International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology

Published by Inpressco
Online ISSN: 2277-4106
Publications
Article
To judge the success of a machining operation, surface finish of the machined parts is one of the important criteria. The value of optimum machining parameters (for better surface finish) can be either decided on the basis of a large number of experimental trails or design of experiments (DoE) can be used to predict the same with significantly lesser number of experimental trails. The aim of this work was to reveal the application of Taguchi method to study the effect of the machining/cutting parameters for surface finish during turning of AISI 1020 steel under different cutting environments. The results revealed that spindle speed was the most influential factor which affected surface roughness in dry turning as well as wet turning. However, depth of cut was second influential factor in dry turning but feed rate was more influential than depth of cut during wet turning Machining, Turning, Steel, Surface finish, Taguchi, Minitab, Anova
 
Article
Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a widely accepted non-traditional material removal process used to manufacture components with intricate shapes and profiles. It is considered as a unique adaptation of the conventional EDM process, which uses an electrode to initialize the sparking process. H13 Hot Work Tool Steel has high hot tensile strength, hot wear-resistance and toughness. Good thermal conductivity and insensitiveness to hot cracking, making it suitable not only for hot die applications but also plastic moulds. In this study, it is found that most predominant factors for the maximum material removal rate which is 22.21 mm3/min are current which was found to be 200A and Pulse ON Time 125 µs, however rest four factors (voltage 20V, pulse off time 40µs, wire tension 8N and wire feed 7mm/min) has less impact as compare to the predominant factors. The most predominant factors for Minimum surface roughness which is 0.89µm are wire tension 10N, pulse on time 115µs and servo voltage 60V. However, rest three factors pulse off time 60 µs, peak current 140 A and wire feed 7mm/min has less impact as compare to the predominant factors.
 
Article
In this work the rainfall in Marathawada, an area with extremely small amount of rain has been calculated based on rainfall data of last 32 years going back to 1986. The calculations have been performed using the Time Series method and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. In the first method, statistical regression analysis has been carried out whereas in the second method, the rain pattern is fitted with Fourier periodic analysis. The results of these two methods are averaged for better reliability. The rainfall data is further analyzed using rainfall spectrum analysis.
 
Article
Present work uses four separate methods to arrive at the prediction value by taking the average of the results of these four. Here, the calculations are based on past 32 year history of rainfall in Telangana. The four methods are: (1) The Root Mean Square (RMS) values, (2) the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method, (3) The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, and the Time Series method. Out of these the first and the last methods involve linear regression hence the results obtained exhibit a linear curve. Here, the prediction can be made about 8 months in advance to give sufficient time for planning to the farmers or hydro-electric power generators, or the governments at different levels.
 
Article
Global competitive business market had brought increasing awareness to optimize the gear design. Gears have the advantage over friction and belt drives in that they are positive drive, a feature which most of the machine tools require, since exact speed ratios are essential. The design and manufacture of precision cut gears, made from materials of high strength, have made it possible to produce gears which are capable of transmitting extremely large loads at extremely high circumferential speeds with very little noise, vibration and other undesirable aspects of gear drives. The present work is to focus on investigating the combined effect of gear parameters on tangential force and dynamic tooth load of helical gear.
 
Article
Deep drawing is popular sheet metal forming process. Complex axisymmetric geometries, and certain nonaxisymmetric geometries, can be produced in a few operations in small cycle time. Skill requirement of operator is relatively less. The basic theories governing the deep drawing are based on application of theory of plasticity to the deep drawing process. It is very difficult to apply these theories and arrive at a general solution which can handle any arbitrary geometry. Some simpler ‘mechanics models’ are more appropriate for such cases, though these do not incorporate all the aspects governing the process. Therefore, design in sheet metal forming, even after many years of practice, still remains more an art than science due to the large number of parameters involved in deep drawing and their interdependence. Design of tooling for deep drawing (die, blank holder and punch) has been largely based on trial and error resulting in loss of time and money and large development cycles. Using the finite element method one can simulate the process and study the effect of various parameters before finalizing the design. Several simulation tests were carried out to obtain the most appropriate value for some of the parameter. A computational experiment is made to explore the effect of process variables on stress distribution and punch load. An elastic-plastic finite element computational program is developed to simulate successive deep drawing process.
 
