International Journal of Chemistry

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Online ISSN: 1916-9701
Print ISSN: 1916-9698
Publications
Absorption spectra of DNS18C6 (1.0×10 − 5 M) in acetonitrile in presence of increasing amounts of 1.0×10 − 5 M hydrochloric acid (1 → 4) 
Emission spectra of DNS18C6 (1×10 − 5 M) in acetonitrile presence of increasing amounts of 1×10 − 5 M hydrochloric acid (1 → 4) 
Absorption spectra of DNSN218C6 (1×10 − 5 M) in presence of increasing amounts of 1M LiClO 4 in acetonitrile 
Emission spectra of DNS18C6 (1×10 − 5 M) in acetonitrile in presence of increasing amounts (1 → 5) of BaClO 4 (1×10 − 4 M stock solution) 
The present study investigates the binding properties of four dansyl substituted aza-crown ethers with alkali, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium. The influence of the solvent polarity and protonation on the photophysical properties of the compounds was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence methods. The host species caused only slight changes on the absorption spectra of the ligands. The fluorescence changes were more pronounced and concentration dependent thus allowing to calculate the binding constants of the process. The most stable complex under our working conditions was the one between Ba(2+) and DNS18C6.
 
Total and decomposed binding energies of the MD studied complexes (kcal·mol -1 ) together with the experimental IC 50 values
2D ligand interaction diagrams for (a) a potential CviR antagonist (PDB code: 3QP5) and (b) a potential CviR agonist (PDB code: 3QP1)  
In the present study, the origin of the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activities of several members of a recently synthesized and in vitro tested class of lactone and thiolactone based inhibitors were computationally investigated. Docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations were carried out to reveal the exact binding and inhibitory profiles of these compounds. The higher in vitro activity of the lactone series relative to their thiolactone isosteres was verified based on estimating the binding energies, the docking scores and monitoring the stability of the complexes produced in the MD simulations. The strong electrostatic contribution to the binding energies may be responsible for the higher inhibitory activity of the lactone with respect to the thiolactone series. The results of this study help to understand the anti-QS properties of lactone-based inhibitors and provide important information that may assist in the synthesis of novel QS inhibitors.
 
The composition of narrow distribution poly ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer (Mw ~ 8700 Da) was studied using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer produced oligomers separated by 14 Da. The average resolving power over the entire spectrum was 28,000. Approximately 448 isotopically resolved peaks representing about 56 oligomers are identified. Although agreement between experimental and calculated isotopic distributions was strong, the compositional assignment was difficult. This is due to the large number of possible isobaric components. The purpose of this research is to resolve and study the composition of high mass copolymer such as ethylene oxide-propylene oxide.
 
A ruthenium complex of bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(4-methyl-4’vinyl-2,2’-bipyridine) was used to modify glassy carbon electrodes during cyclic voltammetry. The modification procedure is rapid and produces a polymer film on the glassy carbon electrode. Characterization cyclic voltammograms of the ruthenium-based polymer films in supporting electrolyte solutions are very similar to the electropolymerization cyclic voltammograms. The polymer thin films derived from the ruthenium complex exhibit Nernstian electron transfer with respect to the applied potential at low scan rates. This is shown by the small peak separation between the cathodic and anodic peaks during characterization. At scan rates greater than 1.00 V/sec, the films model the Randles-Sevcik equation for diffusion-controlled mass transfer processes. Surface coverage ranges from 9.42 x 10-11 mol/cm2 to 4.76 x 10-10 mol/cm2 and was calculated by integrating the area under the anodic peak of the characterization cyclic voltammograms.
 
Recently in this laboratory a novel series of Hector’s bases (1,2,4-thiadiazolidine) had been synthesized. 1-substituted-3formamidinothiocarbamides (1a-f) and 1,3-Bis(N-substitutedthioamido)guanidines (1g-l) were oxidatively cyclised by using liquid bromine as oxidizing agent in chloroform medium to synthesized yet new series of Hectors bases viz; 3-imino-5-substitutedimino-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine (2a-f) and 3-substitutedthioamidoimino-5-substitutedimino-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine (2g-l) respectively The oxidative cyclisation of (1a-l) was also carried out by making use of H2O2 in concentrated HCl as oxidizing agent. The Hector’s bases isolated in these reactions were characterized on the basis of conventional elemental analysis, chemical characteristics and IR and PMR spectral analysis.
 
