International Journal of Architectural Computing

Published by Multi-Science Publishing
Print ISSN: 1478-0771
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Experimental design methods are applied in all phases of the design process and by almost every party involved in the design process. In this paper, we aim to give an overview of the background, applications, and technologies involved. A limited simple metric is introduced for assessing the degree of innovation. Future developments are outlined.
 
Tsuyoshi Sasada, known as Tee to so many of us, died on 30 September 2005 at the age of 64 after a long illness.Tee retired from Osaka University in 2004 upon reaching the mandatory retirement age but retained his association as Emeritus Professor.At the time of his death he held appointments as Honorary Professor, National Chiao Tung University (Taiwan) and Expert Researcher, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. He had been with Osaka University since 1970, having earned his bachelor, master and doctoral degrees at Kyoto University. In 1988 he was appointed Professor in Osaka and established his laboratory, known as the Sasada Lab, from which over 200 students have graduated.
 
Digital technologies are becoming a popular vehicle for the re-creation and dissemination of cultural heritage, in the form of modeling buildings, people, and their activities. Video game engines can be used to let user virtually "inhabit" the digitally recreated worlds made accessible via the Internet, opening them up to people who otherwise would never be exposed to these cultural sites. Yet, like every medium ever used to preserve cultural heritage, digital media is not neutral: it impacts the represented content and the ways the audience interprets it. Perhaps more than any older technology, it has the potential to affect the very meaning of the represented content in terms of the cultural image it creates. This paper examines the applications and implications of digital media for the recreation and communication of cultural heritage, drawing on the lessons learned from a project to recreate the thriving jazz and blues club scene in West Oakland, California, in the 1940s and 1950s.
 
Professor Tom Maver has authored and co-authored nearly 150 publications in the course of his academic career so far. A substantial part of this work has been collected in a paper-based format and most of this has now been converted to a digital format. The bibliographical citations have been recorded - together with digital full paper versions - in CUMINCAD (Cumulative Index on CAD - http://cumincad.SciX.net). A closer examination of the collected archive of these publications and their global impact will be given in this contribution. Finally, a brief outline of possible future work will be presented.
 
Because it produces representational models, not full-scale architecture, 3D printing often supports the study of form, not architectural materials, structure and tectonics. This research asks how 3D printing can support material study and contribute to a process of design by making, similar to that achieved with mock-ups and other full-scale constructions. It clarifies the nature of design by making through an elaboration of key activities, and then shows how 3D printing can support each activity. The research includes a design experiment in which students used unique 3D printing techniques to enhance the experience of design by making. These techniques include 1) confronting a material foil, 2) embedding material placeholders in parametric models, 3) oscillating between representational and literal interpretations, and 4) using 3D prints as a corporeal medium. With these techniques, 3D printing offered a unique flavor of design by making, which can complement full-scale computer-aided manufacturing techniques.
 
The paper presents a novel digital 3D GIS web-based system entirely founded on Google Earth, built to offer a deep insight into Palladio's opera for restitution of its architectural surveys, reconstruction for historical reasons, analysis for structural and other options, and assembly and presentation of all certified Palladian documentation.The development of the application follows the philosophy of visual computing and it is based on an architectural knowledge representation.The information system is conceived as a typical Rich Internet Application and it is based on the digitalization of the complete Palladian corpus documentation implemented by the Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio (CISAAP).The 3D geodatabase system is, actually, in use at the Centro as the Palladian information system for researchers and in two expositions at Barbaran da Porto Palace in Vicenza, and at Villa Poiana at Poiana Maggiore, where is widely used by tourists for virtual visits to Palladian buildings.
 
Walter Benjamin and Rem Koolhaas developed two significant investigations, which explored the culture of Paris and New York through the analysis of their architectural artifacts. Their research projects successfully construct, from a few meaningful components of the built environment, an understanding of the overall city and its society. The objective of this paper is to address the similarities between the research carried out at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the work of these two acclaimed writers. Our group aims to select urban icons, from different moments and areas in Rio de Janeiro, to be studied in order to understand the city evolution in the 20th Century. The distinguished Ministry of Education building is the investigation's prototype, analyzed thorough several 3D models and other digital techniques. We conclude that a thorough study of Benjamin's and Koolhaas' work should be considered a primary support for the interrogation of our own investigation.
 