Article
Welding technique is one of the widely used permanent fastener techniques, where in different types of welding are used for different applications. Welding creates property changes in the welded location, so it is important to investigate the core mechanical properties after welding to create better designs using welding techniques. In this project the effect of the welding process of Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and the relatively Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) process on 304 Austenitic Stainless steel is studied. The welding process was carried out on 6mm thick plate of 304 Stainless Steel using SMAW and TIG welding processes The two set of plates having the single plate size of 200mmX150mmX6mm were welded using Tungsten Inert Gas welding And Shielded metal arc welding process. This project focuses on tensile property, toughness; micro hardness and micro structure of the each welding process of weld joints are studied and compared with those properties of each process related to the base metal, which shows the better welding process on Stainless Steel. The output variables of SMAW and TIG welding process on 6mm weld plate tensile strengths are compared. The studies indicated that the TIG joints were having better tensile strength than SMAW welded joints on 304stainless steel.
 
Article
The research on a number of welding problems, for instance microstructural evolution, weld induced distortion and welding residual stresses, necessitates comprehensive information about the thermal history of the weldment and welded structures. In the present work, an efficient thermal model using finite element method (FEM) is developed for linear fiber laser welding process on 316 stainless steel of 3mm thick plate. In this modeling approach, the thermal conductivity of molten material is increased artificially for several folds to account the enhanced heat transfer due to high convective flow of liquid molten metal within the weld pool. In order to validate the developed FE model, a series of welding experiments are carried out using highly focused fiber laserwith 800 W - 1000 W laser power and 13.33 mm/s - 18.33 mm/s laser scanning speed. The computed weld pool shapes and dimensions are compared with the experimental results at similar welding conditions. Relatively fair agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental results designates the robustness of the modeling approach followed here.
 
Article
The research aims to measure the uranium concentration of soil samples collected from different regions are located around the nuclear research center at Tuwaitha to a contamination ratio statement of these regions, which include agricultural residential regions as well as being the regions for livestock of all kinds. The nuclear track detector (CR39) was used as a method to detect uranium of through calculations depended on comparison with standard samples. Results indicate that the uranium concentration ranged between (0.4ppm) and (2.538 ppm), these results are within allowed limit that equals (11.7 ppm).
 
Article
Wind analysis in this era considered as a main criteria for modern tall buildings such that the tall buildings are considered as a cantilever structure which is fixed at its base and is free at other end. These multistory buildings are not same in plan and having different projections which is vulnerable to wind and its exposures. The main criteria in this research work is to present the position of these tall buildings having plan of L – shape 20 story building under a basic wind speed of 39 m/s. Using Staad pro software, a total of 4 cases has analyzed. Dimension of plan is different from both the projection on which wind is applied in all four directions. A comparison of result parameters like displacements, story drift, axial forces in column, shear in beam in both longitudinal and transverse direction are made for all the models and suggestions are made to choose which position is the best of all.
 
Article
With the vision of “Ubiquitous Wireless Intelligence”, 6G opens up numerous avenues of technological innovation, several of those supported by machine learning and artificial intelligence which form the focus of this work. However such a leap in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is taking place in a world increasingly motivated to bridge social and economic inequalities through digital inclusion, at the same time prioritising the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The document has four parts, what 6G promises, the existing gaps and technical challenges, then the role of machine learning in various aspects, then the challenges of including AI/ML.
 
