LsRN from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. From a 1793bp genomic sequence, the lsRN gene was found to be composed of a single 1446bp ORF with a putative promoter consensus boxes and a ribosome-binding site. This ORF was predicted to encode for 482 amino acid residues. The LsRN was constitutively expressed at a relatively high level without sucrose induction. The enzyme was highly purified and an apparent size of 52kDa with an optimum temperature and pH of 50°C and 6.0 were determined. The wide range of M(w) of levan (1-600kDa) was synthesized in a controlled reaction with two variable parameters: temperature and ionic strength. At high temperature (50°C), LsRN synthesized high M(w) levan (612kDa) as a major product while at low temperature (30°C), low M(w) levan (11kDa) was mainly synthesized. When 0.5M NaCl was added into the reaction, the major products at both temperatures were of the size 11kDa. Moreover we report for the first time, an enzymatic synthesis of levan nanoparticles (NPs) by a single step reaction. The LsRN synthesized levan NPs as agglomerate with average particle size of 50nm. The encapsulation of O-acetyl-α-tocopherol was carried out to demonstrate the applicable use of levan NPs.
Bacillus pumilus UW-02, an isolate from agricultural soil irrigated with waste water was found to produce a carbohydrate polymer in the form of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). The recovery rates of EPS by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were around 63% and 90%, respectively. As evident from HPLC and FT-IR analyses, the EPS was found to be a heteropolymer consisting glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and N-acetyl glucosamine as monomer units. Different oligosaccharide combinations namely hexose(4), hexose(6) pentose(1) and hexose(10) pentose(1) are obtained after partial hydrolysis of EPS using MALDI-ToF-MS. Electron micrographs portrayed the intense affinity of the EPS molecules for each other, thereby justifying its viscosifying and thickening properties. The EPS with an average molecular weight of 218 kDa and thermal stability up to 180 °C showed pseudoplastic rheology and significant emulsifying activities.
Free chitosan, 2 g/100g mycelia from Gongronella butleri and 6.5 g/100g mycelia from Absidia coerulea were isolated by 1M NaOH at 45 degrees C for 13 h and 0.35 M acetic acid at 95 degrees C for 5 h. Both myceliar matrixes did not break down under these conditions. However, myceliar matrix could be decomposed by treatment with 11 M NaOH at 45 degrees C for 13 h and 0.35 M acetic acid at 95 degrees C for 5 h and then extracted the total chitosan, 8-9 g/100g mycelia from both fungi. According to these results, G. butleri has higher amount of complexed chitosan and A. coerulea has higher amount in free chitosan.
Biopolymers such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) are produced by microbial species and possess unusual properties known to modify biological responses, among them are antimutagenicity and immunomodulation. Botryosphaeran, a newly described fungal (1-->3; 1-->6)-beta-d-glucan produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05, was administered by gavage to mice at three doses (7.5, 15 and 30mg/kgb.w.per day) over 15 days, and found to be non-genotoxic by the micronucleus test in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Botryosphaeran administered at doses of 15 and 30mg EPS/kgb.w. decreased significantly (p<0.001) the clastogenic effect of cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus formation resulting in a reduction of the frequency of micronucleated cells of 78 and 82% in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow, and reticulocytes in peripheral blood, respectively. The protective effect was dose-dependent, and strong anticlastogenic activity was exerted at low EPS doses. Variance analysis (ANOVA) showed no significant differences (p<0.05) among the median body weights of the groups of mice treated with botryosphaeran during experiments evaluating genotoxic and protective activities of botryosphaeran. This is the first report on the biological activity attributed to botryosphaeran.
Cordyceps militaris SU5-08 was derived from an initial strain (C. militaris SU5) by ultraviolet mutagenesis of protoplasts, and the extraction parameters for C. militaris SU5-08 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture were optimized. The extraction rate of EPS was 1919.16±165.27 mg/l, which was 120.38±11.36% higher than that of C. militaris SU5. The in vitro scavenging effects of EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals at a dosage of 5 g/l were 63.64±3.52%, 75.27±5.16%, and 6.46±5.03%, respectively. The reducing power of EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 was 0.21±0.01. The results suggest that the EPS of C. militaris SU5-08 can be used as a potential antioxidant which enhances adaptive immune responses.
The ability of an isolated isozyme of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida DSM 437 to function in a non-aqueous environment was investigated. The lyophilized enzyme is able to keep its catalytic function catalyzing the oxidation of catechol in n-hexane. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at liquid helium temperatures was applied to compare the properties of the non-heme iron of the enzyme in the organic solvent and in the aqueous solution. The catalytic performance of the enzyme in the organic solvent is correlated with the spectroscopic properties of the non-heme iron.
Chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase (1,2-CCD) is a non-heme iron protein involved in the intradiol cleavage of aromatic compounds that are recalcitrant to biodegradation. In particular, 1,2-CCD catalyzes the conversion of catechol and its halogenated derivatives to cis-cis muconic acid. In this study we describe a series of experiments concerning the interaction of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (Pp1,2-CCD) with cis-cis muconic acid. We used single-injection ITC to show that the reaction product inhibits enzyme kinetics. DSC and EPR measurements probed whether this was accomplished by a direct binding of the product to the enzyme active site. DSC shows that cis-cis muconic acid affects the thermal unfolding of the protein and allowed us to estimate a binding constant. Furthermore, EPR spectra of the Fe(III) center demonstrate that, upon product binding, a significant decrease in resonance intensity is observed, indicating that cis-cis muconic acid binds directly to the active site. Based on the increasing interest for understanding dioxygenases mechanism of action and, moreover, how to control such process, our data indicate that the product of the reaction does play a relevant role in the catalysis and should therefore be taken into account when one thinks about ways of regulating enzyme activity.
Chemical modifications of silk fibroin were attempted in order to add new properties and functions to silk fibroin. The arginyl residue in solubilized silk fibroin was chemically modified with the reaction of 1,2-cyclohexanedione in borate buffer. FT-i.r. and c.d. spectra of the silk fibroin before and after the modification indicated that the fraction of random coil conformation increased with the modification. The chemical stability of the modified silk fibroin membrane was investigated in vitro with phosphate buffer. The modified arginyl residue in the membrane was considerably regenerated with the treatment in phosphate buffer.
The binding geometry of a heterocyclic compound, 4-(2-diethylamino-ethylamino)-8-oxo-8H-acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrrole-9-carbonitrile (A1) to CT DNA was studied by molecular spectroscopy. Deduced from SYBR Green-DNA melt curve, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence studies, there were two different interaction mechanisms involved in the whole interaction process depending on the R-value (R, the molar ratio of A1 to CT DNA base pairs). The value R = 0.20 was the turning point. The induced circular dichroism (ICD) spectra of A1 complexed with CT DNA, poly[(G-C)2] and poly[(A-T)2] showed when R < or = 0.20, A1 intercalated into CT DNA and the intercalation orientation of A1 to the dyad axis of DNA double-helix was heterogeneous. When R > 0.20, stacking of A1 on surface helix of DNA occurred driven by the protonation of amidogen group in the N,N-diethyldiamine substitution of A1, which was illustrated by the changes of A1-DNA geometry in different pH solutions. The intrinsic circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed the conformation of DNA converted from the B-form to A-like conformation due to the A1 intercalation.
The arginyl residue of solubilized silk fibroin was chemically modified with 1,2-cyclohexanedione in aqueous alkaline medium to form a stable imidazolidinone ring, and its positive charge was masked. CD spectra of the modified silk fibroin in aqueous solution showed an increase in the fraction of random coil conformation. The increase may be caused by the exposure to alkaline medium in the modification reaction. FT-IR and CD spectra of the silk fibroin films before and after the modification indicated that the conformational change in the modified silk fibroin in the solid state did not occur by the modification of its arginyl residue with 1,2-cyclohexanedione. The chemical stability of the modified silk fibroin film was investigated in vitro with phosphate-buffered saline solution. The modified arginyl residue in the film was stable in the phosphate-buffered solution.
The system composed of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol (Tris) and Zn2+ catalyses the degradation of cephalosporins. The beta-lactam opening fits to a first-order process, with a constant directly proportional to the zinc ion concentration. The pH and Tris concentration dependency displayed by the first-order constant, as well as the nature of the degradation products point to a mechanism that can be considered as an extension of that proposed for the benzylpenicillin degradation. The mechanism proposed here, and the values of the kinetic constants calculated, as compared with those of beta-lactamases, lead to the conclusion that the Tris-Zn2+ system simulates the catalytic action of the serine beta-lactamases rather than the action of the Zn(2+)-dependent type of enzymes.
