International Journal of Behavioral Development

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 1464-0651
Print ISSN: 0165-0254
Although factor analysis is the most commonly-used method for examining the structure of cognitive variable interrelations, multidimensional scaling (MDS) can provide visual representations highlighting the continuous nature of interrelations among variables. Using data (N = 8,813; ages 17-97 years) aggregated across 38 separate studies, MDS was applied to 16 cognitive variables representative of five well-established cognitive abilities. Parallel to confirmatory factor analytic solutions, and consistent with past MDS applications, the results for young (18-39 years), middle (40-65 years), and old (66-97 years) adult age groups consistently revealed a two-dimensional radex disk, with variables from fluid reasoning tests located at the center. Using a new method, target measures hypothesized to reflect three aspects of cognitive control (updating, storage-plus-processing, and executive functioning) were projected onto the radex disk. Parallel to factor analytic results, these variables were also found to be centrally located in the cognitive ability space. The advantages and limitations of the radex representation are discussed.
We address the understudied religious dimension of acculturation in acculturating adolescents who combine a religious Islamic heritage with a secularized Christian mainstream culture. The religiosity of 197 Turkish Belgian adolescents was compared with that of 366 agemates in Turkey (the heritage culture) and 203 in Belgium (the mainstream culture) and related to cultural values, acculturation orientations, and ethnic identification. Belgian adolescents showed lower and declining religiosity with age, whereas Turkish and Turkish Belgian adolescents were more religious regardless of age. Acculturating adolescents reaffirmed religion as compared with monocultural adolescents in Turkey. Religious reaffirmation was related to cultural values of interdependence, heritage culture maintenance, and ethnic identification.
This study examined black-white differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban US subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether black-white differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that shift, if any, was associated with racial differences in the rate and mental health consequences of early adult social roles (e.g., living arrangements, work/college status, and single-parenthood) and socio-economic status (SES). As expected, growth in depressive affect pivoted around the onset of early adulthood, with the trajectory pivoting upward for Black Americans and downward for White Americans. Due to deficits in SES, the relation between challenging early adult social roles - under/unemployment in particular - and growth in depressive affect was more positive for Black Americans. This differential "vulnerability" appears to underlie racial differences in early adult growth (and by connection contribute to racial differences in growth pivot). The extent to which Black Americans were at a greater risk (relative to White Americans) for an upward pivot increased as the number of challenging roles increased. Black Americans facing only optimal early adult social roles were not at a greater risk, while those facing only challenging social roles were at the greatest risk.
Using seven waves of data, collected twice a year from the 8th through the 11th grades in a low-resource community in Cape Town, South Africa, we aimed to describe the developmental trends in three specific leisure experiences (leisure boredom, new leisure interests, and healthy leisure) and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) behaviors and to investigate the ways in which changes in leisure experiences predict changes in substance use behaviors over time. Results indicated that adolescents' substance use increased significantly across adolescence, but that leisure experiences remained fairly stable over time. We also found that adolescent leisure experiences predicted baseline substance use and that changes in leisure experiences predicted changes in substance use behaviors over time, with leisure boredom emerging as the most consistent and strongest predictor of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Implications for interventions that target time use and leisure experiences are discussed.
Factor model of mean and intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) across three assessments of state anxiety and the prediction of individual difference characteristics (Z). Estimated factor loadings and factor intercorrelations are also shown. The 20 items of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory were combined to form three separate parcels, analogously for mean and ISD. Unlabeled paths are set to 1.  
Across domains of functioning, research has shown substantial within-person variability in a number of different types of variables from one measurement occasion to another. Using data obtained from a large sample (n = 784, 18-97 years) at three separate occasions, we examined properties and correlates of short-term variability in a construct that by definition is prone to fluctuations, namely state anxiety. Our results revealed that participants exhibited sizeable across-occasion variation in state anxiety. The magnitude of variability was unrelated to age, but was associated with a number of individual difference characteristics such as self-reported health, aspects of personality, well-being, and cognition. However, after taking into account mean-level differences in state anxiety, evidence for unique associations of variability was minimal.
With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one's set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one's set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13-19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no "high" converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have "first-rate" relations in every relational domain.
Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8-12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children's perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children's adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers' reports of children's anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children's perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children's reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children's perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children's perception of maternal hostility, but children's perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents' discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children's adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children's interpretations of their parents' behavior.
Descriptive statistics for emotion-change scores for each strategy by emotion, age, and child gender
Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment.
