International Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Publications
There will come a time when humans will be able to control the ageing process and perhaps even prevent death. Through genetic engineering and CRISPR technology, developments are afoot to eventually allow humanity to achieve the seemingly impossible, immortality. Multiple future pathways are feasible to achieve this pursuit, including those based on AI, man-machine interfacing, brain implantation, partial cloning and transplant procedures, the human connectome project, and soul/consciousness quantum storage and processing systems. As technology becomes increasingly more sophisticated, and humanity expands into the cosmos, the progression of these projects will induce significant changes to human functioning and human civilisation. The impossible will become a daily reality. This will potentially create new opportunities for individual growth and development, financial incentivization and investment, social programs to improve public services and education, and fantastical ways in which personal relationships will be developed and maintained. However, ethical concerns will preside over new forms of crime, known as consciousness crimes. New forms of law enforcement and social regulation will be essential to stem the tide of social discordance and potential implosion. Instances of mental illness will dramatically increase, placing further strain on pandemic stricken global health services. There are three viable eventualities that will transpire in reference to these current and prospective developments. Firstly, life extension methods through the genetic manipulation of telomerase will unleash a mutated cancer pandemic upon the world (and/or worlds), which will intensify pre-existing deleterious environmental and socio-economic processes that are potentially leading to human extinction. Secondly, initial social issues will be remedied, and an immortal future version of humanity fuelled by renewable energy technology will develop, eventually reaching a state of enhanced consciousness that will facilitate a peaceful, cooperative interplanetary society. Thirdly, this second scenario will be partially actualised, yet immortality will not render humanity immune to its animalistic competitiveness and violent proclivities, leading to a warring galactic civilisation. Immortality will force humanity to develop an interplanetary presence, where it will become the cosmic equivalent of a plague of locusts or a force of technological and existential progress. However, due to the complex ambivalence of human nature, it is highly likely both these eventualities will transpire, creating a fragile and potentially catastrophic psycho-social equilibrium that could prove disastrous for potentially extant life throughout the galaxy. Keywords: Genetics, Consciousness, Interplanetary, Existential, Catastrophic.
 
We try to identify the impact of innovation headways and its rapid affect in each field of life, be it clinical or some other field; computerized reasoning deployed the prominent approach for indicating the authenticated outcomes in the field of medical services through its dynamic nature in investigating the information. COVID-19 has influenced all the nations around the globe in a short period of time duration; Individuals everywhere over the world are defenceless, against its results in the future. It is necessary to build up a control framework that will distinguish the Covid. One of the answers for control the flow ruin can be the conclusion of illness with the assistance of different artificial intelligence instruments. In this paper, we ordered literary clinical reports into four classes by utilizing old style and troupe AI calculations. Feature designing was performed utilizing procedures like Term recurrence/reverse archive recurrence (TF/IDF), Bag of words (BOW) and report length. These highlights were provided to customary and troupe AI classifiers. Calculated relapse and Multinomial Naive Bayes demonstrated preferred outcomes over other ML calculations by having 96.2% testing exactness. In the future intermittent neural organization can be utilized for better exactness.
 
Background: Hemodialysis, the main treatment for chronic kidney disease, is known as a stressful process followed by a lot of mental, emotional and social pressures. The aim of present study was to examine the prevalence of depression and related risk factors in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all hemodialysis patients admitted to 5 th Azar Hospital in Gorgan during 2014 were examined. Personal information including age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, marital status, occupation, financial condition and information about renal disease, including the period of hemodialysis, history of diabetes, hypertension, anemia and nutritional status were extracted from the medical history of the patients. For the mental conditions, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Results: Mental status of only 16.1% of the patients was normal; and 83.9 % of patients showed signs for different levels of depression in their BDI test. The fact that 31.7% of the patients suffered from clinical depression is a proof for the seriousness of this issue and the necessity of it. Also, results showed that in these patients, the risk factors associated with depression were in relation with factors such as, marital status, occupation, the number of dialysis sessions per week and other variables. Conclusions: This study was done for the first time in northeast of Iran and based on the results of present study recommended that the doctors and technicians should pay close attention to the patient's mental condition in addition to hemodialysis.
 
The applications of topological indices appear in mathematical chemistry especially in the study of QSAR/QSPR. In this paper, we computed generalized Randić, general Zagreb, general sum-connectivity, ABC, GA; ABC4 and GA5 indices of the para-line graphs of ortho-polyphenyl chain, meta-polyphenyl chain and para-polyphenyl chain.. Keywords: Topological indices, para-line graph, polyphenyl chains.
 
Abstract: Topological indices which are graph invariants derived from molecular graphs of molecules are used in QSPR researches for modeling physicochemical properties of molecules. Topological indices are important tools for determining the underlying topology of a molecule in view of theoretical chemistry. Most of the topological indices are defined by using classical degree concept of graph theory. In this study we firstly define the new five versions of harmonic indices. And also we compute the fifth harmonic index of H-Naphtalenic nanotube and TUC4[m,n] nanotube. Keywords: Harmonic index; Harmonic indices; H-Naphtalenic nanotube; TUC4[m,n] nanotube.
 
Results of paired interaction test
Different enzyme activities of monoculture and co-cultures at different incubation periods A: Lignin peroxidase , B: Manganese peroxidase, C: Laccase , D: Aryl Alcohol oxidase (AAO), E: Xylanase, F: Cellulase
A wide range of enzyme applications have been identified in pulp and paper industry, especially xylanase & laccase which is used in pre-bleaching of pulp. The use of biological agent is becoming an increasingly important alternative to chemical agent in pulping and bleaching process of paper industry. Trichoderma reesei produce alkaline xylanase, which is an enzyme very important for brightening of paper in the pulp and paper industry. White rot basidiomycetes fungi secrete extracellular enzyme laccase which plays an important role in the delignification & brightening of pulp and also in the removal of lipophilic extractives responsible for pitch deposition from both wood & non-wood paper pulp. Experimental evidence suggests that co-culture of ligninolytic and filamentous micro fungi results in increased enzyme activities. In the present study co-culture of Trichoderma reesei with two white-rot fungi Pleurotus sajorkaju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been compared with monocultures for enzyme activities. Results revealed that co-cultures of T. reesei with P. sajorkaju and P. chrysosporium showed an increase in the activities with a reduction in the incubation period. T. reesei with P. sajorkaju proved to be a better co-culture for all the ligninolytic enzyme activities but T. reesei with P. chrysosporium showed significantly higher activity than T. reesei and P. sajorkaju. Thus using this co-culture technique in paper and pulp industries can enhance the enzyme activity.
 
