International Journal of Business and Management

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Online ISSN: 1833-8119
Print ISSN: 1833-3850
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Notice of RetractionAfter careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper.The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by contacting TPII@ieee.org.China's economic growth characteristics are featured in three respects over the past 60 years: the first one is the distinguishing transition background based on the "second best" and characterized by "surpassing", "homing " option; the Second one is the step-by-step typical growth path which is from the "learning style" to "combination of learning and innovation" the third one is the characteristic growth pattern from the obvious resource dependence, technology dependence to self-innovation.
 
This paper traces the benefits of international accounting standards – their contribution to harmoniz- ation and globalization by purposing and tasking for accounting management. Measuring in details theirs pros and cons effects on the division of labour, financial innovation, company transactions and cost of capital. According to the business practice it is obvious that the usage of international accounting standards leads to reduction of the information asymmetry between the owners and the managers. By this information asymmetry are growing the costs of equities and are less accurate the economical and financial forecasts. Especially the multinational companies whose subsidiaries had to report for some purposes (e.g. tax, local borrowing, benchmarking) using national accounting rules convert and consolidate their different framework for unified financial statement where they were listed. With the growth of international business transactions by private and public entities, the need to coordinate different investment decisions has increased. A suitable accounting information system can help multinational enterprises accomplish their managerial functions on a global basis. In this viewpoint the adaptation of international accounting standards can promote and support for the business management too.
 
This paper presents findings from a study of e-commerce adoption by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Saudi Arabia. Only tiny number of Saudi commercial organizations, mostly medium and large companies from the manufacturing sector, in involved in e-commerce implementation. The latest report released in 2010 by The Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia shows that only 8% of businesses sell online. Accordingly new research has been conducted to explore to what extent electronic mall (e-mall) would enable SMEs in Saudi Arabia to adopt and use online channels for their sales. A quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of 108 SMEs in Saudi Arabia was conducted. The main results of the current analysis demonstrate the significant of organizational factors, and technology and environmental factors. Interestingly, traditional & cultural factors have no significance in this regard.
 
Intellectual capital is a prime strategic asset for organizations in a knowledge based economy. In a knowledge based economy it is indispensible for organizations to indentify, maximize and utilize their intellectual capital to stay in a competitive environment. The main crux of this paper is to examine the relationship of intellectual capital with organizational performance of electrical and electronics SMEs operating in manufacturing sector in Pakistan. This research is conducted in two cities of “Golden Tri Angle” namely Gujrat and Gujranwala in Pakistan. Convenience sampling technique was used for data collection. Structured questionnaires were administrated as a research instrument to collect data from respondents. Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression were used to test the relationship between components of intellectual capital and organizational performance. This is the first study that focused on small and medium enterprises in Pakistan to examine the relationship of intellectual capital with organizational performance.
 
The uncertainty of economy and finance more and more affects cost and cost management. Cost management increasingly becomes the important means of risk management. The research on the risk cost and risk cost management in this article is developed based on the situation. The concept, kinds and characters of risk cost are the first research object in the article; the other research object is something about risk cost management.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 11, November 2008, all in one file
 
Testing for cointegration :The Engle-Granger test
Johansen Cointegration Test
12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false FR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tableau Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The strong volatility that characterized financial markets all over the word, these last years, leaves to think the existence of a disparity between stock prices and their fundamental values, which gives us the presumption of a disconnection between the real sphere and the financial one (Binswanger ( 1999, 2000, 2004 )). The purpose of this paper, is to focus on this possible disconnection by using the cointegration tests, to detect a possible equilibrium relation between the stock exchange returns and the real economic activity growth (measured by the GDP). The period of study lies between 1969 and 2008, according to an annual frequency of two series: the real yields (Stock Market Index return) and of GDP growth rates (real economic sphere indicator). To settle on the dynamics of short and long term between the stock exchange returns and the GDP growth, we used the Vector Errors Correction Model (VECM). Our results corroborate the existence of the disconnection between the two financial and economic series. Key Words: Stock market return, financial bubbles, real sphere JEL classification: E30, E44, G10, G12
 
This research attempts to explore the challenges and issues which local automotive component suppliers face as they make the transition to cockpit module suppliers. The paper firstly provides a description of modularity and then discusses the changing supplier roles and relationships in modular outsourcing. An exploratory case study approach involving two suppliers and one OEM is then used to investigate these themes and provide some insights into the motivations and implications for local component suppliers becoming cockpit module suppliers. The paper argues that there are a number of key issues facing suppliers and OEMs in their quest for modular production and supply. These relate to local expertise, supplier management, financial risk, and on-site/off-site (proximity) operations. This study sheds light on important emerging trends within automotive 1st tier/OEM relationships, in particular issues relating to changing supplier roles.
 