Characterization data of compounds 6a-j
Characterization data of compounds 7a-g
Antibacterial activity of the compounds. MIC in µgml -1 (Zone of inhibition in mm)
Antifungal activity of the compounds. MIC in µgml -1 (Zone of inhibition in mm)
A series of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives having 6-bromonaphthalene moiety are synthesized.2-[(6-bromo-2-naphthyl)oxy]acetohydrazide was treated with various substituted aromatic acids in presence of POCl3 togive 2-{[(6-bromo-2-naphthyl)oxy]methyl}-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazole. Also the hydrazide on treating with CS2/KOHgave 5-{[(6-bromo-2-naphthyl)oxy]methyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione, which was subjected to Mannich reactionto get a series of Mannich bases and with alkyl/aryl halide to give2-{[(6-bromo-2-naphthyl)oxy]methyl}-5-[(alkyl/aryl)thio]-1,3,4-oxadiazole. The newly synthesized compounds werecharacterized by analytical and spectral data. Antimicrobial activities of these compounds were carried out and some ofthem have exhibited good activity.
 
SSZ-13 molecular sieve is prepared by the traditional hydrothermal method with silica sol, aluminium sulphate, sodiumhydroxide and deionized water as raw material, and N, N, N-trimethyl-l-adamant ammonium hydroxide as a template. Itis investigated in terms of the influencing factors and optimal reaction conditions, and characterized with XRD, BETspecific surface area meter and FT-IR. The experimental results indicate that the obtained SSZ-13 molecular sieve hasadvantages of shorter reaction time, higher crystallinity and larger specific surface area. The reaction time is furthershortened to 2 days by introducing crystal seed or accelerant, which lowers the total preparation cost of SSZ-13 andmakes its industrialization highly feasible.
 
Chemical composition of Acacia hybrid of the treated sapwood  
Mean result of chemical composition of Acacia hybrid 
Chemical composition of Acacia hybrid of the treated heartwood  
The chemical constituents of oil-heat treated cultivated 15 years-old Acacia hybrid were investigated. The logs of A.hybrid were harvested and cut at bottom, middle and top portions and oil-heat treated using organic palm oil attemperatures of 180, 200 and 220°C for the time 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The wood samples were dried and grinded intosawdust, and air-dried again prior to the chemical analysis. Untreated samples were used as controls. The results on theanalysis of the chemical contents in the oil-treated A. hybrid shows some changes occurred when treated from 180 to220°C. The variation occurred in the chemical contents for both the sapwood and heartwood. The holocellulose contents decrease from 71.5 to 63.1% and 73.4 to 64.0% for sapwood and heartwood respectively. The cellulosecontents decreased from 47.1 to 37.7% for the sapwood and 48.9 to 38.1% for heartwood. The hemicellulose content'sincreases from 24.4 to 25.4% in the sapwood and 24.5 to 25.9% for the heartwood. Lignin contents increased 20.8 to24.0% for the sapwood and 22.4 to 24.9% in the heartwood for treatment temperature from 180 to 220°C.
 
This paper focuses on the destruction of aqueous 2,4-dichorophenol in ZnO suspension irradiated by low wattage UVlight at 299 K. The operating variables studied include initial 2,4-dichlorophenol concentration, photocatalyst doses andpH. At 1.5 g l-1 feed concentration of ZnO and 50 mg l-1 initial 2,4-dichlorophenol level, a complete degradation wasachieved in 180 min. The decomposition kinetics with respect to 2,4-dichlorophenol approximates pseudo zero-orderwith rate constant peaking at 0.38 mg l-1 min-1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detected benzoquinone, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 4-chlorophenol,3,5-dichlorocatechol, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and phenol during the ZnO-assisted photodegradation of2,4-dichlorophenol among which some pathway products are disclosed for the first time. The reaction mechanismaccounting for the degradation pathway intermediates is proposed. Inorganic anion additives such as S2O82-, SO42-, ClandHPO42- manifested inhibition against 2,4-dichlorophenol removal.
 
The present work pertains to synthesis, kinetic behavior and mechanism of hydrolysis of some organophosphoruspesticides. The compound investigated here was 2,5-diethoxyaniline in particular. The corresponding tri-phosphate esterwas prepared in the laboratory by phosphorylation with POCI3. The process involved is that of the substitution of –OHgroup of orthophosphoric acid by aryl radical. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of the above ester was studied in acidicmedia. The acid employed was HCI. In acidic media, hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures 80, 90and 980C (keeping other parameters of the experiment unchanged). The rate of hydrolysis is found to follow theArrhenius equation. The values of the Arrhenius parameters-energy of activation and change of entropy-point to thebimolecular nature of the hydrolysis of the triester. It can be inferred from the ionic strength data in the range 0.01 to 5M-HCI, the reactive species of the present triester is conjugate acid species. Effects of temperature, and solvent on therate of reaction, together with the correlation of rates with acidity and Bunnett parameters favour bimolecular nature ofhydrolysis. The above results lead to the following most probable route of hydrolysis. In the case of triesers, dioxanewas already present as constituent of the solvent. Experiment was repeated at three different dioxane concentrations ineach case. The analysis of these data led to the interpretation that a transition state is formed with charge dispersed outof the reactive species and water and that the hydrolysis is a bimolecular nucleophilic reaction. The theoretical part ofthe present work includes calculation of the various terms involved in the mathematical formation of Hammett, Zuckerand Hammett, Bunnett and Bunnett and Olsen hypothesis. This part supports the interpretation of the experiment resultsregarding the molecularity of the reaction.
 
International Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2009, all in one file.
 
International Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 1, No. 2, August 2009, all in one file.
 
International Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 2010, all in one file
 
Refractive index, density, viscosity and dielectric constant of allyl chloride + n-Butanol mixture at 298K 
Comparison of estimated values refractive index, density, viscosity and dielectric constants for pure liquids(i.e. allyl chloride and n-Butanol) at 298K with the literature values
The density ?, viscosity ?, refractive index n and dielectric constant ?s of binary mixture of Allyl Chloride (AC)with n-Butanol including those of the pure liquids, were measured over the complete composition range at 298K.The experimental data is used to calculate excess molar volumes (vE), excess permittivity (?sE), excess viscosity(?E), excess refractive index, molar refraction, excess molar polarization and Dunstan’s constant. The variationsof these parameters with composition and the effect of bonding in the binary mixture are discussed from thepoint of view of intermolecular interactions in these mixtures. The positive value of excess molar volume (vE ) isattributed to the breaking of H-bonded associated species formed between unlike molecule at 298K.
 
A series of some 6H-thiochromeno[4,3-b]quinoline derivatives were prepared by the reaction of4-chloro-2H-thiochromene-3-carbaldehydes with 2-aminophenols in DMF and characterized by analytical and spectralmethods. All the compounds under test were found to be active against M.gypseum and E.floccosum higher than that ofthe standard fluconazole.
 
Quinazolines exhibit various biological activities. In the present investigation a series of new 2-amino-5-aryl-5,6-dihydro- 7-(naphthalen-2-yl)quinazolin-4-ols are synthesized by the condensation of various naphthyl substitutedcyclohexenones with guanidine in presence of NaOEt. All the synthesized compounds are characterized by variousspectral techniques.
 
An amino chitosan absorbent has been prepared with monoethylamine, chitosan, catalyst, cross-linking agent,hydroxylpropyl chlorination agent and amination agent. This paper discusses the effect of monoethylamine modificationon the amino content in chitosan absorbent, as well as its effect on the absorption capacity of absorbent for Cu2+ andZn2+; and investigates the absorption kinetics of chitosan and amino chitosan for Cu2+ and Zn2+. The results indicate thatthe amino content of modified porous microspheric chitosan is higher than that of chitosan; its absorption capacity forCu2+ and Zn2+ increases with the rise of temperature and changes with pH, and there is no obvious difference inabsorption capacity of Zn2+ between chitosan and modified chitosan.
 
Density (x10 3 kgm -3 ) at different temperature and concentration at 1MHz for PMMA 
Ultrasonic velocity (ms -1 ) at different temperature and concentration at 1MHz for PMMA 
Solution is prepared by mixing Polymethylmethacrylate in solid form with acetic acid, which at differentconcentration were used to measure density, viscosity & ultrasonic velocity in the temperature range 300C-650C,using ultrasonic interferometer at 1MHz. Using these measured values of density, viscosity & sound velocity,different parameters like, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance and relaxation time have been measuredfor solution of polymethylmethacrylate with acetic acid under different conditions of temperature andconcentration. Variations of above parameters with respect to temperature and concentration have beendiscussed in terms of molecular interactions.
 
FTIR spectrum of PFA 
Poly(furfural-acetone) was prepared and used for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The optimum pHfor the removal was found to be 6. The adsorption kinetic of Cu(II) was studied, and the rates of sorption werefound to conform to Pseudo–Second-order kinetic with a correlation coefficient (R2=1), results indicate that thepH 6 of the system supported the adsorption of Cu(II) on PFA, which involve higher negative value of ΔGo. Onthe other hand, the degree of spontaneity of the reaction increases with increasing temperature for allconcentrations of Cu(??). The positive values of ΔH° reveals, the endothermic nature of the process and its valuelie in the range of physisorption. It was also observed that the randomness increases at the solid-solutioninterface from the positive values of ΔS°. Estimation of sticking probability S* values reveal that the process isfavorable due to low value of S*(S*are positive and their values lie in the range of physisorption.
 
Graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto nonwoven polypropylene (PP) fabric was carried out by a preirradiationmethod using a 60Co gamma radiation source. Results showed that 2.2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), its concentrationwas 0.2%, was very important during the grafting polymerization without removal of polymerization inhibitor of AA.The most favorable grafting polymerization conditions were that the total preirradiation dose was under 60 kGy, themonomer concentration was lower than 30%, and the bath ratio was 1:200. FT-IR spectroscopy, surface morphology(SEM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) spectra of the original PP and the grafted PP were also studied.
 