Demographic characteristic of normal women, normal pregnant women and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Laboratory characteristic of normal women, normal pregnant women and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Correlation in GDM (Gestational DM)
OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and inflammatory marker in normal pregnancy, nonpregnant women and gestational diabetes. METHODS: 40pregnant women, 40 normal non-pregnant women, 40 gestational diabetes were recruited for the study. Serum adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA) activity was measured by the Giusti and Galanti method and IL -6 by ELISA in all study subjects. RESULTS: The mean serum ADA level in the gestational diabetes was higher than that in the normal pregnant women .Correlation was found between insulin resistance with serum ADA and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Our study hypothesises that increased ADA activity may be due to altered immunity. Therefore, ADA may serve as an immunoenzyme marker in the aetio-pathology of Gestational diabetes. Keywords: Adenosine deaminase, Insulin résistance, Cytokines
 
Effect of extract of VA and finasteride on serum enzyme activities
Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The condition is associated with symptoms like frequency in urination, hesitancy, nocturia, weak urine stream and sexual dysfunction. The effect of Vernonia amygdalina extract (VA) on kidney and liver function indices in BPH was investigated. Methods: A total of 30 rats weighing 200-300 g were divided according to body weight into five groups (n=6). One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of testosterone and estradiol for 3 weeks to induce BPH. Groups I and II were treated with different doses of VA extracts and group III received finasteride, all by gavages for thirty-five days. While group IV was left untreated, group V served as normal control. After thirty-five days of treatment with VA extract, the rats were anaesthetised by short contact with trichloromethane vapour. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the sera centrifuged and used for the determination of different biochemical indices. The prostates were harvested and weighed. Results: The level of urea and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05) reduced when compared to the BPH control. No significant differences in serum concentrations of AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT were recorded in all treatment groups compared to the BPH control. Conclusion: The extract of Vernonia amygdalina seed exhibited nephroprotective effect on the kidney of BPH induced rats, while there was no observable effect on the liver as benign prostate hyperplasia appeared not to have had any alteration on the liver enzymes.
 
Levels of blood biochemical assay on the khat chewers and no- chewers. 
The khat plant (Catha edulis) leaves is grown and consumed daily in Yemen as a natural stimulant by chewing the young buds and tender leaves that contain the stimulant “Cathinone” for the mild stimulant effect. Cathinone is believed to be the main active ingredient in fresh khat leaves. In Yemen this habit has a deep-rooted socio-cultural tradition in which consumers spend part of their time chewing khat (ranging between 6-8 hours per day). The effect of this habit on blood constituent has not been adequately studied in human. There is an extensive literature on khat which estimated the effectiveness and specificity for these substances on kidney and liver function test in animals than humans. The present study was undertaken to investigate the biochemical changes associated with chewing Khat.
 
Physical and chemical parameters observed in the fish tank .
Antibacterial activity Mango leaf extracts against isolated colonies on water and disease affected fish bacterial pathogens.
Water is an essential requirement as fish cannot live without water. The quality of water plays an important role in the aquatic oriental fish culture. The physical and chemical parameters play major role for the survival of fish in the fish tank. The temperature reduced to 21 0 C while the hydrogen ion concentration came down to 6.3. The total oxygen level found 6.3 and the hardness of water reached to 105.1mg/ml. The water quality was found contaminated with Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. The fish found died due disease caused by Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio sp and Staphylococcus sp. The extracts of mango leaves showed good antibacterial activity against both water bacterial isolates and diseased fish bacterial isolates by showing zone of inhibition against the bacterial isolates. Thus, showing that mango leaves can be used as an antibacterial agent in the ornamental aquatic fish cultures to prevent the disease.
 
Water is an essential requirement as fish cannot live without water. The quality of water plays an important role in the aquatic oriental fish culture. The physical and chemical parameters play major role for the survival of fish in the fish tank. The temperature reduced to 21 0 C while the hydrogen ion concentration came down to 6.3. The total oxygen level found 6.3 and the hardness of water reached to 105.1mg/ml. The water quality was found contaminated with Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. The fish found died due disease caused by Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio sp and Staphylococcus sp. The extracts of mango leaves showed good antibacterial activity against both water bacterial isolates and diseased fish bacterial isolates by showing zone of inhibition against the bacterial isolates. Thus, showing that mango leaves can be used as an antibacterial agent in the ornamental aquatic fish cultures to prevent the disease.
 
Water is an essential requirement as fish cannot live without water. The quality of water plays an important role in the aquatic oriental fish culture. The physical and chemical parameters play major role for the survival of fish in the fish tank. The temperature reduced to 210C while the hydrogen ion concentration came down to 6.3. The total oxygen level found 6.3 and the hardness of water reached to 105.1mg/ml. The water quality was found contaminated with Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. The fish found died due disease caused by Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio sp and Staphylococcus sp. The extracts of mango leaves showed good antibacterial activity against both water bacterial isolates and diseased fish bacterial isolates by showing zone of inhibition against the bacterial isolates. Thus, showing that mango leaves can be used as an antibacterial agent in the ornamental aquatic fish cultures to prevent the disease.
 
Water is an essential requirement as fish cannot live without water. The quality of water plays an important role in the aquatic oriental fish culture. The physical and chemical parameters play major role for the survival of fish in the fish tank. The temperature reduced to 21 0 C while the hydrogen ion concentration came down to 6.3. The total oxygen level found 6.3 and the hardness of water reached to 105.1mg/ml. The water quality was found contaminated with Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. The fish found died due disease caused by Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio sp and Staphylococcus sp. The extracts of mango leaves showed good antibacterial activity against both water bacterial isolates and diseased fish bacterial isolates by showing zone of inhibition against the bacterial isolates. Thus, showing that mango leaves can be used as an antibacterial agent in the ornamental aquatic fish cultures to prevent the disease.
 
The agricultural sector is still the backbone of the Malaysian economy. It contributes to export earnings, job opportunities, and improvement of living standards of the people despite its negative image and, is seen merely as dirty and dangerous, and is not favoured by Generation Y. However, the Government believes that, training graduates to become modern agribusiness entrepreneurs will contribute towards dynamic economics, and raise the prestige of the agricultural sector. This research examines the perception of a total of 400 graduates from five universities throughout Malaysia, to determine factors influencing them to pursue careers in agricultural sector in the future. This is in line with, the Agriculture Department motto that is "Agriculture is Business". This quantitative study adopted established measurement for investigating the relationship between personality traits and agribusiness entrepreneurial intention among generation Y. Personality traits, conceptualized into two dimensions, namely, risk taking and innovativeness demonstrated a Cronbach's Alpha values of 0.80 and 0.73, respectively. Results showed both variables had positive association with agribusiness entrepreneurial intention. These findings are important for the Government and universities to develop and shape graduates with great personality traits, and to instil in them the interests to become agribusiness entrepreneurs. Future research may explore the perceived situational factor and how it influences students to choose careers in the agricultural as entrepreneurs.
 
