. Methanol showed the highest antioxidant activity of 208.54 ± 4.14 mg/g dry wt. ascorbic acid equivalent, followed by ethyl acetate (176.43 ± 2.4 mg/g dry wt. ascorbic acid equivalent). The reducing power ability of Ipomoea pes-caprae extracts steadily increased with increasing concentration of all the samples. In DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) assay, methanol extract exhibited the most effective scavenging ability (97.85%) among the four extracts. It was observed that methanol fraction has the strongest inhibition (90.31%) against hydroxyl radical at 1000 μg/mL concentration. The maximum hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity (81.56%) was exhibited by methanol fraction. In the ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, the methanol extract showed highest activity (96.43%) the concentration of 1000 μg/ml. On the contrary, maximum hemolytic activity of 32 hemolytic units (HU)/mg was observed in case of ethyl acetate extract against chicken blood. Our findings identified the appropriate solvent for extracting phenolic compounds which might provide a rich and novel source of natural antioxidants.
Objective: A novel series of transition metal complexes of Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been synthesized from the Schiff base derived from dihydropyrimidone derivative of vanillin (Biginelli Product) and 4-aminoantipyrine. Methods: The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and its complexes have been extensively studied on bacterias like E. coli, Vibrio spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Bacillus spp., Vibrio para haemolytic's, Salmonella spp., Aeromonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. and fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Pencillium spp., Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton. Results: The metal complexes show greater activity than ligand. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes follows the order Hg < Zn < Cu. The DNA cleaving activity of Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes was examined using, Hep 2 DNA as a target molecule by gel electrophoresis method. The Cu Complex-induced the DNA fragmentation with a specific activity. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of ligand and complex against Normal VERO and Hep2 was evaluated by MTT assay. Conclusion: The effect of [CuL2]Cl2 was found to be stronger than the other compounds even at its lower concentrations.
Objective: India being a rich and varied flora of medicinal plants since the Vedic period. The present study deals with the phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatographic studies of Moringa Olifera leaf extract belonging to family Moringaceae. Methods: Phytochemical screening determination by some chemical tests and thin layer chromatographic study was carried out by using various solvent system of varying polarity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts. Results: Phytochemical screening reflects the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, phytosterols, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinones and terpenoids shows different types of results in different solvents extracts. Thin layer chromatographic studies of the Moring olifera root extracts constituted different colored phytochemical compounds with different Rf values The result obtained from DPPH Assay, ABTS assay also confirmed MoringaOlifera as a rich source of natural antioxidants, and Anti-bacterial activity studies revealed that it exerted maximum effect against the few pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strain. Conclusion: Thus it provides evidence that solvent extract of Moringa Olifera contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as a traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases.
Objective: Today, DNA-based technologies are limited in the range, efficiency and accuracy of their application by the four bases in the structure of DNA. Development of DNA molecules with a higher number of bases could contribute to the resolution of the problem. Moreover, the addition of new letters to the genetic alphabet could be used for the treatment of disorders and development of DNA molecules with extended functionality. The aim of the research was to analyse the current abilities and future perspectives of expanded alphabet with respect to the mentioned problems. Methods: The research questions were addressed by the research of the articles present in NCBI and Google Scholar databases. With the application of developed key terms, such as "expanded gene code", "expanded genetic alphabet" and "genetic alphabet and medicine", and certain inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles published between 2006 and 2016 were selected for analysis. Results: It was identified that most of the applications of DNA with six letters possible for today use are associated with the expansion in the functional abilities of the modern DNA-based methods. Some of the researchers show the higher binding ability and affinity of the artificial DNA aptamers and suggest their application for treatment and increased functions of DNA. However, still a great number of other applications are suggested for the future. They include the production of proteins and enzymes with new qualities, making DNA molecule a molecular probe for tumour detection and a number of other applications. Conclusion: Addition of new letters to the genetic alphabet can be a powerful tool for improvement of diagnostic technologies used today. However, more research in this field is still needed for wider application and development of new treatment approaches.
A comparative pharmacokinetic study of diclofenac (2 mg/kg, i.v.) when given alone or in combination with cefotaxime (50 mg/kg, i.v.) in five female goats was carried out by using HPLC. The study revealed that the plasma concentrations of diclofenac were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in combined administration of diclofenac with cefotaxime (0.042, 0.083 and 0.25 h) whereas non-significant difference in plasma drug concentrations in later period upto 12 h. In urine, significantly higher (p < 0.001) drug concentration of diclofenac were observed from 0.042 to 4 h whereas significantly lower (p < 0.001) urine drug concentration were observed in later period (6 to 30 h) when diclofenac was given in combination with cefotaxime as compared to when diclofenac was given alone. Various kinetic parameters like A, Cp0, β and K21 were significantly lower (p < 0.001) whereas t1/2 β and MRT were significantly higher (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) and rest other did not differ significantly in combined administration of diclofenac with cefotaxime as compared to its alone administration.