Glycerol 1,3-diglycerol diacrylate-grafted poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (GDD-g-PHO) copolymers were prepared by heating homogeneous solutions of PHO, GDD monomer and benzoylperoxide initiator. Experiments showed that GDD was successfully grafted onto the PHO chains and that the resulting copolymers had enhanced thermal properties and mechanical strengths. The surfaces and the bulk of GDD-g-PHO copolymers became more hydrophilic as the GDD grafting density in the copolymer increased. Measurements of the growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the adsorption of blood proteins and platelets in vitro showed that biocompatibility was also enhanced by grafting of GDD groups. These results indicate that the GDD-g-PHO copolymers are promising materials for biocompatible biomedical applications.
A new acid stable exo-beta-1,3-glucanase of Rhizoctonia solani purified from a commercial source 'Kitarase-M', by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration methods, had specific activity of 0.26 U/mg protein, Km and Vmax values of 0.78 mg/ml and 0.27 mM/min/mg protein, respectively. It had molecular weight of 62 kDa with optimum activity at 40 degrees C temperature and pH 5.0, with high stability at pH of 3-7. Unique amino acid sequence was found at N-terminal end. The substrate specificity studies confirmed that it is an exo-beta-1,3-glucanase. It could hydrolyze curdlan powder to release glucose.
Endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Vigna aconitifolia sprouts was purified to 14.5 fold by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme was found to be a glycoprotein, its activity was Ca(2+) dependent and specific for β-1,3 linkages in different polysaccharides. The K(m) value of the enzyme was estimated to be 3.0 mg ml(-1) for β-D-glucan as substrate. Circular dichroism studies revealed 8% α-helix, 48% β-pleated and 44% random coil in its secondary structure. Purified β-glucanase was then successfully co-immobilized with glucose oxidase in agarose-chitosan beads, showing better immobilization yield, operational range and stability as compared with the crude β-glucanase beads. The immobilized β-glucanase was successfully used for mini-bioreactor fabrication.
In this paper, we present the first detailed analysis of the modes of action of three purified, thermostable endo-beta-D-glucanases (EG V-VII) against a range of soluble beta-linked glucans. Studies indicated that EG V-VII, purified to homogeneity from a new source, the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii, are strict beta-glucanases that exhibit maximum activity against mixed-link 1,3;1,4-beta-D-glucans. Time-course hydrolysis studies of 1,4-beta-D-glucan (carboxymethylcellulose; CMC), 1,3;1,4-beta-D-glucan from barley (BBG) and lichenan confirmed the endo-acting nature of EG V-VII and verified preference for 1,3;1,4-beta-D-glucan substrates. The results suggest that EG VI and EG VII belong to EC 220.127.116.11, as both enzymes also exhibit activity against 1,3-beta-glucan (laminaran), in contrast to EG V. Although cellobiose, cellotriose and glucose were the main glucooligosaccharide products released, the range and relative amount of each product was dependent on the particular enzyme, substrate and reaction time. Kinetic constants (Km, Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km) determined for EG V-VII with BBG as substrate yielded similar Km and Vmax values for EG V and EG VI. EG VII exhibited highest affinity for BBG (Km value of 9.1 mg ml(-1)) and the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 12.63 s(-1) mg(-1) ml).
The Matrix Polymer Hydrolysis Model for regulation of growth in plants is based on the simultaneous hydrolysis and incorporation of new glucans into the cell wall observed in growing plant tissues. The inhibition of growth in rice coleoptile tissues treated with glucanase antibodies confirms similar results observed previously in maize coleoptiles and provides direct evidence for a role of glucanase in control of plant growth. Analysis of two-maize coleoptile endo-glucanase ESTs shows that these sequences are not related to any other previously known family of glycosyl hydrolase. Thus, the coleoptile endo-glucanase enzyme should be classified as a new enzyme group (E.C. 3.2.1.xx). These discoveries enable new initiatives for further investigation of the glucanase role in control of plant growth.
Endo-beta-1,4-glucanase A (CenA), a cellulase from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi, is composed of two domains: a catalytic domain and a cellulose-binding domain. Adsorption of CenA and its isolated cellulose-binding domain (CBD.PTCenA) to Valonia cellulose microcrystals was examined by transmission electron microscopy using an antibody sandwich technique (CenA/CBD.PTCenA-alpha CenA IgG-protein A-gold conjugate). Adsorption of both CenA and CBD.PTCenA occurred along the lengths of the microcrystals, with an apparent preference for certain crystal faces or edges. CenA or CBD.PTCenA, but not the isolated catalytic domain, were shown to prevent the flocculation of microcrystalline bacterial cellulose. The cellulose-binding domain may assist crystalline cellulose hydrolysis in vitro by promoting substrate dispersion.