Article
Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective indicators assessing the water quality of the surface water. The Water Quality Index was used to determine the quality of raw water used for drinking purposes at the AL-Abbasia River. The water samples were taken from six stations along AL-Abbasia River for during a twenty - month period started from January to October in (2019) to (2020). fifteen parameters of water quality were evaluated including Temperature (C°), Hydrogen power (pH), Total Hardness (T.H), Turbidity (Turb.), Total Dissolved Solid (T.D.S), Chloride (Cl-), Calcium (Ca+2), Electrical Conductivity (E.C.), Magnesium (Mg+2), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Sulfate (SO4 -2), Total Suspended Solids (T.S.S), Aluminum (Al). Data analysis revealed that some of these parameters exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standards such as Total Hardness (T.H), Total Dissolved Solid (T.D.S), Magnesium (Mg+2) and Sulfate (SO4 -2). Other parameters were within the WHO standards. In this thesis three different methods were used to calculate WQI, the WAWQI, CWQI, and Nemerow’s Pollution Index. For WAWQI, the computed overall WQI value of all samples and stations along AL-Abbasia River was (64.5) which implies that the water was generally "poor". The computed monthly overall WQI along AL-Abbasia River for all samples and stations was (64.114). The monthly WQI variation ranged to a higher value of (78.42) in February 2019, due to high pollutants and heavy rainfall in this month and a lower value of (53.92) in July 2019 along AL-Abbasia River, and classified as (very poor) in terms of drinking water quality. The annual river water quality index variation along AL-Abbasia River ranged between (64.31) " Poor quality" at the upstream near station (A1) and (64.1) "poor" at the downstream near station (A6) which indicates that the ratio is very close between the river upstream and downstream. The water quality assessment was recorded as “poor” because of the high values of Total Hardness (T.H), sulfate and Total Dissolved Solid (T.D.S) where it exceeded the limits. If we excluded (T.H, sulfate and T.D.S) values from water assessment, the result will be changed from (64.5) to (48.86) and the quality of water will be changed from “Poor” to “Good”. According to CWQI, the result calculated by Canadian Water Quality Index method showed that the water quality was fair along the main stream of AL-Abbasia River. The annual average water quality index recorded during the two years was fair in the upstream at station A1 with a value of 74.57 and downstream at station A6 with a value of 61.6. The water quality index during 2019 ranged between fair at A1, A2, and A6 stations and good at A3, A4, and A5 stations with a value ranged between 61.04 at A2 and 82.83 at A3. The water quality index during 2020 year ranged between fair at A1, A2, A3, A4, and A6 stations and marginal at station A5 with values between 77.63 at station A1 and 58.23 at station A5. The Nemerow’s Pollution Index is another method used to calculate WQI. This method gives a statistical analysis to show the state of the river water quality for each parameter and each station along the river. When the value of NPI is greater than 1, then this means that there is a high concentration of this parameter, thus increasing the water pollution. The results obtained from this method indicate that high sulfate, T.H, and turbidity concentrations had a significant impact on water quality during the study period. In 2019, The high NPI was recorded for SO4 and T.H for all stations during the study period, while in 2020, the highest NPI was recorded for T.S.S, SO4, T.H, T.D.S, Mg, and turbidity.
 
Article
This paper clarifies the execution of ABC analysis in store division of press part producing industry to improve the die searching time of all procedure of the organization .This examination depends on execution of ABC analysis framework and end of various sorts of misfortune from the organization .it tends to be seen that actualizing the ABC framework will prompts the major gainful change in die searching time reduction, just is likewise improve it workplace for instance improving the normal working ,improving visual die searching time. ABC method of inventory control involves a system that controls inventory and is used for materials and throughout the distribution management.
 
Article
To boost the output parameters, the process parameters have to be optimized; which is the aim of this project. Centered within various layers of Jute / Basalt and material orientation, the orthogonal series of various experiments are performed using the relevant Taguchi technique. The aim of these experiments is to provide a relationship between process and performance parameters to enhance the overall performance of the substance under various conditions. The effect of Basalt fibre and Jute fibre orientation during Tension and Hardness is studied in the present work. The tests are arranged according to the orthogonal array of Taguchi L9. Using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), the experimental results are statistically analyzed to correlate the parameters and answers. It was observed from the experimental findings that orientation was perceived to be the most important element affecting the intensity of the substance proposed. By considering the optimum composition through analysis, water absorption test is performed with respect to number of days with Basalt and Jute as outer layers to study and compare the water absorption percentage of both the fibers. SEM analysis is performed to study the fiber intactness and surface morphology of the optimum sample, after every experimentation. Experimental studies have shown that hybridization of Basalt fibre jute epoxy shows greater tolerance to strength.
 
Article
Vernacular architecture clearly expresses the strong relationship between man and his surrounding environment, as it represented a mirror reflected the material and human requirements and components of the environment that corresponds to it. From the standpoint of vernacular architecture which is compatible with the environment came as a contemporary innate expression of the reality of place and time, we are trying in this paper to come up with a clear definition of vernacular architecture and the features that characterized it as an attempt to add the human touch to modern architecture, and this is done by studying the vernacular architecture of and analyzing factors Influencing its urban formation, then exposure to the vernacular design of residential buildings and the extent of their environmental and cultural compatibility. The paper concludes with analysis, deduction and evidence that vernacular architecture produces a distinctive local character whose built environment is compatible with local nature and cultures and this is what supports the individual's sense of belonging, as it is man's success in adapting to his environment that enables humanity to communicate and continue. Purpose of the study ▪ Determining the features and characteristics of vernacular architecture by analyzing an architectural example of an Egyptian village with a vernacular architectural character ▪ Study the extent to which vernacular architecture is compatible with the environment as an aspect of the natural aspects and the human aspect such as customs, traditions and religion ▪ Emphasize the importance of preserving vernacular housing as it is considered a local heritage ▪ Take advantage of the Vernacular architecture method in dealing with humans and the environment in designing our modern architecture and using technology
 
