International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review

Published by Sciencedomain International
Online ISSN: 2231-086X
Full blood count analysis
The effect of PMA on CD62-L cell surface expression on neutrophils (± standard deviation), peak MFI: 1.78, 28.70 and 27.35 respectively. p=0.098 shown as determined by t-test  
The effect of PMA on CD11b cell surface expression on neutrophils (± standard deviation), peak MFI: 2.50, 25.73, 43.77 respectively. p=0.025 as determined by t-test  
Background: Neutrophils and monocytes are phagocytic leukocytes that represent an important component of the non-specific immune system, by which invading micro-organisms and tumour cells are rapidly internalized and destroyed, via a number of biological mechanisms. Additionally, these phagocytic leukocytes play a key role in facilitating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in response to pro-inflammatory agents, during an inflammation. The expression of specific adhesion molecules such as CD62-L and CD11b, on the cell surface of neutrophils and monocytes, play an integral role with regards to cell migration, rolling, firm adhesion and subsequent cellular activation (leukocyte adhesion cascade). Leukocytes can be stimulated by chemotactic agents such as Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA is a direct stimulant of protein kinase C signaling pathway, which promotes cellular activation. Methods: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of PMA on CD62-L and CD11b cell surface expression of neutrophils and monocytes. Venous blood samples were collected from the ante-cubital fossa from healthy individuals, following written informed consent (n=4). Neutrophils and monocytes were isolated via a density gradient centrifugation method. Subsequently, neutrophil and monocyte cell surface expression of CD62-L and CD11b were measured by labelling with fluorescent anti-CD62-L and anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies via flow cytometry. Results: Following stimulation with PMA, monocytes displayed a decrease in CD62-L and increase in CD11b cell surface expression (p=0.103 and p=0.026 respectively). With respect to neutrophils, PMA resulted in a similar cellular response, where the cell surface expression of CD62-L decreased whilst CD11b increased (p=0.098 and p=0.025 respectively). Discussion and Conclusion: In summary, this pilot study confirms the potent effect that PMA has on leukocyte function. Although studies involving PMA have previously been documented, this study provides a sound platform to continue work in this field of leukocyte biology. However, the validation and reliability of these findings would require to be assessed through the assessment of larger cohorts.
Aims: This study aimed at determining the level of thiaminase in the Limicolaria flammea with a view to ascertaining the nutritional and health implications of its consumption. Methodology: Proximate analyses of two tissues, headfoot and hepatopancreas, were investigated to assess their nutritional qualities. The thiaminases in the tissues were purified by chromatographic separations using DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange and Biogel P-100 columns. Results: The Michealis Menten constant obtained for hepatopancreas thiaminase was 0.83 mM and 0.13 mM for thiamine and aniline respectively; for the headfoot thiaminase, 1.06 mM and 0.16 mM was obtained for thiamine and aniline respectively. An optimum pH of 8.5 was obtained for thiaminase in the two tissues. Temperature optimum of 65°C and 70°C was obtained for the headfoot and hepatopancreas enzymes respectively. The amino acids and glutathione activated the enzyme from hepatopancreas, while the headfoot enzyme was significantly inhibited except proline which showed very high activation. The cations: NH 4 + , Hg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Na + , Ni 2+ , and Zn 2+ tested showed no inhibition of the enzymes in both tissues. Increased concentrations of 2-mercaptoethanol, 6-amino hexanoic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited the activities of thiaminases from the two tissues. Conclusion: The study concluded that the tissues, hepatopancreas and headfoot of Limicolaria flammea contained high level of thiaminase. This may have medical implication in its consumption as a good source of high quality protein.
  • N. B. Kimou
    N. B. Kimou
  • B. C. Tia
    B. C. Tia
  • A. Koné
    A. Koné
  • [...]
  • I. N. Ouattara
    I. N. Ouattara
This study showed clearly the effect of adding palm oil to the diet of farmed fish to replace marine animal oils. For this purpose, four foods based on maggot flour at 35% protein with the incorporation of palm oil, at different levels at 0, 2, 5 and 10% were tested in the to assess their impact on the improved growth performance, food utilization, survival rate and biochemical composition of Heterobranchus longifilis larvae Four experimental diets were formulated based on the maggot meal as the main protein source. These diets were formulated at 35 % protein levels with maggot meal and maize flour as the major ingredients containing different concentrations of palm oil levels at 0, 2, 5, and 10 %. This study was carried out in the reproduction laboratory, at Oceanological Research Center, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between the periods of September to November 2022. The diets were offered to the larvae (average initial weight 0.004 ± 0.001 g) three times a day ad libitum for 49 days. At the end of rearing, the results showed that the different experimental foods distributed did not influence the quality of the rearing environment. The best growth was obtained with the larvae subjected to diet containing 2% palm oil with a final average weight of 3.21 g and a conversion index of 1.63. Beyond this rate, larval growth decreases. Survival rates vary from 70 to 73 %. The conversion ratios are not significantly different and ranged between 1.63 and 2.3. On the biochemical larvae submitted to diet containing 10 % of palm oil had body lipid content (2 %) and high ash rich. As against a gain of protein is observed with larvae submitted to diets containing 2 % palm oil reflects an effect of protein. From the present results, diet containing 2 % crude palm oil is considered optimal for Heterobranchus longifilis larvae.
