International Journal of Biology

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Online ISSN: 1916-968X
Publications
Article
An aerobic bacterial strain C-14-1 was isolated from an acrylic fiber wastewater. The strain was found to belong toNocardia sp. according to morphological, physiological and its 16S rRNA gene sequence. This strain was able todegrade both alkanes and succinonitrile such as phenol. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene was found andamplified with the designed primers from the total DNA of C-14-1. The result of Southern blot indicated that there isonly one C23O gene in the genome of C-14-1.
 
Article
In this study, we characterized the small subunit of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase (Bmuccr) of the silkwormBombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidopteron species. The Bmuccr gene covers a 1.4 kb genome region and contains 3exons. The ORF contained 354bp and encoded 117 amino acid residues, which shares 69% overall amino acid sequenceidentities with the subunit VII of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase from bovine. Phylogenetic tree showed Bmuccr hadhigh homology with T. castaneum homologous. The multiple sequence alignment of 16 subunit VII homologues showsthat Bmuccr is very hydrophilic, has a characteristic charge distribution, and has a high helical content. Expressionanalysis indicated that Bmuccr was highly expressed in larva stage and was down-regulated in embryos stage and adultstage of silkworm. The tissue-specific expression indicated Bmuccr had high-expression level in tissues that consumeoxygen. The analysis of domain structure of this protein suggested that it might be involved in correct assembly of thecytochrome bcl complex. Definition of the homologous of bovine subunit VII of ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductaseshould facilitate further analysis of structure/function relationships of silkworm cytochrome bcl complex.
 
Article
International Journal of Biology, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2009, all in one file.
 
Article
International Journal of Biology, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2009, all in one file.
 
Article
International Journal of Biology, Vol. 2, No. 1, January 2010, all in one file.
 
Article
First data for concentrations and distribution of trace and toxic elements in tissues and organs of brown skua(Catharacta lonnbergi), Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus), notothenioid fish(Notothenia coriiceps) and in krill (Euphausia superba), collected on Livingston Island (South Shetlands), Antarcticaare presented. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt were studied in liver, kidney, bone, spleen, muscle,heart and feathers. Generally, higher concentrations of toxic elements were found in liver and kidneys than in otherinvestigated tissues. The same elements in krill and notothenioid fish were also determined. The obtained data could serve as a starting point for broader investigation of the possible changes in the ecosystem of Antarctic Peninsula underclimate and environmental changes.
 
Article
Azadirachta indica, or Neem Tree, is an evergreen tree native to Southeast Asia. All parts of the tree have been usedmedicinally for centuries. The allelopathic potential of extracts of Azadirachta indica L., which is one of the mostdominant weeds in tropical regions of South-west Asia, was investigated under laboratory conditions. The n-hexanesoluble,acetone-soluble and water-soluble fractions obtained from the acetone extract of A. indica shoots inhibited thegermination and the growth of roots and shoots of six test plant species. The inhibitory activity of the water-solublefraction was greatest, followed by that of the n-hexane-soluble and acetone-soluble fractions in all bioassays.Significant reductions in the germination and growth of the roots and hypocotyls were observed as the extractconcentration increased. The concentration-dependent responses of the test plants to the fractions suggested that allthree fractions might contain allelochemicals, but that the greatest potential was in the water-soluble fraction. Theseresults indicate that A. indica may produce potent allelochemicals, which should be investigated further in thelaboratory and the field.
 
Article
Ecologists have long sought to comprehend the mechanisms that generate, maintain and shape natural biodiversity.Such an attempt is inherently an interdisciplinary research project which involves a holistic understanding of biologicalsystems, sound modeling, computational and analytical techniques, and high quality data collection. Along thisinterdisciplinary line, some degree of sophistication in statistical practice is necessary. This note points out a number ofpromising avenues in this respect.
 
Article
A series of novel temperature-sensitive hydrogels with chiral group, poly(NIPA-co-AAc-L-Phe), were synthesized bycopolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide(NIPA) and acrylic acid derivatived L-phenylalanine (AAc-L-Phe) inethanol with different feed ratios. Their swelling behaviors in response to temperature and deswelling/reswellingkinetics have been studied. The primary results showed that poly (NIPA-co-AAc-L-Phe) hydrogels arethermo-responsive and have potential applications in the biological chemistry.
 
Article
Boar sperm fixed in paraformaldehyde, pemeabilized in cold acetone and incubated in the presence of DAPI and Rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin or with fluorescein-conjugated cytochalasin D show brilliant blue staining of the nucleus and brilliant red or green fluorescence respectively in the middle piece and tail regions of the sperm. The results suggest the presence of F-actin in the boar sperm middle piece. Immunocytochemical studies also show the presence of tropomyosin in the middle piece region of boar sperm.Western Blot studies, using lysates of isolated boar sperm middle pieces and tails, indicate prominent sperm-actin bands with similar electrophoretic patterns of rat cardiac and striated muscle. The results strongly suggest that a 41 kDa actin, similar to cardiac or striated muscle actin, is present in sperm middle pieces and corroborates the phalloidin and cytochalasin D localization by fluorescence microscopy.We suggest that the simple sliding filament mechanism of the axoneme may not, by itself, impose the propulsive forces needed to propel large spermatozoa through the viscous prefertilization milieu. We further propose that an actomyosin system associated with the microtubule/dynein complex might play a role in sustained motility of mammalian spermatozoa.
 