Article
In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality and related density of Cladocerans for a period of one year, October 2015 to September 2016. Water quality parameters such as temperature, PH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total alkalinity, total hardness, chlorides, phosphates, and nitrates are presented here to relate with the abundance of Cladocerans. The Cladoceran abundance reflects the eutrophic nature of the Chakki talab.
 
Article
Water is life sustaining element subjected to pollution by human being in the name of industrial development. Global trends such as urbanization and industrialization have increased the demand for fresh water. The developing human societies are heavily dependent upon the availability of water with suitable quality and in adequate quantity for variety of uses. Rapid industrialization is adversely impacting the environment globally. Inappropriate management of industrial wastewater is one of the major environmental problems in India. Many small and medium scale industries cannot afford to have their own effluent treatment facilities which emphasizes on having a common effluent treatment plant to treat the heterogeneous effluent coming out of various sectors. Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) for Textile industry is considered as one of the viable solution for small to medium enterprises for effective wastewater treatment. An effluent treatment plant operating on physical, chemical and biological treatment method with average waste water in flow of 100MLD has been considered for case study. The wastewater was analyzed for the major water quality parameters, such as pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total suspended solid (TSS) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The COD of the treated effluent was reduced significantly, whereas very small reduction was observed in dissolved solids. Most of all the parameters were within the permissible limits of CETP, Pandesara Surat.
 
Article
Non-conventional building materials are in huge demand these days because of rapid urbanization and huge cost associated with conventional building materials. Sand is majorly used fine aggregate in the preparation of concrete, however heavy depletion of river beds and rising cost of sand have made the builders and construction industry to think about alternative form of fine aggregate. Many alternatives like industrial wastes, different types of slags, stone dust and agro wastes etc. have been tried to fully or partially replace river sand in preparation of concrete and the results have been encouraging. Out of the non-conventional materials, copper slag is one such type which has a capable future to be used as a fine aggregate in preparation of concrete. The initial strength studies carried out have shown that the optimum percentage of copper slag as a partial replacement of sand in concrete is 40%. To ascertain any material as a building material it is highly important that along with the strength aspects of the material the durability characteristics also verified. So as part of durability studies of copper slag concrete, an attempt has been made here to examine the impact of acid attack on copper slag concrete and the effects have been compared with that of normal concrete. M30 grade of concrete has been used for this experimental investigation. The test results indicate that durability of the copper slag concrete found to be higher resistant to HCl as compared H2SO4 and also normal concrete has better resistance to acid and sulphate attack compared to copper slag concrete.
 
Article
Image segmentation is an important task in many image processing applications. Fuzzy C means algorithm has been widely used for the segmentation. There are many versions of the traditional FCM algorithm which uses the local spatial information to increase the robustness of this algorithm in presence of noise, but all these algorithms do not successfully segment the images contaminated by heavy noise. In order to solve this problem, non-local spatial information present in the image is utilized. The filtering parameter ‘h’ in the non-local information is a crucial parameter which needs to be appropriately determined, irrespective of using a single constant value of ‘h’; we can determine its value using the standard deviation of noise present in the image. The adaptive non-local information determined is termed as noise adaptive non-local spatial information. This adaptive non-local information is used in the FCM algorithm for the segmentation of MRI images. In this paper Noise adaptive FCM algorithm (NAFCM) using adaptive non-local information is proposed. Therefore the proposed algorithm utilizes adaptive non-local information making it robust in presence of noise as well as preserving the details present in the image. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by validation studies on synthetic as well as simulated brain MRI images. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the proposed algorithm is robust to noise and as compared to other state of the art algorithms.
 
Article
Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) is a process for joining materials to build objects in successive layers under computer control using data from 3D model. It is an opposite of subtractive manufacturing in which material removal is required to reach the desired shape. ALM has better capabilities than the original 3D printing that used mainly for rapid prototyping because it makes the production more efficient if it is used in advanced applications such as creating highly customized products, producing small volume of serial components and visualizing tool in design, the future applications may concern human organs creation, clothes manufacturing and food confection. The aim of this paper is to present a review about ALM showing its application, processes and quality issues focusing on fused deposition modelling as it is the most traditional ALM process.
 