Coronavirus (CoVs) is a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of vertebrates. They are extensively found in bats and also in many other birds and mammals including humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a global pandemic and originated from Wuhan States of China. The SARS-CoV-2 is more genetically similar to zoonotic SARS-CoV and less similar to MERS-CoV. The viral surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor of Type II alveolar cells of the lungs and it appears to be the major portal of entry by this virus. The subsequent activation of the spike protein by transmembrane protease-2 and in addition to lung, ACE-2 is highly expressed in heart followed by kidney and intestinal epithelium. SARS-CoV-2 infects more men than women due to ACE-2 receptor on the cells increased with age and generally it was higher in men than in women. The incubation period for this virus varies from place to place and asystematic symptoms are also commonly seen in infected patients. There are a number of pharmaceuticals already being tried and are in different phase levels of testing, but a better understanding of the underlying pathobiology is required. In this circumstance, this article will briefly review the underlying principle for ACE-2 receptor as a specific target. Despite ACE-2 serving as the portal for infection, the role of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation.
Scheme 1 Synthetic routes to titled compounds (4a-4j). Reagents and conditions:(i) NH 4 Cl, DMF, 125 °C, 7-8 h; (ii) (CH 3 CO) 2 O, H 2 SO 4 ; 60-70 °C, 15-20 min; (iii) R-CHO/NaOH, C 2 H 5 OH; (iv) NH 2 OH.HCl, KOH, C 2 H 5 OH, 130 °C, 4-5h.
Docking results of the title compound with tubulin-colchicine: stathmin-like domain complex [PDB: 1SA0]
Cancer a leading cause of human mortality worldwide is characterised by the unseemly growth of cellular mass and signalled through the enlargement of stress. Management of cancer treatment is still buried and has been recently alerting the need to discover a drug molecule with lesser side effects. The objective of the present study is to explore the anticancer activity and docking studies of 1-(5-substituted phenyl) isoxazol-3-yl)-5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole derivatives. The compounds were evaluated for in-vitro anticancer activity under the drug discovery program of National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA. Only seven compounds were selected and screened for anticancer activity at a single high dose (10-5 M) using NCI 60 cancer cell lines. Among all the selected compounds, 4b and 4i exhibited significant anticancer activity against Leukemia cell lines. Molecular docking studies for the 5-phenyl-1-(5-substituted phenylisoxazol-3-yl)-1H-tetrazole analogues was done by Schrodinger software. Docking results stated that the compounds 4b and 4i has good dock score among the other derivatives which shows good binding efficiency towards receptor.
Introduction: Glycemic index is an important parameter designed to quantify the relative blood glucose response of foods in comparison with reference glucose. Determination of glycemic index and loads of carbohydrate- rich foods play as tools of nutritional guidelines for glycemic control and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine glycemic index and glycemic loads of cassava and sweet potato of commonly consumed food items of Bench-Maji, south west Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The 23 healthy subjects were participated in the study from Ethiopia; the mean age was 27 ± 2 years. The matured cassava and sweet potato food items were processed by washed, peeled and cooked in water (gentle boiling at 90 Co) for 20 minutes. Participants were informed to consume 50 g of carbohydrate portions of tested and reference foods. Blood sample were collected at 0 (fasting), 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of tested and reference foods. Glycemic index value of foods was calculated from the ratio of incremental area under the glucose curves of the foods. Glycemic loads for each food was determined from its glycemic index value and carbohydrate content. Data were statistically analysed by ANOVA and differences between means identified by the student t-test. Results: The cassava and sweet potato had a medium glycemic indices (GI: 60), in spite of they generated a high glycemic loads of 26 and 24 respectively. The cassava and sweet potato had significantly lower (p<0.0001) blood glucose response was noticed as compared to white bread. There was no difference of GI and GL of tested foods within the participants and statistically not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the cassava and sweet potato foods had a medium glycemic index and high glycemic loads. The tested foods had significantly lower blood glucose response as compared to reference food of white bread. The resulted GI and GL data of tested foods could be help as guide of food choices to control glycemic level and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications.