Article
Psammophyte can resist drought through different mechanism, such as small and thin leaves, leaves covered with wax,well developed roots. As typical psammophyte, stipagrosits pennata’ root form entwined structure with sand, thereforeshows excellent drought tolerance. This paper describes the mechanism of the adaptation of stipagrosits pennata todesert from different aspects such as morphology, anatomical structure and stress simulation.
 
Article
This paper investigated a 3-step purification and characterization of a protease from Enterococcus faecalis TN-9, abathypelagic lactic acid bacteria. The purification procedure includes precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, then ion-exchangechromatography with DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and DEAE Cellulofine A-500. Native PAGE analysis indicates a singleprotease band. The molecular weight is 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis, and 69 kDa by gel chromatography analysis. Itproves that the optimal temperature for protease reaction is 30 ºC, and the optimal pH is 7.5-8.0. The reaction is stablewhile pH is 6.0-9.5 and temperature is under 45 ºC. The relative activity is 6.1% at 0 ºC. The enzyme is totallydeactivated with heat treatment at 60 ºC or over. The protease is partially inhibited by EDTA-2Na, Hg2+, Cu2+, Ni2+,Ag2+, Co2+ and Pepstatin A. Zn2+ shows obvious activation to the protease. Km and Vmax of purified protease acting onazocasein are 0.098 % and 72 mg/(h.mg) respectively. This protease is one of gelatinase with N-terminal sequence ofVGSEVTLKNS, and shows characteristics of a cold-adapted metalloprotease.
 
Article
Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of multipotent adult stem cells, which appear to possess ayet-undetermined degree of plasticity. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is much studied in recent years than omentum fattissue. Hence the objective of this work is to characterize the freshly isolated human adipose tissue derived stromalvascular fraction cell relative to passage 0 from subcutaneous fat and the omentum fat. The stromal vascular fraction ofboth subcutaneous and omentum fat contains hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell population where as in P0 themesenchymal stem cell alone was retained. The side population ABCG2 is present in subcutaneous fat, whereas noABCG2 expression is found in omentum fat. This study showed that the omentum fat exhibit higher percentage ofhematopoietic cells compared to subcutaneous fat in both SVF and P0. It is concluded from this study that not onlysubcutaneous fat, but also omentum fat derived stem cells serve as a therapeutic potential in Regenerative medicine.
 
Mean squares of yield components and agro morphological traits
Means of yield components and agro morphological traits for female and male parents
Mean mid-parent heterosis for yield and agro morphological traits
General combining ability (GCA) effects of yield and agro morphological traits
Reciprocal effects for yield and agro morphological traits
Article
Combining ability and heterosis were determined in a population obtained from the full diallel crossing of four differentcotton genotypes (G. hirsutum and G. barbadense) for agro morphological traits and yield. High variation was observedfor characteristics among parents and the F1 combinations. So, selection could be done for improved yield, yieldcomponents and agro morphological traits. Barbadense 5539 and Termeze14 (G. barbadense) had positive GCA forheight, bolls/plant and sympodia branch/plant, Inverse, Sahel and Sepid (G. hirsutum) had negative GCA for thesecharacteristics. G. barbadense genotypes showed negative GCA for monopodia branch/plant, sympodia branch lengthand boll weight, Inverse, G. hirsutm genotypes was observed positive GCA for this traits. The GCA: SCA ratios for thestudied traits were higher than one indicating the presence of additive genetic effects for most of the characteristicsstudied, except for sympodia branch length.
 
Article
Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a highly polyphagous predatory bug, which has proven tobe effective in controlling many insect pests of greenhouse vegetables (eggplant, tomato, and cucumber) especiallywhiteflies, aphids, and thrip. It is mainly used as a biological control auxiliary against T. vaporariorum Westwood(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum is particularly harmful to tomatoplants grown under the greenhouse. It has become prevalent whenever crops are frequently sprayed with insecticides.Biological control is becoming important for controlling this insect pest. A mirid bug management programme has beendeveloped for an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in tomato. The objective of the programme was to keep thepredator population densities high enough in order to maintain T. vaporariorum and other insect pest populations belowthe economic threshold. In this study, it was very important to determine the biology of predator in term of its life cycle,behaviour at different stages, fecundity, longevity and searching abilities, in order to provide detail data for formulatingthe means of control against whitefly. Results of this study indicated that Macrolophus caliginosus adults fed onwhitefly larvae of all stages from the first larval stage to the pupal stage. The predator consumed the preys at almostsimilar daily rates (average of 5.94 per day). The study implies that M. caliginosus, with its life cycle, predation,longevity and fecundity and host preference, is a beneficial insect to combat against whitefly.
 