Stereolithography process (The ASTM International Committee F42, 2016)
Article
A class of technologies referring to Rapid Prototyping (RP) or Additive or Layer Manufacturing or 3D Printing allows designers to quickly create tangible prototype instead of using two dimensional pictures. This technology produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. Rapid Prototyping forms parts by joining together liquid, powder or sheet materials. Physical models are built using three basic stages: pre-processing, building, post-processing. Pre-processing consists of generation of CAD model, convert into STL format and slice the STL files into cross sectional layers. In building process, construction of model takes place one layer atop another. Post process consists of cleaning and finishing the final model. Common types of Rapid Prototyping technologies popular in industry are: Steriolithography, Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering, Laminated Object Manufacturing,3 D Printing. The selection of the processes depends upon the material to be cured to build the final model. Rapid Prototyping technologies are used in various industries like Automobiles, Consumer products, Medical, Academics, Aerospace, Government and Military. This poster talks about few challenges to be considered in Rapid Prototyping like shrinkage and distortion of final model, mechanical performance of RP model and limitations to mass quantity. : Layer Manufacturing, CAD Model, STL format, Steriolithography, Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering.
 
Article
Fluid loss is one of the biggest problems faced by the drilling engineers; the drilling fluids invades in the formation resulting in the fluid loss, which increases the overall cost of the drilling. The objective of this study is to use biodegradable natural ingredients as fluid loss additives in oil-based mud as the industrial based polymers which are normally used as fluid loss agents are highly expensive. In this study, corn starch and sugarcane bagasse ash were used at 1, 3, 5, and 7% wt./wt. separately as fluid loss additive in Oil-based mud. The drilling mud mixed with 1% of SCBA yielded the best result for fluid loss. Similarly, corn starch at 1% wt./wt. exhibited the best fluid loss characteristics. However, their effect on other mud properties was; plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, yield point, and gel strength increased with increasing the concentration whereas, they have no or little effect on pH and mud weight.
 
Article
Due to the decline in oil prices in 2014 and the years after, Iraqi government encouraged governmental institutions to engage private sector in financing infrastructure projects that have been suspended due the financial crisis through public- private sector partnership (PPP) as alternative source of funding. However, the participation of the private sector in filling that gap was unpromising. Therefore, this research is conducted to identify the reasons behind that in regard the projects of the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Public Municipalities (MoCHPW). 17 interviews were conducted as preliminary step of data collection where 13 major impediments have been identified and organized within a questionnaire that conducted with a participation of 98 respondents from public, private institutions and academics. Means comparison was used to rank impediments also nonparametric tests were used to assess the agreement level of survey sample groups’ respondents towards. Findings indicated that the poor ability to conduct PPP projects feasibility studies by government organizations came the first on the top five impediments as ranked by overall respondents, followed by inability of government to set timetables for payments due to the lack of future vision of Iraqi cash status as it is influenced by the fluctuation in oil prices. The Lack of political commitment came at the third place and the lack of clear selection criteria for private partner at the fourth place and lack of private funding came at the fifth place. The overall findings indicated that government must more decisive in dealing with and resolving these impediments to ensure the success of PPP in Iraq.
 
Article
Heavy metal remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to recalcitrant and persistency of heavy metals in environment. Conventional treatment technologies for the removal of these toxic heavy metals are not economical and further generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Agricultural waste materials being economic and ecofriendly due to their unique biochemical composition, availability in abundance, renewable, low in cost and more efficient are seem to be viable option for heavy metal remediation. The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include: low cost, high efficiency, minimization of chemical or biological sludge, regeneration of biosorbents and possibility of metal recovery. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. The functional groups present in agricultural waste biomass viz. acetamido, alcoholic, carbonyl, phenolic, amido, amino, sulphydryl groups etc. Have affinity for heavy metal ions to form metal complexes or chelates. Some of the treated adsorbents show good adsorption capacities for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. Rice husk as a low-value agricultural by-product can be made into sorbent materials which are used in heavy metal removal. The mechanism of biosorption process includes chemisorptions, complexation, adsorption on surface, diffusion through pores and ion exchange etc. Agricultural residues are lignocelluloses substances which contain three main structural components: hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. Lignocellulosic materials also contain extractives. Generally, three main components have high molecular weights and contribute much mass, while the extractives is of small molecular size, and available in little quantity, which announce in heavy metal removal.
 