Changes in differential white blood cell (WBC) counts in peripheral blood of albino rats as a result of rats on daily consumption of well water from Ishiagu for 65 days measured in percentage (%).
The haematological studies on selected well-water sources within two kilometers from Ishiagu quarry site were evaluated using albino rats. Haematological parameters were determined using standard methods. Results shows that haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value, red blood cell count and neutrophytes decreased, while platelet count increased significantly at (p<0.05) in test groups compared to control. Mean corpuscular volume and corpuscular haemoglobin concentration decreased non-significantly at (p<0.05). Total white blood count, percentage lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophytes were not influenced by the long term intake of the well-water. These findings show that consumption of well-water around the quarry site in Ishiagu may lead to anaemia in the experimental animals and therefore may not be safe for human consumption. The toxicological implications of these findings are discussed.
 
contd. 
The hypoglycemic effect of ethanol extract and fractions of Nauclea latifolium leaf was evaluated in this study. The result in normoglycemic rats showed maxima glycemic reduction of 26.4% within 4 hours in the group treated with butanol fraction (250 mg/kg) which proved efficacious than glibenclamide at p < 0.05. Also, similar advantage over glibenclamide was recorded in ethanol extract (250 mg/kg) given alloxan-induced diabetic rats with % glycemic change of 44.4% as compared to 32.2% of glibenclamide within 4 hours n-hexane fraction (100 mg/kg) and butanol fraction (250/kg) recorded maxima % glycemic changes of 73.2% and 71.2%, respectively, within a period of 14 days at p < 0.05 in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest that ethanol extract and fractions of Nauclea latifolium leaves possess hypoglycemic.
 
contd.
The hypoglycemic effect of ethanol extract and fractions of Nauclea latifolium leaf was evaluated in this study. The result in normoglycemic rats showed maxima glycemic reduction of 26.4% within 4 hours in the group treated with butanol fraction (250 mg/kg) which proved efficacious than glibenclamide at p < 0.05. Also, similar advantage over glibenclamide was recorded in ethanol extract (250 mg/kg) given alloxan-induced diabetic rats with % glycemic change of 44.4% as compared to 32.2% of glibenclamide within 4 hours n-hexane fraction (100 mg/kg) and butanol fraction (250/kg) recorded maxima % glycemic changes of 73.2% and 71.2%, respectively, within a period of 14 days at p < 0.05 in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest that ethanol extract and fractions of Nauclea latifolium leaves possess hypoglycemic.
 
Drugs used by patients
Patients' feelings about their amputation
Aim: This study seeks to examine the major causative factors for lower extremities amputation (LEA) amongst a Trinidadian diabetic patients as well as to analyse the resulting concerns of said patients. Study Setting and Design: This study mainly comprised patients who were subject to or will be subject to lower limb amputations of differing degrees and were selected via a random stratified methodology. Questionnaire used was designed as to attain data on patient medical history as well as intrinsic and opinionated results. Methods: This study comprised 35 patients who were subject to LEAs of differing degrees and Original Research Article Nayak et al.; IJBCRR, 23(4): 1-17, 2018; Article no.IJBCRR.44534 2 these patients were selected via a random stratified methodology. After obtaining informed consent questionnaire were used to attain subjective and objective data as it pertains to the cause and effects of lower limb amputations. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS to test for distribution and correlations. Results: A number of factors were taken into account and measured as it pertained to the cause of having an amputation. Our study noted that the major factors like diet, alcohol consumption and infection became the reason for amputation. Conclusions: The data of this study showed that the patients are to ensure better self-care and preventative lifestyle changes are to be implemented as to prevent the need for amputations.
 
CCD with the observed responses and predicted values for TPC and TFC. 
Predicted and experimental values under optimum conditions based on both individual and combination of all responses. 
shows 
The optimal conditions of Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) of total phenol content and total flavonoids content from A. occidentale L. stem bark were determined. A second-order regression for central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the effects of four independent variables, namely extraction time (s), irradiation power (W), solvent-to-solids ratio (mL/g) and methanol concentration (%) on the responses. The second-order regression for CCD consisted of 24 experimental points and 4 replications at the central point. Data were analyzed using Statgraphics software. The optimal conditions based on combination responses were: extraction time of 83 s, irradiation power of 620 W, solvent-to-solids ratio of 33.4 mL/g and methanol concentration of 63.17% according to the analysis of response surface. These optimum conditions yielded total phenolic contents (TPC) of 674.58 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/ 100g DM and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 85.38 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/100g DM. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values was found.
 
This review article describes anti-cancer activity of various animal toxins belongs to different animal groups. Cancer is a dreadful disease that is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide. For its treatment various chemotherapeutics have been used but these are costlier and show side effects. Animal toxins are noble and unique therapeutic efficacy against various cancer types. These successfully inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro cell cultures as well as inside human body. Animal venom toxins stop cancer cell invasion, cell cycle arrest, proliferation, migration, and invasion, induction of apoptotic activity and neo-vascularization by blocking the signaling pathways. Bee venom toxin mainly melittin shows anticancer effects against ovarian cancer cells. It inhibits cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cell at a dose of 0.5.2 µg/ml. It also induces apoptotic cell death in dose dependent manner. Animal toxins strongly induce selective cytotoxicity in ovarian cells through apoptotic cell death cells via dual inhibition of the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways. Animal toxins such as serine proteases, PLA 2, metalloproteases, phosphatase and esterase activity showed exhibit antineoplastic activity to various cancer cell lines.
 
Proximate chemical composition, pH and theobromine and tannin contents of NaOH-treated and untreated shea nut kernel cake/meal.
Tannin levels in shea nut cake samples subjected to the various treatments.
Shea nut kernel cake (SNC), a major by-product of the shea industry, is rich in carbohydrates and protein, but the presence of anti-nutritional factors, mainly theobromine and tannins, limits its use as animal feed material. The present work studied variations in the chemical composition of SNC from different shea nut processing industries in Ghana. Additionally, the work evaluated the effectiveness of physical treatments (T1-water-soaked overnight, strained and dried; T2-washed with flowing water and dried; T3-water-soaked, kneaded, squeezed in jute bag and then dried; T4-boiled and dried) and chemical treatments (T5-wetted with NaOH solution and dried; T6 – wetted with NaCl solution and then dried) for eliminating or reducing total tannins and theobromine in SNC. Compositional analysis showed that SNC was high in protein (116 to 178 g/kg dry matter (DM) and crude fat (25 to 545 g/kg DM). The increasing order for the effectiveness of the treatments in reducing the tannin content of SNC was as follows: T0<T6<T2=T3<T1< T4=T5. The T5 was found to be the most effective treatment in significantly reducing total tannins and theobromine content of SNC (by 69.9 and 25% respectively) thus improving its nutritional value as a livestock feedstuff.
 