Article
Drosophila ananassae is a cosmopolitan and domestic species distributed in the tropical, subtropical and mildlytemperate regions. Population structure analysis in forty-five Indian natural populations of D. ananassae was performedemploying three cosmopolitan inversions as markers. Pairwise FST analysis and genetic distance (D) values showed stronggenetic differentiation. Though, lowermost values correspond to geographically closest populations, we did not find anysignificant ‘isolation by distance’ effect. Values of gene flow based on FST estimates are very low (Nm findings, viz. strong genetic differentiation and minimal gene flow indicate strong sub-structuring in Indian naturalpopulations of D. ananassae at the level of inversion polymorphism. This finding is particularly intriguing in case of D.ananassae as it is frequently transported via human traffic. Given limited gene flow, populations are expected to divergegenetically due to drift. Low level of gene flow coupled with high degree of genetic differentiation might have occurredhistorically and is maintained currently. Demographic properties, historical and contemporary events and other factors aremore important in shaping the patterns of population sub-structuring, genetic differentiation and gene flow than mereterrestrial habitat characteristics (un) favorable for migration.
 
Article
Since reforming and opening to the outside world, Chinese aquiculture has developed very quickly. The total output ofaquiculture has been ranking first in the world over ten years, but it still has many problems. In this article, manyproblems are listed about Chinese aquiculture, which has seriously influenced the quality of aquatic products anddestroyed the whole aquiculture ecological environment, so it is imperative under the situation to implement healthyculture. At the same time, the actuality of Chinese healthy culture is analyzed, and healthy culture has been developedin freshwater and sea water. Healthy culture comes down to many aspects, and it is a very important part to reasonablyuse fishery medicines. The using of fishery medicines should start from many aspects including medicine materials,cause of disease, environment, aquatic animals, and human health, and only to use medicines intentionally andeffectively can achieve the effect of preventing and treating diseases. The green fishery medicine is one most effectivedevelopment direction at present to use medicines reasonably. Green fishery medicines include fishery vaccine, Chineseherbal medicine preparation, animalcule preparation, and biologic fishery medicines.
 
Article
Based on ethnopharmacological information, four different varieties of seeds were obtained from authentic seedsuppliers. Ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether seed extracts were assessed for antibacterialactivity against wound isolates of Multi Drug Resistant - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDR-MRSA).Ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Moringa oleifera, Elettaria cardamomum and Tamarindus indica seedsshowed more effective anti MRSA activity than Artocarpus heterophyllus. In addition Moringa oleifera seed extractsmay have the potential to restore the effectiveness of
 
Article
Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (cytb) gene complete sequences of golden arowana, red arowana and green arowanaof Scleropages formosus were amplified with PCR technique and sequenced.The sequence length was 1141bp for threeAsian arowanas which had 5 nucleotide sites substituted, among of them 4 base substitutions were transition and only 1was transversion, all of the base substitution happened in the third locus of the codon which only 1 site caused aminoacid variation. A global deficit of guanosines (G:13.7%) and approximately equal frequencies of the other threenucleotides (A: 27.8 %, C: 34.6 %, T: 23.9%) and G+C content (48.3%) was quite constant among sequences.Thegenetic distance of mtDNA cytb gene sequences was 0.0026-0.0035 between green arowana and the other two Asianarowana, which indicated that Asian arowana perhaps did not evolve to the level of specie. Phylogenetic trees wereconstructed with NJ method and MP method using arithmetic average method.The results showed that red arowanaclustered with golden arowana, after clustering with green arowana.
 
Showing oviposition response of adult CSL on different treatments
Longevity of adult CS L on different treatments
Article
Development and reproductive potential of the Coccinella septempunctata L. (CSL) was conducted underlaboratory conditions to determine its fecundity and longevity on natural and artificial diets. Tests were made onlaboratory rearing materials and all development stages were carefully recorded. Success ratios in theseexperiments were a matter of logistic and synchronization of these life cycles, the plant phytophagous andentomophagous insects. A positive correlation was obtained between food consumption and egg production, sofecundity of CSL is affected by the type of food. CSL consumed highly significant (Rhopalosiphum maidis) 32.2aphids per day as compared to other treatments. Oviposition response was the maximum on these beetles whichconsumed 1st and 2nd instars of Macrosiphon roseae. CSL reared under artificial diet showed more longevity 41.6days on plain water. Greater emphasis was pertinent on evaluation of predator specificity, understanding ofcolonization in new environments and assessment of community-level interactions to maximize the use ofCoccinellids in Biological Control (BC).
 
Article
Ascites, an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, is often associated with liver cirrhosis, peritonealtuberculosis, peritoneal metastatic carcinoma and primary peritoneal tumor. It not only affects the quality of life, butalso shortens the survival time. Ascites is usually treated with the conventional therapy, diuretic drugs, abdominalparacentesis, peritoneovenous shunt, volume expansion therapy, liver transplantation and etc. Treatment of ascites byreinfusion is easy to handle, cheap, effective and easily accepted by sufferers. Therefore, this paper introduces thecurrent situation and progress in the treatment of ascites by reinfusion.
 