Screen shots of the Digital Songlines project interface showing net-making, grain grinding, and spear- making.  
Digital Songlines (DSL) is an Australasian CRC for Interaction Design (ACID) project that is developing protocols, methodologies and toolkits to facilitate the collection, education and sharing of indigenous cultural heritage knowledge. This paper outlines the goals achieved over the last three years in the development of the Digital Songlines game engine (DSE) toolkit that is used for Australian Indigenous storytelling. The project explores the sharing of indigenous Australian Aboriginal storytelling in a sensitive manner using a game engine. The use of the game engine in the field of Cultural Heritage is expanding. They are an important tool for the recording and re-presentation of historically, culturally, and sociologically significant places, infrastructure, and artefacts, as well as the stories that are associated with them. The DSL implementation of a game engine to share storytelling provides an educational interface. Where the DSL implementation of a game engine in a CH application differs from others is in the nature of the game environment itself. It is modelled on the 'country' (the 'place' of their heritage which is so important to the clients' collective identity) and authentic fauna and flora that provides a highly contextualised setting for the stories to be told. This paper provides an overview on the development of the DSL game engine.
 
Continuity and relation to the past are inherent in human nature. The remains of the past constitute culture and cultural heritage. Preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage appear to be, nowadays, a universal priority. Historic/architectural monuments are among the most significant categories of cultural heritage and their 3D digitization appears to be a chief way towards that direction. 3D digitization of architectural heritage is a very specific problem in the digitization domain. Since size, budget and applicability are some of the most important factors in choosing an appropriate digitization method, and since there is not an all-in-one solution in digitization, this problem cannot be always addressed by using one technique. In this paper we review methods that are available for 3D digitization of architectural heritage and we present two case studies of real-world digitization projects involving monuments and urban areas.
 
Digitally documenting complex heritage sites such as castles is a desirable yet difficult task with no established framework. Although 3D digitizing and modelling with laser scanners, Photogrammetry, and computer aided architectural design (CAAD) are maturing, each alone is inadequate to model an entire castle in details. We present a sequential approach that combines multiple techniques, each where best suited, to capture and model the fine geometric detail of castles. We provide new contributions in several areas: an effective workflow for castle 3D modelling, increasing the level of automation and the seamless integration of models created independently from different data sets. We tested the approach on various castles in Northern Italy and the results demonstrated that it is effective, accurate, and creates highly detailed models suitable for interactive visualization. It is also equally applicable to other types of large complex architectures.
 
Architects integrate more and more modern information technologies in their projects. Based on this background the use of 3D video in an architectural context is discussed. The combination of real-time 3D video and blue-c technology for a distributed shopping experience in shared virtual shops is described. IN: SHOP illustrates an approach to enhance physical environments in shopping areas and connects geographically distant persons. These technologies offer new architectural design possibilities. The traditional understanding of location, space, and time may be redefined. Interactive spaces are being designed, modified and experienced. We believe that information technologies have an impact on buildings and architecture.
 
This paper addresses the problem of creating new navigation paradigms for experiencing architectural designs in 3D real-time environments. The exploration of techniques other than still images or fly-through animations is complex and manifold, and requires the understanding and skills of many disciplines including cinematography, computer programming, architectural design and communication of 3D space. In this article, we present the Architectural Cinematographer (AC), a first step towards new navigation paradigms for real-time interactive virtual environments that are intended to enhance architectural walkthroughs with interactive camera effects. The AC is a fully developed modification (mod) of the game UnrealTournament2004™ using the Unreal™ game engine and relies on the notions of architectural concepts, cinematographic techniques and game level design to structure the virtual environment (VE) content in a way that facilitates a perception of design qualities in virtual architecture. AC addresses the current lack of either software or a structured approach to facilitate this in real-time architectural visualizations.
 
The Hardware, scanning setup, and scanning of Model 1.
This paper assesses the use of 3D Digitization techniques by carrying out laser scanning of typical physical models produced by architecture students. The aim was to examine the product of laser scanning with respect to scanning and 3D modeling processes, and the effects of variables such as characteristics of the models, materials used, and design complexity. In order to assess the similarities and accuracies achieved by the scanning and 3D modeling processes, the research investigated human perception of differences between analogue and digital models. This enabled an assessment of the degree to which digital models were accurate representations of the real ones, and whether laser scanning can successfully be used as a medium to recreate and represent complex architectural physical models. The study presents a potential direction for digital translation in architectural education.
 