Taking acrylamide and diethyl chlorophosphate as the reactants, we synthesized a sort of new intumescent flame retardant(IFR) containing phosphorus and nitrogen, O,O-diethyl acrylamide phosphonate. The structure of the title compoundcould be characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and MS. The results show that the structure of the synthesized compound isconsistent with the expected structure. The yield of the title compound is 75% under the conditions that the molar ratiobetween acid-binding agents of triethylamine and acrylamide is 1:1 and the mass fraction of the catalys CuCl is 1% ofacrylamide. The optimal reaction temperature range is from 20 centi degree to 30 centi degree. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) value canreach 26.7% when the mass fraction of the title compound in the copolymer is 20%. The scanning electron microscopy(SEM) photos of the fired residue of the flame retarded copolymer show that the surface of the fired residue presentsfoam-like structure, and the cross section presents cellular structure, which indicate that the title compound is theintumescent flame retardant.
 
A long chain fatty acid carrying an acryloyl functionality, 12-acryloyloxydodecanoic acid (12-ADA), was preparedfrom 11-hydroxydodecanoic acid and acryloyl chloride and used as monomer in the synthesis of oligomers of 12-ADAvia the RAFT controlled polymerisation process. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Transfer (RAFT) reagents wereprepared and used to control the polymerisation process and produced an oligomeric product with few monomeric unitsinstead of a high molecular weight polymer of 12-ADA. The transfer reagents were prepared from Grignardintermediates from a reaction of dithioacids with free radical initiators 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and4,4-azobis(4-cyanopropanoic acid) (ACP). It was found that short-chain oligomers in the form of dimers and trimerscharacterized by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry, ESMS and Gel Permeation chromatography, GPC were the majorproducts obtained when RAFT reagents had been used in the controlled polymerisation. As a control, polymerisationwas carried out in the absence of RAFT reagents and high molecular-weight polymers were obtained. This confirmedthe effectiveness of the prepared RAFT reagents as polymerisation controllers and provided a way for the synthesis ofoligomers. Here, the preparation of oligomers of 12-ADA using AIBN-RAFT reagents is reported. The method isexpected to provide one way of preparing oligomers of controlled chain length/molecular mass which also carry acarboxylic acid functional group at one end.
 
ABSTRACTInstrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been validated and the method applied to determine total halogen and extractable organohalogen in six fish species namely Heterotis niloticus, Channa obscura, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Clarias gariepinus, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus. The samples were collected directly from the fishermen at their landing sites from the two sampling towns, Weija and Nsawam along the Densu river basin in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The concentrations of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine analysed by INAA were between 770.70 - 1123.50 mg/kg, 8.00 - 25.00 mg/kg and 0.70 - 4.20 mg/kg respectively. For the extractable organohalogens concentrations ranged from 0.30 – 350.40 mg/kg. The highest concentration of 350.40 mg/kg was obtained for extractable organochlorine (EOCl) in Hepsetus odoe sampled from Nsawam, while the lowest concentration was obtained for extractable organoiodine. The content of extractable organohalogen were in the order of EOCl>> EOBr > EOI. Key words: Neutron activation, Organohalogen, Fish species, Densu basin, Extractable.
 
This paper presents a generic technology allowing the incorporation of functional entities into a porous substrate. Ionexchange particles were incorporated into an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) copolymer porous matrix by a dry-wetspinning process and a heterogeneous matrix, composed of solid particles surrounded by a polymeric film, was formed.Hydrophilic ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) and cation exchange resin D061 powder used as matrix materialfor hollow fiber membrane and functional particles, respectively, resins with different loading were prepared to fillEVAL hollow fiber membrane adsorbents. The membrane adsorbents were characterized with respect to theirmorphology, porosity, pure water flux (PWF), and rejection rate. Micro morphology was observed by the scanningelectron microscope method. Effects of resin load on the performance of membrane adsorbents were mainly discussed.The experimental results showed that PWF and porosity increased and retention coefficient decreased with higher resinloading.
 
SEM of silica ceramic: (A) 3300, 1m; (B) 850, 10m
Kinetics adsorption of lead from aqueous solution using silica ceramic has been investigated in batch methods. Theeffect of solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, temperature and adsorbent mass on metal ion removal has beenstudied. The process of lead adsorption follows pseudo second-order rate expression and obeys the Langmuir’s modelwith high correlation coefficient (R2>0.99) and better than other equations. The maximum removal achieves 2.7 mg/g.The result indicates that under the optimum conditions, the maximum adsorption value for Pb(II) comply the silicaceramic is a potential adsorbent for Pb(II).
 