Article
In this research, the cocoonase gene was cloned by RT-PCR as an 860 bp fragment, including the signal peptide and thecore sequence of cocoonase gene. In order to investigate the function of signal peptide, recombinant transfer vectorpBacPAK8-Cocoonase-EGFP were constructed by fusing with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene toobserve under fluorescence microscope. The purified pBacPAK8-Cocoonase-EGFP DNA was co-transfected withlinear virus Bm-BacPAK6 DNA into BmN cells. The homologous recombination occurred in the cells and then therecombinant virus Bm-BacPAK8-Cocoonase-EGFP was obtained. BmN cell was infected with the recombinant virusBm-BacPAK8-Cocoonase-EGFP, and fluorescent signal was detected in most of the cells under fluorescencemicroscope at 72 hrs postinfection. Then BmN cells were harvested. Both SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting analysisindicated that the cocoonase was expressed successfully in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vectorsystem. Furthermore, referred to Astrup methods,used fibrin plate process confirmed that expression product in vitrohad cellulolytic activity. We conclude that silkworm expression system can be used successfully to express functionalcocoonase.
 
Article
Lead is one of the most clinically important heavy metals, because it induces a broad range of physiological,biochemical, and genetical dysfunctions. Occupational exposure to lead leads to increased frequency of genetic systemin human beings. In the present study the DNA damage among the workers occupationally exposed to lead wasanalyzed using peripheral blood lymphocyte by comet assay. The result of this study shows increased levels of DNAdamage among experimental subjects. The habit of cigarette smoking among the workers has a synergistic effect oninducing DNA damage.
 
Serum ceruloplasmin levels and Urinary copper level of WND patients (p1-p11). The patients were presented with hepatic, neurological or with both complications
Article
Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in ATP7B gene that impairs coppermetabolism. ATP7B is involved in the transport of copper into the plasma protein ceruloplasmin and copper excretionout of the liver. Defects in ATP7B lead to excess of copper in various organs primarily in liver. The diagnosis of WNDis more complex due to variations in its biochemical and clinical features and the broad range of disease onset. Theobjective of the present study was to establish molecular analysis system for screening of Wilson disease in Pakistanipopulation. Three mutations were identified; with one being is a novel mutation never reported before.
 
Article
The study of the extent and pattern of genetic variation of six populations of Azadirachta excelsa (Jacks) Jacobs, i.e.Manong (Perak), Pokok Sena (Kedah), Sik (Kedah), FRIM (Selangor), Merchang (Terengganu) and Sg. Caru (Pahang)was carried out using starch gel electrophoresis. The analysis on eleven enzyme systems was found to be coded by 25and 26 loci. The mean of observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 and the percentage of proportion ofpolymorphic loci varied from 61.54% to 73.08%. The extents of genetic identities ranged from 0.81 to 0.98.
 
Performance of birds before and during laying of soft shell and shell less eggs along with reduced egg production
Isolation and identification of haemagglutinating virus from the samples inoculated in embryos at 5 th day post inoculation both at first and second passage in chicken and duck embryos
Article
An incident alike to egg-drop syndrome (EDS) occurred in commercial egg laying chickens in Gazipur district,Bangladesh from July to November 2005. The chickens showed decreased egg production along with production ofshell less and soft shelled eggs when they were at predicted peak production age. Nutritional status, especially crudeprotein (16.65-18.50%) and calcium (2.15-3.62%) content of the supplied feed was within the range. Virological andserological investigations on causes of decreased egg production and production of soft-shelled and shell less egg by thelaying hens revealed that the responsible causative agent is EDS virus. Total seven EDS viruses were isolated fromcloacal swab (4), soft-shelled eggs (2) and feces (1). The isolation rate 71.43% (5/7) was higher in second passage thanin first passage 28.57% (2/7) in duck embryos. None of the 7 viruses grew in chicken embryo even after second passage.All five flocks tested, were vaccinated against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease along with other commonvaccines generally used in Bangladesh but not against EDS. Serological investigation revealed that birds in all testedfarms (100%) had antibody against EDS virus (in 2 farms in 100% samples and in 3 farms in 80% samples). The sourceof the virus remained to be determined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EDS outbreak inBangladesh. To save poultry industry in Bangladesh from harm of this disease the biosecurity measures should bestrictly followed along with vaccination against the disease.
 
Article
Biosorption of Acid Yellow (AY17) a monoazo acid dye currently used in textile and dyeing industries was investigatedusing Spent Brewery Grains (SBG) a brewing industry waste in a batch system with respect to initial pH, temperature,initial dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, and contact time. The biomass exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at303 K, initial pH value of 2, the initial dye concentration of 150mg/L, biosorbent dosage of 0.5 g and contact time of 40min. The extent of dye removal increased with increase in time, biosorbent dosage and decreased with increase intemperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity of the biomass increased on increasing the initial dye concentration upto 150 mg/L and then started decreasing in the studied concentration up to 600 mg/L.The experimental results hasshown that the acidic pH favours the biosorption. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model is used for themathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants are evaluated at different temperatures.Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Freundlich model in the studied concentration (25-600 mg/L) and temperature(303-323 K) ranges. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models were also applied to the experimental data. Theresults indicated that the dye uptake process followed the pseudo second-order rate expression and adsorption rateconstants increased with increasing concentration.
 
