No writer operates in a vacuum, and there is a close relationship between literature and society. African writers had no other issues to focus on apart from the issues of racism, economic class, leadership, traditional African values, and some post-colonial issues which were predominant in their society. The work will use postcolonial, Marxist and sociological theories and methods in the analysis. There is a denial of rights and subjugation. Finally, since literature and society are interwoven, there is a reaction of protest from the writers as a means of protest literature.
Particularly when referring to social and cultural distinctions rather than biological ones, gender is of the two sexes. Gender problems are more concerned with social experiences than biological differences between men and women. The misconception that gender issues are only a problem for women is untrue; rather, gender issues are primarily concerned with how men and women interact with the social, cultural, political, and economic systems of society. The work's analysis followed gender theory as a guide. A qualitative investigation was conducted, as well. The investigations find that there is a gender imbalance in the workforce, social, cultural, and educational; those women are trafficked in other fields, which has led the author to call for the empowerment of women via education. The work is limited to one novel, the trafficked. In conclusion, societal inequalities against women exist in our society; education and other initiatives might help women become more independent in order to transform society into one that is just.
This study aimed to analyze a sample of Arabic transliterations of foreign shop names in Saudi Arabia; to identify the inaccuracies, and inconsistencies in the Arabic transliterations; the causes of the Arabic inconsistent and erroneous transliterations; whether shoppers (who do not know English) can decode and pronounce a sample Arabic transliterations of shop names; and the factors that should be taken into consideration in transliterating foreign shop names to Arabic. Results of the data analysis showed that 52% of the inaccurate transliterations are in the vowels and diphthongs; 36% are inaccurate and inconsistent transliterations of consonants. In 11.6% of the shop names, ch was reduced to sh; and /g/ was transliterated in 3 ways. 13% of the consonant transliteration deviations occurred in words containing a silent letter. In 6%, the Arabic vowel was double. In 8%, compound shop names were spelled together (blended) in the Arabic transliteration; In 7%, foreign names from French, Italian, Japanese, and Turkish were transliterated as they are pronounced in English, not in the original language. Findings also showed variant spellings of the same name shop names especially from French, Italian and Turkish (Parfois بارفواه بافويس; Spring سبرينق سبرينج; Semit Sarai سميت/سيميت; Chocolate شوكلت/شوكليت). Results of a decoding test given to a sample of college students and faculty who have a low proficiency level in English showed that the subjects could decode shop names such as ماكدونالدر، بيرغر كينج، هارديز، كوستا، ساربكس.. نسكافيه بيرجر كينج، تويز ار اص، but had difficulty decoding , دولس قوستو, أدفنتورا, جارليشوز لاونج, أميريكان إيجل أوتفترز, أكسسوريز, بايليس, باربكيوتونايت, لولو سلبريت, ذا تشيلدرنز بليس and other. The students and faculty had difficulty decoding Arabic transliterations because they are not familiar with the shop name in the foreign language, and because of the absence of short vowels in the transliteration, which makes it difficult to pronounce the transliterated names correctly. Deviant transliterations are attributed to transliterators who are non-native speakers of Arabic, English and other foreign languages. Recommendations for accurate Arabic transliterations of foreign shop names in Saudi Arabia are given.
The Arisan group used as an analysis uses sociological, economic, and cultural concepts that are collaborated to find out the activities that exist in the Arisan group. This Arisan group has existed since 1994, and the number of members and the nominal amount of contributions are constantly changing in each round. This research is exploratory because there has been no previous research and uses a qualitative approach with a phenomenological perspective. The research took place in the Bulurokeng Permai housing complex, RT 004/RW 007, Pai Village, Biringkanaya District, Makassar City. Data collection techniques were carried out through observation, in-depth interviews, and documentation. Informants were selected by purposive sampling as many as 7 (seven) people with the consideration that they had been members of the Arisan since the formation of the Arisan group in 1994. The results of the study showed that the purpose of forming an Arisan group was to foster togetherness, and unity, to become a place for saving, a place to share information, foster harmony among neighbors, and help each other. Arisan has a social function, economic function, and cultural function.