The permeability of polymer is determined by its chain configuration, phase morphology and the interaction with thepenetrant. Based on these principles, the permeability of the polyester of poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) is enhancedthrough different modifiers in order to apply it to barrier packing bottle. In this paper, poly (m-xylyleneadipamide-terephthalyl amide) (MXD6T) and nanometer silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanocomposite with SiO2 load from 5%to 20% (by mass) is prepared and used to improve the barrier property of polyester bottle materials. In preparingMXD6T-SiO2 (NMXD6T), silica is in-situ polymerized with hexane diacid, terephthalic acid (TPA), alkyl and aromaticdiamine. The different molar ratio of hexane diacid to terephthalic acid with the same molar diamine is designed to givethe composites with different viscosity, thermal performance and the barrier properties. The 3-8 times of enhancedpermeability of these polyester matrix nanocomposites with this NMXD6T to pure polyester resins are reported.The relationship of NMXD6T’s configuration and the permeability properties of polyester nanocomposites arecharacterized by techniques of the dynamic scanning calorimeter (DSC), FT Infrared, and Transmission ElectronicMicroscopy (TEM). DSC shows that NMXD6T is totally amorphous. FTIR shows the existence of silicon-oxygen bondformed in the nanocomposite, and TEM indicates an average size from 30nm to 100nm of SiO2 particles being phaseseparated from MXD6T matrix, while well bonded to the polyester chains. It is concluded that the NMXD6T-PETnanocomposites may be one of the best way to enhance the barrier properties of polyesters for their packing application.
 
A practical and efficient synthesis of N-alkylthio-phthalimides by the reaction of N-chlorophthalimide withthiols catalyzed by quaternized chitosan was described. The reactions were carried out in relatively mildconditions, and a variety of N-alkylthio-phthalimides were efficiently prepared with moderate to good yields.
 
SEM picture for 20% duty cycle, 10Hz frequency for 50% silver with 50% copper alloy for an average current density 0.803 A/dm 2  
XRD pattern for 20% duty cycle and 10 Hz frequency for an average current density of 0.803A/dm 2 for 75% silver with 25% copper alloy  
This research attempt is made to study the effect of base metal composition in pulse plating of silver over silver alloy.The effect of pulse parameters due to the electro deposition of silver over 50% silver alloy is studied and the results arecompared with the results obtained from the study of the effect of pulse parameters because of the electro deposition of75% silver alloy. The surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. Higher thepurity of silver, finer is the grain size. It is also evident that 75% silver alloy has more corrosion resistant than 50%silver alloy. It is suggested that the properties are improved in pulse plating if the concentration of silver in silver copperalloy is more.
 
The chemical equilibrium of the ternary complex ion associate of the complex anion AuCl4- and the ion – pairingreagent 1- (3, 5-diamino-6-chloropyrazinecarboxyl) guanidine hydrochloride monohydrate, DPG+.Cl- extractedfrom aqueous solutions of pH 5-6 onto 4-methyl pentan-2-one was demonstrated. The extraction constants (Kex,KD and ß) of the chemical equilibrium and the structure of the produced associate were determined. The resultshave indicated that, the formation of the complex ion associate of the chemical structure DPG+.AuCl4- and theextraction mechanism does not involve solvation of the ion associate by the amine and/or water molecules in theorganic phase. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 0.01 -2.5 ?g mL-1gold (III) in the aqueous solution. Themethod was applied successfully for the analysis of gold (I) after oxidation to gold (III). The method was alsoapplied for the analysis of gold (I& III) at trace concentrations in industrial wastewater samples. Gold (III) ionsat trace level in one liter aqueous solution was concentrated in 10.0 mL by the developed extraction system so anenrichment factor of 100 was achieved. The time taken for the separation and determination of gold ions was inthe range of 3-5 min.
 
Mixed oxides of MgO/ZrO 2
A new one-pot and efficient three-component condensation of aldehyde, ketones, and amines in the presence of MgO/ZrO2 as an inexpensive and effective catalyst for the synthesis of ?-amino carbonyl compounds by Mannich reaction is described. The present methodology offers several advantages, such as good yields, Short reaction times and a recyclable catalyst with a very easy work up. Keywords: Multi-component reaction, MgO/ZrO2, heterogeneous catalyst, ?-amino Carbonyl compounds.
 
The kinetics of oxidation of 2-amino-1-Butanol and 3-Amino-1-propanol by potassium ferrate(VI) in alkalineliquids at a constant ionic strength has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2K-313.2 K. The reaction shows first order dependence on potassium ferrate(VI), first order dependence on eachreductant. The observed rate constant (kobs) decreases with the increase in [OH-], the reaction is negative fractionorder with respect to [OH-]. A plausible mechanism is proposed and the rate equations derived from themechanism can explain all the experimental results. The rate constants of the rate-determining step and theactivation parameters are calculated.
 
Nano-TiO2 sol and finishing agent was prepared by sol-gel method, during which tetrabutyl titanate was used as precursorand ethanol was used as solvent. The agent was penetrated into polyester fabric through a padding method, theanti-ultraviolet performance of the fabric was analyzed and the external morphology was carefully studied afterward. Theresults showed that indicated that the Nano-TiO2 particles distribute evenly with fine dispersity and stability and thefinished fabrics demonstrated exceptional anti-ultraviolet performance with a phenomenal UPF ascendance reaching upto 50+ without influencing the breaking strength.
 