Growth of P. excavatus in different type of bedding material
Simple linear regression table
pH analysis of different type of bedding
Bedding material characteristic
Article
Rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization has led to generation of large quantities of wastes. Major portion oforganic waste is dumped in landfill sites, creates the organic load on the ground water, and more emissions of landfillgases. The best possible alternative to reduce these potential pollutants is through vermicomposting. Vermicompostingis essentially composting with worms. This experiment was done to determine which bedding materials (eithernewspaper or sawdust) is more suitable for vermicomposting by using biological parameter which measured the growthrate (pH), number of worm, number of cocoons and worm biomass. The worms were breed in vermicomposter and theperiod of vermicomposting using Perionyx excavatus worm is six weeks. All of the four biological parameters showedthat there are significant different between this two type of bedding using ANOVA test. The Duncan test demonstratedthat newspaper bedding is more influential in worm biomass production and growth rate while sawdust bedding is betterfor cocoons production and number of worm. For pH analysis it reveals that the optimum pH for worm growth rate isnear to neutral condition. As conclusion, different types of bedding material will influence the worm growth.
 
Article
Panay Island bushy-tailed cloud rats Crateromys heaneyi are nocturnal, arboreal, probably herbivorous Philippinerodents. Apart from limited morphological data, there is very little reported information about them. The aim of thisstudy was to gather preliminary data with a view to developing an ethogram for these taxa, based on a captivepopulation house at ZSL London Zoo. Cloud rats are probably not social rodents and are likely to live in pairs orsolitarily in the wild when not raising offspring. They are intolerant of intruders in their territory and will fight to thedeath when stressed. They spend the majority of their time resting, climbing and feeding. Cloud rats are fastidious intheir habits; defecating and urinating away from their nest boxes and food at a particular constant site and cleaningthemselves methodically after every meal. There are significant gaps in our knowledge of these mammals, which arelisted as endangered on the IUCN Red List.
 
Article
Effects of elevated [CO2] and nitrogen nutrition on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content and growth in Betulaplatyphylla seedlings were studied. The seedlings were grown in the ambient [CO2] (AC, 350????mol mol-1) and elevated[CO2] (EC, 700????mol mol-1) growth chambers, with three levels of nitrogen: LN (0mmol L-1 N), MN (1.5mmol L-1 N)and HN (3mmol L-1 N). HN increased photosynthesis (Pmax), photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and intercellular[CO2] (Ci) by 120%, 8% and 11% than the LN. EC significantly increased Pmax and Ci by 37% and 57% compared tothe AC. The interaction of EC and LN was significant increased by 85% than the AC+MN, and could be attributed toboth inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions and carboxylation activity of Rubisco. In AC and EC, total biomasswere 3.2 and 5.1 times greater in HN compared to LN. Root biomass increased significantly in HN level under both ACand EC. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b increased with increasing N availability.
 
Article
Bombyx mori Parvo-like virus (China Zhenjiang isolate) had termed as BmDNV-Z.NS3 is one of the three nonstructuralproteins that is responsible for the replication of virus DNA. To explore the nature of NS3 and determine how it differsfrom other NS3 sequence, we extracted amino acid sequences of NS3 from four sequenced DNV genomes, and carriedout sequence-based phylogenetic and structural analyses. In addition, to investigate the importance of the ITR as asignal for some viral and /or cellular factors further, we performed a computer analysis for prediction of secondarystructure. We found that Comparisons of protein sequence with those of the databases showed low homologies withNS-3 of JcDNV (30% identity), GmDNV (26% identity), MlDNV (26% identity). But zinc-finger motifs appear to beconserved greatly. Further the structural importance of the terminal sequence (CTS) common to VD1 and VD2 was alsopredicted by a DNA folding web.
 
Article
HECATE3 (HEC3) is an important transcription factor involved in regulating the carpel and transmitting tractdevelopment in Arabidopsis thaliana. The homologous gene of HEC3 in Brassica napus (designed as BnHEC3) wasobtained by in silico cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. BnHEC3 obtained from cDNA is of748 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 546bp and coding a peptide of 181 amino acid residues. Sequencealignment revealed that BnHEC3 is highly homologous to HEC3 in Arabidopsis thaliana, especially in bHLH region,which is sharing nearly 100% identity, and the polygenetic analysis indicated that BnHEC3 belongs to atypical bHLHprotein family. RT-PCR results showed that BnHEC3 is mainly expressed in young leave. Southern blotting analysisindicated that BnHEC3 has at least three copies in Brassica napus genome. The transient expression of BnHEC3-sGFPin onion epidermic cells showed that BnHEC3 localized in nuclei. These features implied that BnHEC3 functions asHEC3, and may be involved in the development of female reproductive tissues in Brassica napus.
 