Kinetic as well as energetic aspects of the thermal denaturation of Trichoderma reesei endo-1,4-beta-xylanase II (TRX II) and its three thermostable disulfide mutants were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in different solution conditions. The calorimetric transitions were strongly scan-rate dependent, characteristic for an irreversible, kinetically controlled protein denaturation. The DSC-determined T*-values (the temperature at which the denaturation rate constant equals 1min(-1)), and the activation free energies for the transitions are consistent with the apparent transition temperatures of TRX II determined earlier by mass spectrometry. Protein aggregation, connected with the irreversibility of the transitions, was present in all cases but was less pronounced with the mutants as well as highly dependent on experimental conditions.
Chitin based polyurethane elastomers with potential as biomedical implants with tunable mechanical properties were synthesized by step growth polymerization techniques using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The prepolymer was extended with different mass ratios of chitin and 1,4-butane diol (BDO). Molecular characterization was done using FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. The mechanical properties of these polymers were improved with increase in the chitin contents. Optimum mechanical properties were obtained from elastomers extended with chitin in comparison to elastomers extended with BDO. Cytotoxicity of the synthesized polyurethane samples was affected by varying the chitin contents in the chemical composition of the final polyurethane (PU). It is revealed that the final polymers extended with chitin are preferred candidates for surgical threads with on going investigations into their in vitro biocompatibility and non-toxicity.
Cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum in medium containing 0.5% xyloglucan or glucomannan showed altered crystallinities and shifted I alpha/I beta ratios when analysed by solid-state 13C-NMR. By estimating the spectra of cellulose components in each composite, a decreased I alpha content was shown to be countered by increased I beta content in cellulose aggregated in the presence of xyloglucan, causing minimal loss of crystallinity. However, the I alpha decrease was linked primarily to increased disordered content in cellulose produced in medium containing glucomannan. These results are considered in the light of two models for the morphological disposition of the I alpha phase: (i) a series model, proposed on the basis of electron diffraction measurements for an algal cellulose, in which regions of I alpha and I beta alternate along the length of a microfibril, and (ii) a superlattice model, in which the I alpha and I beta domains co-exist throughout the cross-section of each microfibril and form as a result of hierarchical aggregation. The latter model offers clearer insight into the role of the polysaccharides in inhibiting the formation of I alpha crystalline regions. In this superlattice model, polysaccharides adsorbed on surfaces of the most elementary aggregates are displaced to varying degrees during subsequent aggregation, with the presence of these polysaccharides altering the extent of I alpha production at interfaces.
As a prerequisite to the study of the fine chemical structure of the branched region of pectin, an exo-beta-(1,4)-galactanase was purified from a commercial preparation (Pectinex AR). Purification was carried out by precipitation with 70% saturated ammonium sulfate, preparative electrofocusing, anion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on cross-linked alginate. Exogalactanase specific activity was 992 nkat mg-1 and the enzyme was devoid of beta-(1,3)- or beta-(1,6)-galactanase, arabinanase, beta-D-galactosidase and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidade activities. Residual exopolygalacturonase activity represented 2.9% of the galactanase activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing showed two close bands with molecular weights of 120,000 and 90,000 and pHi of 3.8 and 4.1, respectively. The enzyme acted in an exo manner and its activity was optimum at pH 3.5 and 60 degrees C. When incubated with galacto-oligosaccharides, new oligosaccharides with a higher degree of polymerization appeared, indicating the ability of the enzyme to transfer galactose residues.
Biodegradable polyurethane elastomers with tunable hydrophobicity were synthesized by step-growth polymerization techniques using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The prepolymer was extended with different mass ratios of chitin and 1,4-butane diol (BDO). The effect of chitin contents in chain extenders (CE) proportion on surface properties was studied and investigated. Incorporation of chitin contents into the final PU showed decrease in surface free energy and its polar component. Simultaneously, the work of water adhesion to polymer decreases significantly by increasing the chitin contents in the synthesized polymer. Contact angle measurement, water absorption and swelling behavior of the synthesized polyurethane samples were affected by varying the chitin contents in the chemical composition of the final PU. The interactions of the final PU films with solvents on the surface were displayed clear dependent on the contents of chitin in to the final polyurethane formulation. The results of different tests demonstrated that the synthesized products are a potential candidate as non-absorbable suture as previously investigated into their in vitro biocompatibility and non-toxicity [K.M. Zia, M. Zuber, I.A. Bhatti, M. Barikani, M.A. Sheikh, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 44 (2009) 18-22].
