This article examines the application of Sufism values contained in the figure of Hadrotus Sheikh KH Ahmad Shahibulwafa Tajul Arifin or known as Abah Anom in relation to environmental conservation. As is well known, the ecological crisis that is occurring in the modern era is fundamentally influenced by a crisis of perception or wrong view of nature. Nature is seen only as a material object and is not sacred. This article reveals that Sufism is the right alternative as a solution to overcome the environmental crisis. Sufism, with its teachings on the unity of existence, harmonization of the relationship between God, nature, and humans, and ethics based on divinity and noble values can become a new paradigm in looking at nature holistically and can be the answer to modern human problems that are the main cause of the crisis. environment. One form of application of the application of Sufism values in environmental conservation can be found in the figure of Hadrotus Sheikh KH Ahmad Shahibulwafa Tajul Arifin or known as Abah Anom. As a Sufism practitioner who views life in a unified and holistic way, Pangersa Abah Anom not only has the view that natural preservation must always be maintained and interpreted, but he also applies this view through concrete actions so that it has a direct, concrete impact. The paradigm and attitude that he applies in preserving nature can be categorized as eco-sufism. Eco-sufism is an idea that emphasizes the spiritual aspect of understanding and utilizing nature and contributing positively to sustainable development. The real manifestation of the implementation of eco-sufism from Pangersa Abah Anom can be seen in his efforts to build a water reservoir called the Nurmuhammad Dam, as well as reforestation with various plants in the Pondok Pesantren Suryalaya area.
As a major mass Islamic organization, Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) has been influential both in culture and politics in Indonesia. In consonance with the decline of democratic politics across the globe, NU internal organization experiences the practice of deliberative democracy with elite deliberation or fox elite fox Dei as its procedure of electing its top leader/Spiritual Leader or Rais Am. Two practices were done at the two NU National Congresses (Muktamar) in 1984 and 2015. This procedure is called Ahlul Hall Wal Aqd (AHWA), as one of the legacies of Muslim civilization. The paper makes an account of this elite deliberation to explore how effective the practice was in developing better practices of democracy. The research is qualitative, along with the perspective of the theory of deliberative democracy. It is our result that the practice of fox elite fox Dei has not been satisfactory in terms of some defects in implementing the rule of the game. NU’s culture of deliberation under the methods of halaqah and Bah-tsul Masaail has been promising, but NU’s elites have not been prepared to harvest it to improve the application of the AHWA procedure.
Strengthening character in the development of global culture is needed to deal with the moral crisis that occurs in the younger generation, which is mainly eroded by the life of hedonism. Global culture has a lot of influence on changes to local culture, which is in line with moral decadence. The purpose of this paper is to tie the two dimensions that have been running for a long time in Malay society; on the one hand, they are very important and cannot be separated. The Tunjuk Ajar Malay culture and the Sirah Nabawiyah become a means of integration and implementation of characters that can organise a harmonious life. This research uses a qualitative literature method with data sources of observation, literature review and content analysis of the stanzas of Tunjuk Ajar Malay culture and lessons contained in Sirah Nabawiyah with descriptive character implementation in the community. The integration of Tunjuk Ajar Malay culture and Sirah Nabawiyah in the implementation of character is an acculturation of religious and cultural norms that reflect religiosity. In the practice of behaviour related to character, the realisation of an integration arranges the character of the younger generation in the development of global culture.
Drinking alcohol is considered forbidden (Haram) in Islam, and there are prescribed punishments for those who consume it. The punishment for an individual who drinks alcohol is imposed when the crime is proven through proof, such as confession, testimony, or positive indications, including the smell of alcohol in the person's mouth, vomiting of alcohol, and evident intoxication. The application of punishment for drinking alcohol requires specific conditions and criteria. The alcohol used for punishment should be pure and without knots at the tip or in the middle. Its volume should be between the finger and the stick's thickness. The beating should not be too severe or too soft but moderate. The executor of the punishment should strike so that the hitting under the armpit remains unnoticed. The executor should also avoid striking the head, face, chest, abdomen, genitals, or any other area that could lead to death or organ damage. The purpose of the beating is not to kill or mutilate but to inflict pain. This discussion is significant because it aims to prevent individuals addicted to alcohol from consuming it and helps judges avoid mistakes in establishing proof of the crime of drinking alcohol. This study encompasses defining the prescribed punishment explaining the means of evidence for the crime of drinking alcohol, and discussing the criteria for its application to convicted individuals. The research methodology employed in this study is descriptive-analytical, and the content is derived from reputable jurisprudential sources of the four primary Islamic schools of thought.
