An aerobic bacterial strain C-14-1 was isolated from an acrylic fiber wastewater. The strain was found to belong toNocardia sp. according to morphological, physiological and its 16S rRNA gene sequence. This strain was able todegrade both alkanes and succinonitrile such as phenol. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene was found andamplified with the designed primers from the total DNA of C-14-1. The result of Southern blot indicated that there isonly one C23O gene in the genome of C-14-1.
In this study, we characterized the small subunit of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase (Bmuccr) of the silkwormBombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidopteron species. The Bmuccr gene covers a 1.4 kb genome region and contains 3exons. The ORF contained 354bp and encoded 117 amino acid residues, which shares 69% overall amino acid sequenceidentities with the subunit VII of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase from bovine. Phylogenetic tree showed Bmuccr hadhigh homology with T. castaneum homologous. The multiple sequence alignment of 16 subunit VII homologues showsthat Bmuccr is very hydrophilic, has a characteristic charge distribution, and has a high helical content. Expressionanalysis indicated that Bmuccr was highly expressed in larva stage and was down-regulated in embryos stage and adultstage of silkworm. The tissue-specific expression indicated Bmuccr had high-expression level in tissues that consumeoxygen. The analysis of domain structure of this protein suggested that it might be involved in correct assembly of thecytochrome bcl complex. Definition of the homologous of bovine subunit VII of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductaseshould facilitate further analysis of structure/function relationships of silkworm cytochrome bcl complex.
Azadirachta indica, or Neem Tree, is an evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia. All parts of the tree have been usedmedicinally for centuries. The allelopathic potential of extracts of Azadirachta indica L., which is one of the mostdominant weeds in tropical regions of South-west Asia, was investigated under laboratory conditions. The n-hexanesoluble,acetone-soluble and water-soluble fractions obtained from the acetone extract of A. indica shoots inhibited thegermination and the growth of roots and shoots of six test plant species. The inhibitory activity of the water-solublefraction was greatest, followed by that of the n-hexane-soluble and acetone-soluble fractions in all bioassays.Significant reductions in the germination and growth of the roots and hypocotyls were observed as the extractconcentration increased. The concentration-dependent responses of the test plants to the fractions suggested that allthree fractions might contain allelochemicals, but that the greatest potential was in the water-soluble fraction. Theseresults indicate that A. indica may produce potent allelochemicals, which should be investigated further in thelaboratory and the field.
Combining ability and heterosis were determined in a population obtained from the full diallel crossing of four differentcotton genotypes (G. hirsutum and G. barbadense) for agro morphological traits and yield. High variation was observedfor characteristics among parents and the F1 combinations. So, selection could be done for improved yield, yieldcomponents and agro morphological traits. Barbadense 5539 and Termeze14 (G. barbadense) had positive GCA forheight, bolls/plant and sympodia branch/plant, Inverse, Sahel and Sepid (G. hirsutum) had negative GCA for thesecharacteristics. G. barbadense genotypes showed negative GCA for monopodia branch/plant, sympodia branch lengthand boll weight, Inverse, G. hirsutm genotypes was observed positive GCA for this traits. The GCA: SCA ratios for thestudied traits were higher than one indicating the presence of additive genetic effects for most of the characteristicsstudied, except for sympodia branch length.
Drosophila ananassae is a cosmopolitan and domestic species distributed in the tropical, subtropical and mildlytemperate regions. Population structure analysis in forty-five Indian natural populations of D. ananassae was performedemploying three cosmopolitan inversions as markers. Pairwise FST analysis and genetic distance (D) values showed stronggenetic differentiation. Though, lowermost values correspond to geographically closest populations, we did not find anysignificant ‘isolation by distance’ effect. Values of gene flow based on FST estimates are very low (Nm findings, viz. strong genetic differentiation and minimal gene flow indicate strong sub-structuring in Indian naturalpopulations of D. ananassae at the level of inversion polymorphism. This finding is particularly intriguing in case of D.ananassae as it is frequently transported via human traffic. Given limited gene flow, populations are expected to divergegenetically due to drift. Low level of gene flow coupled with high degree of genetic differentiation might have occurredhistorically and is maintained currently. Demographic properties, historical and contemporary events and other factors aremore important in shaping the patterns of population sub-structuring, genetic differentiation and gene flow than mereterrestrial habitat characteristics (un) favorable for migration.
Ascites, an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, is often associated with liver cirrhosis, peritonealtuberculosis, peritoneal metastatic carcinoma and primary peritoneal tumor. It not only affects the quality of life, butalso shortens the survival time. Ascites is usually treated with the conventional therapy, diuretic drugs, abdominalparacentesis, peritoneovenous shunt, volume expansion therapy, liver transplantation and etc. Treatment of ascites byreinfusion is easy to handle, cheap, effective and easily accepted by sufferers. Therefore, this paper introduces thecurrent situation and progress in the treatment of ascites by reinfusion.