( G. latifolium ) Benth. 
Gram-positive S. aureus. 
Over the years, several reports have appeared on Gongronema latifolium a leafy vegetable locally known in the South-eastern part of Nigeria as Utasi or Utazi. The phytochemical constituents, bioactive principles, proximate analyses and chemical compositions of the herb have been reported as well as antimicrobial activities and hypoglycaemic effects. This review present available evidence on the antibiotic efficacy of extracts of G. latifolium against, Staphylococcus aureus from literature spanning 6 years from 2006 to 2012. We summarized that G. latifolium is efficacious for the remedy of abscesses, boils, or furuncle on the skin, treatment of bacteremia and other entero-infections caused by S. aureus.
 
Correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in sesame
Origin and variability of 12 sesame genotypes for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA)
Mean squares from analysis of variance for additive and dominance effects for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity
Estimates of specific combining ability (SCA) effects and heterobeltiosis (HB) among 15 F1 hybrids for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA)
It explain the genetic mechanisms involving in the expression of sesame seed total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for planing effective programmes for developing improved varieties.
 
Aim and Objectives: To study the significance of oxidative stress and antioxidants levels in pre eclampsia patients in comparison with normotensive pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study includes 30 pre eclamptic and 30 healthy pregnant women. Fasting venous blood samples were collected during antepartum period and blood levels of Malondialdehyde, Ascorbic Acid, Uric Acid, Superoxide Dismutase And Glutathione Peroxidase is estimated in both controls and cases. Results: In the preeclamptic group, malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product was significantly increased (p<0.001), while antioxidants ascorbic acid and SOD levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001). The other antioxidant uric acid has increased significantly (p<0.001) and Glutathione Peroxidase has no significant change (p>0.05) when compared to normal pregnant women. Conclusion: An altered antioxidant status in Preeclampsia, a indirect proof for the existence of oxidative stress.
 
IC50 value of K. pinnata plant's stem bark for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity
(a) Superoxide scavenging assay of MEKP (b) Standard BHT. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of three replicates 
Cytotoxic activity of MEKP using MTT asaay. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM of three replicates. 
The study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of a methanolic extract from the stem bark of Kigelia pinnata(MEKP). The In-vitro anti-oxidative activity was investigated using DPPH assay, superoxide scavenging assay and cytotoxic activity was studied using cell viability (MTT) assay on non small lung cancer cell-line (A-549). MEKP displayed prominent anti-oxidative and cytotoxic activity against A-549 cells. On the basis of the In-vitro studies it could be concluded that there is huge scope for future investigation on K. pinnata as a source of potential anti cancer drug.
 
The protective effect of "Zobo" (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal extract) against ethanol-induced biochemical changes in rats was examined using plasma glucose, TAG and HDL-Cholesterol. Twenty-four adult rats with an average weight of 80g were used and equally divided into the normal distilled water, "Zobo"(HSE) extract, ethanol alone and ethanol plus "Zobo'' groups. The ethanol-treated groups received 1.5g (40%) ethanol/kg body weight as single daily dose, while the "Zobo" groups received 500mgkg-1 (0.5g/kg) body weight of concentrate 150mg/ml. Both administrations were by intubation and for duration of 4weeks. Relative to the control, plasma TAG for the group that received ethanol alone had a higher value and this was statistically significant (P<0.05). Plasma glucose was not statistically significant but showed a reduced value for the ethanol group alone when compared with other groups. Report from this research also demonstrated that HDL-Cholesterol for the "Zobo" groups had a higher mean value than the control and ethanol group and was statistically significant (P<0.05). On estimation of plasma TAG: HDL-Cholesterol ratio, reduced values was observed in the "Zobo" groups when compared to the ethanol group revealing a form of hypolipidaemic property of the extract as indicated by other research work. From Fig 1., the ethanol group had the highest TAG: HDL-Cholesterol ratio of 58%, a possible aetiologic risk factor of hypertension and atherosclerosis. From this finding, it was indicative that Hibiscus sabdariffa extract showed increased HDL-Cholesterol level as well as reduced TAG: HDL-cholesterol ratio, a behavior that has a hypolipidaemic property and cardioprotective effect.
 
Protein content of waste milk isolates (mg/ml)
Aspergillus sp. is a fungus that can produce protease enzyme. Aproteolytic enzyme of Aspergillussp is enzymes group that attack the peptide bonds of proteins. In this study, we emphasize on morphological methods including macroscopic and microscopic characteristics for identification of Aspergillus sp. Aspergillus sp was isolated from waste of milk industry. Protease was produced by Aspergillus sp. and the temperature effect was evaluated on its activity, at 37, 40, 45, and 50°C with casein as a substrate. The results obtained show that isolates selected have the green color colony (Fig.1. A,B,C),grown evenly on PDA medium were incubated at 37°C for 4 days, round-shaped vesicles(Fig.1.1), conidiophores somewhat yellowish green nodes, and conidiaspore round and light green. The data of protein contents is shown on Table 1. The average protein contents of the crude enzyme protease extract were 0.95 mg/ml of isolates a, 0.98 mg/ml of isolates B, and 1.03 mg/ml of isolates. Isolate C was selected to produce enzyme and analyze enzyme activities. The enzyme activities of isolate C were 85.85 U/ml at 37°C, 101.87 U/ml at 40°C, 179.00 U/ml at 45°C, and 136.81 U/ml at 50°C. The optimum activity was 179.00 IU/ml and it was reached at 45°C.
 
Comparison of efficacy for both groups
Comparison of efficacy for age groups
Comparison of efficacy for different gestational age groups
Comparison of efficacy for parity
Objective: To compare medical management with manual vacuum aspiration in cases of first trimester missed miscarriage. over the period of 6 months. Total 104 patients with first trimester missed miscarriage of less than 12 weeks gestation diagnosed by ultrasound showing gestational sac of less than 25 mm in diameter with no fetal cardiac activity. Results: Mean age of the patients was 29.63 ± 6.68 years, mean age of the patients of study group A was 30.23 ± 6.72 years and mean age of patients of group B was 29.02 ± 6.65 years.Patients of study group A were managed by MVA and patients of study group B were managed by Medical treatment. Efficacy was noted in 92.3% (n=48) patients and 76.9% (n=40) patients respectively in group A & B. Efficacy rate in group A was significantly (P = 0.05) higher as compared to group B. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that MVA is better treatment modality as compared to medical management (misoprostol intravaginally). Efficacy rate was significantly higher in MVA group as compared to medical treatment group. In older age group MVA group was found with significantly higher rate of efficacy as compared to medical management group.
 