Objective: The primary goal of the present work was to formulate solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SEDDS) in order to improve the solubility of the highly lipophilic antihypertensive drug, ramipril. Methods: SEDDS are generally liquid form preparations obtained by homogeneously mixing oils, surfactants and co-surfactants along with drug component. Based on solubility studies Capmul PG8 NF, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol P were selected as oil, surfactant, co-surfactant respectively in order to prepare liquid SEDDS (L-SEDDS). Nine different liquid SEDDS were prepared and subjected to various evaluation tests in order to obtain optimized L-SEDDS. Finally, the optimized formulation was converted to S-SEDDS by physical adsorption technique using an inert carrier. Further, S-SEDDS were also subjected to solid state characterization. Results: Out of 9 different L-SEDDS, S9 formulation was optimized as it formed thermodynamically stable emulsion without any drug precipitation and phase separation on storage and also showed least globule size (22.56 nm). The optimized formulation was loaded onto inert carrier (Sylysia FCP 350) to obtain S-SEDDS. S-SEDDS showed acceptable flow properties. They were further processed for solid state characterization such as XRD, DSC and SEM and the results confirmed the transformation of native crystalline nature of drug to an amorphous state. FTIR analysis also confirmed no drug-excipient interaction. S-SEDDS showed improved in vitro dissolution behaviour of ramipril over that of pure drug. Conclusion: Ramipril S-SEDDS retained emulsification characteristics of L-SEDDS. Further, S-SEDDS was encapsulated in hard gelatin capsules and this formulation proved to have improved solubility for ramipril.
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Over the last few years, rechears have aimed at identifying and validating plant derived substances for the treatment of various diseases. Similarly it has been already proved that various parts of plants such as Leafs, fruits, seeds etc. provide health and nutrition promoting compounds in human diet. The Bael (Aegle Marmelos) (L.) Corr.) is another Indian plant, which has enormous traditional uses against various diseases. The present review aims to compile medicinal values of Aegle Marmelos generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools.
Electrophoretic pattern in the ovarian tissue showing the toxic effect on lipoprotein pattern in Pb-treated, Li2CO3-treated, Dox-treated, CCl4-treated, CPA-treated and Irradiated groups of female rats.
(a) Electrophoretic EST pattern showing toxic effect of Pb2COOH, Li2CO3, Dox, CCl4, CPA and irradiation on protein pattern in ovarian tissue of female rats, (b) Dendogram showing the similarity and relatiohship among Pbtreated, Li2CO3-treated, Dox-treated, CCl4-treated, CPA-treated and Irradiated groups in female rats as compared to control. 
Electrophoretic pattern in the ovarian tissue showing the toxic effect on POX pattern in Pb-treated, Li2CO3- treated, Dox-treated, CCl4-treated, CPA-treated and Irradiated groups of female rats.
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and lead acetate (Pb2COOH) belong to the female reproductive toxicants that cause infertility through the interference with development of growing follicles in the ovarian tissue. Doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) are considered as the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs which are associated with the greatest risk of female infertility. Furthermore, whole body gamma irradiation for therapeutic purpose by mean of radiotherapy affected female reproductive organ through destruction of the small and antral follicles. The present study aimed to reveal the deleterious effect of all of these (toxic) substances factors on the cellular macromolecules which separated and identified electrophoretically in the ovarian tissue. During the present study, the toxic factors exhibited qualitative abnormalities represented by disappearance of normal bands and appearance of one or more of abnormal bands. Otherwise, the alterations may occur at the quantitative level through remaining the normal bands but with changing the band quantity. The similarity index (SI) is only correlated to the qualitative alterations. In the electrophoretic protein pattern, the lowest SI value (0.52) was recorded with CPA-treated group and the highest SI value (0.91) noticed with Pb-treated group. In the electrophoretic lipoprotein pattern, there were severe alterations. It was observed that all the bands in the Dox-treated and CPA-treated groups were not matched with all bands of the other groups. In catalase (CAT) pattern, The Pb-treated group is completely identical to control group in number and arrangement of the bands (SI value 1.0). The lowest SI value (0.57) was observed with CPA-treated and Irradiated groups. In peroxidase (POX) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.22) was observed with CPA-treated group and the highest value (0.86) was recorded with Irradiated group. In esterase (EST) pattern, the lowest SI value (0.29) was recorded with the Pb-treated group and the highest SI vale (0.80) was noticed with the Li2CO3-treated group. In addition, there was complete similarity between the Dox-treated and Irradiated groups and between CCl4-treated and CPA-treated groups. It was postulated that the 3D model of the prolactin receptor specific protein (PRAP) which was built using homology modeling showed that PRAP has large amount of loops. It is expected to be very flexible protein and less stable.
Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was found to be related with other missing permanent teeth. A major decision of evolution is that the human jaw has shrunk from its much larger ape size to the smaller modern human size as humans evolved.Wisdom tooth agenesis is connected to the evolution and growth of the human jaw,since it is the last tooth to develop in the human dentition. Alterations in the size, morphology and number of teeth are among the many inherited disorders that have been reported in individuals with Down syndrome.