HPLC, dynamic light scattering, CD- and fluorescent spectroscopy, and phase analysis methods are used to study the effect of Coulomb and non-Coulomb interactions between alfalfa rubisco and pectin on their thermodynamic compatibility. In the acid region of pH, water insoluble interpolymer complexes stabilized by both the Coulomb and non-Coulomb bonds are formed. In the neutral and alkaline regions, the complexes soluble in water are formed via non-Coulomb bonds, due to both the hydrophobic interaction involving the ester groups of pectin and the hydrogen bonding between dissimilar molecules. The compatibility of these biopolymers is sensitive to the esterification degree of pectin. With the latter increasing, compatability increases at neutral pH, but decreases considerably in the acidic region.
Lucerne rubisco (ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, EC 18.104.22.168) was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) was used to study the effects of pH in the range 3.5 to 11.4, and the effects, at pH 7.5, of various salts at ionic strength lower than 0.3 (NaH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2) on the thermal denaturation of the protein. Van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies, and the change in heat capacity between the native and denatured states were calculated from the experimental data. The effects of salts on the thermal denaturation seem to follow the Hofmeister series. In some cases, the thermal denaturation may be interpreted as a two-step transition of the polypeptide chains. Moreover, comparison of the results with literature data suggests that the thermal denaturation parameters depend on the botanical origin of rubisco and are affected by the conditions of its purification.
Interaction between rabbit muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and rabbit muscle F-actin results in heterologous complex formation [A. Gizak, D. Rakus, A. Dzugaj, Histol. Histopathol. 18 (2003) 135]. Calculated on the basis of co-sedimentation-binding experiments and ELISA assay-binding constant (Ka) revealed that FBPase binds to F-actin with Ka equal to 7.4 x 10(4) M(-1). The binding is down-regulated by ligands interacting with the FBPase active site (fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate) and with the FBPase allosteric inhibitory site (AMP). The binding and the kinetic data suggests that FBPase may bind F-actin using a bipartite motif which includes the amino acids residues involved in the binding of the substrate as well as of the allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme. The in situ co-localization experiment, in which FBPase was diffused into skinned muscle fibres pre-incubated with phalloidin (polymeric actin-interacting toxin), has shown that FBPase binds predominantly to the region of the Z-line.
The purpose of this work was to develop a transdermal gel formulation for enhanced delivery of valsartan for the management of hypertension. Transdermal gels bearing valsartan, carbopol and 1,8-cineole (penetration enhancer) were prepared and characterized for various parameters including in vitro skin permeation studies, pH, spreadability, viscosity, skin irritation potential and in vivo antihypertensive activity. Optimized valsartan gel formulation (VTGF9) showed highest transdermal flux (143.51μg/cm2/h), with an enhancement ratio of 4.53 when compared to control gel formulation (VTGF8). Incorporation of 1,8-cineole and ethanol in gel formulation enhance the permeation of valsartan significantly. Skin irritation and histopathological study revealed that the VTGF9 was safe, less irritant and well tolerable formulation for transdermal delivery. In vivo antihypertensive activity revealed that optimized VTGF9 was successful in reverting the rat BP to normal values in experimental hypertensive rats. Finally, it could be concluded that VTGF9 accentuates the flux of valsartan and is an efficient transdermal therapeutic system for delivery of valsartan.
Lysine biosynthesis has been of interest in plant research, because lysine is the most limiting amino acid in crop protein production. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the branch point reaction leading to meso-diaminopimelate (DAP) and (S)-lysine in lysine biosynthesis. In this report, we present the crystal structure of DHDPS from the marine bacterium Hahella chejuensis (HcDHDPS) at 1.5 A resolution. The four subunits of the asymmetric unit assemble to form a tetramer with an approximate 222 symmetry. At the active site of HcDHDPS, three residues Tyr132, Thr43 and Tyr106 are observed to constitute a catalytic triad and are located at similar positions of the corresponding residues of Escherichia coli DHDPS. The structural similarities in the overall fold and the active site environment between these two enzymes imply that HcDHDPS functions by a mechanism similar to E. coli DHDPS. However, unlike E. coli DHDPS, HcDHDPS has a unique extensive dimer-dimer interface that is mediated by not only strong hydrophobic interactions but also a hydrogen bond network.