Organoselenium compounds are known to possess antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities. In the present study, 3-[(phenylcarbonyl)selenyl]propanoic acid was synthesized and different ester derivatives of 3-[(phenylcarbonyl)selenyl]propanoic acid and benzoylselenoglycolic acid were synthesized and characterized using IR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the newly synthesized compounds was determined against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of the compounds showed moderate to significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.
 
Study the effect of blending hydrophilic agent and water and oil repellent agent on cotton fabric property of antifoulingand easy decontaminating. The study shows that blending could make the fabric have property of antifouling and easydecontaminating.
 
Three (z)-3-(bromomethylene)thiochroman-4-ones were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed byMS and 1H NMR. In vitro antifungal activities of these synthesized compounds were evaluated against ten species offungi, and the results showed that the target compounds exhibited activity against fungi tested to some extent. Themaximum inhibitory activity was found for 3a against C.neoformans, 3a and 3c exhibited more potent antifungalactivities against C.Krusei than Fluconazole.
 
Molecular structure of ethyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (4f) 
Characterization data of compounds (4a-4l)
Antibacterial activity of the compounds. MIC in µgml -1 (Zone of inhibition in mm)
A series of chalcones and its cyclohexenone derivatives derived from 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde are described. The chalcones synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction were treated with ethylacetoacetate in presence of NaOH to get the cyclocondensed product ethyl-4-(aryl)-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-oxo-cyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate. The synthesized compounds were characterized from elemental analysis and spectral data. Ethyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-oxo-cyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (4f) was studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction.
 
Nano-ZnO was prepared by direct precipitation method with zinc chloride and sodium carbonate anhydrous as rawmaterials, and its particle size and dispersion were characterized by TEM. The effects of concentration and the ratio ofreactants and reaction temperature on its dispersion in aqueous solution were analyzed and the best reaction conditionswere as follows: reaction temperature 60 centi degree, ultrasonic vibration time 40 min, concentration of the reactant 0.5mol/l andmolar ratio of reactants 1:2 for the preparation. The cotton fabric and the polyester fabric which were both finished bypad-dry-cure process with antistatic finishing agent, which was compounded with nano-ZnO, were tested on theirantistatic property. According to the comparation between the cotton and the polyester treated fabrics on antistaticproperty, the results showed that the charge density of the polyester fabric was reduced to 9.5×10-8 C/m2 from 5.8×10-6C/m2, which was about 10 times as that of the cotton fabric.
 
A simple and accurate method for the quantitative retention of traces of selenium (IV) from aqueous media wasdeveloped employing polyurethane foams (PUFs).The dependences of selenium (IV) uptake by the unloaded andtributyl phosphate (TBP) plasticized PUFs on pH, salt effect, nature and concentration of surfactant, etc. wascritically studied. The sorption data have followed Langmuir, and Dubinin - Radushkevich (D-R) type sorptionisotherms. Thus, "a dual-mode" sorption mechanism involving both absorption related to "solvent extraction"and an added component for "surface adsorption" may be simultaneously present. The sorption and recoverypercentage of selenium (IV) from fresh and natural water by the proposed loaded and unloaded foam columnswere quantitatively achieved. The method was applied for the retention and recovery of selenium (IV) speciesspiked to fresh water employing PUFs packed columns.
 
Biosorption of Acid Green (AG 25) was investigated using Spent Brewery Grains (SBG) a brewing industry waste in abatch system with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, and contact time. Thebiomass exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at 303 K, initial pH value of 3, the initial dye concentration of90mg/L, biosorbent dosage of 0.2 g and contact time of 75 min. The extent of dye removal increased with increase intime, biosorbent dosage and decreased with increase in temperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity of the biomassincreased on increasing the initial dye concentration up to 90 mg/L and then started decreasing in the studiedconcentration up to 300 mg/L. The experimental result has shown that the acidic pH favours the biosorption. Langmuirand Freundlich adsorption model is used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isothermconstants are evaluated. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model. The pseudo first- and second-orderkinetic models were also applied to the experimental data. The results indicated that the dye uptake process followed thepseudo second-order rate expression and biosorption rate constants increased with increasing concentration.
 
AbstractA new and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II) in aqueous environmental samples is reported. The interaction in solution between Pb(II) and Benzoic acid Azo Phenyl Calix[4]arene (BAPC) was studied. Upon reaction of PABC and Pb(II) a stable complex is formed. Under the conditions reported here the method furnishes reproducible results with basic media. The calixarene derivative shows strong binding ability to Pb2+ ion with formation of a 1:1 complex. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 2.0´10-6 - 2.4´10-5 molL-1 of Pb2+. The apparent molar absorptivity (e) of 1-Pb2+ complex was 1.89 x104 Lmol-1cm-1 at 440 nm, and the detection limit is 1.4x10-6 mol L-1. The BAPC showed high sensitivity and selectivity for Pb2+. The method was used to determine the content of Pb(II) in synthetic and natural samples.
 