This study aims to understand the essence of religious conversion from the perspective of Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy. This type of research is library research. Data sources come from books and journal articles. The collected data is then analyzed by the method of philosophical hermeneutics with elements of personal description and reflection. The study found the following: (1) Religious conversion in the holistic model is a religious change that takes place over time and not a single event. Conversions are influenced by various interrelated variables. (2) In the meaning system model, religious conversion is understood as a change in the meaning system resulting from strong pressure from input factors and weak system elements to resist pressure. (3) Conversion career aproach sees religious conversion as a radical change in individual religion influenced by social, institutional, individual and contingency factors. Religious conversion is one form of an individual's religious participation during this phase of life. Based on the three explanations of religious conversion according to the three paradigms above, this study concludes that the essence of religious conversion from the perspective of process philosophy is the formation of human self-religiosity. The formation of self-religiosity through religious conversion involves two things, namely, datum and subjective aim. Datum is the whole variable selected through the process of prehence, while the subjective aim is the self-image desired by the individual who is forming himself. Religious conversion is a result of human nature as a being that continues to "be." the implication of this finding is the importance of formulating conversion ethics so that the phenomenon of religious conversion does not lead to social disharmony.
In Islamic culture, rationality and the implementation of the secondary meanings for rationality and wisdom have a unique interpretation in Islam that is not comparable to other religions and cultures. Rationalism has such a high status in Islamic jurisprudence that Islamic rationalism is complete. Islam considers moral education as the leading foundation for a complete education. Therefore, rational education is parallel to moral education. Moral education is the guidance and education of the human psyche through the rational side. In rational education, the heart of man is the center of rationalism. The heart of every human is educated through the verses of the Qur'an and the hadiths of the Imams. Therefore, the social structure of an Islamic society is endowed with an infinite moral aspect that stabilizes man's situation in society and clarifies his relationship with society - the demands and conditions of the new situation guide the individual and society to grow. According to Nahj-Al-Balaghah, optional behavior is attributed to a human being. A wise person is expected to improve and develop the compelling aspects of rationalism and guard against inhibiting factors of rationalism. Therefore, the wise person can appropriately benefit from the achievements of forward-looking action and begin a life of happiness and pride. In many narrations of Imam Ali (A.S.) about the qualities of wisdom and the forward-looking wise man, wisdom is the most vital source to recognize truth and falsehood and perform good deeds. This paper examines the role of rationalism and thoughtfulness in educating the moral society through the hadiths of Imam Ali (A.S.).
Much has been written about the impact of Endo’s “Silence” book and film, but very little about its impact on American cultural processes at the time. Still, much less has been written from a specifically Catholic Christian point of view. This essay seeks to redress that imbalance in a positive, constructive way. It seeks to redress that imbalance by primarily taking into focus how various social factors played a central role in the progressive dechristianization of American culture, as they did in Europe many years before. The central claim here is that while Christian theologians were championing the liberalization of American culture prior to but especially after the changes initiated by Vatican II, Endo’s book and film played a central role in continuing that dechristianization process largely unbeknownst by the average American Christian public, Catholic or Protestant. To make this clear, the essay engages in an extensive review of the literature on many related core issues: the social background of the author, Shusaku Endo; cultural changes initiated by Vatican II; Japanese social, historical, and cultural factors; important details about the film production of Endo’s book; American cultural changes taking place at the time; and more. The essay concludes by asserting that social factors played a central role in significantly influencing American religious beliefs.