Article
Environmental pollution particularly from heavy metals and minerals in the wastewater is the most severe problem in India. Due to extensive anthropogenic activities such as industrial operations particularly mining, agricultural processes and disposal of industrial waste materials; their concentration has increased to dangerous levels. Heavy metals in industrial effluent include Copper, nickel, chromium, lead, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and uranium. So far, a number of efficient methods have been reviewed for the removal of heavy metals such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, ultra filtration, nanofiltration, coagulation, flocculation, floatation, etc. However these methods have several disadvantages such as high reagent requirement, unpredictable metal ion removal, generation of toxic sludge etc. Adsorption process being very simple, economical, effective and versatile has become the most preferred methods for removal of toxic contaminants from wastewater. This paper reviews the use of various readily available natural materials as adsorbents of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Various natural adsorbents reviewed includes sand, waste tea leaves eggshell, rice husk, activated carbon, zeolites, olive stones, wood sawdust etc.
 
Article
Aircraft industry’s focus is mainly given on the balance between essential aspects that can make vehicles ideal for users: safety, maximum fuel efficiency, value for money, recycling and recovery of end-life vehicles, and the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents AHS:, its material properties, advantages and disadvantages, issues and some recent developments in this material for it to be considered as the “future” of automobile industry. Some comparisons are also presented to provide basic differentiation of this material from other lightweighting material types. In order to provide credible information, literature search was conducted using significant keywords in Google Scholar and journal repository Deepdyve. Current grades of AHSS are already standing out as evidenced by 2016 cars that are majorly made of this type of material. It has high strength, ductility, high energy-absorption ability and costs lower than other type of lightweighting materials. Its properties coupled with cost and environmental advantages make it more preferable relative to Aluminum In terms of Lightweighting capability, Steel particularly AHSS has the possibility to reduce 40-50% of the weight of body components.
 
Article
Seamless advancements in the electronics industry lead to high heat fluxes from very limited thermal real estates. The removal of excessive heat from system components is essential to avoid damaging effects of burning or overheating .Therefore the enhancement of heat transfer is an important subject of thermal engineering .Extended surfaces (fins) are frequently used in heat exchanging devices for the purpose of increasing the heat transfer between a primary surface and the surrounding fluid. The effective thermal management plays a vital role in the design and operation of electronic equipment .To obtain higher performance from a heat sink, more surface area, less weight and lower cost are necessary. Thus, efforts to obtain more optimized design i.e Splayed pin fin heat sinks and advanced composite materials are needed to achieve high thermal performance. The present study involves a splayed pin fin heat sink with advanced materials (Polyphenylene Sulphide (PPS),Carbon Foam, Graphite Epoxy) to ensure a reliable converter to extract these heat losses to limit temperature increases in the semiconductor device that would jeopardize reliability and performance, specifically keeping the device from exceeding its maximum operating temperature..It is observed that from the results the total weight of the system reduced drastically with the use of advanced materials at the same thermal performance.
 
Article
Ammonia is one of the most important industrial chemicals which is prepared by the traditional Haber–Bosch process. Haber–Bosch process is an expensive process requiring higher temperature, pressure, and a lot of energy. Electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reactions (NRR) have gained a lot of interest as the alternate method for the production of ammonia. For obtaining a higher yield, higher Faradic efficiency (PE), inhibition of side reactions e.g., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and reducing the production cost for ammonia by NRR, selection of appropriate catalysts, cell layout, and electrolyte selection are important controlling parameters for the NRR. Non-metallic catalysts are preferred over noble metallic catalysts due to their lower cost, more resources, and characteristic dorbital electron but have the issue of low selectivity due to the higher HER. The selectivity for the NRR can be improved by employing the catalysts with higher absorption of N2. PEM-type cells and the back-to-back cells are used to inhibit the HER. Apart from these factors, NRR is also dependent on other factors to obtain better experimental results e.g., no nitrides, removing the ammonia from contaminants sites, and controlling the experiment time.
 