Interclass correlations between participant and friend reports of friendship quality and indices of adolescent adjustment 
Adolescent adjustment as a function of friendship negativity groups 
This study of 282 dyads examines early- and mid-adolescents' perceptions of friendship quality and their association with daily disagreements, self- and mother reports of behaviour problems, and school grades. Actor and partner analyses identify unique associations between perceptions of friendship quality and perceptions of daily conflict. Actor effects reveal links between friendship negativity and self-perceptions of conflict affective intensity, relationship impact, post-conflict interaction, and post-conflict separation, and between friendship positivity and self-perceptions of relationship impact. Partner effects reveal links between friendship negativity and partner perceptions of conflict outcomes. Perceptions of relationship quality were also associated with self- and mother reports of behaviour problems and with school grades, such that individual and dyadic views of friendship negativity were linked to detrimental outcomes. The worst outcomes tended to be reserved for dyads in which one or both friends reported high levels of relationship negativity.
The predictive relations between social capital depth (high-quality relationships across contexts) and breadth (friendship network extensivity) and early-adult, life adjustment outcomes were examined using data from a prospective longitudinal study. Interviews at age 22 yielded (a) psychometrically sound indexes of relationship quality with parents, peers, and romantic partners that served as indicators of a latent construct of social capital depth, and (b) a measure of number of close friends. In follow-up interviews at age 24, participants reported on their behavioral adjustment, educational attainment, and arrests and illicit substance use. Early-adolescent assessments of behavioral adjustment and academic performance served as controls; data on what were construed as interpersonal assets (teacher-rated social skills) and opportunities (family income) were also collected at this time. Results showed that depth was associated with overall better young-adult adjustment, net of prior adjustment, and assets and opportunities. Breadth was only modestly associated with later outcomes, and when its overlap with depth was taken into account, breadth predicted higher levels of subsequent externalizing problems. These findings are consistent with the notion that social capital is multidimensional and that elements of it confer distinct benefits during an important life transition.
Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were instructed to try to maximize their winnings by playing more from ‘‘good’’ (advantageous—yields long-term gains) than ‘‘bad’’ (disadvantageous—yields long-term losses) decks. Participants were not informed which decks were good and bad; they were instructed to deduce this through the course of 120 trials. (a) During each trial, participants were asked if they would like to play or pass on a given deck. (b) If they chose to play, they then received win or loss feedback. (c) After each of three blocks of 40 trials, participants were asked to rate whether each deck was good, bad, or whether they did not know. 
Sample characteristics
Game of Dice Task. Participants were instructed to try to maximize their winnings by choosing one to four die to attempt to match the one die rolled on each of 18 trials. Probabilities of win and loss are made explicit in the task’s graphical presentation. On the screen during the entire task, it is shown that choosing fewer die is associated with lower chances of winning but higher amounts won; choosing more die is associated with higher chances of winning and lower amounts won. 
Logistic regression: Planned versus unplanned risk behavior (N ¼ 55)
Risk behavior escalates during adolescence, contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether individual differences in personality and neurocognitive function previously shown to be associated with overall frequency of risk behavior are differentially related to two proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned and unplanned. Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 years, SD = 1.0), completed a battery of self-report measures and neurocognitive tasks. Several personality and neurocognitive variables predicted membership in the planned versus unplanned risk group: perceiving the benefits of risk behaviors to outweigh risks, more accurately identifying beneficial choices in a modified Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and performing more advantageously on the IGT and the Game of Dice Task. This study supports the hypothesis that planned versus unplanned risk behavior comprise distinct subtypes in adolescence. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these subtypes may inform prevention programs targeting specific contributors to adolescent risk behavior.
Infants of adolescent mothers are at increased risk for negative developmental outcomes. Given the high rate of pregnancy among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the US, the present study examined health characteristics at birth and developmental functioning at 10 months of age in a sample of 205 infants of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Infants were relatively healthy at birth and had near average developmental functioning at 10 months. The educational attainment of adolescents and their mothers, and infants' temperamental regulation, promoted positive developmental functioning, while the combination of low adolescent parental self-efficacy and high infant temperamental negativity was associated with greater developmental delay. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for prevention with this at-risk population of mothers and infants.
Moderation of models risk by controls protection for sub-groups of those who left the parental home only and those who made no transition ( LP: Low control protection; HP : High control protection; LH : Left home; NT : No transition). 
Association of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factor component measure with home-leaving among adolescents.
Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14-22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi's slums.