Doing contextual Theology is the intersection between faith and culture and how the faith transforms culture. For this reason, a cultural ceremony can be an entry point for spreading the faith in a culture. In Sumba, various traditions in the indigenous religion (Marapu) involve an animal sacrifice ritual. This ritual helps the Marapu followers to maintain a good relationship with the Creator. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the meaning of animal sacrifice ritual from the viewpoint of the Sumba community as an entry point in efforts to do contextual theology. Qualitative methods were used to compare this ritual with the biblical concept of sacrifice, particularly the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which is actualized in the Eucharist celebration. The results showed parallel and incompatible themes between the meaning of sacrifice ritual in Sumba culture and in the Christian perspective. Therefore, there can be a convergence between Christian teachings and Sumba cultural practices by addressing parallels while overcoming incompatible themes.
Arabs have penetrated the joints of Europa thought through a process of transliteration involving Islamic philosophers. While medieval Europe was a dark age, Arabs provided opportunities and space for the transliteration of the works of Plato and Aristotle. Thinkers (Islamic philosophers) penetrated the joints of European thought through the process of transliteration, one of which was Averroes, who attempted to re-perceive the soul and intellect of Aristotle, which later differed from the understanding built by St. Thomas Aquinas. From their position as Islamic philosophers, Averroes and St. Thomas Aquinas as Christian philosophers, their faith interests also enriched the conflict over the understanding of Aristotle's philosophy, especially about soul and intellect.
Empirical studies have unequivocally and consistently shown that rape myths are integral to the aetiology of sexual coercion and aggression. The present article reviews the literature on rape myth acceptance as an important risk factor in the sexual victimization of women and a precursor for a hostile social attitude towards victims of rape. Through the examination of the verbal reactions of the Moroccan public to the case of rape and torture of Khadija “the tattoo girl” (fata:t lwaʃm) on YouTube, it attempts to assess and debunk specific examples of rape myths present in the Moroccan sociocultural context. Discussion focuses on the social perception of female victims of sexual violence and the measurement and evaluation of its physical and psychological impact on them. Victims' emotional responses and psychic trauma constitute an important part of this discussion. Findings suggest the existence of immanently cultural rape myths, such as “the myth of the willing victim”, “it is impossible to rape a resisting woman”, and “women are prone to make false allegations”, along with deleterious victim-blaming cultural stereotypes, such as “she was asking for it”. Another noteworthy finding this paper presents is the social requirement of conspicuous "psychological/emotional harm" to legitimize the status of the victim.
This paper aims to explain that tolerance for cultural diversity and local traditions which are one of the sources of civilization for humans, must be maintained so that maintaining is part of moderation and implementation of the attitude that has been practiced by the prophet. Every community, of course, has local culture and traditions that differ from one another, from one region to another, so there is no need to be opposed. This research is qualitative research because it aims to describe systematically and factually a number of facts, phenomena and relationships between the phenomena studied. In addition, a qualitative approach is seen as appropriate to the theme of this research because the data presented is in the form of statements instead of using numbers. The data collection technique in this study used the library research method in the form of a documentation study. The results of this study state that to unite and bring together elements of the community with other elements, this can be done through a process of culture and traditions and customs that have become the habits of the community in an effort to appreciate and respect one another. And this was actually practiced by the prophet Muhammad, even though in some cultures and traditions of the community, the prophet corrected it later.
Language is present as a form of crystallization of the values of civilization and mediating and directing the orientation of the movement of civilization. Therefore, language becomes an important and interesting variable to be studied and revised scientifically for the preservation and progress of civilization. The Republic of Indonesia has an official language used by its citizens, namely Bahasa Indonesia. This language aims to unite the Indonesian people who are multicultural or have ethnic and cultural diversity so that no distance separates fellow Indonesian citizens from hundreds of tribes, according to the 1928 Youth Pledge Convention. The thing that must be realized now is the use of the Indonesian language which is getting weaker. The weakness is not that it is not used at all but that foreign terms are included in public discussion, and it tends to be considered more prestigious to be used. This study uses a descriptive qualitative method that refers to the sources of literature and the results of previous studies. The existence of Indonesian can decline when most Indonesians are happy and proud to use a foreign language that is considered more respectable and classier. However, the current condition of the existence of the Indonesian language is still in a safe stage. Bahasa Indonesia can continue to exist while preserving it by following the prevailing context and linguistic rules and developing its construction according to the needs and desires of civilization.