Treatment at 42°C in the presence of 5 µM ABT-263 (Navitoclax) induces apoptosis in prometaphase-arrested HeLa S3 cells but not in interphase cells Phase-contrast microscopy of (A) interphase cells and (B) prometaphase-arrested cells (mitotic index, 81%) after 40 min treatment. Note blebbing of the plasma membrane, a characteristic of apoptosis. (C) Time course of blebbing for interphase cells (▲---▲) and prometaphase-arrested cells (•---•)
Apoptosis is induced in prometaphase-arrested HeLa S3 cells but not in interphase cells and requires both heat and ABT-263 treatment Aliquots of prometaphase-arrested (mitotic index 85%) and interphase (unsynchronized) HeLa S3 cell cultures were treated for 2 hrs at 42.0°C or 34.0°C either with (+) or without (-) 5 μM ABT-263
Aims: We have previously shown that mild hyperthermia (39-42°C) rapidly induces apoptosis in H-HeLa cells arrested in mitosis but not in interphase cells and not in mitotic-arrested cells of other HeLa strains such as HeLa S3. Our goal was to test the idea that this sensitivity to hyperthermia is due to down-regulation of Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic proteins during mitosis. Methodology: HeLa S3 cells were arrested in mitosis with spindle poisons and simultaneously treated with mild hyperthermia (42°C) and ABT-263 (Navitoclax), an inhibitor of Bcl-2 and other anti-apoptotic proteins. Apoptosis was observed microscopically and confirmed by observation of procaspase 3 cleavage using western immunoblotting. Results: Treatment of prometaphase-arrested HeLa S3 cells with mild hyperthermia (42°C) and as little as 200 nM ABT-263 induces apoptosis in the great majority of cells within 2 hr, as judged by blebbing of plasma membranes. The effect is not seen with interphase cells and is blocked by caspase inhibitors z-VAD-fmk and z-DEVD-fmk. Conclusion: Our results show that inhibition of Bcl-2 family antiapoptotic proteins sensitizes prometaphase-arrested HeLa cells, but not interphase cells, to apoptosis induced by mild hyperthermia. An open question is why are prometaphase-arrested cells more susceptible than interphase cells? If the features of mitotic-arrested cells that make them sensitive could be identified and mimicked in interphase cells by appropriate drug treatments, it may be possible to combine systemic chemotherapy with local hyperthermia to provide an effective new treatment for tumors.
Background and Objective: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (eNOS) is one of three isoforms that synthesize nitric oxide (NO), that participates in several biological processes have been associated with obesity. This study was undertaken to determine if eNOS gene (T786C) and 27bp (4b/4a) were associated with susceptibility of obesity. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 200 cases divided into 100 obese patient and 100 healthy as control. The mean age cases was (27.02 ± 10.90) they include 79 female and 21 males. All participants were subjected to an estimation of their body mass index (BMI), weight hip ratio (WHR), in addition to random blood sugar (RBS), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH). DNA was amplified using PCR-SSP for detection of relation between polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in two parts T786C and 27bp (4b/4a). Results: All cases showed that there were significant difference between cases and controls regarding to their chemical lab’s analysis (TG, Cholesterol, LDL and HDL).All cases showed significant frequency of T786C TT, CC, TC vs. controls (p<0.001) these was considered risk factor for disease. On the other hand there no significant difference between 27bp aa, bb, and ab (p=0.618) vs. controls. Conclusion: The polymorphism T786C not the 27bp in eNOS was associated with obesity.
Cardiac arrhythmia affects ~ 6% in those over 65 years of age (old), but with 0.2% occurrence in those of 45 years and below (young). Arrhythmia can result from dysregulation of the cardiac impulse generation and its conduction. Connexin proteins are responsible for cardiac impulse conduction, and phosphorylation of connexin 43 determines its functional ability. In this study, Phosphorylated connexin 43, density and expression were assessed in ventricular tissues from young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) Wister rats, using the techniques of western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results show that phosphorylated Cx43 in the left ventricle of 24 months old rats significantly declined (P=0.04 & 0.01) by method of western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively, but did not differ in the right ventricle. The left ventricle is known to be responsible for cardiac output. This data suggest an age-associated decline in the expression of phosphorylated connexin 43 in the left ventricle, which may play a significant role in the development of cardiac arrhythmia in the elderly.
Hop plant cones (Humulus lupulus L) (A), and XN chemical structure (B). XN is a prenylated chalcone found in the cones of hop plant [18]
XN increase cPARP-1 level. HL-60 cells were cultured in 5% FBS growth media for 24 h then treated with 5 or 12.5 µM of XN for an additional 24 h. After the treatment, the cells were lysed and cell lysate was subjected to Western blot analysis as descried in Materials and Methods. One representative blot is shown. B) cPARP-1 quantitative analysis (arbitrary units), n = 3. * Statistically significant, ANOVA, p < 0.05 vs control
Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) affects both kids and adults, however it is more prevalent in younger population. Although APL has a favorable prognostic, patients that relapse often do not respond positively to additional chemotherapy. Therefore, there is a need to further identify ways to overcome these challenges. Hypothesis: In this study, we examined antileukemic effects of xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid derived from hops (Humulus lupulus L), on human promyelocytic HL-60 cells. Materials and Methods: HL-60 cells were exposed to different concentrations of XN (μM) for 24 h. Cell viability, cell morphology, chromatin condensation, cPARP-1 level, and caspase-3 activation, and the expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 were analyzed. Results: XN reduced HL-60 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. XN induced a dose-dependent morphological changes including cell shrinkage and blebbing, and significantly increased the number of cells with condensed chromatin. XN significantly increased the level of cPARP-1, active caspase-3, and the expression of p21WAF/CIP mRNA. Conclusion: These data indicate that XN induces HL-60 cell death by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. This study suggests that XN may have antileukemic preventive effects.