Article
At the current word and in the industrial and even post-industrial age, advertising is a need. Advertising mixed of science and art can be called also as miracle industry and an industry, which can recover the industry and can also destroy industry, if it is used in wrong way. Commercial advertising, with use of modern media that are being more variable and effective over the time with wonderful speed, is not a simple marketing or notification to link consumers and suppliers anymore and is in fact a reality that can leave deep and fundamental effects on domains of human social life and on human. Therefore, the present study has investigated the effect of advertising on emotional reactions of customers in branches of Parsian Bank in Tehran. Statistical population in this study consists of customers of all branches of Parsian Bank in Tehran. Using Morgan table, 146 people were selected as sample using simple random sampling method. Data analysis was done using SPSS22 and Lisrel8.8 software. The results of the study showed that there is significant correlation between advertising and emotional reactions of customers. Moreover, the results showed that there is significant correlation between brand promotion in advertising, related news in advertising, and empathy in advertising, familiarity with advertising, confusion in advertising, and entertainment in advertising with customer emotional reactions. Moreover, there is significant correlation between enjoyable emotional reactions of customers to advertising and advantage-based value and hedonic value.
 
Article
Aero engine rotor burst evaluation is one of the most important problems to be taken care off, whenever it comes to designing a turbo machinery disc. The consequences of a failure can be intense, since the disc fragments into multiple pieces and they are hurled away in all the possible direction at high speeds. Due to high thermo-mechanical loading conditions the disc is subjected to varying degrees of temperature from bore to rim. However, the centrifugal force dominates in the disc which ranges from 80%-90% and the rest can be treated as thermal and gas loads. The challenge lies at designing a disc for off-design conditions with their varying loads and duty cycles. In present work evaluation of safety limits and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) life estimation of an aero engine disc through classical methods and blending the terminologies with simulation engineering to arrive at a probable interpretation of number of duty cycles is carried out. The methodology compares the fatigue parameters involved in evaluation of disc life at off-design condition through sensitivity analysis. The design tool closely connects the flight certification FAA and EASA the regulating agencies for safety in air transportation vehicles. The off-design speed regulations through API and MIL handbook for material specification are considered to carry out design of experiments using finite element analysis approach
 
Article
This work examines the printing of optical-based materials using aerosol jet printing (AJP), an additive manufacturing process. Deposition of optical-based materials using the AJP process has potential to be applied in the fabrication of embedded fiber optic Bragg grating sensors. Made from silica (SiO2), fiber optic Bragg grating sensors are small, lightweight, and chemically inert, making them suitable for a variety of applications. This study examines the preparation and deposition of a newly developed silica-based printing ink. The results of the printing method, the impact of various printing and processing parameters on the deposition quality and microstructure, light reflectivity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, and content analyses of the deposited layers are presented. The results show uniform printed layers and demonstrate the capability of the AJP method as well as the newly developed silicabased ink to print high-quality commercial optical-based materials. The focus of this study is on the process/ optical material property interaction only; the printing of actual functional sensors on components and testing them will be discussed in later studies and is beyond the scope of this paper.
 
Article
The aim of this study is to research how different factors affect workers rating of sewing operators. In the study, the effects of age, gender, working experience, working environment, financial incentives, salary, leadership practice, training facilities, machine condition, working methods, education and working hour on workers rating are researched. It is posited that different factors have different effects on performance. Random sampling method was used to select 43 garments factory and research work continued to assemble primary data through a structured questionnaire among selected factories. Correlation is used to test null and alternative hypotheses and we used the data for presenting graphical pictures, tables and explanatory form. From the analysis we found that machine maintenance has highest weak negative relation with workers rating and the independent variable, education has lowest weak positive relation with workers rating.
 
Article
In present times the HAP is of great interest among researchers because of its similar characteristics similar to human bone. The HAP can be synthesized in two ways, through chemical methods and through extraction from natural resources. The chemical route can be expensive and un-sustained for the environment while as the extraction method from natural resources can be key to make the whole process environmentally friendly. Even though HAP is similar to human bone it lacks the necessary mechanical properties which are essential for bio-implants. It is a wellknown fact that Stainless Steel (316L) is suitably bio-compatible, but it also lacks the necessary Anti-bacterial properties which can be improved by addition of an alternative candidate having anti-bacterial properties such as Silver (Ag). This study proposes development of a hybrid composite of (SS316L, HAP, Ag) through powder metallurgy route with improved properties.
 
Article
TApplication of crosslinking agent to impart wrinkle recovery property on cotton fabrics is very popular for textile industry. This paper represents the effect of different crosslinking agent on the physical properties and the wrinkle recovery of cotton knit fabric. Here five different types of crosslinking agent from three different chemical companies were used. The work was divided into two parts .At first; crosslinking agents were applied on cotton fabric than various related tests were done on the treated and untreated fabric. Better crease resistancy was found on the finishing agent having high formaldehyde content .The other important properties like tensile strength, dimensional stability, stiffness, abrasion resistance pilling resistance and areal density was studied here. Among them some properties were improved and some were fall down.
 