The present study deals with drug release enhancement of Metformin Hydrochloride using floating technology by optimization of gas generating agent to improve the buoyancy time. Metformin hydrochloride is a oral antihyperglycemic agent of biguanide class used in treatment of type 2 Diabetes. It is hydrophilic drug which absorbed slowly and not completely form the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability is reported to be 50-60%. This technology uses direct compression method to prepare floating tablet of Metformin Hydrochloride with release retardant polymer HPMC K-100, PVP K-30, Carbopol 934p and different concentration of gas forming agents sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. The floating behavior and in vitro dissolution studies ware carried out. From the result final formulation release was found to be approximately 96% in 24 hr, while the floating lag time was observed to be 3 min and the tablet remained floatable throughout studies. Form the result of the study we conclude that incorporation of gas generating agent produced initial burst-effect due to production and release of CO2 form polymeric matrix. Increased concentration of sodium bicarbonate results in increased bursting effect. Optimum concentration of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 8-10% to produce low floating lag time. Thus, with using of optimum concentration of gas generating agent the floating tablet of Metformin Hydrochloride was successfully developed.
Scorpions and their venoms have been employed in medication since thousands of years in Asia. The scorpion venom is an extremely advanced mixture of salts, nucleotides, biogenic amines, enzymes, mucoproteins, peptides and proteins (e.g. Neurotoxins). Scorpion venoms contain peptides that block or modify ion-channel function and present some doable applications to regulate cell excitability. Specific literature regarding the results of scorpion venom elements on T-cell differentiation, autoimmunity as well as on cardiac, haematological, neoplastic and infectious diseases has been revised in this article. Several investigations highlighted their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate varied biological mechanisms that are concerned in immune, nervous, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. As a result of their necessary structural and purposeful diversity, it's projected that scorpion-derived peptides might be accustomed to develop new specific medicine. This review is focused on the therapeutic potential of scorpion venoms and toxins and also the doable mechanisms for their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities and for the treatment of autoimmune, cardiac, hematological, infectious, osteoporosis, homeostasis and neurological diseases.
Total phenolic content in ethanol and methanol extracts of Beetroot 
DPPH scavenging activity of ethanol and methanol extracts of Beet root and standards BHT and Gallic acid with different concentration (mg/ml) 
Antioxidant activity of ethanol, methanol extracts of Beet root and standard BHT as measured by the FTC method 
Antioxidant activity of ethanol, methanol extracts of Beet root and Standard BHT as measured by the TBA method 
Antibacterial activity of ethanol and methanol extracts of Beetroot (values are mean SD of three determinations) 
Objective: The work is aimed to evaluate the health beneficial properties of (Beta vulgaris) Beet root. Beet root ranks among the 10 most powerful vegetable as a natural antioxidant and has a potential source of natural food colorant. The present work is therefore organized to evaluate the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Antioxidant activity and Antibacterial activity of the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root. Methods: In the present work the Total Phenolic Content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent methodof the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root (Beta vulgaris). The antioxidant scavenging activity of these extracts were determined by applying three different assay methods: (1) (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) DPPH method, (2) Ferric thio-cyanate (FTC) method and (3) Thio-barbituric acid (TBA). Antibacterial test was examined against gram positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and gram negative (E. coli, S. dysenteriae) bacterial strains. Results: In the present workthe Methanolic extract showed greater TPC value 394.8 mg/g GAE than the Ethanolic extract 316.8 mg/g GAE. A correlation between antiradical capacities of the extracts with TPC value was clearly observed. The Methanolic extract was found to be most effective in all the methods. 50% scavenging power of the Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts were (0.129 mg/ml and 0.254 mg/ml) in DPPH method respectively. Moreover, in TBA and FTC method, both the extracts of Beet root exhibited strong percentage inhibition ranging from 49%-62%. The results of antibacterial test indicated that the Ethanolic and Methanolic extracts of Beet root are significantly effective, both in Gram negative (E. coli, S. dysenteriae) and in Gram positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) bacterium. Conclusion: Thus, from the above experimental observations, it can be clearly stated that the Beet root is a promising source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agent and definitely provides an alternative towards synthetic antioxidant because of its beneficial properties.
Structure of paclitaxel (Taxol) [42].  
Structure of Vincristine (Vinca alkaloids) [55].  
Mechanism of action of vincristine  
(A) Dynamic Treadmilling. (B) Dynamic Instability  
Mechanism of action of paclitaxel Regarding lower concentration, these agents have been characterized to possess a popular mechanism through suppression of the microtubules dynamics effectively without altering noticeably in the microtubules mass 41 . Moreover, these drugs  
Endophytic fungi are abundant and have been found asymptomatically in most plants species. Endophytic fungi are considered as hidden members of the microbial world and represent an under-utilized resource of natural bioactive compounds for agricultural, industrial and medicinal uses. As reported previously, several valuable natural products with anticancer, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties have been successfully extracted from the endophytic fungi. Chemotherapy yields the first promise of destroying cancer cells that has distributed into the body. This is due to the fact that chemotherapeutic agents overlap with the process of dividing cancer cells, which in turn leads to establishing new cells. Vincristine (vinca alkaloids) and podophyllotoxin prohibit the microtubules polymerization at high drug concentrations whereas Taxol™ and Taxotere stimulate the microtubules polymerization and stabilize the microtubules as well at high concentrations. In This review, we critically attempt to summarize the mechanisms of the cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, namely, Taxol and Vincristine (vinca alkaloids) on the need for more the research in the field of cancer chemotherapy.