A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with valine was used for the sensitive volt metric determination ofepinephrine (EP). The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward EP, ascorbic acid (AA)and dopamine (DA) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show an efficient catalytic activity ofthe electrode for the electro-oxidation of EP, which leads to an improvement to the reversibility of the electroderesponse. The effect of pH and potential sweep rate on the mechanism of the electrode process was investigated. Themodified electrode exhibits an efficient electron mediating behavior along with well-separated oxidation peaks for EP,AA, and DA. Under the optimum pH of 7.0 in phosphate buffer solution(PBS), the CV anodic peak current showed alinear relation versus EP concentration in the range of 4.5×10-6~1.0×10-5mol·L-1 and 1.0×10-5~1.4×10-4 mol·L-1, withcorrelation coefficients of 0.9997 and 0.9942. The detection limit is 7.6×10-7 mol·L-1. High sensitivity and selectivity,submicromolar detection limit, high reproducibility, along with ease of preparation and regeneration of the electrodesurface by simple polishing make this method suitable for the determination of EP in pharmaceutical and clinicalpreparations.
 
The dielectric constant (?') of Sulfate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) blended with 30% of fly ash by addition ismeasured using microwave bench at 9.54 GHz, for initial 30 hours of hydration. The heat of hydration for the sameblend using heat of solution calorimetry is also measured. It is observed that contrary to the usual trend of retarding offly ashes, it shows an accelerating trend with increasing strength as times passes. SEM micrographs and XRD patternsare also recorded and observed that C4Al2SO16 (C4A3S¯) is found to be responsible for the accelerating trend of the mix.The hydration process in the early period is studied and it is suggested that suitable retarder should be adopted for theeffective utilization.Cement chemistry notations: C=CaO, A=Al2O3, S¯=SO3, H=H2O, F=Fe2O3, S=SiO2
 
The composition of the studied ash was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, XRD spectra, and thermal data (TG &DTA). These analyses were used to determine thermodynamic parameters such as the activation energy (?Ea), enthalpychange (?H*), entropy change (?S*) and free energy change (?G*) related to the thermal decomposition process werecalculated. Analytical reactions were also used to evaluate the composition of the ash.
 
The reactive, macroporous and massive epoxy group-containing polyGMA was synthesized simultaneously withmethanol aqueous solution and nano-calcium carbonate as porogen by bulk copolymerization. After the polymer wassmashed, particles with diameters in the range of 0.30 to 0.45mm were taken as the carrier and the Scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM) micrographs were done to characterize its surface structure. Under the optimum conditions,?-galactosidase was immobilized on the supporter obtained above, the basic property and the kinetic data of all theimmobilized enzyme were determined, and satisfactory results were obtained in enzyme activity, activity yield, pHstability, thermal stability, operational stability, and Michaelis constants Km. The conclusion obtained indicated that theployGMA prepared concurrently with liquid and solid porogen was more suitable to immobilize enzyme than thatpurely with liquid solution as pore-forming agent.
 
High value of Temperature and presence of Fecal Coli forms bacteria in samples 
Physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of water
Physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of water
In this scientific report are given some results of drinking water in some primary schools in Shala e Bajgorës.Samples which are analyzed are in region that is near mining Trepça in Mitrovica Municipality that are presented.Taking into consideration all important parameters we found they were within given limits , just temperature thatis higher than given limits, so analysis of water samples for thermo tolerant faecal coli forms which are carriedout by passing a measured quantity of water through sterile filter told us more than 60 % of samples werecontaminated.Therefore it was necessary to complete the procedure for chlorination of wells using Galisept.On the base of physical – chemical and bacteriological parameters we may conclude that only after continualprocedure of chlorination of wells it will be completed the conditions for drinking water in analyzed samples.
 
Nickel plating processes, popularly used in Europe in the 1950s, have been increasingly employed in Turkey in recent years. As a result, industrial usage has developed rapidly. Nickel plating is the preferred process for this study because of the uniformity of the plating thickness on the plated surface and the ease with which complex components can be plated. It is also resistant to corrosion and has good levels of hardness.In this experiment, the following parameters were investigated: the effect of varying the amount of nickel, the thickness of the plating, and sheen (whether shiny or dull).In this study, brightener and carrier agents have been used to determine the best operational parameters for the Kale Kilit Factory. The compositions of the brightener and carrier agents used in the experiment are included in this text. Additionally, investigations have been conducted on how the plating color changed when compared to the original bath as a result of using Fe2+ complex concentration in nickel plating baths, as a brightener and for analyzing the color of the plated plate, under a visible region spectrophotometer at 350 nm and 6500 Kelvin light power and D65 (Average North Sky Daylight) light. In our research, the most important feature of analysis is that the desired color effect is obtained by using brightener agents containing Fe2+ complex concentration without any interference from any colorant after nickel plating by electrolysis. In a study where nickel plating bath characteristics are researched, physical tests such as brittle test are applied to the plated plates, which provide us important ideas about the accuracy of the choices made according to standards.
 