Typical fluorescence microscope images (comets) of the ethadium -stained DNA of Bacillus cereus cells exposed to uv with different times and pb and cd with conc 1, 5 and 10 mM isomalathion (lower panel) as compared with the control (upper panel).  
Cadmium and lead uptake by B.cereus.
Genotoxicity tests (comet assay) are used to detect the toxicity of the materials that causes damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Bacillus cereus strain used in this study was isolated and identified previously by 16S rRNA with accesion number AB599718.1. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ultraviolet (UV) and environmental pollutants (cadmium and lead) on B. cereus as a bacterial contaminant of food. B. cereus was grown on L.B medium supplement with lead or cadmium followed by exposure to UV radiation as combined effect with heavy metal. To study the cytogenetic shape of total DNA genomic in individual cells. DNA damage (genotoxicity) was analyzed by using comet assay. The results indicated that, the metabolic rate of B. cereus was affected by the metal adsorption rate. Changes in the concentration of DNA damage, glutathione (GSH) (record 13 mg/mg protein with 1 mM Cd, 13 mg/mg protein without Cd and lead and high value with lead at 10 mM) while lipid peroxidation values were (7 nM/mg protein with Cd and high value 5.5 nM/ mg with lead). This method could be used as a useful biomarker for the identification of the presence of environmental contamination. In the future, for heavy metals removal, immobilized on waste biomaterials (there are no sense in this phrase). Input of heavy metals imposes a selective pressure that may favor the growth and activity of resistant/tolerant microbes.
 
Types of bacteria isolated from mobile phones of health care personals. 
Morphological and physiological characterization of mobile phone bacteria. 
Phylogenetic relationship of the mobile bacterial strains and related genera based on full size16S rRNA or 16SrDNA (you should uniform) sequences. The tree was constructed using neighbor joining algorithm with Kimura 2 parameter distances in MEGA 5.1 software. The bar indicates the Juke-Cantor evolutionary distance. 
Sequences producing significant alignments similarity and accession numbers. 
Mobile phones are indispensable accessories both professionally and socially but they are frequently used in environments of high bacteria presence. These can harbor various potential pathogens and become an exogenous source of nosocomial infections. A total of 91 mobile phones belonging to staff members in Taif University screened for bacterial isolates using bacteriological methods. Bacteriological analysis revealed that about (85.1 %) of mobile phone samples were contaminated with bacteria. Some bacterial species were isolated from mobile phone samples. They identified as Gordonia, Pantoea, Ochrobactrum, Staphylococcus and Bacillus spp. Genetic diversity of these bacteria was investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The fingerprinting patterns revealed two main clusters of strains with a similarity level of approximately 55.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial strains were divided them into five species with similarity value ranged from 97 to 100 % comparing with bacterial sequences in NCBI database. These results recommend that mobile phones can be heavily colonized by high quantities of pathogenic bacteria and thus potential sources of disease transmission requiring application of sound personal hygiene as preventive methods.
 
Differential salt stress responses and the underlying salt tolerance mechanisms adapted not only by different plant species but different genotypes of the same species hold importance and may prove to be helpful in producing salt tolerant crops. Current investigation was aimed to observe whether there is any differential behavior of two sorghum genotypes namely Phule Vasudha (PV) and Phule Revati (PR) under increasing levels of NaCl and Na2SO4 (0 to 300 mM for each salt) induced salinity stresses at germination and vegetative growth stages. Amongst two salts, Na 2 SO 4 showed comparably higher antagonistic effects on physiological parameters including seed germination, seedling growth, biomass production and relative water content. Both the cultivars performed differentially and PV showed better performance than the PR in terms of germination and biomass production. The salt tolerant nature of PV was also manifested by lower decrease in chlorophyll content under high salt stress irrespective of salt type. The salt tolerance nature of the cultivar PV may further be attributed to the higher proline content in it, both under non-saline as well as highest salinity levels (300 mM), irrespective of the salt type. Since sodium was common in both the salts used viz. Na 2 SO 4 and NaCl, the differential behavior may be attributed to the anions (sulfate or chloride) and it was evident from the observations that sulfate ion exerted more harmful effects as compared to chloride ions on physiological as well as biochemical parameters. © Copy Right, IJBB, 2012, Academic Journals. All rights reserved.
 
Growth profile and reducing sugars production by A. niger USM AI1 on OPF. Note: The SSF process was carried out at room temperature, 30 ± 2°C; 160% (v/w) moisture content; initial pH 7; inoculums size of 1 x 10 7 spore/ ml; 0.5 mm of OPF, 1.5% (w/w) of corn steep liquor (nitrogen source), 1.0% (w/w) carboxymethyl cellulose (inducer) 
Chemical composition of oil palm fronds strands
A : SEM micrographs of OPF fermented with A. niger USMAI1. (A) Initial day of fermentation; (B) After 5 days of fermentation. (Note: The SSF process was carried out at room temperature, 30 ± 2°C; 160%(v/w) moisture content; Initial pH 7; inoculums size of 1 x 10 7 spore/ ml; 0.5 mm of OPF)
Time course of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae from fermentable sugar obtained from the OPF cultivated with A. niger USM AI1. Note: The ethanol fermentation was carried out under the indicated yeast; 10% (v/v) inoculums size; 6% (w/v) concentration of reducing sugar; initial medium of pH 5; agitation rate of 200 rpm; temperature of fermentation at 30°C. 
In order to investigate the possibility of using oil palm frond (OPF) as biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical composition of OPF was examined. OPF used in this study contained 50.7% holocellulose. It was enzymatically hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger USM AI1 in a solid substrate fermentation (SSF) and ethanol was produced from the hydrolyzates in a second fermentation with the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of fermentable sugars was 200.2 mg/ g substrate which contained 69.2% of glucose. The fermentable sugar obtained from OPF could be used by S. cerevisiae to produce ethanol. After 36 h of fermentation, the ethanol was about 23.1 g/L with 6% (w/v) of the fermentable sugar used as the carbon source in the fermentation medium at 30°C. Thus, this finding indicates that OPF can be used as suitable lignocellulosic material for the production of fermentable sugars through in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis under the SSF condition for second generation bioethanol production.
 
Relationship between NO and Catalase level in Gastric Cancer Patients. Linear regression analysis of NO with Catalase level in Gastric cancer Patients.
Relationship between MDA vs SOD level in Multiple Myeloma Patients. Linear regression analysis of MDA vs SOD level in Multiple Myeloma Patients.
The oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. It play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cancers. The aim of the current study was to explore the oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with different cancers. Two hundred and fifty different cancerous patients and fifty control subjects were recruited for the study after informed consent. Oxidative stress biomarkers including Xanthine Oxidase (XO), Nitric Oxide (NO), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Reductase (GR) were estimated spectrophotometrically in blood samples. The correlation of oxidative stress biomarkers in different cancer was also analyzed. Significantly increased plasma levels of XO, MDA and NO and markedly decreased CAT, SOD and GR levels in plasma were observed in cancer patients. A strong positive correlations between MDA and SOD were observed in Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients, MDA and XO in Oral Cancer (OC) Patients. Furthermore in Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients NO and SOD have shown the direct correlation. While strong negative correlation was observed between NO and Catalase in Gastric Cancer (GC) patients. The study provides evidence of the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and different cancer, which could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for the individuals who are prone to cancer.
 