Means (and standard deviations) for mixture model 3-profile solution Parent/peer profiles 
Means (and standard errors) for cultural characteristics associated with parent/peer profiles 
Means (and standard errors) for adjustment outcomes associated with parent/peer profiles Parent/peer profiles 
This study examined patterns of mothers' and fathers' acceptance and youths' friendship intimacy among 246 Mexican-origin 7th graders. Three patterns were identified using mixture modeling: (a) low mother and father acceptance, and average friendship intimacy (Low Parent Profile); (b) average mother acceptance, high father acceptance and friendship intimacy (Positive Profile); and (c) high mother acceptance, average father acceptance, and low friendship intimacy (Low Friend Profile). Profiles differed with respect to cultural characteristics and youth adjustment. Findings demonstrated the benefit of a person-oriented approach to illuminate how parental and peer experiences are connected in different ways for different youth and are linked with youth adjustment. Results highlighted the need for research to attend to the unique cultural experiences of minority youth.
Correlations among all variables and RSB in the total sample ( N = 267) 
Final model supporting the socialization hypothesis for number of sexual partners. 
In this study, two longitudinal models of early adolescent risky sexual behaviors (RSB) were compared using a pooled sample of 267 Canadian and Italian adolescents (55% females; 53% Canadians) assessed yearly from grade 8 to 10. We focused on parenting practices (monitoring, control, limit setting), adolescent problem behaviors (antisocial behaviors, substance use) and their friends' deviance (antisocial behaviors, substance use) as predictors of condom use frequency and lifetime number of sexual partners. The socialization model postulates that youths' problem behaviors and RSB are behaviors learned within the friendship network where deviancy training can occur. The selection model posits that delinquent youth tend to affiliate with each other, and that RSB is one of many behaviors that can form the basis of selection. Using structural equation modeling, this study showed that the socialization model was the most accurate to explain the emergence of RSB. A full mediation of parenting practices, passing through deviant friends and youths' problem behavior, was observed for condom use. The same process applied to number of sexual partners, but a direct effect for parenting practices was also found.
Mothers of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are faced with high levels of parenting stress. The extent to which mothers are negatively impacted by this stress, however, may be influenced by their own genetic status. The present study uses a diathesis-stress model to examine the ways in which a genetic vulnerability in mothers with the premutation of the FMR1 gene interacts with child-related environmental stress to predict their morning cortisol levels. Seventy-six mothers of an adolescent or adult with FXS participated in an 8-day telephone diary study in which they reported on the behavior problems of their son or daughter with FXS each day. We analyzed salivary cortisol collected from mothers at awakening and 30 minutes after awakening on 4 of these days. The results indicated that mothers with greater genetic vulnerability had a lower level of cortisol on mornings following days when their son or daughter with FXS manifested more episodes of behavior problems, whereas mothers with less genetic risk evinced the opposite pattern of higher morning cortisol in response to their child's behavior problems. This finding contributes to our understanding of gene-by-environment interactions and highlights the importance of interventions to alleviate parenting stress in mothers raising children with FXS.
The Adoption Communication Pathway(ACP) model was used to test the potential mediating effect of curiosity on adoption information seeking in a sample of 143 emerging adult adoptees (mean age = 25.0 years) who were adopted as infants within the United States by parents of the same race. Adoptees were interviewed about their intentions and actions taken to gather new information about their birth mothers and fathers. As expected, level of curiosity was positively associated with information seeking behavior. Moreover, level of curiosity was influenced by adoptees' perceptions of barriers and facilitators toward information-dseeking. In fact, curiosity partially mediated the impact of internal and external barriers on information seeking about birth mothers. Curiosity fully mediated the impact of external barriers and partially mediated external facilitators on birth father information seeking. This study provides important support for the ACP, which describes context, motivation, and behavior relating to seeking new adoption-related information.
This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-, parent-, and family-related characteristics. Mother reports of higher depression symptoms, higher expectations of child developmental and behavioral/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption were significantly related to higher parenting stress six months post-adoption. In contrast, mother reports of higher expectations for child acceptance and higher perceived social support at pre-adoption were significantly related to lower parenting stress six months post-adoption. Higher maternal depression symptoms, higher expectations of child behavior/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption together accounted for 22% of the variance in parenting stress six months post-adoption. Concurrent higher maternal depression symptoms and higher reports of child behavioral/emotional problems predicted higher parenting stress six months post-adoption over and above pre-adoption predictors, and accounted for an additional 33% of the variance. Results and directions for future research are discussed from a transactional perspective, with particular emphasis on the importance of pre-adoptive information for adoption research and practice.
Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated monkeys: (a) mount neurobiological responses equivalent to non-inoculated monkeys when the stressor is of sufficient intensity, and (b) continue to exhibit enhanced cognitive control as young adults compared to non-inoculated monkeys. These results suggest that stress inoculation protocols alter the appraisal of and response to moderate stressors as less threatening and permanently enhance cognitive control, at least through early adulthood. These data therefore support the notion that the stress inoculation phenotype reflects stress resilience rather than stress pathology.
Path analysis examining social capital predicting to global adaptive functioning at age 28 years. Note. w 2 /df ¼ 12.26/12 (p ¼ .425), RMSEA ¼ .012, CFI ¼ .999, SRMSR ¼ .041, adjusted BIC ¼ 4213.159. yp < .10, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.  
Goodness of fit indices for alternative models 
Social capital has traditionally been defined in terms of the amount of resources that one derives as a result of a diversity of interpersonal relationships. However, the quality of these relationships across development has not been examined as a contributor to social capital and few studies have examined the significance of various age-salient relationships in predicting adaptive functioning, especially testing for cumulative effects over time. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation, developmental models spanning from infancy to adulthood were tested via path modeling, linking quality of various age-salient relationships (e.g. infant-caregiver attachment, peer competence, friendship security, and effectiveness in romantic relationships) to global adaptive functioning at age 28. As hypothesized, quality of age-salient relationships during different developmental periods predicted the quality of subsequent relationships, but also showed links with adaptive functioning in early adulthood. Results also showed that the quality of infant attachment relationships not only was linked with more proximal relationships, but also had direct effects on global functioning, suggesting the potential significance of early relationship quality in adaption and well-being in adulthood.
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego-control and ego-resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego-control and ego-resiliency when participants (n = 136) were in preschool and elementary school. Ratings showed evidence for convergent and discriminant validity and stability over time. Ego-resiliency, but not ego-control, emerged as powerful predictor of adaptive functioning at age 19 and 26, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems at 16, 23, 26, and 32 years. We interpret these findings as evidence that flexibility and adaptability -measured with ego-resiliency- may reduce risk and promote successful adaptation in low-SES environments.
This study investigated agency and communion attributes in adults' spontaneous self-representations. The study sample consisted of 158 adults (80 men, 78 women) ranging in age from 20 to 88 years. Consistent with theorising, significant age and sex differences were found in terms of the number of agency and communion attributes. Young and middle-aged adults included significantly more agency attributes in their self-representations than older adults; men listed significantly more agency attributes than women. In contrast, older adults included significantly more communion attributes in their self-representations than young adults, and women listed significantly more communion attributes than men. Significant Age Group x Self-Portrait Display and Sex x Self-Portrait Display interactions were found for communion attributes, indicating that the importance of communion attributes differed across age groups and by sex. Correlational analyses showed significant associations of agency and communion attributes with personality traits and defence mechanisms. Communion attributes also showed significant correlations with four dimensions of psychological well-being.
Collaborative cognition research has demonstrated that social partners can positively impact individuals' thinking and problem-solving performance. Research in adulthood and aging has been less clear about dyadic effects, such as partner gender, on collaborative cognition. The current study examined the objective and subjective experiences of older men and women's collaboration on three everyday problems. Tasks included comprehension of everyday printed materials, a social dilemma task, and an errand-planning task. A sample of 98 older married couples (N = 196) worked both collaboratively and individually with either their spouse (N = 52 dyads) or a stranger of the other gender (N = 46 dyads). Analyses conducted using the actor-partner methodology (e.g., Gonzalez & Griffin, 1997; Kenny, 1996) suggest that men tended to be more influential during dyadic problem solving, particularly on more ambiguous tasks. Subjective appraisals of collaboration also varied between male and female partners, with familiarity of partner playing a large role in expectations of collaboration. Most notably, women assigned to work with an unfamiliar male partner tended to rate their satisfaction with collaborative teamwork less positively. Both self and partner-rated subjective appraisals, particularly expectations of competitiveness, were predictive of collaborative performance.
CAR and Group Status As a Function of Puberty 
Descriptive Statistics for Participant Characteristics and Family Characteristics
CAR as a Function of Parent-Reported Adverse Early Care for the Internationally Adopted Youth 
HLM Analysis of Cortisol Activity by Group and Pubertal Score, df=451
HLM Analysis of Cortisol Activity by Adverse Early Care (AEC) Level and Puberty for Internationally Adopted Youth, df=325
Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect.
Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without prenatal substance exposure (N = 53; ages 9-12 years) were examined using the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUC(I)) analyses revealed that prenatal substance exposure or physical abuse significantly increased the likelihood of a negative AUC(I) (i.e., little or no HPA reactivity). Among children with prenatal substance exposure and physical abuse, 85% exhibited a negative AUC(I). The results underscore the importance of addressing this combined risk.