Rotational sweep: Sweeping angle.
Computation of the direction of the walls (top view of the laser data).
Cell decomposition (top) and discarded cells (bottom).
Left: Models with the point clouds. Right: Final 3D CAD models.
3D model from noisy data.  
We present a new technique for the fully automated 3D modelling of indoor environments from a point cloud. The point cloud is acquired with several scans and is afterwards processed in order to segment planar structures, which have a noticeable architectural meaning (floor, ceiling and walls) in the interior. The basic approach to data segmentation is plane sweeping based on a hypothesis-and-test strategy. From the segmentation results, the ground plan is created through cell decomposition by trimming the two-dimensional ground space using half-space primitives. An extension in height of the ground contours makes the generation of the 3D model possible. The so-reconstructed indoor model is saved in CAD format for analysis and further applications or, simply, as a record of the interior geometry.
 
We have designed a hub and strut kit that interfaces to a 3D graphics application. FlexM is a prototype flexible physical interface for manipulating and building 3D geometry. Using the FlexM hub and strut components, designers can build and explore 3D geometry with the ease of a toy and the power of a computer. The hubs transmit the model's topology and geometry to the computer, where the model is rendered on the screen in real time. The paper reports on the iterative development of several versions of the project.
 
This paper presents the outcome of the research project: "Integrated Technologies of Robotics and Virtual Environments in Archaeology", financed by the Italian Ministry of the University and Scientific Research, FIRB (Funds for the Investments of Basic Research). The aim of the project is to experiment and realize a multi-user domain on the web aimed to a multidisciplinary scientific community: archaeologists, historians, experts in human and social sciences, communication experts. The capacity to load, share and interact with data in the same spatial virtual environment can increase the level of learning and scientific communication. The project is the result of the collaboration between CNR-ITABC of Rome, the University of California, Merced, the Department of Archaeology of the University of Pisa and Scuola S. Anna of Pisa. It focuses on three archaeological sites: the Teban tomb 14 in the necropolis of Gurna, Fayum Medinet Madi, both in Egypt, and Khor Rori, in Oman. The collaborative environment is constructed through a virtual reality system. This allows to create a virtual space where it is possible to share 3D information on the project and to host additional behaviors of the scientific community.
 
Making 3D models should be an easy and intuitive task like free-hand sketching. This paper presents iSphere, a 24 degree of freedom 3D input device. iSphere is a dodecahedron embedded with 12 capacitive sensors for pulling-out and pressing-in manipulation on 12 control points of 3D geometries. It exhibits a conceptual 3D modeling approach for saving mental loads of low-level commands. Using analog inputs of 3D manipulation, designers are able to have high-level modeling concepts like pushing or pulling 3D surfaces. Our experiment shows that iSphere saved steps in the selection of control points in the review of menus and leading to a clearer focus on what to build instead of how to build it. Novices saved significant time learning 3D manipulation by using iSphere to making conceptual models. However, one tradeoff of the iSphere is its lack of fidelity in its analog input mechanism.
 
Adjustment of the parameters of the door with the help of a picture.
This paper examines 3D modelling of architectural elements with the help of parametric components. Such components may be useful within the framework of projects dealing with virtual 3D reconstruction of heritage monuments. Architectural components of the built heritage often have complex geometry. We studied the various geometrical shapes of a given architectural element, representative of a specific period and place. This study allowed us to identify the parameters and to implement parametric objects (in Maya Environment [1]). We also developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to answer the user's needs while generating the 3D model representing the architectural element. Within this GUI, the user is able to make adjustments with the help of laser point clouds from laserscanning, 2D plans or photographs. We exemplify our method with a case study dealing with openings and lintels. The corpus under study consists of elements of the built heritage of Montreal (Canada) and Nancy (France).
 
This paper discusses how live linkages between parametric geometry, structural analysis and optimization can be leveraged to explore an architectural massing from different perspectives of optimum assuming a set of cost and value characteristics. Broad performance measures such as program area, cladding surface and structural quantities were computed for each geometry variation and collected. Optimums from different perspectives (structure, developer, designer) were extracted for each height category and compared. To further inform and engage stakeholders, a variety of visualization and filtering techniques have been implemented. These new techniques and associated distillation of data aids the design team in understanding the design space. A script based approach towards geometry and data management has led to a shift towards active option evaluation and a more interactive approach to form exploration. A generic workflow for structural analysis, design and optimization has been implemented and this ability to engineer at a greater velocity will move the design profession towards a more collaborative and information based design environment.
 