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin (DGEBA) was toughened with 5%, 10%and 15% (by wt) of caprolactamblocked methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (CMDI)using 4,4‘- diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as curing agent. Thetoughened epoxy resin was further modified with chemical modifier N, N‘-bismaleimido-4, 40-diphenylmethane(BMI).Caprolactam blocked methylenediphenyl diisocyanate was synthesized by the reaction of caprolactam withmethylenediphenyl diisocyanate in presence of carbon tetrachloride under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal properties ofthe developed matrices were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetricanalysis (TGA), heat distortion temperature (HDT) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Mechanical propertieslike tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength were tested as per ASTM standards. The glass transitiontemperature (Tg) and thermal stability were decreased with increase in the percentage incorporation of CMDI. Thethermomechanical properties of caprolactam blocked methylenediphenyl diisocyanate toughened epoxy resin wereincreased by increasing the percentage incorporation of bismaleimide. The values of impact strength for epoxy resinwere increased with increase in the percentage concentration of CMDI. The homogeneous morphology of CMDItoughened epoxy resin and bismaleimide modified CMDI toughened epoxy resin system was ascertained from scanningelectron microscope (SEM).
 
The Sofftening point of the prepared polymers
Electronic spectra of polymers in THF solvent
The influence of introducing benzothiazole and benzimidazole as a pending groups into the repeating unit of PVC hasbeen studied on the bases of photostability measurements. The photostability of modified polymers were studied bymonitoring the carbonyl Index (ICO), polyene index (Ipo) and hydroxyl index (IOH), all results obtained indicated thatPAA, PSS, PNN, PSA and PNA gave lower growth rate of ICO, IPO and IOH with irradiation time with respect tounmodified PVC film (control). The following trends of photostability are obtainedPAA>PSS>PNN>PSA>PNAAccording to the experimental results several reaction mechanisms were proposed depending on the presence ofbenzothiazole and benzimidazole moieties in the polymer chain. The mode of chain scission was also investigated bymeasuring the variation of average viscosity molecular weight with irradiation time for modified PVC. The degree ofdeterioration (?) and the average number of chain scission (S) values were also calculated.
 
Many technologies have been used to produce finer fibers due to their super advantages such as higher specific surfacearea, filtration/barrier property and absorption, as well as moderate porosity. Finer fibers are thus the great interest ofmany researchers in the nonwoven world, and many technologies have been used to make finer fibers. In this study, theauthors addressed a novel avenue to produce finer fibers by splitting side-by-side bicomponent meltblown nonwovenscomposed of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyamide 6 (PA6) by means of ultrasonic wave, in caustic soda andbenzyl alcohol solutions respectively. The efficiency of fiber splitting was characterized in terms of dyeingratio/percentage of the tested webs. Other properties were also examined, including fiber diameter, web weight loss, airpermeability and thickness. In addition, SEM was used to observe fiber damage and fiber structure in the relevant webs.
 
The effect of different incubation periods on flocculent rates at temperature 35°C
Technological production processes of organic dyes soluble in water, as well as the processes for their application intextile industries, may heavily pollute natural waters, particularly from the point of view of their pronounced coloredwastewaters. Reactive dyes are prominent among numerous groups of water-soluble dyes. The bioflocculant waseffective in flocculating a kind of reactive soluble dyes (Cibacron yellow FN_2R) in aqueous solution. A bioflocculant–producing bacterium were isolated from wastewater and sediments of Close Drainage Systems (CDS) located at the Praiindustrial area.. Compared with conventional chemical flocculants, bioflocculants are biodegradable and nontoxic, andproduce no secondary pollution. Sphingomonas paucimobilis was found to produce a bioflocculant with highflocculating activity for Kaolin suspension and water-soluble dyes. The best temperature flocculation performance was35°C and shaking speed of 160 rpm. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for Kaolin suspension was 98.4% at35°C after 48 hours cultivation. Various culture temperatures were tested between 2 hours in order to investigate theireffect on the bioflocculant production when the culture temperature was 35°C which the flocculating activity ofSphingomonas paucimobilis was up to 98.4%. It was found that, flocculating rate depends on time and temperatures.Determination flocculating activity was shown Sphingomonas paucimobilis is biodegradable and increase in number ofbacteria during the time will confirm that. This study was conducted to biologically treat wastewater discharged fromthe textile industry using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology biological flocculation on COD removal andeffects of solids detention times and MLVSS on EPS production.
 
Top-cited authors
Kafia Surchi
  • Salahaddin University - Erbil
Abdul Halim Abdullah
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
Zulkarnain Zainal
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
Anees Ahmad
  • Aligarh Muslim University
Sufia Hena
  • Universiti Sains Malaysia