Alangium salvifolium (Linn. F) Wang. is a small deciduous tree or shrub, which grow in the wild throughout the hotter parts of the India. It belongs to the family Alangiaceae. It is used as laxative, astringent, pungent, anthelminthic, purgative, emetic, anti protozoal, hypoglycemic activity, anti diabetic and for anti ulcer activity. The plant was also reported as antifungal activity, anti diabetic activity, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, cardiac activity and anti fertility activity. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids etc.
Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal 'renaissance' is happening all over the globe. The herbal products today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. Although herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavorings and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. The plant Eclipta alba Hassk (Asteraceae) known for its medicinal values in alternative systems of (Ayurvedic, Unani, Sidha, Homeopathy, Chines) holistic health and herbal medicine. Eclipta alba Hassk is reported to possess Hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immuno-modulatory, antiviral and promoter for blackening and growth of hair. Important source of chemicals is wedelolactone, demethylwedelolactone exhibit antihepatotoxic activities. This review article elucidates the evidence based information regarding the photochemistry and pharmacological activity of this plant.
The teratogenicity of a commercial formulation of the insecticide Colonel-S containing Dicofol 18.5% EC (Emulsifiable Concentrate) as an active ingredient was evaluated in the developing foetus of mice. Colonel-S is a commercial insecticide used in agriculture and horticulture to control spider mites and soft bodied mites in apples, pears, soft fruits, cucumber, tomatoes, vines, lettuce and ornamentals. The insecticide was orally administered with the doses of 4 and 16 mg /kg body weight to pregnant female during the entire organogenetic period of gestation (Day 5-14). Dams were sacrificed on 18th day of gestation and uteri were examined for teratological changes. The results revealed that Colonel -S treatment produced maternal toxicity among the dams as evidenced by reduced maternal weight gain during gestation as compared to control. In the experimental groups a dose related decline in litter size and rise in percentage of resorbed fetus was observed. Percentage of alive fetus was greatly reduced at higher dose level. The study indicates that the insecticide formulation is toxic to the developing mice foetus and suggests that it may be potentially harmful to fetal development in humans.
Objective: The objective of this study was to formulate controlled release microspheres of metronidazole using natural polymer egg albumin. Methods: In this study egg albumin microspheres loaded with metronidazole were prepared by chemical cross linking method with help of glutarldehyde as cross-linking agent. Microspheres were prepared by using different drug/polymer ratios. Egg albumin was used as a release retarding agent in the formulation to get controlled release of metronidazole. Results: The drug-excipients compatibility studies reveal that there is no physical change observed in the drug and egg albumin mixture. Microspheres were found to be spherical, with porous outer skins and quite smooth surfaces when viewed microscopically. Best Results of the carr's index, hausner's ratio as well as angle of repose of the M5 batch were 10.2%, 1.11 and 35.37 respectively Maximum Drug entrapment efficiency (78%) and % yield (94%) was obtained with formulation M5. Drug release for the batch M5 (drug: polymer ratio-1:4) was 77.09% upto 10 h. Conclusion: The hypothesis of this research work i.e. Controlled drug release by using natural biodegradable polymer was well promoted by results of its evaluation. The in vitro release studies showed that drug release was controlled (best with M5 formulation) for more than 10 h. This study reveals the utility of microspheres in extanding the drug release. This may in turn reduces the dosage frequency, thereby improving the patient compliance.
% Growth Inhibition On HeLa Cell Line Of B.glabra Extract By MTT Assay
Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration of B.glabra hydroalcoholic extract diffusion
Bougainvillea glabra, a well known and spread decorative plant in India and many parts of the world, was reported to have various medicinal properties such as anthelmentic, anti-diabetic, antiviral and insecticidal activity. We have performed the present study to focus and evaluate the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the plant extract. We used the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bougainvillea glabra leaves for the antimicrobial studies, to test against Yeast, Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria strains by disc diffusion method. We have also estimated its maximum bactericidal activity by the same technique. The yeast used in the study was Candida albicans, while the bacteria used were Salmonella typhi as Gram negative and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive. And we have used Chloramphenicol as the standard drug for antibacterial test and Fluconazole for antifungal activity. The in vitro anticancer study was tested using human cancer cell line HeLa in which the cell growth inhibition was determined with the help of MTT assay. The hydroalcoholic extract of B. glabra showed significant anticancer activity with an IC50 value of 47.11μg/ml.