Lead is one of the most clinically important heavy metals, because it induces a broad range of physiological,biochemical, and genetical dysfunctions. Occupational exposure to lead leads to increased frequency of genetic systemin human beings. In the present study the DNA damage among the workers occupationally exposed to lead wasanalyzed using peripheral blood lymphocyte by comet assay. The result of this study shows increased levels of DNAdamage among experimental subjects. The habit of cigarette smoking among the workers has a synergistic effect oninducing DNA damage.
The study of the extent and pattern of genetic variation of six populations of Azadirachta excelsa (Jacks) Jacobs, i.e.Manong (Perak), Pokok Sena (Kedah), Sik (Kedah), FRIM (Selangor), Merchang (Terengganu) and Sg. Caru (Pahang)was carried out using starch gel electrophoresis. The analysis on eleven enzyme systems was found to be coded by 25and 26 loci. The mean of observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 and the percentage of proportion ofpolymorphic loci varied from 61.54% to 73.08%. The extents of genetic identities ranged from 0.81 to 0.98.
Biosorption of Acid Yellow (AY17) a monoazo acid dye currently used in textile and dyeing industries was investigatedusing Spent Brewery Grains (SBG) a brewing industry waste in a batch system with respect to initial pH, temperature,initial dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, and contact time. The biomass exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at303 K, initial pH value of 2, the initial dye concentration of 150mg/L, biosorbent dosage of 0.5 g and contact time of 40min. The extent of dye removal increased with increase in time, biosorbent dosage and decreased with increase intemperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity of the biomass increased on increasing the initial dye concentration upto 150 mg/L and then started decreasing in the studied concentration up to 600 mg/L.The experimental results hasshown that the acidic pH favours the biosorption. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model is used for themathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants are evaluated at different temperatures.Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Freundlich model in the studied concentration (25-600 mg/L) and temperature(303-323 K) ranges. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models were also applied to the experimental data. Theresults indicated that the dye uptake process followed the pseudo second-order rate expression and adsorption rateconstants increased with increasing concentration.
Rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization has led to generation of large quantities of wastes. Major portion oforganic waste is dumped in landfill sites, creates the organic load on the ground water, and more emissions of landfillgases. The best possible alternative to reduce these potential pollutants is through vermicomposting. Vermicompostingis essentially composting with worms. This experiment was done to determine which bedding materials (eithernewspaper or sawdust) is more suitable for vermicomposting by using biological parameter which measured the growthrate (pH), number of worm, number of cocoons and worm biomass. The worms were breed in vermicomposter and theperiod of vermicomposting using Perionyx excavatus worm is six weeks. All of the four biological parameters showedthat there are significant different between this two type of bedding using ANOVA test. The Duncan test demonstratedthat newspaper bedding is more influential in worm biomass production and growth rate while sawdust bedding is betterfor cocoons production and number of worm. For pH analysis it reveals that the optimum pH for worm growth rate isnear to neutral condition. As conclusion, different types of bedding material will influence the worm growth.
Effects of elevated [CO2] and nitrogen nutrition on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content and growth in Betulaplatyphylla seedlings were studied. The seedlings were grown in the ambient [CO2] (AC, 350????mol mol-1) and elevated[CO2] (EC, 700????mol mol-1) growth chambers, with three levels of nitrogen: LN (0mmol L-1 N), MN (1.5mmol L-1 N)and HN (3mmol L-1 N). HN increased photosynthesis (Pmax), photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and intercellular[CO2] (Ci) by 120%, 8% and 11% than the LN. EC significantly increased Pmax and Ci by 37% and 57% compared tothe AC. The interaction of EC and LN was significant increased by 85% than the AC+MN, and could be attributed toboth inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions and carboxylation activity of Rubisco. In AC and EC, total biomasswere 3.2 and 5.1 times greater in HN compared to LN. Root biomass increased significantly in HN level under both ACand EC. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b increased with increasing N availability.
Sirtuin2 (Sirt2) is a kind of NAD+-dependent deacetylases ranging from bacteria to human and play an important role inmany biological processes especially in lifespan. We performed genome analysis and protein prediction of Sirt2 of B.mori (BmSirt2). The cDNA sequence of BmSirt2 contains an ORF of 1164 bp encoding 387 amino acid residues with apredicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 43.37 kDa and 5.02, respectively. This protein shows high degrees ofidentity with other species. Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the BmSirt2 protein was in the samesubgroup as the Sirt2 from invertebrate animals. RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues showed thatSirt2 gene was widely expressed in B. mori. BmSirt2 was successfully expressed in E. coli with a molecular mass of48.0 kDa. The identification of the recombinant protein by MALDI-TOF-MS and western blotting showed this fusionprotein was the correct one.