The X-ray crystal structure of the cAMP-liganded D138L mutant of Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) was determined at a resolution of 1.66Å. This high resolution crystal structure reveals four cAMP binding sites in the homodimer. Two anti conformations of cAMPs (anti-cAMP) locate between the β-barrel and the C-helix of each subunit; two syn conformations of cAMPs (syn-cAMP) bind on the surface of the C-terminal domain. With two syn-cAMP molecules bound, the D138L CAP is highly symmetrical with both subunits assuming a "closed" conformation. These differences make the hinge region of the mutant more flexible. Protease susceptibility measurements indicate that D138L is more susceptible to proteases than that of wild type (WT) CAP. The results of protein dynamic experiments (H/D exchange measurements) indicate that the structure of D138L mutant is more dynamic than that of WT CAP, which may impact the recognition of specific DNA sequences.
The binding of aminobenzolamide to human carbonic anhydrase (HCA II) has been investigated by X-ray crystallography. The three dimensional atomic structure of the enzyme inhibitor complex has been refined at 1.9 A resolution. The crystallographic R-factor is 17.8%. All inhibitor atoms are clearly possible to identify from the difference electron density map in the active site of the enzyme. The nitrogen of the sulphonamide group of the inhibitor is bound as a fourth ligand to the zinc ion, the other three are all histidyl residues. The binding conformation of the sulphonamide groups is similar to the previously described sulphonamide inhibitors. One of the oxygens of the outer sulphonamido group of the inhibitor forms a hydrogen bond to the amino group of Gln 92. The higher affinity of the benzolamide inhibitor compared with acetazolamide can be accounted for by the strong aromatic and hydrophobic interactions between the amino benzene ring of the inhibitor and the residues Phe 131 and Leu 198. In modelling studies of bovine carbonic anhydrase III (BCA III) it was evident that Phe 198 prevents an optimal interaction with sulphonamides.
The binding of acetazolamide to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) has been investigated by X-ray crystallography. The atomic positions of the enzyme inhibitor complex have been refined at 1.9 A resolution using the least squares refinement program package PROLSQ. The crystallographic R-factor is 17.6%. The bound inhibitor is clearly resolved in the active site of the enzyme. The acetazolamide amine group is bound as a fourth ligand to the zinc ion, the other three are all histidine residues. In addition to van der Waals' interactions and the previously described binding of the sulphonamide group, the inhibitor forms a hydrogen bond from the carbonyl oxygen of the acetylamido group to the amino group of Gln 92.
Crystals of gamma-chymotrypsin (gamma-CHT) grown at pH 7.0 are stable from pH 2.0 to 11.0. Crystalline gamma-CHT therefore provides an unusually favourable system to observe the structure of a protein and its bound solvent over a broad range of pH. In this report we describe the high-resolution refined structure of gamma-CHT at pH values of 2.0, 7.0 and 10.5. The apparent tetrapeptide seen bound in the active site of gamma-CHT at pH 7.0 is also present at pH 2.0 and 10.5 although it is better defined at low pH. A comparison of the respective structures shows that there is additional electron density in the low pH structure at the point where the side-chain of Ser 195 approaches most closely to the presumptive inhibitor. This suggests that the adduct is most likely to be covalently linked to the enzyme at low pH and to be non-covalent at higher pH. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 2.0, the side-chain of His 40 rotates approximately 120 degrees about its C alpha-C beta bond and, in concert, the side-chain of Gln 34 also rotates approximately 140 degrees about its C alpha-C beta bond. Apart from these localized rearrangements in the vicinity of His 40, the structure of gamma-CHT at pH 2.0 is very similar to that at neutral pH. The structure of gamma-CHT at pH 10.5 is also seen to be almost identical with that at neutral pH. There is no indication that the internal salt bridge between Asp 194 and the alpha-amino group of lle 16 begins to dissociate at pH 10.5. With the exception of the vicinity of His 40, the structure of the bound solvent in the crystal structures at low, neutral and high pH is very similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A novel oligomeric SGNH-arylesterase (Sm23) from Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 was characterized using biochemical and biophysical methods. A sequence comparison of Sm23 with other SGNH members confirmed the presence of catalytic triad (Ser(10), Asp(187), and His(190)) and oxyanion holes (Ser(10)-Gly(50)-Asn(90)). The wild type enzyme was able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha- and beta-naphthyl acetate, while S10A mutant completely lost its activity. Structural properties of Sm23 were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, dynamic light scattering (DLS), chemical cross-linking, electron microscopy (EM), and time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, spherical or globular aggregates were observed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, while amorphous aggregates were formed with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide.