The integration of digital tools currently being used in many schools and offices with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) hardware, has allowed architects to exert a far greater degree of control than they have previously been afforded. It is precisely this control that enables greater collaboration during design phases between architects and fabricators. However, the impact of this integration on academia and small practice is unknown. Several questions remain to be answered regarding teaching fabrication techniques and identifying strategies suitable for adoption in small firms. This paper investigates digital fabrication not as a software-specific set of capabilities, but as a design methodology that can allow schools to graduate young practitioners who can use these concepts to design and manage projects in more sophisticated ways. We outline six control and collaboration strategies and present several projects that explore those concepts through analog, digital, and hybrid methods.
 
This paper describes two complementary European research projects that share common interests and goals.The work described is intended to facilitate city analysis and support decision-making. The first project focuses on the distribution, access and ease of use of city data. The system allows access to historical data concerning key buildings in Liverpool, England, via a suite of web-based tools and a palmtop device. The second project looks at extending the functionality of traditional computer aided design (CAD) software to enable geometric and semantic data to be combined within a single environment. The system allows those involved in city planning to better understand the past and present development pattern of an area so that their decisions on future proposals are better informed.The paper concludes by describing a system that integrates particular aspects of the two projects, and the potential that this integration can bring.This new work provides mobile access to historical city development data, current city information and tools to support urban project development.
 
The VR-Desktop initiative is an effort to bring key benefits of projection-based virtual reality into the mainstream of teaching and research at the Pennsylvania State University, through the deployment of comparatively low cost and easy to use virtual reality and integrated multimedia display systems within a variety of contexts. Recent experiences with design and implementation of single- and multi-screen VR systems for teaching and research are described. The systems discussed employ low cost and readily available hardware components, familiar desktop computing environments, and open-source VR development toolkits. The approach is modular and easily adaptable to various applications in research or instruction.
 
Acoustic performance is an inevitable part of architectural design. Our sonic experience is modified by the geometry and material choices of the designer. Acoustic performance must be understood both on the level of material performance and also at the level of the entire composition. With new parametric and scripting tools performance driven design is possible. Parametric design and scripting tools can be used to explore not only singular objectives, but gradient conditions. Acoustic performance is often thought of in terms of singular performance criteria. This research suggested acoustic design can be understood in terms of gradients and multiple performance parameters. Simulation and modeling techniques for computational acoustic prediction now allow architects to more fully engage with the phenomenon of sound and digital models can be studied to produce data, visualizations, animations, and auralizations of acoustic performance. SmartGeometry has promoted design methods and educational potentials of a performance-driven approach to architectural design through parametric modeling and scripting. The SmartGeometry workshops have provided links between engineering and architecture, analysis and design; they have provided parametric and scripting tools that can provide both a common platform, links between platforms, but importantly an intellectual platform where these ideas can mix. These workshops and conferences have inspired two projects that both used acoustic performance as a design driver. The Smithsonian Institution Courtyard Enclosure and the Manufacturing Parametric Acoustic Surfaces (MPAS) installation at SmartGeometry 2010 are presented as examples of projects that used sound simulation parametric modeling to create acoustically performance driven architecture.
 
Documenting the past of mankind comprises, among other activities, the survey of monuments and cultural artefacts, for long provided by archaeologists and architects using traditional methods. However, due to the recent major technological advances in surveying, photogrammetric and laser scanning methods, surveyors are enabled to produce recording materials and end products, which surpass by far the traditional line drawings in terms of accuracy and completeness. These methodologies are able to offer products like orthophotos, raster developments, 3D representations and realistic visualizations as well as augmented reality tours. This paper investigates the principles and capabilities of contemporary and technologically advanced methods in: capturing huge amount of detailed, accurate and reliable 3D data; modeling of existing and virtual reality; management of 3D or image-based databases. Several examples covering a broad variety of cases, regarding the historical era, the size and the complexity of the monument and also the final products are presented.
 
This paper addresses the development of parametric models in contemporary architectural practice. A parametric model can be regarded as a representation of a solution space and in order to structure this, a description of the problem is required. Architectural design tasks are typically ill structured, the goals may not be defined and the means unknown. Moving from an incomplete problem description to a functional parametric model is a difficult task. This paper aims to demonstrate that through a combination of knowledge acquisition and capture a parametric model can develop from an incomplete problem description. This demonstration draws on existing strands of design theory which are then used to outline a theoretical framework. This framework is then used to examine a case study of a live project and practical examples of the described theory in action are given. The practical observations are the result of a case study involving the author as a participant and observer working with HOK Sport to develop a cladding geometry solution for Lansdowne Road Stadium in Dublin.
 