The floral-dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium was appliedin the Brassica napus transformation, but it involves a number of relatively time-consuming and laborious steps,including manipulating an Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture and aseptic procedures for the selection of plant linesharboring antibiotic-selection markers. It calls for a long time to prepare the buffered media. To circumvent thesebottlenecks, we have developed a rapid and simple method. We find that Brassica napus can be transformed by dippingdirectly into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture supplemented with surfactant, eliminating the need for mediaexchange to a buffered solution. We report a method of transformant selection by soaking seeds with antibiotic. Thesemethods save time and money, and reduce the possibility of contamination.
Cage culture is one of the important methods for intensive culture of tilapia in large water impoundments. But,information related to growth performance of androgen-treated monosex tilapia population during cage culture underthe ecological conditions of India is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the growth potential of control,mixed-sex and androgen-treated, monosex tilapia in confined environment of cages. Control and hormone treated fishwere stocked separately in mesh cages at a density of 50 fry / m3 and it was found that the androgen treated monosexfish grew significantly larger than their control mixed-sex counterparts. The monosex population showed a significantlyhigher weight, length, depth, specific growth rate, daily weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and body protein contentthan the mixed-sex tilapia population. Thus, culture of hormone treated monosex tilapia in cages can be consideredideal for augmented production of the fish under Indian context.
Serum-free culture is now becoming the general trend of biological production. Its application in Vero cell culture issignificant. In the present paper, we reviewed factors affecting Vero cell serum-free culture and several culturetechniques. In light of these reviews, we outlined its extensive application prospect.
The effect of high temperature stress on mating success is investigated in three natural populations of Drosophilamelanogaster from different geographical origins. In this experiment, the males of the control group were continuouslykept at 25°C while the males of the second and third groups were kept at 36°C and 38.5°C respectively for 1 h beforemating to evaluate the male mating success. One group of males exposed to short-term high thermal stress wereimmediately put into the vials to mate with females, while males of the second group were kept in the vials for arelaxation period for 1 h before mating. I found that mating success which was measured as the number of offspringswas higher in the group which was mated immediately after short-term high thermal stress. Also it is seen that theindividuals exposed to 38.5oC were much more successful than the individuals which were kept at 25oC. There is alsosome variation between the populations of different origins as a respond to thermal stress. This results show us thatgenotype environment interaction is higher for male mating success and the relaxation period after short-term thermalstress has a negative effect on male mating success.
The ability of environmental estrogens to regulate gene transcription on model and physiologically complex promoterwas examined in GH3 cells, a pituitary cell line. In transient transfection studies, the pGL3 model promoter and thephysiologically complex prolactin promoter were both responsive to the xenoestrogen bisphenol A and thephytoestrogen daidzein in a dose related manner. These transcriptional responses were mediated by estrogen receptors,as responses were ameliorated in the presence of ICI 180, 782, a pure antiestrogen. Cotransfection of Pit-1 significantlyenhanced the transcriptional response of the prolactin promoter to stimulation by environmental estrogens. The natureand magnitude of transcriptional responses to estradiol sensitive genes following challenge by environmental estrogensis likely dependent on regulatory elements found in the promoter and their ability to recruit transcription factors.
Peroxiredoxins are thiol-specific antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage and have proliferative andanti-apoptotic activity. We investigated the effect of serum and phorbol ester treatment on expression of Prdx1 and Prdx6in H2.35 cells, and the possible role of Sp1 on Prdx6 induction. Serum stimulation induced a 30% increase in Prdx1mRNA and a three-fold increase in Prdx6 mRNA. We showed a similar effect of phorbol ester treatment, which led to a30% increase in Prdx1 mRNA, and over a two-fold increase in Prdx6 expression. Analysis of the Prdx6 proximalpromoter sequence revealed four consensus Sp1 sites. Inhibition of Sp1 with mithramycin A blocked Prdx6 induction byTPA and inhibited the serum-induced transcriptional activity of the Prdx6 proximal promoter. These data suggest animportant role for Prdx6 in the cellular response to serum and TPA, and implicate Sp1 as a possible mediator of Prdx6regulation.