In this study, we tried to understand better the association of oxidative stress and inflammation with type-2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy to provide a basis for investigating improved diagnostic possibilities, treatment and prevention of the disease. Blood samples were collected from 498 West Indian individuals aged 42-72 years. Differences in the level of oxidative stress markers (MDA, GSH, SOD and CAT) and inflammation (TNF-α and IL1-α) was determined in patients (type 2 diabetic and diabetic nephropathy) and control participants. Patients with nephropathy showed significantly decreased SOD, GSH levels, but significantly increased MDA and CAT activity compared to DM patients as well as controls. Significant higher level of expression of TNF-α and IL1-α (P< 0.05) was observed in DM and DN patients as compared to controls. The results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation are triggered in patients of type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy possibly due to hyperglycemia. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global health problem. It is one of the serious devastating diseases found in endemic proportion and the frequency of DM patients is expected to go even higher in the future. Long term hyperglycemia in DM results in DN and if DM is not treated on time 1. DN is a progressive complication of DM which takes several years for development. It includes unusual functional clinical abnormalities of the kidney such as eminent creatinine, urea, albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate, hypertension and fluid retention rate 2. DN may lead to severe complications like End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and patients of DN will have to undergo hemodialysis. The frequency of reported ESRD was 4.0-4.3% with type-1 diabetes mellitus and 4.5-4.7% with DM. The pathogenesis of DN is complicated and comprises many factors like time-interval of DM, deprived glucose control, oxidative stress, high blood pressure and hyper tri-glyceridemia 3 .
 
The field of biotechnology has extraordinarily influence on science, law, the administrative condition social insurance, and business. As the starting of agriculture, people have been manipulating crops to improve the yield and quantity. Product yields throughout the world are essentially diminished by the activity of herbivorous insects, pathogens and parasites. Natural environmental stresses make this circumstance significantly worse. Abiotic stresses are the important factors for crop development and improvement, causing massive yield losses over the worldwide. Many mechanisms have been utilized for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in model and other crop plants by means of established biotechnological and/or breeding techniques. The use of genetic engineering technology improvement to particular characteristics is then discussed about, including input aspects identifying with control production (herbicide and insects resistance, protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses). Crop improvement has been improved the many years by means of conventional plant breeding strategies or over different physical, chemical compound (e.g., gamma radiation, ethyl methane sulfonate) and other biological techniques (e.g., T-DNA, transposon insertion) primary to point mutations, rearrangement, duplication and insertion. Zinc finger nucleases have been effectively utilized in genome modification of different plants including tobacco, maize, soybean, and so on. The understanding of molecular basis of plant reaction to these natural environments or stresses has been an important focal point of research in the past decades. Genetically modified organisms are being utilized to lessen the yield loss because of different stresses (biotic and abiotic) and are being utilized broadly for value increase in food crops by improvement with quality proteins, vitamins, zinc, carotenoids, anthocyanin, iron and many more. Incorporation of modern biotechnology, with regular traditional practices in a sustainable way, can fulfill the objective of achieving food security for present and as well as in future.
 
Association of complications with age group
Association of complications with gender
Objective: To determine the frequency of complications (Bleeding, Septicemia, displacement of PCN catheter) of ultrasonographic guided percutaneous nephrostomy in cases of obstructive uropathy Material and methods: This case series study was conducted over the period of 6 months. Total 82 patients with obstructive uropathy either male or female having age 20-60 years were selected. Post procedure complications (Bleeding, Septicemia, displacement of PCN catheter) were assessed. Results: Total 82 patients with obstructive uropathy was selected for this study. Mean age of the patients was 39 ± 12.47 years. Out of 82 patients, septicemia was noted in 6 (7%) patients followed by bleeding 5 (6%) patients and PCN dislodgement or blockage in 8 (10%) patients. Out of 50 (60.98%) male patients, septicemia, bleeding and PCN dislodgement or blockage was found in 5 (10%) patients, 3 (6%) patients and 4 (8%) patients respectively. Female patients were 32 (39.02%) and septicemia was noted in 1 (3.13%) patients, bleeding was noted in 2 (6.25%) patients and PCN dislodgement or blockage was noted in 4 (12.5%) patients. Statistically insignificant association between complications and gender was noted with p value 0.642. Conclusion: In present study complication rate was very low. So, PCN is a safe and effective urinarydiversion done under local anesthesia. It gives prompt relief to upper obstructive uropathy incritically ill patients. PCN is useful therapeutic procedure for pyonephrosis, preserving renal function and avoiding unnecessary nephrectomies.
 
Comparison of Neuropsin structural features. (A) 3D-alignment of the whole structure and (B) the catalytic site of neuropsin, neurosin, trypsin IV, trypsin , thrombin, u-PA and Lm-TL. (C) Comparison of the root mean square deviation (RMSD) value of each structural alignment. 
Neuropsin is a serine-protease produced by neurons and glial cells that is directly involved in learning and memory processes. This enzyme presents an important role in brain diseases such as epilepsy and Alzheimer disease. In this work we reviewed several aspects about this enzyme including structure, biological activity and its role in the central nervous system. We also compared neuropsin with other serine-proteases such as trypsin, an enzyme found in digestive and brain systems, thrombin, a coagulation cascade enzyme, and Lm-TL of a thrombin-like enzyme present in Lachesis muta venom that affects the prey central nervous system, among others, using bioinformatic tools. The analysis of the structural features of neuropsin and of these enzymes that present different and specific biological activities despite their high homology degree may help on designing selective inhibitor for treating several diseases including brain disorders.
 
The aim of this paper is to propose a matlab toolbox of a comparative study of four brain tumor segmentation methods with specific sequences. Four methods are K-means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering, Region growing, and Otsu segmentation. Skull stripping algorithm has done before segmentation. Different preprocessing algorithms are applied before segmentation to enhance images and give better segmentation. Median filter, Gaussian filter, and contrast enhancement are applied according to segmentation method. The database used is based on DICOM images. GLCM used for feature extraction. Classification and accuracy measurement are done by ANN.
 