Objective: Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Ktze is a plant belonging to the Rubiaceae family. It is used in West Africa by traditional healers for treatment of accesses febrile generally bound to access malaria, but also to treat several other pathologies. We have collected a medicinal plant, Mitragyna inermis root, currently used for malaria treatment in Burkina-Faso. Methods: Alkaloids and Tannins were extracted by using conventional methods and antimalarial activities were tested. Results: After extracted Alkaloids and Tannins, the in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum strain isolated from infected patients showed that the alkaloids extracts presented an excellent antiplasmodial activity on P. falciparum strain (IC50 = 2.36 and 2.56 μg/ml respectively) after 24 and 48h of incubation at 37 °C. On the other hand, the tannins extract no presented antiplasmodial activity (IC50 > 100 μg/ml) but presented an important maturity of P. falciparum strains, letting foretell a possible use of the polyphenolic compounds by P. falciparum as a source of cellular carbon and energy. Conclusion: These results although exploratory are of fundamental importance for the research in biochemistry and medicine for find new antimalarial prototypes.
Liver tissue of rats showing a) control group with normal histological (H&E, X 40), b) carob treated group without deviation from normal histological structure (H&E, X 40), c) CYP-treated group with histopathological changes in the hepatocytes (H&E, X 80), d) simult-treated group with congestion in central (CV) and portal (PV) veins (H&E, X 40), e) pre-treated group with focal hemorrhages (h) in hepatic
Electrophoretic patterns showing the curative effect of aqueous carob extract against cyclophosphamide induced alterations on a) native protein, b) lipoprotein and c) calcium moieties of the native protein in liver tissue of rats.
Electrophoretic zymogram showing the curative effect of aqueous carob extract against cyclophosphamide induced alterations on a) catalase pattern and b) peroxidase pattern in liver tissue of rats.
Drugs used for treatment of cancerous diseases by mean of chemotherapy are often limited due to their severe undesirable side effects in multiple organs. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) belongs to class of the cytotoxic bifunctional alkylating agents. In the current study, it was revealed that CYP caused significant (P˂0.05) elevation in levels of different biochemical measurements. Carob extract exhibited beneficial effect through lowering of all elevated parameters. Furthermore, CYP caused decline in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level in association with elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and significantly (P˂0.05) in liver tissue. Carob extract restored TAC and lowered LPO level. CYP caused several histopathological alterations in the hepatocytes and carob extract minimized severity of these alterations. The similarity index percent (SI %) in the native electrophoretic protein, lipoprotein and calcium moiety of protein patterns was represented by lowest values (87.50, 66.67 and 70.59, respectively) with the CYP-treated group. The SI % values increased in all carob treated groups. In all electrophoretic isoenzymes, the SI % value was represented by the lowest value (60.00, 66.67, 66.67 and 53.33 respectively with catalase (CAT), peroxidase (GPx), α- and β-esterase (EST) patterns) in CYP-treated group. While in all carob treated groups, the SI % value reached the highest value (100.00). Furthermore, CYP induced cleavage of the genomic DNA and the carob extract maintained the DNA integrity. The study concluded that carob showed ameliorative effect against alterations induced by CYP at biochemical, histopathological and molecular levels in liver tissue of rats.
Objective: This study investigates the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Curcumaamada Methods: GC-MS analysis of these extracts was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system. The antioxidant activity was done by using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total antioxidant assay, Ferric reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activity was carried out by the disc diffusion method. Thirteen bacterial strains were used in this study. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts has shown a profile of 15 compounds. The antioxidant study proves that the leaf extracts could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for the pharmaceutical industry. The extracts of leaf remarkably inhibited the growth of 13 bacterial strains Conclusion: This study revealed that phytochemicals compound present in ethanolic extract, antioxidant properties of ethanol and acetone extract and antimicrobial activity.
The objectives of this study were to determine the involvement of oxidative stress and the ameliorative effect of quercetin (QUR) on mefenamic acid-induced small intestine toxicity by measuring the level of superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonylation (PC), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). In this experiment, a small intestine was taken from male rats (Rattus novergicus). Samples then homogenized and divided into three groups with; T1 served as control which contains small intestine homogenate only; T2 which contains small intestine homogenate + 500 mg of mefenamic acid; and T3 which contains small intestine homogenate + 500 mg of mefenamic acid + 250 mg/L of quercetin. After treatment, every 15-minute superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs levels were estimated. The results revealed that mefenamic acid increased the level of superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs, while QUR decreases the level of all parameters. These results indicated that mefenamic acid induce small intestine toxicity through oxidative stress mechanisms as can be seen from the increasing of superoxide radical, H2O2, PC, and AOPPs levels. Also, the results indicated that QUR could inhibit these process as can be seen from the decreasing of all parameters.