Effects of quercetin on the green hydra, Hydra viridissima Pallas, and its endosymbiotic alga were studied under laboratory conditions. Quercetin is the most studied flavonoid known for its ability to act as an antioxidant, but it can also show a pro-oxidative effect. Green hydras were treated with four concentrations of quercetin (0.12 g/L, 0.2 g/L, 0.25 g/L and 0.3 g/L) for three days and compared to the control group of animals. Through the use of light microscopy, morphometry and macroscopic observations the results showed morphological changes in the hydra body as well as behavioral changes: depigmentation, migration, deformation, disordered locomotion, diminished reactions to mechanical stimuli and mortality. Further, different histopathological changes in the hydra body were detected. Different changes were monitored in the endosymbiotic alga: cell viability, division, shape and size of cells and chloroplasts, the level of damage and intensity of green color. Based on our results, the most important conclusion is that quercetin has a possible pro-oxidative effect on the green hydra.
The present study is the first of its type that uses a technique of DNA barcoding to determine identification and relationship of a species of fish from Phewa lake, Nepal. The mitochondrial DNA from two ethanol-preserved samples of fish, randomly collected from Phewa lake, was extracted using Gene AllExgene TMtissue extraction kit. 650 base pair of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) was amplified using a cocktail of four primers and was sequenced bidirectionaly using Sanger sequence method. The DNA sequences were edited using AliView software. The sequences confirmed Chagunius chagunio as their alignment with 16 reference sequences belonging to Chagunius chagunio in the NCBI GenBank, scored highest percentage of Query Cover (75% to 100%) and Percentage Identity (97.29% to 100%). The MEGA software analysed the DNA sequences to obtain their corresponding protein sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to the GenBank and accession numbers (MN087472 and MN087473) were obtained. Clustal Omega software analysed multiple sequence alignment among 19 homologous DNA sequences of Chagunius chagunio from India, Bangladesh and Phewa lake, Nepal. The percentage of similarity among the aligned sequences was calculated as 39.3%. Based on the neighbour joining tree, the Chagunius chagunio of Phewa lake is found closely related with Chagunius chagunio of Bangladesh.
Species-specific features of blackheaded wagtail Motacilla feldegg Michahelles, 1830 (Passeriformes, Motacillidae, Motacillinae) breeding biology were identified in south of Russia. A tendency to current species range shift is traced. Critical estimation of literary information about some peculiarities of reproduction and ecology of black-headed wagtail is carrying out on boundary XIX-XXI centuries, estimation of contemporary quantity, limited factories and regularities of species distribution on research territory of European part of Russia are gived. Distribution and quantity M. feldegg are irregular in this region and determine by presence of nesting biotopes and potential forage reserve. General character of distribution of this species estimates as a local and not numerous that gives foundation to include M. feldegg to some region Red Data Books of Russia and neighboring countries.
A variety of morphological and functional features of the digestive system of termites is associated with their nutritional adaptation. Wood is mostly the food of termites’ adult larvae, workers and young nymphs. The salivary and intestinal enzymes play an important part in this process. The physiology and biochemistry of the digestion system of termites from the genus Anacanthotermes is still not fully studied. In the present research, we studied the activity of some carbohydrases in termites’ salivary glands. Our data show that the activity of exocellulase in adult termites is 1.5 times more that in young individuals and 3 times more active than in nymphs, while the exocellulase in soldiers remains inactive. Moreover, the activity of celluloses in the intestine of A. turkestanicus is still not fully studied. We observed that exocellulase is involved in the digestion of food polymers in the castes of termites-workers, nymphs and soldiers. Thus, cellulase activity in the intestinal tissue (intrinsic) is manifested at a very low level in all termites’ castes we studied. However, the activity of exocellulase in the intestinal cavity (symbiotic) increases 3.5 times in workers, 3.0 times in nymphs and 2.4 times in soldiers compared to that in intestinal tissue. In addition, the intrinsic activity of this enzyme differed little in all three castes of termites, whereas the symbiotic activity in workers and nymphs was more showed than in soldiers.
Southern hybridization of chromosomes and the physical mapping of the genes used as several probes on the respective chromosomes II and X showed that the left-end ca. 220kb of chromosome II including ATP1 was exchanged the right-end ca. 270kb of chromosome X including ATP2 resulting the reciprocal chromosome translocation in the yeast strain YNN290, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YTO290, the mutated strain by the reciprocal chromosome translocation as above described, was changed from red to white of the colony-color, and sizes of chromosome II lengthened from ca. 830kb to ca. 900kb and chromosome X shortened from ca. 760kb to ca. 690kb, respectively, in compared with the original strain YNN290. But, YTO290 strain was the same as the original strain YNN290 for other properties; the nutrient requiring of the genotype, the ploidy, the mitochondrial respiratory activity, the cell-size, and the growth-rate (doubling time), the number of chromosomes in a cell, It should be as a total number of nucleotides (bases) of genome.ATP1 or ATP2 and their neighboring base sequences respectively should be transferred from chromosome II left-end ca. 220kb to chromosome X right-end or chromosome X right-end ca. 270kb to chromosome II left-end accompanying with this reciprocal chromosome translocation. This mutated (the reciprocal chromosomes II and X translocation = exchanged those end-sequences as above described) strain, YTO290, seemed to lead to decrease the stability of the changed chromosomes II and X. The mutated strain, YTO290 might be observed to go back to the respective chromosomes II and X of the original strain, YNN290, in several months later even at 4°C.