Despite the increasing interest in the functionality and humanization of architecture, there are few studies covering the occupation of buildings and methods to represent activities in spaces. This article explores new software for simulating and virtual modeling in order to facilitate the analysis and visualization of events in buildings. Of particular importance is programming the behavior of 3D-characters according to the probabilistic evolution of activities, and producing animations and interactive models. This approach was tested in a study of three emergency units of hospitals in Chile. Although a full integration of software was not possible, the process developed (in particular the subjective tours) demonstrated that the technique can provide new information about the functioning and spatiality of the units. In addition, it suggested operative and architectural improvements supporting the management and design of facilities.
 
Design of universal components that can tolerate technological, environmental, and circumstantial changes over time is a challenge for an architect. In this paper, I would like to propose a scaled prototype of architectural components that can reconfigure themselves into globally functional configurations based on feedback from locally distributed intelligence embedded inside the component. The project aims at demonstrating a design system that can respond to dynamically changing environment over time without imposing a static blueprint of the structure in a top-down manner from the outset of design processes. The control of the subunits are governed by the logic of a distributed system simulated by the use of multiple microcontrollers, and appropriate geometrical configurations will be computationally derived based on physical-environmental criteria such as solar radiation from various sensors and social-programmatic issues.
 
A cooperative design is a social activity inside a group. In this kind of activity, each actor plays a specific role. If each actor wants to realize the actions corresponding to his role, he needs some adaptive information about the cooperation context. The cooperation context of design project is a relational organization where each actor maintains specific relations with other people (designers, project managers, etc.) but also with documents and activities. Such a cooperation context exists in architectural cooperative design which is distinguished by a "mutual prescription" between actors. In architectural design we are in a network model of actors, instead of the hierarchical model that we can find in classical workflow tools. This organization has to be represented in the project management tool to give each user an adaptive vision of the project organization and evolution. The representation and the visualization of such a network, which characterizes each project, is the main objective of the "Relational Model of Cooperation" and the hypermedia view presented in this paper.
 
Morphogenomics, a relatively new research area, involves understanding the role played by information regulation in the emergence of diverse natural and artificially generated morphologies. Performative building skin systems as a bottom-up parametric formation of context aware interdependent, ubiquitously communicating components leading to the development of continually performative systems is one of the multi-scalar derivations of the aforementioned Morphogenomic understanding. The agenda of adaptations for these building skins specifically corresponds to three domains of adaptation: structural, behavioral and physiological adaptations resulting in kinetic adaptability, energy generation, conservation, transport and usage principles as well as material property based changes per component. The developed skins adapt in real time via operating upon ubiquitous communication and data-regulation protocols for sensing and processing contextual information. Computational processes and information technology based tools and techniques such as parametric design, real-time simulation using game design software, environmental information mapping, sensing and actuating systems coupled with inbuilt control systems as well as manufacturing physical models in collaboration with praxis form a vital part of these skin systems. These experiments and analysis based on developing intrinsic inter-dependencies between contextual data, structure and material logistics thus lay the foundation for a new era of continually performing, self powering, real-time adaptive intelligent building skin systems.
 
(Continued)  
This paper introduces a novel framework for the modeling and interactive simulation of ancient Greek technology works with the use of advanced virtual reality technologies. A novel algorithm is introduced for the realistic and efficient resolution of collisions that is based on an advanced collision detection approach that can also calculate in real-time the force that should be fed back to the user using a haptic device. Thus, the user is capable of manipulating the scene objects in the environment using haptic devices to simulate the sense of touch and stereoscopic imaging so as to be immersed in the virtual environment. Moreover, the virtual hand that simulates the user's hand is modeled using superquadrics so as to further increase the speed of the simulation and the fidelity of the force feedback. Extended evaluation of the system has been performed with visitors of the Science Center and Technology Museum of Thessaloniki.
 
The objective of this paper is to describe contemporary digital building design from a service provider aspect. The constrained framework of this work is digital architectural design practice. When design is seen in the context of the AEC field, a process oriented approach is commonly used in describing collaboration and evolutionary progress of the design work as a project. Design projects are scheduled chains of activities which result in design delivery or actual physical buildings as the end products of the project. Recently developments in building information modelling (BIM) have presented fundamentally new ways for collecting, exploring, and sharing design information. This study develops the novel digital approach: BIM as design services. The key finding of the study is that parts of the design domain can be described as services in the changing digital environment. The scientific contribution of this paper is in describing contemporary digital design practice with an alternative service approach. A framework for such services is also presented. This work will expand the authors' contribution to research on preliminary architectural design using building information models.
 