This study aimed to describe the belief system between Christianity and Tribal religion in Hukurila’s ritual. The data descriptions were based on the Washing Country as a physical act of traditional rituals and combined with their beliefs as Christians. The object of this research was the Hukurila community, South Leitimur District, Ambon City, especially in the practice of washing the country ritual. This study used hermeneutic analysis as the text result was positioned as an ontology fact. Furthermore, the text was an ontological fact by objectifying its structure to look at forms in community values. The results showed that the Washing country not only taught about the role of ancestors in the history of the children of the Hukurila country but also revealed critical reasoning that highlighted the role of humans in nature conservation. The Washing Country promoted environmental preservation as a part of social piety.
The renowned sect, Sunnism and sectarian bickering, are part of the same triangle, unavoidable in any analysis of the sectarian life of Traditional Western Urban Sierra Leone. A conceptual social frame has not yet been established, however, to explain, from the point of view of the nation’s own sectarian experience, the specific forms taken by this sectarian life and how they relate to other similar expressions worldwide, as well as to holistic processes such as secularisation. The paradigm of novelty; The paradigm of novelty seems to resist as long as it follows the guidelines of the gestation of a secularisation process which translates into the strengthening of individual social conscience, the debilitation of Dawah (Islamic preaching) control and the formation of freedom spaces for those who do not think like a group of Islamic believers. However, the social paradigm does not find its parallel in the Arabian Model of Shiism in the consolidation of a class or social group that feeds and explains this bickering sectarian social thought. Consequently, it is imperative; from a sociological standpoint, to question the centrality or pertinence of the modern social paradigm. Most of all, because the modernity social paradigm results in an Irancentric social paradigm, too oriented towards a set concept of socio-economic development and, therefore, of sectarian ‘evolution’.
Prayer means supplication and peace, since praying upon the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, is an important act of worship in Islam, as God Almighty mentioned it in His Noble Book and commanded His faithful servants to do it. However, heresies have made their way into this worship as well, and every sect has played its role in sticking to nonsense and nonsense. Come with it.The topic is of special importance to the Islamic nation, as God Almighty mentioned blessings upon His Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, in his Noble Book and commanded the Muslims to perform it, saying: :( إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا ) (الأحزاب: 56):(Indeed, Allah and His angels send blessings upon the Prophet. O you who have believed, bless him and grant him peace with complete peace.) (Al-Ahzab: 56). So I wanted to write an article entitled (A study on praying upon the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him), in which I mentioned the correct way to pray upon the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, according to a library curriculum, and in which I addressed various topics related to this worship, including: the definition of prayer and peace and its ruling. How to pray for the Prophet, may God bless him and peace be upon him.
Generally, this essay employs the concept of ‘stance’ to try to understand the theological thoughts and activities of Bonhoeffer and the Christian community at large during the turbulent events which occurred in Nazi Germany. In particular, it attempts a brief exploratory sketch of how various socio-political contextual factors significantly shaped many of his central theological ideas and concepts. The essay suggests that Bonhoeffer’s doctrine of ethics cannot be adequately understood apart from the socio-political context of Hitler’s dictatorship and the actions of the Nazi National Socialist political regime within which it emerged and developed. His active role in the resistance movement to the point of losing his life and that of loved ones was Bonhoeffer’s way of putting his Christian beliefs into concrete practice. Horrified by the blind loyalty and obedience of the bulk of Christians to Nazi state authority, Bonhoeffer responded by formulating a theology to respond to what he viewed as transgressions against God, human life, and society itself. The essay concludes by asserting that all of Bonhoeffer’s discussions about ‘ethics’ regarding conscience, freedom, the Christian faith and church, responsibility, and even his central concept of ‘responsible action’ were formulated in direct response and challenge to Hitler’s political regime.
The essence of social justice in development, as the nation's ideal, is ideally present to provide changes for the better to all people without exception. However, in reality, there are still social inequalities in development, such as those experienced by the Kokoda Tribe in Southwest Papua. The research aims to find out the pattern of hegemony experienced by the Kokoda Tribe. Therefore, the type of research used is qualitative. Qualitative research emphasizes the socially constructed nature of reality. The data analysis process was carried out during the research. Each observation and interview was followed by an interpretation process by connecting one meaning with another. The results show that the hegemony that occurs in the Kokoda Tribe takes place through four patterns, namely: Domination pattern, intellectual hegemony pattern, moral hegemony pattern, and spiral hegemony pattern. The marginalization experienced by the Kokoda Tribe does not occur naturally but is the result of hegemony patterns, namely the existence of a dominant class that constructs the whole life of society.