Bilayer tablets of Amlodipine besilate (IR) Metoprolol succinate (SR) were formulated for the management of hypertension. In the formulation of immediate release sodium starch glycolate were used as super disintegrant and was directly compressed. For sustained release portion HPMC polymers were used in granulation stage. Preformulation studies were performed prior to compression. The compressed bilayer tablets were evaluated for weight variation, dimension, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and invitro drug release using USP dissolution apparatus type 2 (paddle). It was found that the optimized formulation showed 15.98%, 39.04%, 58.76%, 94.86%release for Metoprolol succinate in 1, 4, 8, 20 hours respectively. However, Amlodipine besilatereleased 95% at the end of 45 minutes. The IR spectrum and DSC studies revealed that there is no disturbance in the principal peaks of pure drugs Metoprolol succinate and Amlodipinebesilate. This further confirms the integrity of pure drugs and no incompatibility of them with excipients. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results. The kinetic studies of the formulations revealed that diffusion is the predominant mechanism of drug and release follows first order kinetics.
Clinical diagnosis of sepsis in neonate is difficult, because many signs of sepsis are nonspecific. There are several salivary biomarkers of stress as objective indicators of stress reactions.This study was designed to investigate the effect of ampicillin-gentamicin treatment to chlorinative stress parameters insaliva of newborn at risk of sepsis. Four chlorinative stress parameters were used, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels, and chlorinative index (CI). This study was performed in May until September 2016. Saliva samples were taken from 26 newborns at risk of sepsis treated in Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. All newborns were given ampicillin-gentamicin three until ten days. The H2O2 levels, MPO activity, AOPPs levels, and CI were measured from the saliva taken from both pre and post treatment. Statistical analysis of the parameters were obtained from before and after the ampicillin-gentamicin treatment, using Mann-Whitney test. The used ofampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of newborns at risk of sepsis showed significant decrease in the H2O2 levels, MPO acitivity, AOPPs levels, and significant increases in the CI. From this results, it can be concluded that Ampicillin-gentamicin could reduce the chlorinative stress in newborn at risk of sepsis
Objective: The aim of the present invention is to synthesize and find out the biological significance of the series of the designed azetidin-2-one fused 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline derivatives. Methods: A new series of 2-chloro-3-formyl quinolines derivatives 3-chloro-4-(2-chloro-8/7/6-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)-1-phenyl amino)azetidin-2-one, 3-chloro-4-(2-chloro-8/7/6-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-1-(phenylamino) azetidin-2-one, 3-chloro-4-(2-chloro-8/7/6-methylquinolin-3-yl)-1-(phenyl -amino)azetidin-2-one were synthesized by four steps. The cyclization is facilitated by N-aryl acetamides bearing electron donating groups at ortho-position. However yields of quinolines having electron donating groups in all cases. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of physical and spectral data and are screened for diuretic, some of the exhibited significant activity. Results: The moderate yield of the proposed compounds was obtained. Spectral analysis and physical characteristic showed that the structural confirmation of the quinoline derivatives of the synthesized compounds. Some of the compounds showed lower to moderate level of significant activities. Conclusion: From the result of spectral data and diuretic activity it has concluded that the compounds were found to exhibited significance activity.
Objective: The present work aim to study the spectral and antimicrobial activity for synthesized chalcones Methods: The synthesized Chalcones were characterized by Physical and spectral methods such as melting point, IR, 1H-NMR and Mass analysis. The synthesized compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity. Results: The biological data showed that compounds III, VII had strong activities against the Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not activity against fungus. Conclusion: The main purpose to use an easy and useful method to synthesize biologically active chalcone.
The present study has been designed to evaluate the protective effect of Zingiber Officinale in experimental cardiac hypertrophy in rats. The treatment with ethanolic extract of Zingiber Officinale (EZO) (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was started three days before surgery and it was continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was assessed by measuring ratio of LV weight to body weight (LVW/BW), LV wall thickness (LVWT), LV protein content, LV collagen content and LV RNA concentration. Further mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was recorded. The PAAC significantly increased the ratio of LV weight to body weight, LV wall thickness, LV protein content, LV collagen content and LV RNA concentration. Further PAAC significantly increased MABP in dose dependent manner. The EZO (400mg/kg) markedly attenuated PAAC induced increase in LV hypertrophy and MABP. These results implicate for the first time the role of Zingiber Officinale in PAAC induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Push-pull osmotic tablets can be used for the delivery of drugs which are poorly watersoluble and water soluble at a sonstant rate. Zidovudine is pyrimidine nucleoside analogue, first US FDA approved drug used for selective action against Human Immuno deficiency Virus. It is commercially available in the form of capsules, tablets, and syrup for oral administration of dose of three to four times a day. The objective of this study is to develop Push-pull osmotic tablets of antiretroviral drug, Zidovudine and evaluate its compatibility and suitability in the applications meant for sustained release oral drug delivery system providing, enhanced efficacy, reduced side effects and improves patience compliance. Preparation of PPOP involved the fabrication of bilayered tablets with the dug layer, containing zidovudine, HPMC 3000 cps and polymeric expansion push layer containing HPMC K4M. The effect of polymer ratios on release characteristics and optimization of suitable concentration of cellulose acetate coat formulations for forming rigid, stable, sustained release film were investigated. The coated tablets are manually drilled at the face of drug layer using a 0.5 mm gauge size needle. The pre-coated and coated tablets were subjected to various post-compression evaluation studies and appearance, in-vitro drug release and welling index of PPOTS were studied. The drug release from the formulations were found to follow of Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics and FTIR and DSC studies revealed that the dug is stable and there is no interaction with the excipients.