Architectural programming is the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. Programming is difficult because it involves identifying, collecting, analyzing and updating information from different sources such as engineers, clients, users, consultants, and others. In this paper I propose a computational model for programming and describe its implementation, a tool called PENA that allows a programming expert to represent different processes and people involved in a project using intelligent agents. By delegating responsibility to agents, a programming expert can better organize and manage project data as well as find creative solutions to conflicting issues through agent negotiation. As a proof-of-concept, I show how an agent, called the Arch-Learner, manages adjacencies of rooms in a simple program for a house by clustering them into public and private rooms. I conclude with a discussion of future work and development of PENA.
 
Agent based design systems could provide useful decision help for architects working on spatial planning tasks that involve large number of actors or deal with complex urban situations. These systems are especially helpful in bridging the gap between concrete design proposals and high-level design abstractions such as frequency and flow diagrams. Every attempt to use computational design agents in the planning process will automatically raise many fundamental issues about spatial perception and representation of the environment. The paper discusses these issues in the light of some recent agent based simulations. Two case studies are presented in order to demonstrate different uses of computational agents in urban design. The first study shows how a simple agent-based design system placed in an urban context becomes a creative production tool. The second one reveals analytical capabilities of an agent system in urban environments.
 
Virtual Architecture is a virtual place that uses the metaphor of architecture and provides an online environment for various human activities. While Virtual Architecture inherits many of the characteristics of physical architecture, it is possible to reconsider the virtual in terms of flexibility and autonomy. This paper presents a Usercentred Virtual Architecture (UcVA) Agent, a kind of rational agent capable of representing a person in virtual worlds and designing virtual worlds based on current needs. The UcVA agent model has a design component that uses the shape grammar formalism. This model and a sample grammar are demonstrated for a meeting room scenario.
 
Architects and architectural students are exploring new ways of design using Computer Aided Architectural Design software. This exploration is seldom backed up from a design methodological viewpoint. In this paper, a design methodological framework for reflection on innovate design processes by architects that has been used in an educational setting is introduced.The framework leads to highly specific, weak design methods, that clarify the use of the computer in the design process.The framework allows students to grasp new developments, use them in their own design work, and to better reflect on their own position relative to CAAD and architectural design.
 
In the design process of some recent, specific architectural projects the part elaborated by computers and machines significantly grows. They could generate, optimize and produce the most complicated and complex solutions, taking over some tasks which before were the domain of architects. This article presents a project carried out by postgraduate students at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerland, where such a digital design process was implemented, with all its advantages and disadvantages. The observations and conclusions gained during the work allow the author to formulate the concept of Architect-Aided Computing Design, to define some challenges for architects created by such a working method, and to present an analysis about the potential new software for architectural production.
 
The successful use of daylight in a building requiresthat the associated forms and devices be conceived asan integral part of the architectural design. Thepopular methods of simulation for daylighting design:manual methods, physical scale model and computergraphics based rendering do not provide a robustmodel for daylighting decision-making during thedesign process due to their individual limitations. Therecent advances in computer-aided design andrendering compel another look at visually simulatingdaylight. This paper discusses a project undertaken totest a computer-aided daylight simulation program?saccuracy and ability to allow quick iterative daylightexplorations, essential to any design decision-makingprocess. Real buildings with their existing complexitiesare selected as case studies. The outcomes arediscussed and recommendations for future daylightsimulation software programs to be suitable in thedesign process are suggested.
 
Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has produced three types and three generations of CAAD researchers, teachers and practitioners. The three types - CAAD inventors, implementers and users - benefit from the constantly improving computer technology. The three generations - CAAD pioneers, trendsetters and educators are in a more difficult situation as the attitude towards, and the knowledge about, Computer Aided Architectural Design in the general public and in the professional community is unstable. To explore the impact of CAAD on physical reality and to discover future challenges, it is useful to look at the pioneers of CAAD, as they often combine in one person the characteristics of the development that occurred afterwards. Tom Maver is one of the premier examples. The paper presents thoughts on CAAD teaching and research and contrasts them with the professional reality at ETH, in order to explore the impact of CAAD on the physical reality.
 
This paper describes a system for searching and retrieving urban design drawings developed or contracted by public or governmental entities. We assume that in governmental public programs with similar goals recreating solutions is a daily action, which is, clearly, an unnecessary waste of time and resources. The system presented in this paper aims at concentrating and organizing this information in order to allow urban planners and designers to search for existing solutions to their projects and answers to their current needs.
 