Article
Several proteins present on the sperm membranes serve as signal transducers facilitating sperm maturation, capacitation,acrosome reaction and fertilization. Among them, guanylate cyclase (GC), the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) andcalmodulin have been reported rather extensively. Although biochemical data clearly suggest their roles in thefertilization process, the precise location of these proteins in the sperm membranes have not been adequately investigatedand need clarification. Using immunolocalization procedures we report that guanylate cyclase receptors (GCR) arelocalized on the apical region of the acrosome and on the postacrosomal plasmalemma, while IP3Rs are present in theneck region of the sperm and at lower density along the axonemal membrane. In contrast, calmodulin is restricted to thepostacrosomal, basal nuclear membrane and the neck region that corresponds to the redundant nuclear envelope and ERvesicles, with some reaction along the middle piece and tail membranes. Colocalization of these proteins on the spermmembrane together with biochemical data as reported previously provide further insight into their role in thespermatozoan motility and possibly the fertilization process.
 
Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence. The predicted amino acid is represented by the one letter code designation below the nucleotide sequence. The initiate codes and the stop codes are framed. The TATA-box is italic and underlined. 
DNA sequence frame of the GlcAT-S gene. Extrons are black framed, and introns are white framed. 
Identification of the expression vector His-GlcAT-S-pET30a. Lane 1, His-GlcAT-S-pET30a digested with BamHI and XholI generated two fragments: His-pET30a (5.4Kbp) and GlcAT-S (840 bp); M, DNA molecular maker. 
SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. M, Protein marker; Lane 1, Protein of E. coli BL21 contained His-pET30a induced by IPTG; Lane 2, Protein of E. coli BL21 contained His-GlcAT-S-pET30a induced by IPTG; Lane 3, Western blot results of His-GlcAT-S fusion protein. The fusion protein bands were indicated by arrows. 
Article
As genome of B. mori is available in GenBank, identification of novel genes of B. mori can be carried out. In this study,we used the in silico cloning method to obtain the Glucuronyltransferase-S (GlcAT-S) gene of B. mori and analysedwith bioinformatics tools. The result was confirmed by RT-PCR,prokaryotic expression and western blot. The GlcAT-ScDNA contains a 843bp ORF and has three exons. The deduced protein has 280 amino acid residues, with the predictedmolecular weight of 31842. 02 Da, isoelectric point of 9.16, and contains conserved GlcAT domains. The protein showshigh degrees of identity with that of some homologous protein from other species.
 
Identification of the recombinant plasmid pMD19-T/vp. Lane M, DNA molecular mass maker. Lane T-vp, pMD19-T/ vp digested with BamHI and HindIII generated two fragments: pMD19-T (2.6 Kbp) and vp (1500 bp);
Western blotting analysis. Protein of E. coli BL21 contained His-pET30a induced by IPTG; Protein of E. coli BL21 contained His-GlcAT-S-pET30a induced by IPTG Western blot results of His-VP fusion protein. The four fusion protein bands were indicated by arrows.
The mRNA level of BmDNV-Z VP protein. The copy numbers of vp mRNA increase considerably after 24hrs. BmactinA3 gene was used as an internal control for normalization.
Article
The Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (China Zhenjiang isolate), termed as BmDNV-Z, replicates only in host’s midgutcolumnar cells and causes flacherie disease. The viral genome is composed of two sets of different single-strandedlinear DNA molecules, Viral DNA 1(VD1) and Viral DNA 2(VD2). Here we cloned the major VP gene from theplasmid contained viral DNA fragments. The gene consists of 1500 nucleotides and the deduced protein has 499 aminoacid residues, with the predicted molecular weight of 54934.24Da, isoelectric point of 6.73. The coding sequence wasinserted into expression plasmid vector pET-30a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under the induciblepromoter LacZ. The expressed product was detected by Western blotting with anti-His antibody. Interestingly, there arefour laddered band instead of one. We speculated that this virus may use leaky scanning mechanism to express fourproteins in one ORF. And we investigated the major VP gene transcriptional time phase in susceptible silkworm throughreal time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The result showed that the mRNA level of VP gene increased greatly after 24 hourspost inoculation.
 
Article
Sirtuin2 (Sirt2) is a kind of NAD+-dependent deacetylases ranging from bacteria to human and play an important role inmany biological processes especially in lifespan. We performed genome analysis and protein prediction of Sirt2 of B.mori (BmSirt2). The cDNA sequence of BmSirt2 contains an ORF of 1164 bp encoding 387 amino acid residues with apredicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 43.37 kDa and 5.02, respectively. This protein shows high degrees ofidentity with other species. Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the BmSirt2 protein was in the samesubgroup as the Sirt2 from invertebrate animals. RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues showed thatSirt2 gene was widely expressed in B. mori. BmSirt2 was successfully expressed in E. coli with a molecular mass of48.0 kDa. The identification of the recombinant protein by MALDI-TOF-MS and western blotting showed this fusionprotein was the correct one.
 
Article
The floral-dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium was appliedin the Brassica napus transformation, but it involves a number of relatively time-consuming and laborious steps,including manipulating an Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture and aseptic procedures for the selection of plant linesharboring antibiotic-selection markers. It calls for a long time to prepare the buffered media. To circumvent thesebottlenecks, we have developed a rapid and simple method. We find that Brassica napus can be transformed by dippingdirectly into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture supplemented with surfactant, eliminating the need for mediaexchange to a buffered solution. We report a method of transformant selection by soaking seeds with antibiotic. Thesemethods save time and money, and reduce the possibility of contamination.
 