This study employs an intra-national and cross-national, prospective and longitudinal design to examine age, gender, region, and country variation in group mean-level continuity and individual-differences stability of emotional availability in child-mother dyads. Altogether, 220 Argentine, Italian, and U.S. American metropolitan and rural residence mothers and their daughters and sons were observed at home when children were 5 and 20 months of age. Similar patterns of continuity and discontinuity of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months were observed across regions and countries, but not between genders. Stability of emotional availability from 5 to 20 months was moderate and similar across genders, regions, and countries. Universal and gender-specific developmental processes in child-mother emotional availability as revealed in intra- and cross-national study are discussed.
Change in toddler distress across the Spider episode for toddlers who displayed distress before their mothers engaged in protective behavior and for toddlers whose mothers displayed protective behavior before they displayed distress. ***p < .001.  
Parenting behaviors during times when young children may feel vulnerable, such as when encountering novelty, undoubtedly affect how children learn to regulate their reactions to these events. Theory suggests and some research supports the link between protective behavior - behaviors that shield child from a potential threat - and regulation of emotions. Less is known, however, about the immediate effects of these behaviors on children's distress. That is, do these protective behaviors alleviate distress in the moment? Presumably, this type of "successful" regulation of distress would be important for the development of successful regulation in other situations. To this end, the current study examined changes in the time course of toddlers' fearful distress, when protective maternal behaviors were observed during a highly novel, fear-eliciting task. Analyses were conducted for two subgroups of dyads: one group where toddlers' distress preceded mothers' protective behavior and one group where mothers' protective behavior preceded toddler distress. When toddlers' distress preceded mothers' reactions, protective behaviors were found to be associated with less steep decreases in fear for toddlers who had the highest initial distress reactions. Results are discussed in the context of toddlers' emerging ability to regulate emotions and the adaptive development of these skills.
Mean response bias scores in Japanese children.  
We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.
Moderate, yet relatively consistent, associations between cognitive performance and shyness have been reported throughout the child and adult literatures. The current study assessed longitudinal associations between cognition (i.e., executive functioning) and parent-report temperamental shyness from infancy to early childhood and used temporal order to explore directionality of the relations. Two hundred eleven children contributed data at multiple ages (5-months, 10-months, 2-years, 3-years, and 4-years). The results indicated a complex pattern of association between cognition and shyness in early development and provided tentative support for both cognitive ability and temperament as causal agents at different developmental time points.
This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was expected to have more predictive power than focused attention. Data were drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Focused attention and lack of impulsivity, measured in a laboratory task at age 5, were equally predictive of attention problems at age 9, including the mother's report of whether the child had been diagnosed with ADHD. However, age 9 teacher-reported hyperactivity was not predicted by focused attention, and only marginally predicted by lack of impulsivity. Results complement an earlier study showing that both focused attention and lack of impulsivity at age 5 predicted children's approaches to learning at age 9 (Razza, Martin, & Brooks-Gunn, 2011).
As a developing country, Egypt and especially Cairo, is in a transitional phase between a traditional and a modern, education-based society and between traditional child-rearing values of passivity and obedience and new demands for academic competence. Education is seen by present day parents as the major vehicle for the future success and happiness of children and much effort is expended toward this goal. Thirty Cairene mothers from low income neighbourhoods with similar housing standards and crowding, but with different levels of education and occupational status were interviewed (1994-95) about socialisation values and practices and observed with their children in order to evaluate how mothers prepare preschoolers for the cognitive demands of school. It was anticipated that educated working mothers would be less traditional and engage their children in more active competence training (mediation of learning experience, MLE, and authoritative child-raising style, AC-R) as a mediator to children’s cognitive competence. These expectations were supported.
The relations of education, authoritarian childrearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8 years old, and when their children were 9 years old. Path analyses showed that, among mothers, higher education predicted lower authoritarian attitudes, which in turn predicted lower reports of corporal punishment use. Among fathers, higher education predicted lower endorsement of corporal punishment, which in turn predicted lower reports of its use. Results suggest that education has an indirect relation to use of corporal punishment through parenting cognitions, and highlight distinctions in Filipino mothers' and fathers' parenting roles.