Chlorinated benzoic acids (CBA) have been intentionally released to the environment due to their use in agriculture as herbicides or pesticides, or unintentionally because they are common metabolites in the aerobic transformation of many chlorinated pollutants. The biodegradation of 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid compound was investigated by using Corynebacterium jeikeium bacteria, which was isolated from Petra wastewater plant in Jordan. 3,4-dichlorobenzoic acid compound (3,4-DCBA) was used as a sole carbon and energy source in minimal salt media (MSM). 3,4-DCBA was the most degradable compound among the Chlorobenzoic acid compounds tested by this bacteria. Different conditions such as substrate concentration, temperature, pH, agitation rate, carbon starvation and carbon adaptation were used to obtain optimal Biodegradation. The optimal conditions for the biodegradation were 3mM as substrate concentration and the culture conditions were also showed a significant impact on the ability of these cells to remove 3,4-DCBA. The optimum solution, temperature and agitation rate were 7.5, 37 °C and 150 rpm, respectively. Adaptation of the cells to 3,4-DCBA for 24 hr and 48 hr and cells starvation for 24 hr and 48 hr increased the initial degradation rate. The degradation ability was monitored through disappearance of the substrate from the medium and the measuring the accompanying chloride release. Corynebacterium jeikeium dioxygenases were physiologically induced by 3,4-DCBA compound. They were analyzed for both ortho or meta ring-cleavage of this aromatic compound. Only 1,2-dioxygenase activity was detected which mean that the cleavage is through the ortho pathway. This microorganism can be a valuable and promising candidate for use in the biotreatment of wastewater samples contaminated with 3,4-DCBA.
The 5S ribosomal RNA gene(s) and their associated intergenic spacer regions were amplified from Carica papaya and Carica quercifolia by polymerase chain reaction. Both Carica species exhibited differently sized amplification products. Sequence analysis of these PCR products revealed that the 5S rRNA genes are arranged as tandem repeats in these regions. Sequence data revealed that the 5S rRNA gene from Carica quercifolia was 119 bp in length. Sequence variation was observed in various 5S rRNA gene copies cloned from Carica quercifolia. Only truncated 5S rRNA gene but with its full spacer region was recovered from Carica papaya. Interestingly, intergenic spacer sequence cloned from Carica papaya contained two specific domains, a 30bp “CT” rich domain exhibiting 95-100% homology to several human chromosomes and a domain matching with mitrocomin precursor, a photo-protein from Mitrocoma cellularia. The role of 5S rRNA gene and their spacer regions in discerning the germplasm and in adaptation of the species is discussed.
In order to evaluation the effect of irrigation interval and different amount of nitrogen fertilizer on agronomic characteristics of maize, single cross 704, the experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complet blocks design with 3 replictions at 2009 in mazandaran provience. Irrigation interval was chosen as main plot at 4 levels which are 75, 100, 125 and 150mm evaporation pot of A class, nitrogen amount was also chosen as sub-plot at 3 replictions which are 0, 96 and 184 kg/ha at the rate of 0, 200 and 400 kg/ha urea fertilizer, respectively. The results showed that the grain yield in creased using of 184 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer due to in creasing, ear length and thick, inceasing the graing and the row number per ear, and increasing the grain number per row of ear and the weight of 100 grains. The maximum grain tield was obtained by 75 and 125mm evaporation of class A pot, at the rate of 12490 and 13000 kg/ha, respectively. The graing yield components were not influenced by irrigation interval, statistically. Interaction between irrigation interval and nitrogen amount was significant on biological yield at the level of 1%, probability. The maximum grain yield was obtained by interaction of 125mm, evaporation of A class pot and using 184 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer.
Market herbalists are one of the primary uses of primary health care for people in developing countries. They contribute to the conservation of endogenous plants and knowledge. In order to identify plants with antihemorrhagic properties sold in markets in southern Benin, an ethnopharmacological survey was carried out among 34 herbalists in 17 markets in Cotonou and Abomey-Calavi. The method used is Triplet Purchase of Medicinal Recipes (ATRM). A total of 38 plant species in 24 families were identified. The most represented family is the Rubiaceae (13.16%). The most cited species are Cissampelos mucronata (12.96%), Hybanthus enneaspermus (9.26%) and Cassytha filiformis (8.02%). Considering the plants mentioned in single use, C. mucronata (37.5%), C. filiformis (12.5%) and N. laevis (10%) were the most cited species. The leafy stem (71%) is the most used part. Two methods of preparation are mainly used, maceration (45%) and decoction (55%). The extracts of these plants could be a source of Improved Traditional Medication (AHT) for the treatment of haemorrhages.