In order to improve the effectiveness of internal control, the Business Accounting Council (BAC) established the Subcommittee which held 16 special meetings to discuss and develop a set of standards of internal control for Japan from February 2005 to January 2007. The BAC did not finalize the Council Opinions of 2007 until February 15, 2007. Based on the minutes of the Subcommittee meetings, this paper mainly traces the process of establishing the standards and practice standards for management assessment and audit concerning internal control over financial reporting, focusing on the changes of standards in the setting process. The history of internal control is also briefly reviewed in this paper.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 3, March 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 12, December 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 2, February 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 10, October 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 8, August 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 7, July 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No. 6, June 2008, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 2009, all in one file.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 9, September 2009, all in one PDF file.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 2009, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management , Vol. 4, No. 3, March 2009, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 12, December 2009, all in one PDF file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 5, May 2009, all in one file.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 11, November 2009, all in one PDF file.
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 8, August 2009, all in one PDF file.
 
International Journal of Business and Management , Vol. 4, No. 2, February 2009, all in one file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2010, all in one PDF file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 2010, all in one PDF file
 
International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 5, No. 3, March 2010, all in one PDF file
 
Nowadays, Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a vital issue which companies are forced to deal with.Considering SCM processes, supplier selection is playing a leading role and the affection of supplied rawmaterials and assembled parts on end users satisfaction cannot be denied as it can influence over both tangiblefactors such as financial or quality indicators and intangible ones such as the shared knowledge. The main aim ofthe presented paper is to highlight the importance of the features of second layer suppliers which have beenoverlooked in supplier selection process. Therefore a new conceptual supplier selection model is developed toselect preferred supplier based on two layers or more. The model is solved using Fuzzy Analytic NetworkProcess (FANP) method which is redesigned using a matrix manipulated and has been fed with real data and theresults represent that features of second layer suppliers are as important as first layers’.
 
The relationship between customer satisfaction and logistic costs was mainly analyzed in the article, and the grey correlation analysis method was used to study the relationship between customer satisfaction and various activity centers, and the research result could offer decision-making references to save costs and enhance customer satisfaction for 3PL (Third Party Logistic) enterprises.
 
Based on 499 effective questionnaires in China, this paper firstly analyzes and concludes the type characteristics, spatial distribution, and combined characteristics of typical village and town housing’s building structure in China. Secondly, this paper studies the features and sorts of chief disasters in China and the harms on village and town housing. Finally, this paper summarizes the main factors that cause the disasters and the disaster pattern, and puts forward relevant countermeasures.
 
China's economic growth characteristics are featured in three respects over the past 60 years: the first one is the distinguishing transition background based on the "second best" and characterized by "surpassing", "homing " option; the Second one is the step-by-step typical growth path which is from the "learning style" to "combination of learning and innovation"; the third one is the characteristic growth pattern from the obvious resource dependence, technology dependence to self-innovation.
 
As commerce becomes complex and global, businesses, customers and even regulators become reliant on the quality certifications or badges for simplifying their choices. Some disquiet has surfaced within the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) about the rampant misuse of the quality certification marks. This study looks at how Malaysian firms have fared in the use of the ISO 9000 certification marks in the promotional materials. Seventy two advertisements appearing in 3 national dailies were collected and studied for compliance with the guidelines on the use of certification marks. The sampled firms generally have not observed the ISO guidelines. The extent of non-compliance of the guidelines is arguably serious. The lingering questions about the disconnect between quality and ethics are likely to continue from the evidence adduced here.
 