Effect of UV-B radiation on germination and growth of Cucumis sativus seedlings.
Effect of heavy metal on germination and growth of Cucumis sativus seedlings.
The present study deals with the individual and combined effect of two stresses i.e. UV-B radiation and heavy metals (lead and cadmium) on germination and growth of test crop Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber). The experiments were performed in three different ways i.e i) individual effect of UV-B radiation, ii) individual effect of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and iii) combined effect of UV-B radiation and heavy metals. The results showed that a gradual decline in germination and growth occurred with the increase in concentration of heavy metals and enhancement in the time of exposure of UV-B radiation. Individually, the heavy metals affected more as compared to UV-B radiation. Cadmium affected more adversely as compared to lead on crop. In the combined treatment (heavy metals and UV-B radiation) more negative effects observed in comparison to individual treatment whereas, cadmium and UV-B radiation affect more severely as compare to lead and UV-B radiation treatment. Statistically the results were also significant.
 
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler (Fud) is a constant threat to pigeonpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of pigeonpea-Fud interaction is necessary to improve resistance to Fud and thereby the productivity of pigeonpea. Temporal and spatial changes were studied in defense enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase at pre-initiation (S1), disease initiation (S2) and severe diseased (S3) stages in root, stem and leaf tissues of 2 susceptible and 2 resistant cultivars of pigeonpea inoculated with Fud. Comparison of various treatment combinations revealed that all the defence enzymes showed temporal and spatial variation in activity/expression pattern. PO increased in all the tissues of all the varieties from S1 to S2 and declined thereafter in S3 stage, and induction was higher in resistant cultivars. Catalase and PPO were induced highly in resistant cultivars inoculated with Fud, and the pattern was stagespecific and tissue-specific in nature. Catalase induction occurred at S2 in uninoculated plants whereas it started at S1 in Fud inoculated plants. PPO level diminished from S2 to S3 stage, and in susceptible varieties, it reached even below the control. PAL, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activity were induced at S1, and S2 and values at S3 decreased progressively. Induction of chitinase was significantly high in leaves whereas β-1,3-glucanase activity was high in stem tissues. Both control and challenged plants had a higher level of β-1,3-glucanase activity at later stages of disease development, but the proportionate increase was much higher in resistant cultivars. The activity/expression pattern of these defence enzymes reveals their use as biochemical markers for resistance and provides scope for manipulating their expression and development of wilt-resistant transgenic pigeonpea.
 
Cervical cancer continues to take extra ordinary toll on the lives of women in India, which has been attributed to the lack of systematically organized population screening programmes. Cost effective screening tools are yet to be identified for low resource countries. Proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to determine the biological alterations induced by HPV infection. Aim of the study was to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the exfoliated cells of Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Protein extracted from exfoliated squamous cells of normal smears and squamous carcinoma cells was analyzed by using Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry method and the DNA was subjected for multiplex PCR for HPV status. The malignant samples were positive for oncogenic HPV. Proteome profiling revealed unique expression of 104 proteins in SCC while 20 proteins were found up-regulated and 64 proteins were down regulated. Up-regulated proteins include different isoforms of cytokeratin, ras related proteins, annexin, endoplasmin, vimentin, gelsolin, actin and heats hock proteins etc which can be used to define novel markers of cervical intra epithelial neoplasia.
 
The OD of sample showedkinetic degradation of pectin substrates (a) and polygalacturonic acid (b) 10 g/l and polygalacturonic acid 20 g/l (c), respectively, at pH 5, 20 min at 30°C for reaction with the enzyme extracts of producing strains. 
Polygalacturonases (PGs) are known for their application in the clarification and extraction of fruit juice and wine. In this study, PG activity was investigated in 125 strains of microorganisms comprising of bacteria and yeast previously isolated from the microbiota of fermented cassava. In order to investigate PG activity, these purified strains were grown on agar media containing apple pectin or polygalacturonic acid (PGA) at 0.5 to 1%. A screening test performed at the end of cultivation revealed PG activity in each producing strain, allowed the detection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY4, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY5, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY9, Bacillus sp. KSB30 and Bacillus sp. KSB32, which were identified using phenotypic test. Screening assays carried out on Petri dishes showed limitations, the depolymerization reactions were carried out using two substrates (pectin and PGA) at different concentrations with each extract from strain isolated which exhibited PG activity. The results show that at pH 5 at 30°C/25 min, Bacillus sp. KSB32 exhibited a PG production of 2.33 U/ml on pectin (5 g/l) versus 1.35 U/ml on PGA. An increase in PG production, reaching 3.24 U/ml was concomitant with the pectin concentration. These results conclude that PG activity is function of nature and substrate concentration.
 
Polygalacturonases (PGs) are known for their application in the clarification and extraction of fruit juice and wine. In this study, PG activity was investigated in 125 strains of microorganisms comprising of bacteria and yeast previously isolated from the microbiota of fermented cassava. In order to investigate PG activity, these purified strains were grown on agar media containing apple pectin or polygalacturonic acid (PGA) at 0.5 to 1%. A screening test performed at the end of cultivation revealed PG activity in each producing strain, allowed the detection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY4, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY5, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KSY9, Bacillus sp. KSB30 and Bacillus sp. KSB32, which were identified using phenotypic test. Screening assays carried out on Petri dishes showed limitations, the depolymerization reactions were carried out using two substrates (pectin and PGA) at different concentrations with each extract from strain isolated which exhibited PG activity. The results show that at pH 5 at 30°C/25 min, Bacillus sp. KSB32 exhibited a PG production of 2.33 U/ml on pectin (5 g/l) versus 1.35 U/ml on PGA. An increase in PG production, reaching 3.24 U/ml was concomitant with the pectin concentration. These results conclude that PG activity is function of nature and substrate concentration.
 
Non-submerged combined interpass and overpass flow in the rockfill dams
A model of rockfill dam located in the flume
ariations of discharge coefficient by
ariations of discharge coefficient by
This experimental study investigates the relationship between discharge coefficient of combined interpass and overpass flow in the rockfill dams including the geometric and hydraulic specifications of flow using a dimensional analysis. An equation is suggested for estimating the discharge coefficient of combined interpass and overpass flow in the rockfill dams that occur due to increase in the length, height, gradient of dam's coastal side, mirage depth, or difference between mirage and coastal depths. The coefficient of correlation and its absolute mean of relative error is respectively 0.81 and 0.0023. According to the results, discharge coefficient has inverse relationship with dam length along the flow direction and dam's coastal side gradient, and has direct relationship with u
 