Artifacts are immensely useful to scholars who want to learn about a culture. When an artifact is conserved to retain its current condition, it preserves the truth of the historical story for generations to come. The Manhyia Palace Museum of Kumasi Metropolis (in Ghana) is one of the places where historical artifacts of the Ashantis (also known as the Asantes) have been preserved. However, some of the names of these artifacts remain unknown to the general public. Just as many people are ignorant about the symbolic meanings of these artifacts, the users and the occasions for utilizing such artifacts have not been documented. In light of these gaps, this study seeks to unearth the historical headgears of Asantehene. Relying principally on the qualitative research methods, the ethnographic research design was employed to gather data from four (4) sub-chiefs of Kumasi and two (2) curators of the Manhyia Palace Museum, who were purposively selected. In-depth interviews and observation were used to solicit data from the respondents. The findings of the research revealed some significance of the headgear and its physical features. Based on the conclusion, recommendations such as methods of preserving such historical artefacts have been suggested.
The topic of this study is the change of directors' duties with the change of corporate operation status. The main research jurisdiction is the UK, and the main research node is after the company is on the verge of bankruptcy and enters bankruptcy proceedings. The UK law stipulates the general duties of directors in the Companies Act 2006. In the normal operation of the company, promoting the success of the company and protecting the interests of shareholders is almost an accepted fact in corporate law circles. But when a company faces bankruptcy, the duties of directors often change. The UK bankruptcy law stipulates Wrongful trading and fraudulent trading liability to urge directors to consider protecting the interests of creditors when the company is on the verge of bankruptcy. Directors may be legally liable for damage to the interests of creditors due to some improper behaviours. Therefore, in order to avoid being charged, directors will increase the priority of protecting the interests of creditors when the company is near bankruptcy. This study will rely on the relevant provisions of the Company Law 2006 and the enterprise bankruptcy law to analyse the change of directors' duties.
As an important element driving the creation of a shift in the pattern of patronage bonding relationships in the current era, the broker's contribution to this shift lies in its dual role, namely as an intermediary between patrons and clients in patronage ties. This role has become increasingly visible since rural areas have been opened up by various interests and activities of farmers in accommodating social change in rural areas. This study aims to analyze the existence of brokers in patron-client ties in rural South Sulawesi, as well as the existence of the middle class behind the existence of a broker in this bond. This study uses a case study approach. The data were obtained through elaboration of in-depth interviews, participant observation and documentation. The results of the study show that the intensity of brokerage activities in vertical and horizontal positions is a form of the middle class in rural areas. In a vertical position, the role is as a comprador or intermediary for the interests of patrons and clients in business activities and political activities, while in horizontal ties, it is present in the activities of personal alliances and revessible relationships that mediate the interests of patrons and clients. In its position as an intermediary on both sides, it seems that the role of the broker is no longer considered as an unofficial or pseudo group but has become a demand for the needs of the community because its presence is a real manifestation of the existence of differentiation and social mobility in the countryside.
The Nobel Prize winner J.M. Coetzee is known for addressing uncomfortable and unanswerable questions through his novels, often having autobiographical traces and staunch protagonists dwelling in solitude and emptiness. The protagonist of Disgrace is one such character who, in the face of both private and public ignominies, refuses to change his ideals that are fairly identical to the Romantic poet Lord Byron only to reject them in the end after his transformative exploits and emerge as a remorseful yet stolid hero. The novel’s honest and relentless probing of character while keeping the impulses and crimes of passion and the inadequacies of justice at the focal point makes it a bleak allegorical work of brilliance. The multiple variations of disgraces mentioned in the novel tend to sublimate and synthesize the identity of David Lurie into a cathartic sense of dislodgement and to regenerate as a Romantic paralysis of the self. This paper aims to explore the influence of the Romantics on David Lurie, specifically the European Renaissance legacy of the autonomy of the individual, as well as the deliberate or unconscious similitudes with the Byronic hero archetype. It will also investigate the nature of the legacy of the Romantic self that David Lurie leaves behind and the role of imagination in addressing themes such as guilt, redemption, and alteration of realities.