Time Spent in Various Contexts 
Maternal and Infant Behaviours 
Stability of Measurements between Blocks representing Varying Amounts of Time Sampled 
Cross-contextual Stability 
Stability within Contexts 
20 first-born infants from low socioeconomic status (SES) families and 20 first-born infants from middle SES families in Costa Rica were observed for 12 hours when they were 14 weeks old. The goals of this study were the following: 1) to study the impact of length of observation and context on the authors measures of interactional engagement; 2) to compare the interactional experiences of the infants in the two groups in various functional (e.g. feeding, object play) and social (e.g. with mother, with mother and others) contexts. Attuned and disharmonious interactions, as well as the frequency of positive affect, soothing, and vocalization, varied considerably across the functional contexts. In addition, disharmonious interactions increased and interactional engagement decreased when mothers and infants were joined by others. Highly unstable measures of individual differences were obtained when observations were limited to 45-minute blocks, but stability increased considerably as the duration of the observations expanded. The groups did not differ with respect to amounts of time spent in various functional and social contexts, in attuned or disharmonious states, or in high levels of interactional engagement. Within some of the functional contexts, however, significant group differences in levels of attuned interactions, infant vocalization, and maternal response vocalization were found. Overall, functional and social contexts clearly moderated interactional experiences. SES effects on verbal and other interactional measures were limited to some contexts and may thus represent the infants' overall experiences quite poorly. Consequently, comparisons based on a single context may be inadequate for studies of subjects from differing socioeconomic backgrounds.
We provide evidence for multidirectionality, variability, and plasticity in the nature and direction of change in physical health, cognitive functioning, and well-being during the middle years of the life course. The picture of well-being in midlife based on longitudinal data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study is a more positive one than portrayed in previous cross-sectional studies. We present middle age as a pivotal period in the life course in terms of balancing growth and decline, linking earlier and later periods of life, and bridging younger and older generations. We highlight the role of protective factors and multisystem resilience in mitigating declines. Those in middle age play a central role in the lives of those who are younger and older at home, in the workplace, and in society at large. Thus, a focus on promoting health and well-being in middle age can have a far-reaching impact.
This paper describes an alternative version of the Network of Relationships Inventory, which was designed to assess how frequently different relationships were used to fulfill the functions of three behavioral systems-attachment, caregiving, and affiliation. Psychometric and validational evidence is presented including: a) high internal consistency for all scales and composites, b) a second order factor structure of support and negative interactions for each relationship, c) moderately high stability over a one year period, d) moderate convergence among different reporters, e) theoretically meaningful differences among different relationships, f) moderate associations among different relationships, g) associations with the original Network of Relationships Inventory, and h) relations with observed interactions with mothers and friends.
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.
Percentage of white lie-tellers by condition. 
Distribution of participants across conditions 
Means (standard deviations) of positive and negative displaay scores in different conditions 
Prosocial lie-telling behavior in children between 3 and 11 years of age was examined using an undesirable gift paradigm. In the first condition, children received an undesirable gift and were questioned by the gift-giver about whether they liked the gift. In the second condition, children were also given an undesirable gift but received parental encouragement to tell a white lie prior to being questioned by the gift-giver. In the third condition, the child's parent received an undesirable gift and the child was encouraged to lie on behalf of their parent. In all conditions, the majority of children told a white lie and this tendency increased with age. Coding of children's facial expressions using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System revealed significant but small differences between lie-tellers and control children in terms of both positive and negative facial expressions. Detailed parental instruction facilitated children's display of appropriate verbal and nonverbal expressive behaviors when they received an undesirable gift.
Regressions predicting depressive symptoms in grade 8, controlling for prior depressive symptoms and prior aggression: Italian sample 
This study examined the role of low social preference in relation to subsequent depressive symptoms, with particular attention to prior depressive symptoms, prior and concurrent aggression, mutual friendships, and peer victimization. Italian children (N = 288) were followed from grade 6 through grade 8, and American children (N = 585) were followed from kindergarten through grade 12. Analyses demonstrate that low social preference contributes to later depressive symptoms. The effects are not accounted for by depressive symptoms or aggression experienced prior to low social preference but are mostly accounted for by the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms with concurrent aggressive behavior; gender, mutual friendships, and peer victimization generally did not moderate these associations. We conclude that peer relationship problems do predict later depressive symptoms, and a possible mechanism through which this effect occurs is through the effect of poor peer relationships on increasing aggressive behavior, which is associated with depressive symptoms.