Egg white protein powder was hydrolyzed with Alcalase to produce antioxidant peptides. Then, the peptides were fractionated with ultrafiltration membranes. The peptides (1-10 kDa) were further treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) to investigate its effect on the antioxidant activity of the peptides. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition assay. The results indicated that optimal electric field intensity and standing times of PEF can enhance the antioxidant activity of the peptides. Therefore, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables including concentration, electric field intensity and pulse frequency was used to establish the regression equation of second-order response surface. The optimal conditions were as follows: concentration 8 mg/ml, electric field intensity 10 kV/cm and pulse frequency 2400 Hz. Under these conditions, the peptides antioxidant activity was 62.64% ± 0.98%. The present study demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of peptides (1-10 kDa) could be improved using PEF.
Microbial endo-beta-1,4-xylanases (EXs, EC 22.214.171.124) belonging to glycanase families 10 and 11 differ in their action on water-unextractable arabinoxylan (WU-AX). WU-AX was incubated with different levels of a Thermoascus aurantiacus family 10 and a Sporotrichum thermophile family 11 endoxylanases. At 10 g l(-1) arabinoxylan, enzyme concentrations (KE values) needed to obtain half-maximal hydrolysis rates (V(max) values) were 4.4 nM for the xylanase from T. aurantiacus and 7.1 nM for the xylanase from S. thermophile. Determination of Vmax/KE revealed that the family 10 enzyme hydrolysed two times more efficiently WU-AX than the family 11 enzyme. Molecular weights of the products formed were assessed and separation of feruloyl-oligosaccharides was achieved by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The main difference between the feruloylated products by xylanases of family 10 and 11 concerned the length of the products containing feruloyl-arabinosyl substitution. The xylanase from T. aurantiacus liberated from WU-AX a feruloyl arabinoxylodisaccharide (FAX2) as the shortest feruloylated fragment in contrast with the enzyme from S. thermophile, which liberated a feruloyl arabinoxylotrisaccharide (FAX3). These results indicated that different factors govern WU-AX breakdown by the two endoxylanases.
Acidic oligosaccharides were obtained from birchwood xylan by treatment with a Thermoascus aurantiacus family 10 and a Sporotrichum thermophile family 11 endoxylanases. The main difference between the products liberated by xylanases of family 10 and 11 concerned the length of the products containing 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid. The xylanase from T. aurantiacus liberate from glucuronoxylan an aldotetrauronic acid as the shortest acidic fragment in contrast with the enzyme from S. thermophile, which liberated an aldopentauronic acid. Acidic xylooligosaccharides were separated from the hydrolysate by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the primary structure was determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The acidic xylo-oligosaccharides were tested against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative aerobically grown bacteria, as well as against Helicobacter pylori. Aldopentauronic acid was proved more active against the Gram-positive bacteria and against H. pylori.
This work studies specific interactions and compatibility between a legumin and a linear carboxylated polysaccharide using gel permeation chromatography, sedimentation analysis, SDS gel electrophoresis, viscometry and phase analysis measurements. It uses the system water/11 S globulin/CMC as a model. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) molecules are able to cause a partial dissociation of the protein, subsequent formation of soluble interbiopolymeric complexes and partial aggregation of the free non combined protein at room temperature and pH 6.0-6.5. The maximal binding of biopolymers is observed at their equimolar ratio. The decrease in temperature of the mixture from 293 to 277 K leads to formation of the complex coacervate. The increase in pH from 6.0 to 7.6 results in suppression of complex formation and manifestation of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility if the total concentration of biopolymers in the system exceeds the critical concentration of segregative phase separation.
A novel oligomeric hydrolase (LI22) from Listeria innocua CLIP 11262 was identified, characterized, and immobilized for industrial application. Sequence analysis of LI22 revealed a putative catalytic triad (Ser(10)-Asp(176)-His(179)), and a conserved sequence motif Ser(S)(10)-Gly(G)(77)-Asn(N)(79)-His(H)(179) with moderate identities (<30%) with other members of the SGNH-hydrolase superfamily. LI22 was able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, α- and β-naphthyl acetate, while the S10A mutant completely lost its activity. Structural properties of LI22 were investigated using gel filtration, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, molecular modeling, and gel filtration. We have shown that upon incubation in 30% TFE or 50% ethanol solution, LI22 was transformed into curly amyloid fibrils. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates of LI22 were prepared by precipitating the enzyme with ammonium sulfate and subsequent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Higher thermal and chemical stability, as well as good durability after repeated use of the LI22-CLEA, highlight its potential applicability as a biocatalyst in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
The effect of the limited proteolysis by trypsin on selected seed storage 11S globulins (broad bean and pea legumins, glycinin and helianthinin) was studied by high-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy and analysis of proteolysis kinetics. Different behaviour of glycinin and helianthinin, on one hand, and broad bean and pea legumins, on the other, were observed: in the first group changes in the physicochemical characteristics of the proteins due to their limited proteolysis are more pronounced in comparison with the second one, in relation with the extent of primary structure modifications. The differences observed have been evaluated in relation with the amino acid sequence features of the four 11S globulin studied and agree with the literature data concerning the protein structural changes in the course of the limited proteolysis.