Article
Sucrose is the major carbon form translocated in higher plants, and also works as an important signaling molecule thatregulates genes involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, and developmental processes. Many studies focused onglucose, normal decomposed product of sucrose, demonstrated that glucose resulted in a delay of germination and aninhibition of seedling development. In this study, we determined the effects of sucrose on germination kinetics andseedlings development. Our results indicated that exogenous sucrose didn’t have a similar role to glucose, showed167mM sucrose delayed the rate of seed germination in wild-ecotype seeds by extending peak time of germination, andhad multiple roles to seedling development. Overhigh concentration of sucrose (333mM) restrained germination andseedling development seriously. Further experiments of transcript profiles of genes involved in energy and carbohydratemetabolism indicated that seedlings absorbed and utilized the exogenous sucrose as a priority while reduced the needfor internal source.
 
Article
Today unwise anthropogenic activity has disturbed the natural ecosystem globally. Civilization on its way to goal hasdestroyed nature as well as natural diversity. Aquatic ecosystem is also facing the same adverse effect as they are usedas waste releasing source. However, anthropogenic activity has drastically damaged the natural habitat of all the livingbeing. Though river water is used for agriculture, fisheries, residential and industrial developments, mining activity,navigation, power generation and variety of other activities including sand digging and disposal of industrial anddomestic wastes, but still, some natural breeding do exists in the nature. Identification of those natural breeding groundand to bring them under proper conservation is a most effective way of natural breed conservation. The river Damodaris the most important watershed in the eastern part of India and is one of the main tributaries of the Ganga. The riverhoused a healthy fish faunal diversity in the recent past but today in spite of drastic deterioration of natural ecosystem,astonishingly no significant difference occurred in faunal composition of the river system.
 
Article
Objective: The protective effect and possible mechanism of total flavones of buckwheat flowers (TFBF) onexperimental hepatic impairment in mice were studied. Methods: The hepatic impairment model of mice was inducedby injecting carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) subcutaneously (sc) every 4 days for 7 times. Meanwhile, mice in the twotreatment groups were given TFBF at dosages of 0.04 g•kg-1•d-1 and 0.02 g•kg-1•d-1 respectively through intragastric (ig)injection, and mice in the positive control group were treated with methionine (MET) by contrast. Next the day CCl4was lastly injected, half the mice were killed. The contents of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum and ALT,superoxidase dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) inliver tissue, the liver indexes (LI), and the hepato-pathologic changes of the mice were examined. The rest mice weregiven identical treatment for another 2 weeks. Results: TFBF could inhibit the rising of serum ALT, liver MDA, TG, TC,LI, and the lowering of liver SOD and GSH in CCl4-induced hepatic impairment mice. It could obviously ease thehepato-pathologic damages as well. Conclusion: TFBF could effectively protect the hepatic impairment in CCl4-inducedmice.
 
Article
Cage culture is one of the important methods for intensive culture of tilapia in large water impoundments. But,information related to growth performance of androgen-treated monosex tilapia population during cage culture underthe ecological conditions of India is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the growth potential of control,mixed-sex and androgen-treated, monosex tilapia in confined environment of cages. Control and hormone treated fishwere stocked separately in mesh cages at a density of 50 fry / m3 and it was found that the androgen treated monosexfish grew significantly larger than their control mixed-sex counterparts. The monosex population showed a significantlyhigher weight, length, depth, specific growth rate, daily weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and body protein contentthan the mixed-sex tilapia population. Thus, culture of hormone treated monosex tilapia in cages can be consideredideal for augmented production of the fish under Indian context.
 
Article
In the present study, complete ORF of GnRH receptor transcript from goat pituitary was amplified, cloned inprokaryotic system and sequenced. The goat type-I GnRH receptor sequence shows high homology with sheep, cow,buffalo, equine and human. Like in other mammalian species in goat too, the GnRH receptor lacks a C terminal tail.Amino acids which are critical for structure and function of the receptor were found conserved. Few amino acidresidues conserved amongst ruminants were found to be replaced in other mammalian species suggesting divergentevolutionary path of this gene in these groups.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial numbers found within the bedding materialand those found upon the teats in cattle herds bedded on three different bedding materials; sand, sawdust and straw. Thebacteria to be studied are known to be responsible for the development of mastitis within the mammary glands resultingin reduced milk quality and poor welfare conditions for the animal. Samples for the analysis were collected undernatural housing conditions from the bedding and from the teats of a representative sample of each herd. These were thenplated to isolate numbers of the environmental bacteria, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli (E. coli), and toconduct a total viable count for comparison. Statistical analysis showed that six of the nine relationships tested resultedin a P8.5 x 10. When compared with the incidence of mastitis infections within the herd, the straw bedding had aconsiderably higher number of infections than from the sand or sawdust with thirty-one cases recorded. In conclusion,minimising pathogen growth within the bedding material, results in lower numbers of pathogens being transmitted ontothe cow's teats thereby reducing the possibility of intrammamary infections. It is recommended that further work iscarried out through repeating the study on a larger number of farms to identify whether the relationship between thebacterial numbers exists on further farms. In addition to this, it is also recommended that further analysis of thepathogens responsible for the mastitis within the herds be undertaken to identify if the environmental pathogens areresponsible for these intrammamary infections.
 