This study investigated mean-level changes and intraindividual variability of self-esteem among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated (n=109) school-aged children from low-income families. Longitudinal factor analysis revealed higher temporal stability of self-esteem among maltreated children compared to nonmaltreated children. Cross-domain latent growth curve models indicated that nonmaltreated children showed higher initial levels and greater increases in self-esteem than maltreated children, and that the initial levels of self-esteem were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among maltreated and nonmaltreated children. The average level (mean of repeated measurements) of self-esteem was predictive of depression at the final occasion for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children. For nonmaltreated children intraindividual variability of self-esteem had a direct contribution to prediction of depression. The findings enhance our understanding of developmental changes in self-esteem and the role of the average level and within-person variability of self-esteem in predicting depressive symptoms among high-risk children.
A developmental guide to close relationships is presented. Parent-child, sibling, friend, and romantic relationships are described along dimensions that address permanence, power, and gender. These dimensions describe relationship differences in organisational principles that encompass internal representations, social understanding, and interpersonal experiences. The concept of domain specificity is borrowed from cognitive development to address the shifting developmental dynamics of close relationships. Distinct relationships are organised around distinct socialisation tasks, so each relationship requires its own organisational system. As a consequence, different principles guide different relationships, and these organisational principles change with development.
PIP It has been established through several decades of research that children's home environments significantly influence their development. Many researchers have also been interested in expanding research beyond indirect measures of the home environment, such as socioeconomic status, to help understand the nature of specific environmental mechanisms which influence early behavior and cognitive development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory was developed to meet these needs. Specifically, HOME measures the quality of stimulation in a child's early family environment. Almost all studies of the approach's reliability and validity have been conducted with US samples. HOME is, however, being used in other countries. The authors report their findings from a study of whether the psychometric properties of HOME based upon US samples parallel those found in Costa Rica, and whether HOME discriminates between Costa Rican environments with different associations to child health and development. Focus centers upon the infant/toddler version of the HOME Inventory. HOME data for 183 healthy Costa Rican infants were compared to the original HOME standardization sample from Little Rock, Arkansas. The study found the HOME Inventory to be helpful in identifying children at risk for delayed development in this Latin American sample. Lower HOME scores related to a shorter duration of breastfeeding and differentiated children with iron deficiency anemia in infancy, a condition associated with long-lasting developmental disadvantage.
Sample of the gaze direction and mouth movement of the stimuli.

Note. (a) direct gaze, smile; (b) averted gaze, smile; (c) direct gaze, mouth opening; (d) averted gaze, mouth opening. All the faces were initially presented with (e) forward gaze and closed mouth, which was followed by a mouth movement after 1 second, and a gaze shift after another second (i.e., 2 seconds from the onset of the stimulus). After the gaze shift, the face remained still for another 4 seconds. The orientation of the face was right in half of the stimuli and the left in the other half.
Examples of the area of interest (AOI); front eye; front eye, back eye, bridge, centre and mouth. The size and the location of the AOI were constant across different stimuli.
Relative visiting duration on each AOI during the entire period of stimulus presentation, for each cultural background of the participants and the gaze direction of stimuli.
Note. * p < .05 (corrected); error bar: standard error.
Relative visiting duration on each AOI for each 1-second bin of stimulus presentation, for each cultural background of the participants and the gaze direction of stimuli.
Note. (a) front eye, (b) back eye, (c) bridge, (d) centre and (e) mouth. The mouth movement occurred during the second bin, and the eye movement occurred during the third bin. * p < .05 (corrected); error bar: standard error.
The current study investigated the role of cultural norms on the development of face-scanning. British and Japanese adults' eye movements were recorded while they observed avatar faces moving their mouth, and then their eyes toward or away from the participants. British participants fixated more on the mouth, which contrasts with Japanese participants fixating mainly on the eyes. Moreover, eye fixations of British participants were less affected by the gaze shift of the avatar than Japanese participants, who shifted their fixation to the corresponding direction of the avatar's gaze. Results are consistent with the Western cultural norms that value the maintenance of eye contact, and the Eastern cultural norms that require flexible use of eye contact and gaze aversion.
Percent of children who show emotion by group.  
The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N=32), African American (N=63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N=54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and sadness, but more of both exposure and evaluative embarrassment. African American and White American children did not differ from one another. American children however showed more evaluative as opposed to exposure embarrassment. This finding supports the idea that success and failure are interpreted differently by Japanese children during the preschool years. The low amount of sadness and shame expression, and the limited range of number of different expressions observed in the Japanese children agree with the general finding that East Asian infants and young children differ from Western infants and children primarily in the display of negative expressions. These results demonstrate that cultural differences, whether due to temperament or direct socialization of cultural values, influence how children respond to achievement situations.