Article
Powertrain aggregates used in mining equipment are complex, and it comprises of primary aggregates like an engine, powershift transmission, differential and final drive, which in-turn includes many tribological systems including gears, bearings, and shafts. Evaluating the effect of different lubricants on preliminary design phase is a crucial challenge, especially identifying various power losses such as gear meshing, oil churnings and the bearings losses in several machine elements on single go is a complex one. To identify combined power losses in gear and bearings, an analytical model or analysing individual component and summing up the effect as a complete system loss can cater acceptable result, but in case of accuracy, it significantly lags. The experimental setup, which incorporates the real-time equipment environmental factor takes ample time and cost. In this paper, detailed study and analysis have been carried out to identify power losses and thermal rating factor for gears and bearing on one go for different lubricants (i.e. SAE30 8 Tailor-made BEML C6002-44) using a gear train analysis tool called KISSsoft/KISSsys. The result exhibits a significant reduction in power losses 8 contact temperature for C6002-44. The comparative results illustrate that it is an effective method, and it can be used in a preliminary stage of a planetary transmission design to identify the gear train power losses in a shorter duration. This methodology can also be employed to determine the effect of tailor-made new lubricants.
 
Article
Tannery in Bangladesh seems a source of pollution load and waste water to all because there are 270 registered tanneries where approximately 220 MT raw hides and skins are taking for the production of leather in Bangladesh. The leather industry has crossed the record $1-billion mark in exports in 2013-2014. According to the Department of Environment, the tanneries discharge 22,000 cubic meters of untreated liquid toxic waste daily. These pollution load and waste water should need treatment to make environmentally sustainable and living. From this point of view, we worked on tannery waste water processing. The paper highlights the initiation of Algal treatment with chemical coagulation process aided by natural coagulant for waste water processing in Bangladesh. The methodology of this process starts with mixing of waste water from different section of beam house operations at a definite ratio. The mixer takes nearly six hours to settle down. After sedimentation, the turbidity decreases at a reasonable amount i.e. 1428 NTU whereas before sedimentation it was 9050 NTU (2100P Turbid Meter of HACH). Later the supernatant was collected for algal treatment. After algal treatment the turbidity reduced to 530 NTU from 1428 NTU and the DO level increased up to 4.48 mg/L at 33.6 °C (HQ 40d of HACH) where DO level was 0.24 mg/L at 33.6°C in raw mixer. In addition, the amount of alum as chemical coagulant was reduced in tannery waste water treatment by using indigenous snail shell powder as coagulant aid in conjunction with alum. In case of untreated sample after sedimentation required alum dozing was 6 mL/ 40 mL sample. After algal treatment, required alum dozing reduced to 4 mL/ 40 mL sample. By adding 3 mL/ 40mL liquid natural coagulant as coagulant aid, alum dozing was further minimized to 1 mL/ 40mL sample. The odour was more tolerable than raw mixer after algal treatment but after adding alum aided by natural coagulant, the odour was more acceptable than before. The diversified technique can hopefully reduce a reliable chemical cost in treatment process, considerable amount of pollution load and increase DO level and thus make effluent environment friendly to discharge. Finally, the DO level increases up to 6.56 mg/L at 33.7 0C and turbidity reduces to 183 NTU, pH reduces to 7.6, odour turns to be tolerable limit.
 
Article
India is the fastest growing country among developing countries of the world wherein infrastructural growth road development is utmost essential for the country. But with time bitumen becomes more stiff and brittle due to changes in molecular structure of bitumen and increase in viscosity too that adversely affect the performance of pavement as it leads to the crack on pavement, rutting, fatigue cracks, loss of visco-elasticity of binder. To overcome this problem an attempt is made to modify the properties of VG-40 binder by the addition of Zycotherm EZ with suitable dosages. Laboratory investigation is carried out to evaluate the properties of VG-40 binder with and without modifier. Also, effect of heat and air on a moving film of semi-solid binder is determined using RTFOT in accordance with ASTM D 2872 (2006)
 
Top-cited authors
Satish Pujari
  • Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology
Priyadarshi Tapas Ranjan Swain
  • Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology
P. RAMAKRISHNA Reddy
  • Vardhaman College of Engineering
K. Saraswathamma
  • Osmania University