Nowadays, many medicinal plants have proved effective in combating the phenomenon of bacterial multi-resistance against conventional antibiotics. However, the use of these plants, traditionally is done without precise doses. And this inaccuracy of dose is a real problem of traditional medicine. Thus prospecting for empirically administered plant extract requires dosage monitoring to avoid the risk of a fatal therapeutic accident. It is in this context that the study of the toxicity of Terminalia macroptera which presents itself as an anti-infectious agent, capable of overcoming certain strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been initiated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of 70% ethanol extract of T.macroptera in rats and to deduce its safety. With regard to the evaluation of the toxicity, rats were used whose mass varies between 100 and 170 grams. Then, using OECD Guideline 425, (2006), acute toxicity was achieved. Then the 100, 300 and 500 mg / kg bm doses were used in sub-acute toxicity to evaluate biochemical and hematological parameters. The results show an LD50> 5000 mg / kg bm. Therefore, according to the OECD classification, the hydroethanolic extract belongs to category 5, non-toxic substances. Also, the biochemical and hematological results revealed that the extract did not change at any time at P <0.05, biochemical marker levels (UREE, ASAT, ALAT, CK and LDH), reflecting vital organs of the body. So the extract would have no effect on the heart, liver and kidneys. 70% ethanol extract of T. macroptera would be safe for use as a drug and therefore could contribute to the production of Traditionally Enhanced Medicines (MTAs).
This investigation was conducted to study the effect of exposure to tyre smoke on serum calcium and albumin of selected abattoir workers in Oginigba town of Obio area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. A total number of 50 participants were selected for the study (35 experimental group and 15 controls). Blood samples were collected by venipuncture and analyzed in the laboratory for serum calcium and albumin using the colorimetric and bromo cresol-green method respectively. Compared to 3% of the control population, 49% of the experimental population had a serum calcium level below the standard reference of 2.20-2.55 mmol/l. Results from the test on serum albumin showed that 23% of the experimental population had level above the standard references of 3.5-50 g/dl whereas the control population had values within the reference range. The experimental population was grouped into five study groups: 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-15, and above 15 years of service (exposure years) at the abattoir. Serum calcium levels in mmol/l were 2.31, 2.15, 2.20, 2.13, 2.06, 2.16, and serum albumin level in g/dl were 4.63, 4.62, 4.70, 4.79, 4.83, 4.99 for control, groups 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-15 and above 15 years respectively compared with the control, all showed significant increase in the serum albumin levels. The level of significance in agreement with the different standard reference ranges, serum calcium was observed to significantly vary from the control from the last level of exposure (1-3 years) while serum albumin differed significantly from the control, from 7years of exposure for non-smokers and 4years of exposure amongst smokers. The data was group into two study based on genotype as AA and AS. It was observed that participants with genotype AS were most susceptible to the effect of smoke inhalation on lowering serum calcium levels. The result of this research showed that the abattoir workers (roasters) are prone to developing hypocalcaemia and hyperalbuminaemia, and therefore require periodic medical attention.
Effect of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine on the transcription of cholesterol transporters 
Phosphatidylcholine down-regulates ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux but increases the export of cholesterol by aqueous diffusion Cholesterol efflux assay was performed as represented in Fig. 1. FSF were allowed to reach confluence in FSF growth medium containing tritiated cholesterol. The medium was aspirated, the cells were washed once with 1 mL of HEPES/Saline/BSA, and incubated in DMEM/BSA containing unlabeled cholesterol (20μg/mL) (chol) or a mixture of cholesterol (20μg/mL) with phosphatidylcholine (100μg/mL) (chol + PC) for 24 hours. (A) The cells were then washed 4 times with 1 mL of HEPES-Saline BSA. Subsequently, 1 mL DMEM (BSA) with or without apoE (12.5μg/mL) was added to each well. After 24 hr, the medium was collected, the cells were washed, and lipids were extracted. Radioactivity in the medium and the lipid extract was measured using scintillation counting. Percentage of radioactive cholesterol released was calculated from the formula: % Efflux = 3 H in the medium / ( 3 H in the medium + 3 H in the lipid extract) × 100. Each value is an average of four measurements ± standard deviation. P (13.8, 7) = 0.0012. (B) Efflux was measured after step 2 of Fig. 1. Instead of washing away the lipid treatment (equilibration) medium as in A, it was collected and counted for radioactivity. The cells were washed, and lipids were extracted. The percent cholesterol efflux was calculated as in A. Each value is an average of three measurements ± standard deviation. P (10.3, 29.8) = 9.1×10 −7 
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine any correlation between extracellular phospholipid levels and ABCA1 expression and function. Methodology: Human foreskin fibroblasts were incubated with cholesterol alone or cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine. Total RNA was isolated and subjected to end-point RT-PCR to compare ABCA1 transcript levels. Cell lysates were subjected to Western blot analysis to compare ABCA1 protein levels. Cells were loaded with radiolabeled cholesterol and cellular cholesterol efflux was measured in the presence and absence of apoE, a cholesterol acceptor. ApoE-dependent efflux was calculated as a measure of ABCA1-mediated efflux. Results: Here we show that incubation of cholesterol-loaded human skin fibroblasts with L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreases ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels by 93% and 57%, respectively, compared to cells loaded with cholesterol alone. Similarly, PC treatment results in a 25% reduction in ABCG1 mRNA levels compared to cells treated with cholesterol alone, but there is no change in SR-BI transcript levels. Subsequent incubation of phospholipid-treated cells with a cholesterol acceptor such as apoE for 24 hours shows a 65% reduction in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux compared to efflux in cells not treated with PC. During the lipid treatment itself, there is a 2.7-fold greater loss of cholesterol from PC treated cells compared to cells treated with cholesterol alone. Measurement of cholesterol in cellular lipid extracts reveals that cells incubated in the presence of phosphatidylcholine are significantly depleted of cholesterol having only 20% of the cholesterol compared to cells loaded with cholesterol alone. Conclusion: Thus, phosphatidylcholine facilitates removal of cellular cholesterol, thereby negating the cholesterol-dependent induction of ABCA1 message, protein and function.