To realize that enterprise can quickly respond customer orders and ensure the reliability and optimization of the promise, in this article, we put forward a model of AATP (Allocated Available to Promise) based on CTP (Capacity to Promise). Aiming at some disadvantages in the quick response of order and comprehensive optimization, this model allocate future capacity to forecasted demands through considering market forecasted demands and comprehensively thinking over some restrictions such as enterprise object, material supply and capacity. The model establishes AATP for customer sales representative and offers the material requirement plan and the capacity requirement plan to ensure order promise. This model can support quick, reliable and optimized order promise decisions and realize synchronized procurement, production and sale for the enterprise.
 
Stock splits have been an anomaly in the world of finance since their inception. Despite the fact that stock splitsthemselves do not inherently create any value for the firm, investors see stock splits as positive and thecompanies that declare them as better investments than ones that do not. With the inception several years ago ofthe decimalized system of stock price quotations, it remains to be seen if stock splits will continue to be seen assuch, and if so, to a greater or lesser degree as under the fractional quote system. It seems that despite a reductionin transaction costs under the new system, there again appears to be no long-term benefit to splitting.
 
Based on a field study of two hundred primary school teachers in the Nigerian City of Uyo in Akwa Ibom State,the relationships between absenteeism and job satisfaction, meaningfulness of work, and job stress respectivelywere explored. The research results showed that significant relationships exist between the dependent variable(absenteeism) and the respective independent variables (job satisfaction, meaningfulness of work and job stress).The study therefore concludes that job satisfactions, meaningfulness of work and job stress are majordeterminants of teacher absenteeism in Nigerian public primary schools. Some strategies to reduce teacherabsenteeism were then suggested.
 
Regression analysis of elements Student Motivation and University Student Performance
Regression Analysis of Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation & Student Academic Performance
God-gifted talents, best teachers and best schooling augment the academic performance and students’ motivation is prerequisite for students’ accomplishment. This study attempts to identify the influence of students’motivation on their academic performance. The sample of 342 individuals studying in different universities of Pakistan was selected. Questionnaires comprising three parts were sent directly to targeted segment. In the first part, the first few questions are related to personal information; second part consists of thirty questions of “The University Student Motivation and Satisfaction Questionnaire Version 2”, which was used to measure students’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and last part is related to academics performance of the students. The study delineates that students’ motivationsdimensions extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation has positive impact on academic performance of students. Academics performance amplifies between the ranges of 23 percent and 34 percent due to extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation and the overall model is significant (p
 
Descriptive result of facilities that contribute to student academic performance
The study determined how students assess the various components of their learning environment. It also identified how the learning environment affects students' learning outcomes. A sample of 370 randomly selected students was taken from a population of Bumiputera’s students. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Product Moment Correlation. Findings revealed that students could assess the four components that contribute to their academic performance, which is: facilities provided (11 items), housing environment, parents motivation, school and teacher factors. Housing environment and parent’s motivation has the highest assessment while facilities provided at home have the least. The results also showed that only two components of the learning environment are positively correlated with students' academic performance that is housing environment and school/teacher involvement. The findings are discussed with a view to improve the quality of the learning environment, subsequent academic performance.
 
The fundamental reason for carrying out corporate restructuring is to further enhance the long-term survival of firms through greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness. As a result, firms are bound to conduct financial restructuring as part of their corporate restructuring program. This involves some adjustment on their capital structure as there is a need to have changes on either their debt proportions or equity proportions. This article explores certain critical areas of capital structure. The argument here is based on the life cycle of a company, firm specific characteristics and type of business dimensions. This study also offers a conceptual understanding on capital structure in a given set of factors/variables. It is also postulated here that researchers should look into the possibility of remodeling their work on capital structure.
 
Restaurant profiles
This empirical study investigates the extent that the Malaysian restaurant operators and customers accept the Thai food. Any changes in customers’ eating patterns of the local cuisines are also evaluated. Restaurant operators and customers in three Malaysia northern states (Perlis, Kedah and Penang) were selected as a sample. Both restaurant operators and customers saw a trend towards Thai foods which are becoming well accepted in this country. Nevertheless, the popularity of Thai food is not to the extent of outshining the local food. Thai foods were found to be not consumed everyday by the local people, but rather as an option or alternative or as part of leisure dining. Another remarkable finding is that respondents seemed to agree that Thai food is internationally popular than the Malaysian food. This indication has significant implications to the related authorities as to why Malaysian food is not as popular as Thai food internationally in spite of having a distinctive flavour and diversity of taste.
 
Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) Perception Drivers 
This study examines the adoption and acceptance of information technology from the perspective of Malaysianbankers. The results of the study indicate that majority of Malaysian bankers heavily used computer for routinejobs such as paper work and data maintenance but rarely use the computer for advance functions such asbusiness analysis, planning and decision making. Malaysian bankers also rarely used professional software forspecific purposes such as statistical analysis or programming languages. The regression result of this studyappeared to suggest that perceived usefulness, management support and external computing support were foundto be the most influential factors in determining microcomputer usage among bankers in Malaysia. Overall, theresults of this study are valuable to both researchers and bank management in providing new insights about theIT from bankers’ point of view.
 
In recent years, accounting fraud has occurred widely throughout the globalised business sector. This does not exclude Malaysia as it is emerging as one of the many countries with high expanding rates of business deals. Due to the fact that Malaysian companies are still new and inexperience in managing business and its accounts, this has created undetected loopholes for accounting fraud committers. This has also created bad perceptions by the public regarding the various fraudulent activities that emerge in the country. Therefore this article examines the public acceptance towards occurrence of fraud detection which plays a vital role in business growth. The uniqueness of this paper focuses on the literature review on the public acceptance on fraud detection. This article maps out the importance of fraud detection to strengthen and be competitive in the business.
 
Decision making is an accepted part of everyday human life. People all make varying importance decisions every day, thus the idea that decision making can be a rather difficult action may seem so strange and unbelievable. However, a large number of empirical studies have shown that most people in organizations are much poorer at decision making. Therefore, people began to pay more attention to understand hot to make a suitable decision.
 
New SMEs are very important to the economy of South Africa. Their failure rate at about 75% is one the highestin the world. Lack of finance is one of the primary reasons for the failure of new SMEs in South Africa. About75% of all applications for bank credit by new SMEs are rejected. This objective of the paper was to investigatethe determinants of credit approval for new SMEs. The survey method and self-administered questionnaires wereused for data collection. 445 respondents took part in the survey. Data was analysed by logistic regression. Theresults indicate that managerial competencies, business information, networking, location, crime, business sizeand incorporation are significant determinants of credit approval.
 
There were 338 road fatalities on Irish roads in 2007. Research in 2007 by the Road Safety Authority in Ireland states that young male drivers (17 – 25 years) are seven times more likely to be killed on Irish roads than other road users. The car driver fatality rate was found to be approximately 10 times higher for young male drivers than for female drivers in 2000. Young male drivers in particular demonstrate a high proclivity for risky driving behaviours. These risky behaviours include drink driving, speeding, drug-driving and engaging in aggressive driving. Speed is the single largest contributing factor to road deaths in Ireland. Approximately 40% of fatal accidents are caused by excessive or inappropriate speed. This study focuses on how dangerous driving behaviours may be addressed through social marketing. This study analyses the appropriate level of fear that needs to be induced in order to change young male driving behaviour.
 
The main purpose of the article is to assess the supply chain practices of the hotels and to reveal effects of such practices on the hotels’ performance. Supply chain applications comprise relationships of hotels with their suppliers, tourism intermediaries and customers. In order to obtain sustainable performance development, hotel management should understand the key factors that have higher contribution. This study aims to investigate these factors as sources of superior performance in the competitive market place and to provide insights for directing resources. In this sense, hotels’ performances not only analyzed in terms of financial measures, but also non-financial measures. General conclusion of the study is that there is positive relationship between the supply chain practices of the hotels and their performance. Performance of the hotels in managing backward and forward linkages affects their success considerably that can be regarded as a source of competitive advantage.
 
Top-cited authors
Rizwan Qaiser Danish
  • University of the Punjab
Syed Shah Alam
  • MAHSA University Malaysia
Benjamin Chan Yin-Fah
  • Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNIRAZAK)
Yeoh sok foon
  • Independent researcher
Olawale Fatoki
  • University of Limpopo