Article
Lipolytic enzymes from marine microbes have been the focus of intense and growing research. The bioluminescencebacterium Vibrio fischeri was produced lipase enzyme when the medium contained specific substrate. The lipase waspurified from the concentrated culture supernatant. The most active fractions were obtained using the technique ofprecipitation with ammonium sulphate. The precipitated fraction was purified by desalting and ion exchangechromatography. The purified active fraction exhibiting final specific activity of 121U/mg and characterized; theoptimum pH was likely between 7 to 8, the optimum temperature was 30°C and about 80 % of activity at 5°C. Theenzyme was very stable at the pH 8, at the temperature 30°C. The enzyme was monomeric protein having molecularmass of 57 KDa estimated by native PAGE assay.
 
Article
For chicken, the study about fat-related traits is one important aspect of the breading and economic benefit. Theintramuscular fat can enhance the taste and flavor of muscle, and study of chicken on the level of DNA has become intoa research spot for modern biologics. In this article, we summarized deeper research developments of fatty acid-bindingprotein gene (FABP), leptin receptor gene (OBR), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gene (PPAR), thyroidhormone response albumen Spot14 gene (THRSP), melanocortin receptor gene (MCR), apolipoprotein B andlipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) about chicken fat-related traits in recent years.
 
Article
In the present paper, we reviewed intergeneric hybridization between chicken and quail from four aspects, such asmorphology, molecular genetics, sex identification of earlier embryos and prospects, summarized the recent researchprogress from the scholars at home or abroad, and aimed to attract more and more attention to intergeneric hybridizationbetween chicken and quail, offer more space and room for other researchers to consider and develop, and lay afoundation for the exploitation, protection and utilization of China genetic resources.
 
Article
A DNA fragment was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of Eerococci Inducing Sheeps Encephalitis by PCR andthen was cloned into pMD19-T Vector. The cloned fragment was sequenced. Comparing the DNA sequence of theamplified fragment with the published sequence of gene CylA showed that they were 99.3% homologous.
 
Article
Long chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs) activate free fatty acids to acyl-CoA thioesters, and play importantroles in the biosynthesis and degradation of lipids. In this study, a Glycine max(L.) LACS gene, designated as GmLACS,has been isolated through in silicon cloning. The gene is 2,219 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,989 bp, whichencodes a LACS with 662 amino acid residues, with the isoelectric point of 6.42 and the calculated molecular mass of65.6 kDa. Sequence analysis showed that GmLACS possessed typical domains of LACSs. Real-time quantitative PCRdata analysis suggested that GmLACS was hightly expressed in leaves and young pods.
 
Article
In general, people who perform repetitive motions are often vulnerable to repetitive strain injuries. Because musiciansmust execute the same motion over and over again while practicing and performing their music, they are an example ofa group that often develops these repetitive strain injuries. More specifically, musicians are known for developingneuropathies in their upper limbs, with carpal tunnel syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome being most common.However, because of varying playing postures, all musicians may not be at equal risk for developing these twoneuropathies, so the purpose of this study was to identify which musician group has the highest risk of developingmedian and ulnar neuropathies. Results of this study show that the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and cubitaltunnel syndrome is fairly low, and that tingling is one of the first signs of these diseases. Also, brass players may havethe highest risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome, as only this musician group had a significant p-value when itsincidence rate of carpal tunnel syndrome was compared to the incidence rate found in the general population. Finally,the results suggest that there may be a negative correlation between performing a warm-up routine and experiencingtingling. Therefore, music schools should teach all students, and especially brass players, to be aware of tingling and totake appropriate preventative measure such as warming-up in order to keep the incidence rates of carpal tunnelsyndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome as low as possible.
 
Article
This study was to estimate the GCA of the parents and SCA considered for the development of high yielding and betterquality cultivars. Eleven genotypes and 28 F1 hybrids obtained by crossing 4 lines and 7 testers in line X tester matingsystem were sown in randomized complete block design. L X T analysis revealed significant GCA and SCA effects forall the traits except earliness. Among the parents: MCU 12 for number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yieldper plant, F 1861 for seed cotton yield and number of bolls per plant, SOCC 17 for earliness, SURABHI for number ofsympodia and TCH 1641 for ginning outturn and lint index with high GCA. Parent F 776 and F1861 were goodcombiners for fibre quality traits. The high yielding quality hybrids were deducted with significant SCA effects for seedcotton yield and fibre characteristics.
 
Top-cited authors
Funmilayo Victoria Doherty
  • Yaba College of Technology
Nadali Babaeian Jelodar
  • Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
Mohamad Osman
  • International Islamic University Malaysia
Kayode David Ileke
  • Federal University of Technology, Akure