Aims: The pathophysiology of Plasmodium falciparum infection is most often associated with anemia and immune deficiency. Given the important role of vitamin D in the synthesis of hemoglobin and in the stimulation of the immune system, it would be essential to assess the vitamin D status of patients with malaria in order to improve the quality of treatment management. Methodology: A thick drop and a blood smear were used to determine parasite density and parasite species respectively. The complete blood count was performed using an automated analyzer labelled Sysmex XN 1000i. Biochemical parameters such as calcium and phosphorus were determined using the Cobas C311 Hitachi. The Vidas was used to determine the concentrations of 25 (OH) -vitamin D. Results: The results showed a decrease in 25 (OH) -vitamin D concentrations in relation to the parasite density and anemia observed in patients with uncomplicated malaria. Conclusion: Vitamin D status in patients with uncomplicated malaria could represent an essential biomarker in the monitoring of antimalarial treatment.
Cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms from M'Badon
Assessment of bacterial, mould and yeast load of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom
Objective: The present study aims to constitute a database necessary for the efficient valorisation of the local cultivated edible mushrooms in the Ivorian diet. This work consisted in evaluating the biochemical characteristics and microbiology analysis of cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus species sold and used in rural and urban people food. Methodology: Standard methods proposed by AOAC made this study possible to determine the biochemical parameters such as dry matter, ash, pH, moisture, protein and lipid content. The microbiological analyses enabled the enumerations of yeasts and molds, fecal coliforms, aerobic mesophilic germs, detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and Salmonella were performed. Results: The results showed that the cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus is a food, rich in protein (16.37 ± 0.6 % dw), crude fibre (24.85 ± 0.08 dw) and in ash (11.00 ± 1.33 % dw). On the other hand, this mushroom is relatively low in lipids (4.16 ± 0.13% dw) and reducing sugars (1.04 ± 0.07 % dw) with a low moisture content (6.40 ± 1.13 % dw). These results also revelated the absence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in the flour. Conclusion: Local cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom is an undeniable source of protein and crude fibre. Thus it would be used as a substitute for meat diet, allow a good functioning of the immune system and the good development of bones. It also show satisfactory microbiological criteria. Thus Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom is a safety food for ivorian.
Nutritional value per 100 g dry matter of smoked fish samples of smoked fish
Average loads of spoilage and contamination flora in smoked fish
Average loads of fecal contamination flora in smoked fish
Average loads of potentially pathogenic species in smoked fish
Objective: The general objective of this work is to evaluate the microbiological quality of some smoked fish sold in the markets of the city of Abidjan. Methods: The collection of samples for analysis took place in the markets of the communes of Cocody II- Plateaux (Sococe) and Cocody Center, Abobo, Adjamé Williamsville and the big market. Moisture content, lipid content, protein content and ash content were performed. A quantity of 10 samples composed of 5 smoked fish per sample were collected by market in sterile stomascher bags, then transported in a cooler containing ice to the laboratory to perform microbiological analysis. These are inoculation in the mass which took into account the Sabouraud media with chloramphenicol, VRBL, PCA, BEA VRBG and surface inoculation by spreading which took into account the E. coli Rapid 2 and Baird Parker media. . Also, the search for Salmonella was carried out in 4 stages. these are Pre-enrichment, enrichment, isolation and identification. Results: After various tests, different microbial spoilage flora were found in smoked fish sold in the different markets of Abidjan. These include fungal flora (yeasts/molds), mesophilic aerobic germs and enterobacteria. All samples from the study markets were contaminated with these different microflora. The CFU load/g for mesophilic aerobic germs ranged from 38.106 ± 12 to 65.106 ± 12 CFU/g. For fungal flora, loads ranged from 103 ± 11 to 284 ± 14 CFU/g. Enterobacteria loads ranged from 183± 10 to 418 ± 11 CFU/g. These smoked fish contain potentially pathogenic bacterial species including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with very high respective loads ranging from 51 ± 12 to 86 ± 12 CFU/g and from 125 ± 13 to 437 ± 13 CFU/g. These loads are not in conformity with the criteria set by the standard (10 CFU/g). The smoked fish samples studied contain several nutrients whose average levels vary from one sample to another. Thus, these smoked fish contain water, lipids, proteins and total ash with average values of 10.089 ± 0.11%, 11.24%, 77.5%, 5.255±0.0055 respectively.