Post-harvest losses are recognized to be one of the critical constraints upon food security among farmers of poor resource in Africa.The use of botanical pesticides in pest management during storage against insects is often encouraged because synthetic insecticides produce multiple side-effects on human health and environment. Insecticidal activity of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of bark of Trichilia gilgiana was tested on Sitophilus zeamaïs, Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica. The mortality rate was measured variable. The results of analysis showed that the mortality rate has a very highly significant variation following extracts, doses, insects and time considered (P < 0.001). Extracts with ethyl acetate and hexane of Trichilia gilgiana are effective against S. zeamais at the highest doses (1 g/ 10 mL and 0.5 g/10 mL of solvent). These effective extracts were characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Molecules such as 2-Oxazalidone; thiocyanic acid; Methanethioamide, N,N-dimethyl; 2-Coumaranone and other were characterizated. These results may consolidate traditional use of Trichilia gilgiana in pest management.
Psorospermum febrifugum Spach (Clusiaceae) was a tropical plant whose root bark was used to treat anemia. This work aimed to evaluate the safety of the ethyl acetate fraction of the aqueous extract of this bark. Methods: The ethyl acetate fraction of the extract was administered to Wistar rats in a single dose of 2000 mg / Kg body weight for acute oral toxicity test or daily doses of 200 mg / Kg of body weight during 28 days for sub-chronic oral toxicity test, as recommended by the OECD. At day 0, then at day 14 for the acute phase and day 28 for the sub-chronic phase, the rats were weighed and their blood collected for tests. The activity of transaminases AST and ALT were measured in the liver function tests, blood urea and creatinine were measured for renal function tests and blood leukocytes were counted for the immune balance. These analyzes were supplemented by the histology of the liver, kidneys and spleen, an immune organ. Results: In acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity tests, rat’s weight, liver, kidney and immune balances as well as these organs histology were not affected, suggesting the safety of the extract fraction. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction of the aqueous extract of the root bark of Psorospermum febrifugum did not reveal any acute or sub-chronic oral toxicity. This effect could be related to its richness in flavonoids which have cytoprotective effects. The study of biological tolerance deserves to be continued by the chronic toxicity test and appropriate clinical trials.
Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides (ABPS), a major active ingredient of Achyranthes bidentata, has many kinds of well-known pharmacological activity, such as anti-coagulation, indirect anti-tumor, anti-aging and hypoglycemic effect, and also have certain effects on the immune system. However, the direct anti-tumor activity of ABPS remain unclear. In this paper, ABPS was efficiently isolated from Achyranthes bidentata adopted orthogonal experimental method, and then its anti-tumor effect on LTEP-a-2 cells was investigated. LTEP-a-2 cells were treated with various concentrations of ABPS (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mg/mL) for 48h. Subsequently, cell viability was analyzed by MTT method and the effects of ABPS on the apoptosis of LTEP-a-2 cells was explored by DNA ladder, PI and Annexin V FITC/PI double staining. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of ABPS was that the extraction temperature at 90oC, 1:40(W/V) of solid to liquid, and extraction time 4 h. In addition, the yield and purity of ABP was measured up to 15.52% and 97.21% respectively. Furthermore, ABPS significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of LTEP-a-2 cells. So ABPS might be utilized as a new potential therapeutic agent against Lung Adenocarcinoma.
The workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti have a concrete notion of zero and locate this zero at the lower end of their mental number line. Here we examined how they acquire such a notion: do they have it natively or do they learn it over their life? We worked on young ants a few weeks old, and used operant conditioning to zero, the latter being a white paper or ‘nothing, no cue’, presented vs a black dot. In a first series of experiments, we showed that young ants do not detain the notion of zero. In a second series of experiments on the same ants, we first tempted learning them the notion of zero by facing them with a filled and an empty food tube during two days. They were then submitted to conditioning to ‘zero’, and they correctly responded to it. Consequently, the ants have not natively the notion of zero but acquire it through experiences.