As many previous studies tend to discuss the biography of local Islamic figures and overly-textual interpretation in exploring the Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia and criticize the western concepts of democracy in Gorontalo, this study aims to explore the newly-found dynamics of contestation of local Islamic thought in Gorontalo Province. Conducting in Gorontalo, a northern province in Sulawesi Island inhabited mainly by Muslim communities, this study employs a qualitative approach with a descriptive method. In the present work, the discourse of Islamic thought in Gorontalo is found to develop into a massive and uncontrolled state, leading to polemics among the Muslim community in the area. The polemics among people, including in the social media, involve two groups that are ideologically and epistemologically different: the liberal Islamic groups, i.e., ANSOR and PMII, and the fundamental Islamic groups, i.e., Tablighi Jamaat and Wahdah Islamiyah. Issues of religion-culture debate, khilafiyah, religious pluralism, and prohibition of Christmas salutation are among the main highlights of the polemic, especially among Muslims in Gorontalo. The presence of fundamentalists represents the new phenomenon in the Islamic thought discourse in Gorontalo, which is known for its subjectivity in perceiving the absence of the basic principles or nash (Qur'an and hadith) of the fundamentalists. Consequently, a debate between the two groups, claiming which one has the absolute truth, is inevitable. This situation also ends up with fundamentalist extremism labelling others as infidels (takfiri) and deviant to Islamic teachings.
This article discusses the development of the al-Asy'ary method of thought as one of the sects in the Alhusunnah Wal Jama'ah movement, which is a form of rejection of the Mu'tazilah group. The kasb used by al-Asy'ary implies that something arises from the receiver of kasb (al-muktasib) through the created power, and the creator of that power is God himself. Iktisab, on the other hand, is something that happens through the created power, thus making the acquisition or kasb for the person whose action arises with the help of that power. Al-Asy'ary tried to clarify this theory by presenting a division of movement (al-harakah) where every human being has two different types of movement. The first is an involuntary movement that cannot be avoided (al-harakah al idhtirariyyah), which comes from outside human will. The second is voluntary movement (al-hirakah al iradiyyah), which arises based on the efforts made by humans. The core issue of al-Asy'ary's kasb theory is actually found in the first verse mentioned above, namely in QS al-Shaffat/37:96: "Allah is the one who created you and what you do." If we look at the previous verse (munasbat ayat), it relates to the expression of Prophet Ibrahim's (as a sign of his disapproval) towards his people who worshipped the idols they made themselves. Meanwhile, his thought, specifically in the kasb theory, can be seen that humans acquire their actions created by God when they desire to do something.
There is no separate discipline of ethics in Islam, and the comparative importance of reason and revelation in determining moral values is open to debate. For most Muslims, what is considered halāl (permitted) and harām (forbidden) in Islam is understood in terms of what God defines as right and good. There are three main kinds of values: (a) akhlāq, which refers to the duties and responsibilities set out in the shari‘ah and in Islamic teaching generally; (b) adab, which refers to the manners associated with good breeding; and (c) the qualities of character possessed by a good Muslim, following the example of the Prophet Muhammad. Among the main differences between Islamic and western morality is the emphasis on timeless religious principles, the role of the law in enforcing morality, the different understanding of rights, the rejection of moral autonomy as a goal of moral education, and the stress on reward in the Hereafter as a motivator of moral behavior. An Islamic life system cannot be conveyed only by using verbal suggestions, verbal warnings but also necessary means that can form a complete cultural network. In this regard, intense dialogue with various existing values is needed to bring about a paradigm shift in thinking in the form of symbols that can be applied in local cultural life. The method of cultivating Islamic values demands conditions for improving the quality and performance of Muslim humans who have these values. Islamic values that are properly understood will function as a compass for the direction where and how to live a modern life full of changes in values. Islamic values will still play an important role in the future, especially in providing a moral foundation for the development of science and technology. Religious teachings must be brought closer to the context of modernity.