Aims: In tropical Africa, leafy vegetables are traditionally cooked and eaten as a relish together with a starchy staple food. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of boiling on bioactive, proximate and antinutrients compounds in Solanum nigrum leaves. Methodology: The leaves were subjected to boiling in pressure cooker for 10, 15 and 20 min and proximate composition, minerals, nutritive and anti-nutritional components were determined according to standard methods for nutritional guidelines. Results: The result of the study revealed that longer time of boiling (higher than 10 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients. The registered losses (p < .05) at 10 min were as follows: ash (12.37%), proteins (33.69%), vitamin C (11.23 mg/ 100 g), polyphenols (125.41 mg/ 100 g) Tannins (81.96 mg/ 100 g) and Flavonoids (14.03 mg/100 g). The average increase of fibers content was (39.41%). Furthermore, after 10 min of boiling time the residual contents (p<0.05) of minerals was: Calcium (1079±29.04 to 386±78 mg/ 100 g), Phosphorus (405..24±10-508.88±2.58 mg/ 100 g), Iron (33.48±0.93–44.50±1.23 mg / 100 g) and Magnesium (572.78±19.76–662.99±27.23 mg/ 100 g).The antinutrient composition for oxalic acid were ranged 72.61±6.29 to 223.67±6.35 mg/100 g. The different ratios sodium / potassium (<1) and oxalates/calcium (<2.5) were under the respective critical value for all boiling. Conclusion: These results suggest that the recommended time of domestic cooking must be less than 10 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population.
Aims: The purpose of this study is to identify the medicinal plants used in the bistros and to determine the preference between the consumption of Koutoukou alone or the Koutoukou mixture associated with medicinal plants in the city of Abidjan. Place and Duration: Pharmacodynamic Biochemical Laboratory, Faculty of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, between December 2017 and June 2018. Methodology: The investigation took place in the neighborhoods of Abobo, Cocody, Koumassi and Yopougon. This is an open-ended questionnaire intended for consumers of Koutoukou alone and association of medicinal Plants-Koutoukou. The identity, the region, the marital and professional status of the consumers on the one hand, the ethnobotany of the medicinal plants used and their associations with Koutoukou on the other hand were considered. Results: This study identified 12 species of medicinal plants commonly used in bistros. 70% of the surveyed population prefer and consume more cocktails at the expense of simple koutoukou. The Garcinia kola-Koutoukou combination is the most significantly consumed cocktail (Number of treated illnesses greater than 10). Conclusion: This descriptive study resulted in the identification of 12 medicinal plants commonly used in the bistros of 4 Commune of the city of Abidjan and consumed in association with Koutoukou. The populations of these municipalities (70%) greatly appreciate. The Most consumed is the association of Garcinia kola-Koutoukou for his righ rate of healing.
Three proteinaceous pheromone families, the androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), the exocrine-gland secreting peptides (ESPs) and the major urinary proteins (MUPs) are encoded by large gene families in the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus genomes. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about the evolutionary histories of the the Abp gene family expansions in rodents and, where appropriate, to compare them to what is known of the expansions of the Mup and Esp gene families. The issues important to these histories are the extent of the gene family expansions, the timing of their expansions and the roles played by selection, gene conversion and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). I also compare and contrast the evolutionary histories of all three mouse gene families in light of the proposed functions of their pheromones in mouse communication.
Purpose: Nutritional status and dietary pattern of 120 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients of both sexes (age range 18 and 65 years) attending medical outpatient clinics within Abuja metropolis were assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaires was used. Socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional status and dietary pattern of the subjects were computed using standard methods. Results: The result of socio-demographic characteristics indicates that 52% are males and 48% are females. Subjects with primary education constitute 4.2%, about half of them having either secondary (48.3%) or tertiary (47.5%) education. Most (80.8%) of them are married, 32.5% fell within a monthly income range of N50,000 - N100,000 (US $139.07 - $278.14). Anthropometric indices showed that the height of 75% of the respondents was 159.9 ± 7.0 cm, 100% of the respondents’ weight, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio are 72.69 ± 16.88 cm, 104.6 ± 12.4 cm, 0.94 ± 0.1 and 0.61 ± 0.1 respectively. The nutritional status of the subjects revealed that only 25% fell within the normal BMI range, with 1.7% being underweight, 20.8% overweight and half of them (52.5%) obese and out of which 27% are morbid. Their dietary patterns showed that the food mostly consumed include cereals, processed cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruits and meat. More than a quarter of the respondents totally avoid sugar in their diet, while 33.33% rarely eat sugar. Eggs (48.33%) have a moderate frequency of consumption. Conclusion: This study concludes that the dietary practices of the respondents contribute to their poor nutritional status.