The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.
The effect of bivalent cations on solutions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored by means of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. In particular, the binding of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the alginate in aqueous solution was studied by determining the spin-lattice relaxation rates, line widths and line shapes of 13C nuclei under variation of the ion concentration. Both cations differ strongly in their affinity towards bacterial alginate. Spectral data indicate that the strong binding capacity of calcium is connected to the formation of a chelate complex, in which binding occurs particularly with the monomer units in alternating mannuronate-guluronate blocks. In contrast to this, binding of magnesium ions was found to be much weaker and non-specific.
13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool to quantify the degree of acetylation of chitin and chitosan. In order to optimise the parameters which afford quantitative 13C cross-polarisation magic-angle spinning NMR spectra, a detailed relaxation study has been carried out on selected chitin and deacetylated chitin samples. A relaxation delay of 5 s and a contact time of 1 ms have been found to yield quantitative NMR spectra of samples with deacetylation degree values of 0.68 and 0.16. The measured spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame, T(1rhoH), are in the range 6.4-8.9 ms for chitin and 4.3-7.3 ms for deacetylated chitin, while TCH values for both samples are very similar and range from 0.03 to 0.19 ms. Spin-counting experiments indicate that, within experimental error, all carbon is detected by NMR indicating that the samples studied contain no (or very few) paramagnetic centres.
Solid state 13C NMR measurements of cork, before and after suberin removal, showed that aliphatic suberin is spatially separated from carbohydrate and lignin and experiences higher motional freedom. Two types of chain methylenes, differing in chemical shift and in dynamic properties, were identified in aliphatic suberin. Experimental evidence indicated that the more motionally hindered methylenes are those situated nearer the linkages of aliphatic suberin to the cell wall. These linkages were shown to involve -CH2O- groups, probably engaged in ester linkages to phenylpropane units and carbohydrate C6 carbons. Spectral intensity changes indicated that, during the first steps of alkaline desuberization, these linkages are broken and the shorter aliphatic suberin chains removed. Longer chains require hydrolysis of the ester linkages within the chains and are removed upon stronger alkaline treatment. T1(C), T1 rho (H) and T1 rho (C) relaxation times have shown that the removal of suberin from cork leads to a motionally restricted and more compact environment, on the megahertz and mid-kilohertz timescales. The properties of cork suberin showed that suberin organization in cork is distinct from that in potato tissue.
In the preceding paper, we have investigated the structural heterogeneous character of a series of amorphous samples prepared from various starchy substrates (native potato starch, amylopectin and amylose) following different techniques of preparation (casting, freeze drying and solvent exchange). Spectral decompositions of the C1 resonances of the (13)C CP-MAS (Cross Polarization and Magic Angle Spinning) spectra under (1)H decoupling have shown the existence of five main types of alpha(1-4) linkages. In this part, 2D solid state NMR WISE experiments and the (13)C/(1)H magnetization transfer in CP as a local probe for both structures and dynamics were used. The (13)C CP magnetization curves versus contact time of each C1 component in each recorded spectrum were fitted with an analytic function taking into account two (1)H reservoirs. Interpretation of the characteristic times derived from fitting yields some improvements on the knowledge of the heterogeneity of the samples and on the water molecules distribution.
The (13)C CP-MAS (Cross Polarization and Magic Angle Spinning) NMR signatures of a series of amorphous and semi-crystalline samples prepared from various starchy substrates (native potato starch, amylopectin, amylose) following different techniques of preparation (casting, freeze drying, solvent exchange) are compared. Decompositions of the C1 resonance spectra reveal the existence of four or five main types of alpha(1-4) linkages, which can be quantified. The influence of the intrinsic primary structure (linear or branched) and of the preparation procedure on conformational changes and resulting crystallinity are interpreted in terms of distributions of average glycosidic linkages dihedral angles (Phi, Psi). The role of hydration is also considered. An improved understanding at different structural levels is obtained in relation to local and intermediate range orders. Such information may be useful for the understanding of the structural evolution of a large variety of starchy substrates before or after treatments widely used in industrial processes.