Plantain flour in the recent time is gaining more importance as food, feed and industrial raw material because of its high food value and low sugar content. Understanding the effect of processing methods on the proximate composition of the flour is an important parameter in determining the quality and usability of the flour. The effect of some selected variables like, size reduction (longitudinal and transverse), blanching temperature (45 0 C and 80 0 C), soaking concentration (soaked in 0.1% and 0.2% Sodium metabisulphate) and drying method (sun drying and oven drying) on the proximate values of the resulting flour was investigated using a 2 4 factorial experimental design. The results of this study showed that oven drying method has the highest iron (0.0391%), carbohydrate (84%), protein (6.47%), amylase (19.38%) and fibre (1.68%) while the sun drying produced the flour with the highest ash (2.62%) and moisture content (12.38% db). The statistical analysis of the results show that drying method had significant (p<0.01) effect on the carbohydrate, amylase, fat, fibre and moisture content. Blanching temperature was found to be significant (p<0.05) on amylase, fat, and moisture content. Also the soaking concentration was significant (p<0.01) on amylase, and moisture content. The result also showed that size reduction was significant on amylase (p<0.01), carbohydrate (p<0.01) and moisture content (p<0.05). In conclusion, it of opinion that the results of this experiment will be of great help in providing useful information on the effect of production variables on the proximate composition of plantain flour so as to guide the industrial production and utilization of the product. Introduction Plantain is a rhizomatous perennial crop used as a source of starchy staple food for millions of people in Nigeria (Adeniji et al., 2006). It is a close relative of banana, but of low sugar content and cooked before eating when compared with banana. It is a good source of carbohydrate food (Mariatt et al., 1981). The low labour requirements in the production of plantain compare to other crops like rice, yam and maize makes plantain farming very attractive to the farmers (Marriot and Lancaster, 1983). Unlike in other food the iron in plantain is 100% utilizable for human body (Loeseck, 1950). Plantain is a perishable crop which cannot be preserved for a long time, therefore needed to be processed to another edible product like plantain flour in most West African countries. Plantain flour processing is traditionally produced by sun drying the peeled green ripe plantain fruit. Considerable losses occur during natural sun drying; lowering the qualitative and quantitative value of the dried product. The slices of green ripe plantain fruit are normally spread out on bare patches of earth, roofs, stone, outcrops, and sheet of corrugated iron or on bamboo (FAO, 1995). The production and utilization of the flour from unripe cooking banana and plantain has been reported by Oyesile (1987) and Emperatriz et al. (2008) but the effect of these selected processing variables (size reduction, drying methods, soaking concentration, and blanching temperature) and their interaction effect are yet to be reported. Plantain flour which is produced from unripe plantain is usually produced by several methods in Nigeria. It has been reported for other food crops that different processing methods influence the chemical compositions of the final food product (Adeniji et al., 2008, Ahenkora et al., 1997, Ketiku, 1973, Houson et al., 2002, and Kamolwan et al., 2003). The effect of food processing on nutrient content will depend on the sensitivity of nutrient to the various prevailing processing conditions. Since the quality and usability of any flour depend greatly on its proximate compositions, this study therefore aimed to determine the effect of processing variables on the proximate composition of the flour so as to provide basic information to the user and plantain flour millers.
 
Performance evaluation is one of the most important in management science.For this purpose, there are different techniques Which is one of the most important techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA is a method based on linear programing to measure relative efficiency of decision making units. In classic DEA models, the whole system has been usually taken into consideration as a decision making units (DMU) to evaluate respective efficiency and it is also ignored the separate processes inside the system. Whereas, the internal communications of various sectors of a DMU can have had diverse structures which cause complexity in evaluating of its efficiency. It is because, the type of structures and these components performance would effect on efficiency of the system. Network view is one of the appropriate ways for modeling the internal communications of units that these sub-units communications in a DMU may be combined in series, parallel or mixed. In this paper, a new structure called star structure is introduced as a comprehensive type that each structure existing between a DMU's sub-units can easily be converted to such structure to more accurate evaluation of a DMU efficiencyand also using star structure, we evaluated the performance of regional electronic companies in Iran. INTRODUCTION One of the important tasks in management is evaluating the performance of a generation system to control, programming, modifying and etc. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), developed by Farell, is one of the techniques which is widely used to evaluate the relative efficiency of a set of generation systems or decision making units and it has been generalized by Charnes and Cooper [1]. It has been usually treated like a black box, it means only inputs and outputs of the black box would be considered to evaluate the efficiency and the performance of component stageswhich actingtogether inside the system, has been ignored. Hence, different models as network data envelopment analysis were proposed to solve this issue. Note that the network data envelopment aimed to address the more accurate efficiency evaluation of a DMU and according to this, its sub-units performance should be attended. The concept of network DEA was introduced by Fare and Grosskopf [5]. For the first time, they investigated the black box problem and then, it was developed by many other researchers. Among the recent researchers, Seiford and Zhu [18], Sexton and Lewis [19] and Liang and et.,al [13] developed DEA models in a way that each DMU
 
Performance evaluation is one of the most important in management science.For this purpose, there are different techniques Which is one of the most important techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA is a method based on linear programing to measure relative efficiency of decision making units. In classic DEA models, the whole system has been usually taken into consideration as a decision making units (DMU) to evaluate respective efficiency and it is also ignored the separate processes inside the system. Whereas, the internal communications of various sectors of a DMU can have had diverse structures which cause complexity in evaluating of its efficiency. It is because, the type of structures and these components performance would effect on efficiency of the system. Network view is one of the appropriate ways for modeling the internal communications of units that these sub-units communications in a DMU may be combined in series, parallel or mixed. In this paper, a new structure called star structure is introduced as a comprehensive type that each structure existing between a DMU's sub-units can easily be converted to such structure to more accurate evaluation of a DMU efficiencyand also using star structure, we evaluated the performance of regional electronic companies in Iran. INTRODUCTION One of the important tasks in management is evaluating the performance of a generation system to control, programming, modifying and etc. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), developed by Farell, is one of the techniques which is widely used to evaluate the relative efficiency of a set of generation systems or decision making units and it has been generalized by Charnes and Cooper [1]. It has been usually treated like a black box, it means only inputs and outputs of the black box would be considered to evaluate the efficiency and the performance of component stageswhich actingtogether inside the system, has been ignored. Hence, different models as network data envelopment analysis were proposed to solve this issue. Note that the network data envelopment aimed to address the more accurate efficiency evaluation of a DMU and according to this, its sub-units performance should be attended. The concept of network DEA was introduced by Fare and Grosskopf [5]. For the first time, they investigated the black box problem and then, it was developed by many other researchers. Among the recent researchers, Seiford and Zhu [18], Sexton and Lewis [19] and Liang and et.,al [13] developed DEA models in a way that each DMU
 
Top-cited authors
Ibrahim Che omar
  • University of Malaysia, Kelantan
Darah Ibrahim
  • Universiti Sains Malaysia
Sheh-Hong Lim
  • Universiti Sains Malaysia
Mohammad Reza Farahani
  • Iran University of Science and Technology
Süleyman Ediz
  • Yuzuncu Yil University