Snakebite is a major health hazard that leads to high mortality rate especially in India. Since the last century, antivenom immunotherapy is the only specific treatment against snake venom envenomation. However, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. Chhattisgarh has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Chhattisgarh medicinal plants are mentioned in literature, which are used to treat snakebite victims especially in the rural areas. However, only a few species have been scientifically investigated and still less had their active components isolated and characterized both structurally and functionally. This article presents a review of Chhattisgarh plants showing properties against snake venoms which were assayed in research laboratories, correlating them with ethnopharmacological studies.
Objective: To perform GC-MS analysis and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica bark. Methods: The dried powdered bark of Azadirachta indica (5g) were extracted exhaustively by crude and then fractionated into water, acetone, chloroform and ethanol. The bark ethanol extract was analyzed by GC-MS to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Results: Ethanol extract was found to contain the highest zone of inhibition against E. coli. In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract were significant and comparable with the other extracts. Hence, the ethanol extract was selected for GC-MS and to identify the presence of 5 compounds in ethanol extracts. Conclusion: Findings from this study state that the plant Azadirachta indica can be a potent source for treating diverse medicinal properties especially infectious diseases.
Ulva fasciata is a common sea weed and known for various medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to screen the antimicrobial activity of Ulva fasciata against clinical isolates of bacteria. The aqueous extract of the U. fasciata was studied for its antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by Agar well diffusion method in Muller Hinton agar. The extract showed significant effect on the tested organisms. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli (15.6±1.3) whereas, lowest against K. pneumoniae (11.2±1.02). Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of aqueous extract was measured by modified agar well diffusion method. The MIC value of crude extract was 16.2, 5.4, 7.1 and 15 mg/ml against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively.
Medicinal plants are considered modern resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in demeanor of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry was done to specify chemical composion. As a screen test to detect antibacterial properties of the essential oil, agar disk and agar well diffusion methods were employed. Macrobroth tube test was performed to determinate MIC. The results indicated that the most substance found in FV essential oil was Trans-anethole (47.41 %), also the essential oil of FV with 0.007 g/ml concentration has prevented P. aeruginosa and with 0.002 g/ml concentration has prevented B. subtilis from the growth. Thus, the research represents the antibacterial effects of the medical herb on test P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. We believe that the article provide support to the antibacterial properties of the essential oil. The results indicate the fact that the essential oil from the plant can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.
Abrus precatorious, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula are one of the most important medicinal plants used for therapeutic purpose. The present study was carried out to investigate antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity and also deals with phytochemical analysis of selected plants, Abrus precatorious, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula. The ethanolic extracts of seeds of all selected plants were tested for the presence of various phytoconstituents such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavanoids, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides and steroids. The antibacterial activity was tested against Bacillus Subtilis (ATCC 6633), Streptococcus Aureus (ATCC 6538), Streptococcus Abony (ATCC 6017), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) by the agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic extracts of seeds of selected plants were tested against fungi like Alternaria solani, Aspergillus niger, Lasiodiploidia theobromeae, Rhizopus spp. and Candida Albicans by pour plate method. The cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of seeds and methanolic extract of leaves of all the plants were evaluated on c2c12 (Mouse, Muscle cell line) and HEK293T (Human embryonic kidney cell line) by MTT assay.
Diameter of zone of inhibition of different plant seed crude protein extracts
Objective: To screen and isolate the antibacterial proteins/peptides from seeds of millets. Methods: Present study was designed to investigate antibacterial activity of proteins/peptides extracted from seeds of different varieties of millet (Finger Millet (PRM I, PRM II), Barnyard millet and Porso millet). The extracted proteins/peptides were checked for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Escherichia coli (MTCC 733) and Salmonella entrica (MTCC 739) bacterial pathogens. Results: Results indicated that finger millet variety (PRM I) have showed the highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and S. entrica with a zone of inhibition 22.6±1.18 and 22.3±0.98 respectively. The seed extract of Porso millet has shown the least activity with the gram-positive bacteria with a zone of inhibition 15.6±0.27 mm. The finger millet variety (PRM I) with a molecular weight of 35kDa showed the highest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition 19 mm. Conclusion: Millet, a widely growing cereal crop in semi-arid regions, has been known for its medicinal importance to cure fungal and bacterial infections. Results obtained in the present study suggest that antibacterial peptides may be used as potential alternatives for the development of novel antibacterial agents.
Indiscriminate uses of antibiotics have caused microbial resistance and also lead to many side effects. To overcome from such situation plants and animal materials are widely used for the treating various ailments due its antimicrobial properties. In Ayurveda, cow urine has been used to improve general health of an individual. Therefore, present study is undertaken to study in vitro antibacterial potential of cow urine against various pathogenic bacteria. The method employed to study antibacterial activity is agar well diffusion technique. A reference standard was also employed along with the test during the experimental study. The results showed good antibacterial activity of cow urine against most of the test bacterial strains by exhibiting zone of inhibition. These results thus proves that cow urine possess good inhibitory activities against various clinical bacterial strains and can be used to control infectious diseases.