p class="1Body">This paper aims at knowing the seasonal occurrence of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in Uruguay. The populations of these native herbivores are generally in equilibrium, although population increases were recorded under certain conditions, causing significant economic loss. The population was monitored during five seasons on sites located in the departments of Florida and Durazno. The insects were categorized into young nymphs (I, II and III), older nymphs (IV and V), and adults. At each sampling time, data from the different sites were grouped to calculate the percentage of each category. Twenty-six species were collected, eight of which were abundant. Borellia bruneri (Rehn, 1906), B. pallida (Bruner, 1900), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, 1900 and D. elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 proved to be univoltine. More than one generation of Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, 1964), Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773) , Scotussa lemniscata (Stal, 1861) and D. conspersus Bruner, 1900, was recorded per year in some seasons. The first births of B. bruneri , B. pallida , D. pratensis , D. conspersus , S. lemniscata and B. pseudopunctulatus occurred in October, whereas for D. elongatus and O. punctata they happened in November. Considering the eight species, young and older nymphs predominated until early December and from late December to early January, respectively. Adulthood was predominant since the end of January. These results are the basis for establishing a monitoring plan. In order to determine the need for control and to avoid irreparable loss, samples must be intensified from early November to the beginning of December, when the young nymphs are no longer predominant.</p
Nonnative fishes have the ability to adapt to environmental conditions in the invaded ecosystem and utilize resources that may have been absent in their native ecosystem. Belonesox belizanus and Cichlasoma urophthalmus are both nonnative fishes in Florida. Ecomorphological studies conclude that C. urophthalmus is a trophic generalist while B. belizanus is a trophic specialist. The current Florida distribution of these species indicates that C. urophthalmus spreads northerly into the colder regions of Florida at a faster rate than B. belizanus. Is it conceivable that this variation in rate of spread is due to differences in temperature response between these ecomorphologically distinct nonnative fishes? This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the prey-capture kinematics and behavior differ between C. urophthalmus and B. belizanus at a given temperature and across temperatures. Two-Way Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVAR) revealed that (1) at a given temperature, excursion and timing variables differed between species and (2) the kinematics of prey-capture did not vary across temperatures in both species. This interspecific comparison suggests that both species have the same temperature tolerance and that any difference in their rate of spread across Florida may be driven by factors other than species-specific physiological tolerance to temperature.
65 strains of endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata , Paeonia lactiflora , Radix Platycodi and Artemisiae argyi . Active strains of inhibiting penicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus were screened from these strains and some were identified preliminarily. The results showed that 12 strains among these 65 strains of endophytic actinomycetes were able to suppress penicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. Through the observation on morphology of mycelium and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA, a strain belongs to the genus Glycomyces and most other as the genus Streptomyces.
Genus Tetradenia is belonging to plant family Lamiaceae. The genus is fairly large and comprises of twenty species. Different extracts of these Tetradenia species have been widely used in traditional medicine all through sub-Sahara Africa, part of Brazil and Asia. Many workers have reported that Tetradenia extracts possess various biological activities against antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial. For decades, some members of the Genus Tetradenia have been the subject of research to isolate and identify the active compounds present in extracts from its leaves. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the biological activities of T. riparia as larvicide, insecticide, antimalarial and repellent effects on Anopheles gambiae. Leaf extracts (80% ethanol), tested for antimicrobial and antiviral activity, and was found to hamper the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Bacillus subtilis. This review intends to give the major highlights of the genus Tetradenia which will stimulate researchers into carrying out further investigations on the various species of the plant that may contribute into pharmacology industry.
The influence of Morus alba and Morus nigra leaf extracts, and their mixture on the structure and functions of plants and animals cells were studied. The absence of the genotoxicity of the extracts and their mixture has been established. All active biological compounds studied demonstrate genoprotective properties. The studied extracts and their mixtures decreased the mutability level induced with chemical mutagens, gamma-rays and ageing in the plants (Vicia faba, Arabidopsis thaliana) and animals (rats) cells.
Serpentine soils consist of broadly skewed elemental profiles, including abundant toxic metals and low nutrient content in drought-prone, patchily distributed substrates; therefore, they are one of the most challenging settings for plant life. In this study, a comparative study was conducted using serpentine and inland populations of Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. (Oleaceae) to determine morphological and anatomical differences between the same species growing in the serpentine and inland areas. Longitudinal leaf sections indicated that serpentine populations had slightly thicker leaves than inland populations, contributing to the increased heights of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells and palisade and spongy tissues. Moreover, the serpentine population had smaller stomata than the inland populations. These results suggest that the strong selective pressure under serpentine soil conditions could force leaves to restore water and avoid excessive transpiration.
Plants along rivers have narrow leaves to avoid the stress caused by the river’s flow during flooding. Plants that have undergone such morphological leaf modifications to adapt to rivers are called rheophytes. Some populations of Eurya japonica Thunb. (Ternstroemiaceae) were grown on riversides so that the comparative morphology and anatomy of leaves between riverside and inland (control) populations could be examined to confirm their rheophytic speciation. Our morphological and anatomical analyses revealed that the leaf of E. japonica in the riverside populations was significantly smaller than that of the inland populations due to the decreased number of cells; therefore, the pattern of rheophytic differentiation in riversides was not the stenophyllization but the miniaturization of the leaf. Moreover, our results indicated that this species in the riverside populations had thicker leaves and higher density of stomata than those of inland populations, suggesting that E. japonica had been morphologically modified in response to the light and water environments along the river.
The workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti have been shown to be able to distinguish different numbers of elements and to be able to add them if seen side by side, at the same time. They have thus a concrete concept of numbers and of adding. It remained to know if they have an abstract mathematical concept of numbers and of their addition. For tempting answering this question, we presented, to M. sabuleti workers, two numbers of elements (circles) not placed side by side but making an angle, the ants having thus to move for seeing the one then the other of the numbers of elements. After 3, 6, 9 and 12 of such training days, the ants were tested in front of the two numbers of elements as well as of their correct sum and their sum plus one element. The ants responded essentially to the two numbers of elements they saw during training, and far less to their sum and sum plus one element. The ants have thus a basic, concrete concept of adding numbers of elements they see. Young human children (3 to 6 years old) have such a concrete concept of numbers and of adding, but they acquire in several months, through learning, an abstract mathematical concept of these notions and of related ones.
Summing and discriminating odors may be useful for animals in their daily life. The workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti rely essentially on odors for navigating and have a rather poor visual perception. It was previously shown that they can add and subtract visual elements when the result of the operation has been concretely presented to them, i.e. they thus respond to an image which corresponds the best to that they have memorized. Here we examined if these ants can sum two odors and ‘subtract’ (discriminate) an odor from a mixture of two ones. They added two distinct odors only when these odors were presented side by side and perceived simultaneously, and not when they were located at some distance from one another and perceived consecutively. They discriminated one odor from a mixture when that odor was presented in association with a reward (the food). They subtracted one odor from a mixture when that specific odor was presented and perceived separately at a place not associated with a reward. Myrmica sabuleti workers could thus effectively add two odors and subtract one odor from a mixture, but only when the odor(s) to which they should respond was (were) associated with a reward. In the wild, such a behavior could help the ants to navigate.
Each year, approximately two million new HIV infections are reported worldwide. About one decade ago, a company called Gilead Sciences Inc. discovered a new HIV prevention method named as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). When high adherence was kept among high-risk population, PrEP efficacy could reach as high as 99%. However, the adverse effects have been reported from time to time, including low efficacy in certain cases, adherence difficulties and medicinal side effects. In this review, we would summarize the progress of PrEP since its introduction in order to provide insights for HIV prevention.
The midgut of the malaria - transmitting mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, can be targeted by vaccine-induced host immune factors that kill the mosquito after it ingests immunized host blood. The An. gambiae mucin 1 protein (AgMuc1) is expressed on the mosquito midgut where it likely functions in protecting the midgut epithelium from its own secreted digestive enzymes, toxic substances and pathogenic microbes taken in with the blood meal. Immunization of mice with plasmid containing the AgMuc1 gene has been shown to induce mosquitocidal immune responses. In this paper, we co-immunized mice with AgMuc1 cDNA and plasmid containing Murine granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or Interleukin 12 (IL-12) cytokine cDNA in order to further potentiate the mosquitocidal immune response and better define the nature of this mosquitocidal immunity. While co-immunization with GM-CSF cDNA failed to increase anti-mosquito immunity (Chisq = 3.3 on 1 degree of freedom, p = 0.068), a significantly enhanced mosquitocidal effect was observed from mice co-immunized with AgMuc1 and IL-12 cDNA (Chisq = 39.1 on I degree of freedom, p = 4.06e-10). Furthermore, the cumulative survival of the blood fed mosquitoes surviving to day 7 in the AgMuc1/IL-12 co-immunized group highly correlated negatively with the anti-mucin IgG1 antibody subtype levels (Pearson correlation coefficient r = -0.782) suggesting that the mosquitocidal immunity induced by AgMuc1 cDNA immunization could be IgG1 antibody subtype mediated.
In this study, a new fungus named Preussia aemulans was isolate from Cordyceps sinensis fruiting body. The agricultural waste of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) was utilized as a culture medium for Preussia aemulans. By using orthogonal experiment, the fermentation conditions of polysaccharide, polyphenol and adenosine were optimized. Under the optimum fermentation conditions of polysaccharide, polyphenol and adenosine, the content of polysaccharide, polyphenol, adenosine and protein were 32.68 ± 3.24 mg/g dry matter, 7.91 ± 0.2 mg/g dry matter, 1.36 ± 0.24 μmol/g dry matter and 104.41 ± 6.65 mg/g dry matter, respectively. Based on the nutritional profile, the fermented wheat DDGS could be utilized as functional material of feed or food.