The Generative Design System [GDS] presented in this paper was developed to assist designers in researching low-energy architecture solutions. The GDS has the capability to evolve architectural forms that are energy-efficient, while complying to design intentions expressed by the architect, and responding to conflicting objectives. To achieve this evolutionary development, the system integrates a search and optimization method [Genetic Algorithm], a building energy simulation software [DOE2.1E], and Pareto multicriteria optimization techniques. The GDS adaptively generates populations of alternative solutions, from an initial schematic layout and a set of rules and constraints designed by the architect to encode design intentions. The two conflicting objective functions considered in this paper are maximizing daylighting use, and minimizing energy consumption for conditioning the building. The GDS generated an uniformly sampled, continuous Pareto front, from which six points were visualized in terms of the proposed architectural solutions.
 
Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to predict indoor thermal environments and assess their response to specific internal/external conditions. Although computing power has increased exponentially in the past decade, CFD simulations are still time-consuming and their prediction results cannot be used for real-time immersive visualization in buildings. A method that can bypass the time-consuming simulations and generate “acceptable” results will allow such visualization to be constructed. This paper discusses a project that utilizes a supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a learning algorithm to predict post-processed CFD data to ensure rapid data visualization. To develop a generic learning model for a wide range of spatial configurations, this paper presents a pilot project that utilizes an unsupervised Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm. The ANN technique was integrated with an interactive, immersive Augmented Reality (AR) system to interact with and visualize CFD results in buildings. ANN was also evaluated against a linear regression model. Both models were tested and validated with datasets to determine their degree of accuracy. Initial tests, conducted to evaluate the user's experience of the system, indicated satisfactory results.
 
This paper celebrates the human factor by describing how our collective vocation towards innovation in design education has inspired the development of an active network across the Americas. Ten years after its creation, the Las Americas Digital Research Network has generated a stream of innovative implementations. This is the first time that the main stream of these research activities is articulated into a peer-reviewed journal publication. The narrative of the paper follows a time-line that starts with the creation of the Las Americas Digital Research Network in 1996. Supported by such a framework the paper continues to describe the implementation of virtual design studios as collaborations nested at the core of the network. Finally, the paper explains how the virtual design studios provide fundamental feasibility for the development of network-mediated distance education curricula in architecture and the opening of a new dimension in the development and deployment of collaborative networks.
 
This focus this paper is the translation of a digital information model that defines an object's surface properties and its connection to that which is real or physical. This research, while early in its investigation, seeks to explore architecture and digital design as a material process. The direct connection to output devices such as computer-numerically controlled routers provide a unique opportunity for controlled variation and serial differentiation and seeks to exploit mass customization rather than standardization. Through a series of studies the process from design to machine file to finish product is explored. This connection to digitally driven fabrication equipment creates within the design process an opportunity to realize ones designs both digitally and materially.
 
Digital architecture is process-based and reliant upon a conversation between digital visualization, analysis, and production. With the complexity of information generated in process-based digital practices, we need to effectively manage and exchange the information. Feedback loops are integral to this process/product, and thus require extensive management of complex versions of visual and data related information. Quite a lot of scholarly attention has been focused upon highlighting innovative projects using digital fabrication and serial customization. However, there is a scarcity of scholarly work about innovations in visualizing and representing the design data integral in this feedback loop. This paper will examine innovative representational devices such as the matrix, sectioning, layering, bracketing, nesting, and other new forms of organizing, visualizing, analyzing, and simulating complex data, intent upon communicating multiple levels of operations during the design and fabrication process. With a rigorous taxonomy of operative and analytic devices for process-based digital design development, we can begin to outline a trajectory for future evolutions in practice. This writing is an attempt to make a few steps in this direction, and demonstrate some of these new representational ideas in practice.
 
In this paper the potential of digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning in combination is demonstrated in the recording and 3D CAD construction of the northern sluice of the ancient dam in Marib/Yemen, which is located approx. 150 kilometre east of the capital city Sana'a, close to the inner Arabic desert. The Yemeni government proposed for initiation of the building into the list of the UNESCO world cultural heritage. This described project work is a co-operation between the Commission for Archaeology of Non-European Cultures (KAAK) Bonn of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) and the department Geomatics of the HafenCity University Hamburg. The object recording was carried out in January 2006 with the digital SLR camera Fujifilm FinePix S2 pro and the terrestrial laser scanner Trimble GS100 during the archaeological excavations. The northern sluice was reconstructed and visualized as a computer-based 3D CAD model for archaeological investigations (as-builtdocumentation of the excavations) and for future tourism advertising and publication purposes.
 