Antibiotic resistance test of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Thin Laye Chromatography results of Essential Fatty Acid Semicarbazide of Linseed(oil)
The inhibition zone of flaxseed by use three different solvent extracts (hexan , petroleum ether and water) against S.aureus.
The inhibition zone of essential fatty acid semicarbazide (EFASC) extracts against S.aureus and E.coli.
During the period from December 2014 to July 2015, isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from clinical sources attending to AL-Hakeem Hospital and AL-Sadder Medical City in AL-Najaf province. A total of One hundred clinical samples from various sources included: UTI - patients, Burn, postoperative surgery site –Wound, The results revealed the occurrence (52) bacterial isolate were isolated, 37(71%) were gram– positive bacteria that was divided into S. aureus 20(39%), S. pyogen 9 (17%), and S. pneumonia 8 (15%). But only 15 (29%) was gram – negative bacteria which represented by E. coli 7(13%), and P.aeruginasa 4 (8%), Protuse mirabilis 4(8%). The susceptibility of S. aureus and E.coli bacteria which are consider the most common G+ve and G-ve nosocomial pathogen to routenly used antibiotic in Najaf hospitals were tested by using antibiotic susceptibility pattrons, in order to select one isolate from S.aureus and other one from E.coli which had the higher resistance to most antibiotic for continue the other steps of these study. The result illustrated that S.aureus No.5 and E. coli No.3 were greatly resistant to antibiotics, so regard as multi-drug resistant(MDR). Crud extracts of Linum usitatissimum which had been extracted by three solvents (petroleum ether, hexan and aqueous), for studying the chemical contents of these extracts by using suitable reagents and tested antibacterial activity on the growth of studied S.aureus and E. coli bacteria. The extraction of Essential fatty acid Semicarbazide (omega-3-6- fatty acid) from Linum usitatissium (Flax seed) and the chemical and physical properties of isolated oil compounds were studied by using thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet spectrum (UV) and FTIR spectrum. The result revealed that shown high antibacterial activity against studied (S.aureus, E.coli). results explained broad spectrum antibacterial property of oil compounds against studied bacteria nosocomial.
Volatile oil from the leaves of Myristica fragrans was isolated and characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy. Twenty constituents from 20 peaks were identified beta-pinene (22.69%), alpha-pinene (14.06%), alpha-thujen (13.93%) and p-menth 1-en-4-ol (10.53%) are as the major constituents and this leaf oil contains the minor constituents like camphene (3.92%), α-terpinene (3.42%), Limonene (9.56%) p-cymene (6.86%) Linalool (7.41%), beta myrcen (4.81%), alpha fellandrene (3.14%), 3-carene (3.54%), allyl catechol methylene (8.32%), myristicin (7.20%), elermicin (9.85%), beta ocimene (4.74%), gamma terpinene (4.75%), alpha terpinolene (4.38%), p-menth 2-en-1-ol (3.30%) and α-terpineol (6.00%). The antimicrobial activity of oil was tested against human and plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis (1.3cm), Lactococcus plantarum (0.9cm) and Proteus vulgaris (0.6cm) and the fungus Candida tropicalis (1.3cm), Candida albicans (0.8cm), Rhizomucor miehei (0.6cm) and Candida glabrata (0.6cm). No inhibitiory activity was observed against the bacteria Clostridium pertringens, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Bacillus megaterium. There is no inhibitory activity of oil against the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates. Using fluorescent stains localize cortex region, phloem fibres, oil ducts, phenol secreting cells and vascular cambial cells. Myristica fragrans showed 100% larvicide activity. The addition of various concentrations of essential oil of Myristica fragrans in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and A-357 epidermal skin cancer cell line showed cytotoxic activity.
Objective: The major objective of the study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees using rats. The study also aims to assess the effect of the extract on behavioural pattern of treated rats. Methods: The antidepressant activity of the ethanolic extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus was evaluated using Forced swim test (FST). The effect of the extract on the behavioral pattern was assesssed by an Open field test. The oral doses of 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of the extract were fixed after conducting acute toxicity studies. Imipramine (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard. Results: It was observed from the study that the ethanolic extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus at higher concentration showed significantly (p < 0.01) reduction in immobility in forced swim test model of depression after repeated administration for 14 d. The results were comparable to the standard drug Imipramine. However, the extract did not any significant activity after acute administration. Neither the ethanolic extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus nor the standard drug imipramine produced any overt behavioural change or motor dysfunction in the open field test. Conclusion: The present study demands a further detailed investigation on the antidepressant and other possible CNS activities of Dipteracanthus prostrates.
Top-cited authors
Imad Hadi Hameed
  • Al-Qasim Green University
Nitin Sati
  • HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India
Abeer Fauzi
  • University of Babylon
Mohanad Jawad Kadhim
  • Al-Qasim Green University
Hitesh Verma
  • Overseas Health Care Pvt. Ltd.