Growth mixture modeling (GMM) is a method for identifying multiple unobserved sub-populations, describing longitudinal change within each unobserved sub-population, and examining differences in change among unobserved sub-populations. We provide a practical primer that may be useful for researchers beginning to incorporate GMM analysis into their research. We briefly review basic elements of the standard latent basis growth curve model, introduce GMM as an extension of multiple-group growth modeling, and describe a four-step approach to conducting a GMM analysis. Example data from a cortisol stress-response paradigm are used to illustrate the suggested procedures.
The findings of the longitudinal studies included in this issue, based on data sets from Italy, Germany, the United States, and the Netherlands, converge in demonstrating strong parent-peer linkages in the transition to adulthood. In addition, changes in the quality of relationships with parents and between parents influence the quality of relationships with close friends and romantic partners and the overall adaptation of the adolescent and emerging adult. It appears that over time, the romantic partnership has a high saliency among the different relationship types. We maintain that the study of relationship linkages over time will continue to broaden our knowledge about their associations during adolescence and young adulthood in their own right, and help us to identify some of the origins of later and very strong connections between adaptation and relationship development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This review of the literature pertaining to the development of cognition of the social world from preadolescence through early adolescence focuses on coordinate changes in cognitive competence and performance. Four types of studies are examined: (a) studies of cognitive skills before and after puberty, with emphasis on changes predicted by Piagetian theory; (b) studies of developmental changes in the cognition of people and their activities (i.e., social objects and events); (c) studies of the relation between the onset and development of formal operations in dealing with impersonal objects to the onset and development of formal operations in dealing with the social world; and (d) studies of the relations between the development of social cognition and the development of social behavior during adolescence. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery. We varied the amount of information provided prior to rereading the mysteries such that participants received: no new information, a hint (partial information), or the full solution. Reading times for trial 1 and for all three rereading conditions were decomposed to determine resource allocation to specific reading processes including conceptual integration, attention to critical regions, and instantiation of new characters in the narrative. We found that younger and older adults attended to critical regions of the problem similarly on trial 1 as well as when rereading with no information or a hint. Age differences were found, however, in the effects of rereading with prior information on conceptual integration. For older relative to younger adults, a hint was more effortful (as reflected in conceptual processing time) and was not as helpful (as reflected in problem-solving accuracy scores). However, older adults who increased time to conceptual integration when applying a hint had higher performance on the second trial, suggesting increased integration is an effective strategy when utilizing new information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
One of the major impediments in moving coping research forward has been the lack of a model of coping that reflects the central developmental processes that influence coping responses and the ways in which coping may in turn influence development. This article raises 4 questions pertinent to coping research that provide an overview of the status of research on child/adolescent coping, and highlights areas currently in need of research. It is suggested that a developmental perspective on coping will allow researchers and theorists to set normative expectations for coping capacities of children at different developmental levels, generate more precise predictions about successful adaptation to stress at different points in development, and deliver interventions to facilitate effective coping that take into account the adaptive capacities of children at varying points in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This special issue is the first outcome of the workshop and its underlying mutual quest for cooperation. Consequently, this collection of papers focuses on children, important as children's chronic exposure to catastrophic war experiences and political violence worldwide is steadily escalating. We believe special attention should be given to the effects of severe traumatic experiences on children's state of mind, functioning, and well-being, as well as to prevention and educational programs, and thus make it the focus of this special issue. Specifically, this set of papers examines the effects of short-term experiences as well as long-term exposure of children to catastrophic events and adversities, caused by living in war zone areas and violent communities. While the majority of papers address the Israeli and the Palestinian Authority scenes, they are not limited to these two communities. Instead, the various papers present different perspectives pertaining to the role of risk and protective factors in increasing and lowering the debilitating and damaging effects of chronic catastrophic experiences on the long-term well-being of children and their families. In sum, the main theme of this special issue is geared to understanding the well-being of children and parents in "toxic" environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the ancient and modern history of Chinese developmental psychology as well as current emphases in this field. Developmental psychological concepts had already been formulated within ancient Chinese philosophy by such philosophers as Confucius and Xunzi. However, modern Chinese developmental psychology was strongly inspired by European and American psychology. Research in developmental psychology has been promoted since 1977, with particular reference to children's cognitive development and educational reform. Current research projects concern the following areas: cognitive development (development of the number concept and operational abilities), language development, the relation of thinking and language, personality and moral development, supernormal children and mental retardation. (82 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Top-cited authors
Charles M. Super
  • University of Connecticut
Sara Harkness
  • University of Connecticut
Kenneth H Rubin
  • University of Maryland, College Park
Peter Zimmermann
  • Bergische Universität Wuppertal
Xinyin Chen
  • University of Pennsylvania