Example of mixed reality animated character acting a storytelling drama on the site of ancient Pompeii (view from the mobile AR-life system i-glasses)
Camera Coordinate Systems in MR 
The Mobile AR-Life simulator system (top left). The previously shown laptop is inserted in the backpack for the run phase.
We propose a new methodology for real-time mobile mixed reality systems that feature realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face) who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. Although initially targeted at Cultural Heritage Sites, the paradigm is by no means limited to such subjects. The abandonment of traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations with 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup, is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with character to object interaction, a markerless camera tracker specialized for non-invasive geometrical registration on heritage sites and a PRT mixed reality illumination model for more consistent real-virtual real-time rendering. We demonstrate a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.
 
This paper presents a case study centered on the virtual restitution and virtual life simulation of a highly complex and endangered heritage edifice: the church of Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, Turkey. The goal of this article is to describe the techniques used in order to achieve a real time rendering and animation of the selected space and its characters, as well as to point out the challenges and solutions that such a work implies at different stages in production. Most of these issues are focused on the reconstruction of the architecture of the site; however, in order to achieve an accurate simulation, the social aspect is not to be omitted. The importance of a heritage site resides as well in the historical characters and the social interactions that were taking place there: this information allows a better understanding of the function and the importance of the selected site in connection with the cultural aspects of the life at a certain time. In order to strengthen the feeling of immersion in a heritage edifice virtually restituted, it is important to recreate virtual life and describe the timely evolutionary aspects of the edifice as well.
 
A digital pen-and-paper system that generates stroke-by-stroke animations was used to compare the perception of interactive animations versus printed storyboards. Design students studied a space-planning example as either an animation or a storyboard and then emulated the example in doing a similar problem. Students viewing the animations rather than the storyboards performed marginally better in terms of matching the example steps and meeting design quality criteria. Students may understand the process of design sketching, but may lack the skills to copy the steps. Emulating the solution requires both cognitive skills and graphic facility. While beginners could logically organize spatial adjacencies, they often radically resized required program areas to streamline geometry. After organizing building spaces, they lacked the graphic conventions to articulate architectural features, so they could not copy refinement steps. Subjects at all levels used approximately the same number of strokes, with more productive sketching from advanced subjects.
 
This paper proposes a general method to make animated presentations of architectural designs, based on cinematographic techniques. Particularly, it reviews theoretical documenttion about filmmaking as well as several productions that exhibit remarkable locations. The proposed method first comprises of a planning stage, with the narrative and graphic formulation of the presentation. Next is an elaboration or adjustment stage for the digital modelling of the design, and finally, there is an animation production and editing stage. Likewise, the research sets up a computer implementation of some activities and characteristics, and experiments in the programming of camera movements for architectural animations. In general, this work suggests focusing on the communication of the qualitative features of the design, instead of the elaboration of the digital model, and on emphasizing the visual diversity, graphic style and narrative construction of the presentation.
 
Images of the virtual outdoor model of VCL. A path leads the user to the colour laboratory, showing various outdoor colour phenomena on the way. 
Plan over the Colour Laboratory: 
Overview of the corridor-system inside the colour laboratory, which demonstrates twodimensional colour phenomena. 
The Blue-Yellow Room demonstrates how the placements of two given colours affect and change the character of the room. 
This paper discusses the problems of visualizing colour appearance in an interactive virtual environment (VE) from the viewpoint of practice based architectural research. The discussion is based upon the research information project Virtual Colour Laboratory (VCL), the aim of which is to visually present and demonstrate existing research results on spatial colour phenomena for educational purposes, in the shape of a software application. During the work on this project, various problems connected to the visualization of colour appearance have emerged which are discussed in relation to current research on spatial experience and visual appearance in VEs. The aim of the paper is to focus on the importance of colour appearance in digital modelling as well as to highlight the problems of visualizing colour appearance interactively. The term colour appearance is used here as a general concept for the perceived colour of a surface or object.
 
Top-cited authors
Wassim Jabi
  • Cardiff University
Dominik Holzer
  • University of Melbourne
Mark Burry
  • University of Melbourne
Rivka Oxman
  • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Marc Aurel Schnabel
  • Victoria University of Wellington