Culture is one of the leading agents in making people negotiate with each other. Cultural intelligence is not an exception in this matter and can significantly affect learners’ education. This study explains cultural intelligence, its’ theoretical background, definition, contents, knowledge, facets, and the effect of this phenomenon on education especially writing ability. Moreover, this study explains the development stages and domains of cultural intelligence while individuals are confronted with unknown situations. The most significant factor that can define cultural intelligence is the contexts and situations that stimulate this intelligence. Also, some assessment processes are examined concerning cultural intelligence. In addition, this study conducted a review on the relationship between cultural intelligence and writing ability. Some recent examinations regarding cultural intelligence and other fields of studies and variables were reported. Finally, this review found that cultural intelligence can impose a negative or positive effect on counterpart variables.
This research aims to examine the activities of cultural approach in preaching as a solution to building tolerance. This is urgent in providing a solution to the highly intolerant social and religious life, which is very concerning in weaving the social ties of the nation. The role of community organizations such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah in carrying out their social functions through cultural preaching approaches is significant. The understanding of cultural preaching among NU and Muhammadiyah is essentially the same as a preaching approach but differs in the preaching object. If cultural preaching among NU aligns with the social and cultural practices of the community, cultural preaching among Muhammadiyah is more about emphasizing the pure teachings of Islam. The implementation of cultural preaching among NU and Muhammadiyah has the same implementation process, which is direct cultural preaching that touches on aspects of the community, while cultural preaching is more about cooperation with government institutions.
The origins of human culture and the foundation of freedom can be traced back to the religious nature of the species. Human ability to create an entirely worldly one, separate from the great synthesis, came only after a long period of experimentation and thought. Certainly, this is seen as a positive development in the current conception of culture and its historical context. Today, it is being debated whether the detachment of human work-from science to morality to education to the state to economics to art-from religious connections and connections has been beneficial both to culture itself and to human personality progress in the direction of higher concrete achievements and human development. The author utilized deductive reasoning to create a link between religion and the aspects of culture and the foundations of freedom in this research work, which uses a qualitative technique based on a deductive research methodology.
This study uses Roland Barthes' semiotic analysis to examine the meaning of the advice contained in Gurindam Twelve chapter 3 by Raja Ali Haji. This study uses a qualitative research method with an interpretive approach. This research is classified as interpretive research because it relies on interpreting texts associated with ideological, moral, cultural, and spiritual values. The researcher aims to analyze the meaning of the advice in Gurindam Twelve chapter 3 in its semiotic aspect and relate the relevance of the importance of the advice in Gurindam conveyed to today's society. From the study results, it can be concluded that in Article 3 Gurindam Twelve, the meaning of the denotation is the cause and effect of protecting human organs to avoid harmful and useless things. Guarding human organs, but in its meaning, it is not merely teaching organs. From the interpretation of these organs, it means a habit, nature, work which, when we do not take care of it, will cause harm to ourselves and even to others. The myth in chapter 3, Gurindam Twelve 3, contains self-control advice for the reader. In addition, the Twelve Gurindam Article 3 contains Islamic religious values in terms of morals and etiquette. This is evidenced by the verses of the Qur'an and hadiths that are relevant to the meaning contained in this Gurindam Twelve Aat 3 advice. In addition, the advice in article 3 of the Gurindam Twelve is relevant to be a life guide for today's society.
The present paper explores the ways in which secular and Islamic ideologies have emerged and developed as distinct frames of reference for the Moroccan feminist movement. It examines critically the changing meanings of ‘the secular’ and ‘the religious’ and the ways they communicate and manifest in the Moroccan feminist narrative. The aim is to track the development of the two sub-movements referred to as secular feminism and Islamic feminism and analyze their dynamics and ability to adapt to a complex socio-political reality by adopting different ideological approaches to the issue of women’s rights reform. The study of the course of the Moroccan feminist movement and its shift between secular and Islamic feminist discourses helps improve our understanding of feminist theory by observing various feminist expressions in different cultural environments from the ones which are perceived as the native home of feminism. It also helps us examine the influence of local ideological conflicts on feminism and deconstruct these ideologies by detecting their limitations, enabling us to have a clear perception of the nature of the feminist movement today and foresee the prospects of women's rights reform in Morocco and other Muslim-majority societies in the future.