This research was carried out to examine the distribution of enzymatic activities of some tissues (liver, muscles and gills) of selected aquatic organisms (Nile tilapia, Mullet fish and Crab) collected from some crude oil polluted rivers (Abuloma Jetty and Woji Jetty) and Ojimba-ama a non-oil polluted area which served as control. The aquatic organisms were obtained from rivers which are used as jetty for transportation of petroleum products and other industrial activities like welding, dredging, refuse dump, etc. Enzyme activities of fish and crab tissues (liver, muscles and gills) were measured for some biomarker enzymes such as catalase, rhodanase and glutathione S-transferase. Results were shown in means of triplicate values which were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Enzyme activity in Nile tilapia across the three locations ranged from 44.39±0.01 μ/mgprotein to 171.45±0.01 μ/mgprotein with GST in gills having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Enzyme activity in Mullet across the three locations ranged from 18.58±0.10 μ/mgprotein to 120.37±0.02 μ/mgprotein with catalase in muscles having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Enzyme activity in Crab across the three locations ranged from 40.79±0.03 μ/mgprotein to 130.72±0.01 μ/mgprotein with GST in gills having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Rhodanase showed the highest level of enzyme activity in all the tissues. Liver recorded the highest enzyme activity across all samples from the three locations which may be as a result of the liver being the principal detoxification organ for xenobiotic substances. From this study, there was an increase in the enzyme activities of the biomarkers across all the tissues which indicate a contamination from pollutants capable of causing oxidative stress in the organisms.
Abutilon indicum is consider to be used in the traditional system of medicine. It is found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is used to treat various diseases. This plant does not cause any side effects to humans. As the plant has wide variety of medicinal properties, the present study aimed to comparative between plant and callus extract of Abutilon indicum (L.) sweet for antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic and anti- proliferative activity. The highest percentage of callus induction (89.50%) and callus weight (1.26 g) was observed in T5 (MS + 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l) + BAP (2 mg/l) and T8 [IBA (4 mg/l)] respectively. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of A. indicum in vivo plant and in vitro grown callus showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and coumarin. The total phenolic content was high in aqueous extract of callus (30.68 mg TAE/g). Maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity was found in aqueous extract of callus (86%) with IC50 value of 68.49 µg/ml. FT-IR analysis of aqueous extract of A. indicum plant and callus showed the presence of characteristic stretching at 2930.28 and 2927.75 indicating the presence of C-H stretching respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 17 compounds in ethyl acetate plant extract, whereas 7 compounds in ethyl acetate callus extract such as tetradecane, 1-chloro, Sulfurous acid 2-prophytridecyl ester and 1- ethyl-3-[2-(octadecylthio) ethyl] thiourea. The ethyl acetate extracts of callus and plant and was found to be effective against Bacillus subtilis (3.1 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.9 mm). Maximum α-amylase inhibitory activity was observed in aqueous callus extract (32.65%) with IC50 value of 833.61 µg/ml. HeLa cell viability was found to be 26.8% and 21.8% in plant and callus extract respectively.
Cytotoxic effect and inhibitor effect of methanol extract of P. erinaceus stem bark on lipoxygenase and NF-кB
Acacia macrostachya (Mimosaceae) and Lepidagathis anobrya (Acanthaceae) are two medicinal plants used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the phenolic content, the antioxidant, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidaseinhibitory effects of Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya.The experimental results revealed that Acacia mascrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya have respective total phenolic contents varies from 240.13 ± 0.44 and 30.88 ± 0.30 mg GAE / 100 mg extract; and total flavonoids contents of 2.30 ± 0.002 and 4.24 ± 0.28 QE / 100 mg of extract. The two plants demonstrated anti-free radicals (ABTS) capacities of 0.06 and 0.14 TEAC while the FRAP reducing power of 2.24 ± 0.08 and 4.43 ± 0.12 mmol AAE per 100 mg respectively. Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya showed significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation with the inhibition percentage values of 55.45 ± 1.48 and 66.36 ± 0.65 respectively. In the 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, Acacia macrostachya demonstrated very important inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.32 ± 0.16 while the effect of Lepidagathis anobrya is very moderate.The results of this work demonstrated the interest of Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya in the management of inflammatory diseases.
Qualitative phytochemical properties of Acacia nilotica (wild) ethanol crude extracts
Antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica (wild) ethanol stem-bark extracts against the test bacteria
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC of Acacia nilotica (Wild) ethanol and N-Hexane crude extracts
Qualitative phytochemical properties of bioactive fractions of Acacia nilotica (wild) stem bark
MIC and MBC of bioactive fractions of Acacia nilotica (wild) stem bark
Aims: This research was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica stem bark extract and bioactive fractions against the test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Place and Duration of Study: Acacia nilotica was collected within Aliero town, Kebbi State, Nigeria between April and September, 2017. Methodology: The crude and bioactive fractions were obtained using soxhlet extraction and column chromatographic method respectively. The qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted to detect the presence of some phytochemical constituents in the crude extract and fractions. The antibacterial activity was determined at various concentrations (10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/ml) using disc diffusion method. Results: The crude antibacterial activity indicated that ethanol extract showed higher activity than the n-hexane extract with 14.0±0.00 and 12.0±0.00 mm zones of inhibition compared with the control drug (10 µg Ciprofloxacin drug), which showed 14.0±0.00 and 13.0±0.00 mm zone of inhibition against the test bacteria. The MIC and MBC values determined for ethanol extracts against the test bacteria was 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for n-hexane extracts were 25 and 50 mg/ml against the test bacteria. The bioactive fractions (Yellow, Purple and Blue Black Fractions) tested against the test bacteria showed higher activity compared with the crude extract. The phytochemical properties of the plant crude extract and the bioactive fractions indicated the presence of phenol, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides and this attributed to the high antibacterial activities of 17.0±0.00 and 16.0±0.00 mm showed by the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus and 15.67± and 14.0±0.00 mm against Escherichia coli respectively. Conclusion: Acacia nilotica crude extract and fractions exhibited antibacterial activity which was comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin. This validates the folkloric medicinal use of this plant by the indigenous people of Aliero, Kebbi State.