The purpose of this research was to formulate zoning control directives on the cultural heritage site of Fort Somba Opu by identifying the factors that influence it. The research location is in the Benteng Somba Opu Village, Barombong District, Gowa Regency. This research was conducted through a quantitative and qualitative approach, where primary data was first collected, and later the primary data obtained was processed into analysis through calculation so that the output obtained would be in the form of definite numerical data. The intended primary data is obtained through the process of observation and interviews through questionnaires to the people of the Benteng Somba Opu Village, and the calculation analysis is carried out through path analysis (path analysis) so that the resulting output is translated using a qualitative descriptive analysis method. From the results of path analysis, it is known that from the five independent variables studied, there are three variables that influence indirectly or directly the decline in cultural heritage identity and one intervening variable that has a direct effect on the decline in cultural heritage identity. The independent variable that has an indirect effect on the decline in cultural heritage identity is livelihoods through changes in land use. Whereas the independent variables that directly affect the decline in cultural heritage identity are human and institutional resources, and the intervening variables that are intended to directly affect the decline in cultural heritage identity are changes in land use. Variables that linearly have a significant effect on the decline in the identity of the cultural heritage then become the basis for determining the direction of zoning control of the cultural heritage site of Fort Somba Opu. Where based on this variable, the reference for the formulation of control directives is mixed by reviewing several journals and government regulations that are in line with these significant variables so that the formulation of directives for controlling the Somba Opu Fort cultural heritage site is issued.
The aims of this study were: (i) to find out the suitability of vocational competency skills with the existence of regional superior potential in West Sulawesi, (ii) to find out the suitability between vocational competency skills and the need for manpower in West Sulawesi. This research is qualitative research with a descriptive approach using survey methods to collect data to uncover phenomena about the suitability of the expertise competencies possessed by SMKs representing the potential of the West Sulawesi region, the suitability of SMK expertise competencies with work needs in West Sulawesi and the fulfillment of SMK human resources against the needs labor. The data collection techniques used were observation, interviews, and required documentation. The results of this study indicate that the development of SMKs is not following the regional potential and workforce needs due to the lack of commitment to developing SMKs by the West Sulawesi Provincial Government, the tendency of students to prefer SMAs over SMKs, lack of availability of land to build SMKs, the tendency of students to major in SMKs In particular, the commitment of the West Sulawesi Provincial Government is lacking in the development of SMKs rather than SMAs, and the output of SMKs is that they continue their studies rather than go straight to work.
This study provided a thorough analysis of the factors that influence online shoppers, the challenges they face in being passionate about online shopping, and the coping mechanisms for dealing with the challenges met. The phenomenological approach was used in this study as a qualitative research technique. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. The open-ended, semi-structured questions developed by the researchers were used to collect data during interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using Brikci and Green's (2007) thematic approach. From the transcription of the in-depth interview, codes, significant statements, formed meanings, cluster themes, and emergent themes were found and retrieved. The participants' responses revealed eleven (11) emergent themes, which were divided into three (3) overarching themes that offered solutions to the sub-problems of the study. For the factors that influence the passionate online shoppers, the overarching theme Factors that Influence the Participants Passionate Online Shoppers has four (4) emergent themes classified as Psychological Factors, Marketing Factors, Social Factors, and Convenience. The challenges brought about by being a passionate online shopper with the overarching theme Challenges Met by the Participants Brought by being a Passionate Online Shopper have three (3) emergent themes classified as Overspending, Financial Problems, and Distraction. For the coping mechanism, the overarching theme was the Coping Mechanism of the Participants on the Challenges Met, which has three (3) emergent themes classified as Self-Assessment, Budgeting, and Uninstalling and Deleting Apps.