Experimental design
Proximate composition of highly extruded products
Design layout and mean experimental results for color and expansion indices of millet-soybeans composite flour extruded instant porridge
Consumer preference analysis of porridge made from extruded millet and soybean
This study was designed to formulate complementary foods from millet and soybean blends with the aim to provide high energy and proteineous food for vulnerable populations. Single screw extruder was used for the extrusion of the millet-soybeans composite blends and response surface methodology in a central composite rotatable design were adopted for the design of the process variables that could produce optimum complementary foods with high protein, calorie values and physical attributes. Results indicated that during extrusion, the colour of the extrudates varied between 17.67 and 54.81. The expansion index of the formulations ranges between 121.10 to 149.84. However, the results of proximate composition reported that moisture content ranges from 0.18% to 0.35%. The protein content increased from 23.81±1.21 to 28.87±0.16 suggesting proportional increase in protein when millet was blended with soybeans. The fat content varied between 0.08% and 0.10%. With respect to the carbohydrate and calorie values, the highest values were 89.56% and 494.53 kcal/100 g which was found in sample extruded at temperature of 100°C with 25% soybeans composition and 8% feed moisture content while the least values were observed in samples extruded at 140°C with 25% soybean s composition and 8% feed moisture content for carbohydrates (81.06%) and for calories (432 kcal). The result of pasting characteristics showed effect on the variation observed in the peak viscosity of different extruded products. Peak viscosity for the extrudates varied from 113.83 to 228.68. The consumer’s acceptability of the extrudates after reconstituting into gruel with warm water, milk and sugar showed that all the samples were generally acceptable.
Acute toxicity (LD 50 ) investigation of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seed
Mean ± SD of oxidative parameters in albino rats after 7 days pretreatment
Acetaminophen, used for antipyretic and analgesic purposes has been known to exhibit toxic effects on the organs because of its ability to generate free radicals, causing varieties of diseases. This study investigated the impact of the combined formed of Garcinia kola seed and Vitamin E pretreatment exposure on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by acetaminophen in Albino Rats. Five groups of animals were used for this study. Group 1 as the control received distilled water orally only, group 2 as toxicity control intoxicated with 800 mg acetaminophen intraperitoneally. The other three groups were pretreated with various doses of either Garcinia kola seed extract or vitamin E or a combined form respectively by oral gavage method for 7 days before induction with acetaminophen intraperitoneally on the 8th day and sacrificed under chloroform anaethesia. Acetaminophen induction significantly rise (p<0.05) the hepatic enzyme levels (ALT, AST, and ALP) and a marked reduction of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX) in group 2 animals when compared with the control. There was also a significant rise (p<0.05) in the MDA levels. Meanwhile the combined form of Garcinia kola seed extract and Vitamin E pretreatment exposure on the organs showed no synergetic ameliorative potentials as compared with the single pretreatment exposure with Garcinia kola and Vitamin E respectively. The morphology of the tissue cells pretreated with these combined formed exhibited features showing signs of cell damages and slow recovery from the toxicity. Therefore combining Garcinia kola and Vitamin E may lost its ameliorative and protective effect as seen in this induced acetaminophen albino rats implying that Garcinia kola seed and Vitamin E should not be taken in a combined form.
The study investigated the effect of combined leaves extract of Mentha spicata and Murray koenigii leaves on acetaminophen induced hepatic damage on wistar rat. Twenty five (25) wistar rats with weights range of 100g-130g were used for this study. They were obtained from the animal house of the Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, rivers State, Nigeria. They were kept in the animal house of the University. They had free access to water and feed during the period of the experiment. Treatment of test animal with 80mg/kg, 120mg/kg, 150mg/kg dose of the leaf extract showed ameliorative effect on the animals with specified dose producing the best result. The significant increase in liver marker enzymes (AST, ALP, and AST) activities of acetaminophen-induced rats caused by liver injuries which resulted in leakage of liver enzymes to the extra hepatic tissue due to compromised liver architecture and permeability. The improvement of the effect of the acetaminophen suggests that these combined leaves action can be of valuable use in the management of hepatic injury caused by this toxic action.
Top-cited authors
Busari Musa Bola
  • Federal University of Technology Minna
Saidu Sani
  • Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo
Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu
  • Federal University of Technology Minna
Adeniyi Kamoru
  • The Federal University Dutse
Bashir Lawal
  • Federal University of Technology Minna