International Journal of Applied Research in Management and Economics

Published by Mokslines leidybos deimantas, MB
Online ISSN: 2538-8053
Publications
Theory of Action and Job Performance: Best Fit Source: Boyatzis (2008, p. 7)
The Iceberg Model of Competence Source: Spencer & Spencer (1993, p. 11)
In a rapidly changing world, people need to create differences in order to participate in the labor market, and in the same way, for businesses to remain strong in the market. Especially due to the high uncertainties caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, it has become a must to update and possess the competencies that will make the difference at the individual and organizational level. This paper examined the competencies in the Covid-19 process, taking into account the history of competencies, their development over time and the types of competencies. In particular main aims of this paper are to suggest individual and organizational competencies that enable to exceed the average performance in the current pandemic conditions, to make contribution to ‘competencies and Covid-19’ literature, and to create a road map for the future managers and organizations. In this context, relevant literature was reviewed in detail and opinions were shared accordingly. As a result, cognitive and emotional attitudes of employees and managers are considered as individual competencies, whereas competencies related to agility, digitalization, human resources management, and teamwork are suggested as organizational ones. However, it would not be wrong to state that the two types of competencies are not completely separate from each other.
 
A Conceptual Framework Source. Design and developed by the researcher
Overall Employees' Perception on Diversity Climate
Comparison Between Omani & Expatriate Employees: Mean Analysis
Diversity Climate refers to employees' perceptions of the organization's diversity policies, and practices. The economic downturn in Oman has impacted the diversity climate in the workplace, and it is constantly changing as a result of the pandemic across industries, causing havoc on the workforce, especially the 1.75 million expatriate workforces across industries. This study has been conducted with the three key objectives: 1. To investigate the employees' perception on Diversity Climate of the organizations. 2. To compare the perception of citizens and expatriate employees on Diversity Climate and 3. To find the changes in diversity practices of organizations in Oman after Covid- 19. The research was carried out in Muscat, and data obtained from 117 workers (both citizens and expatriates) who work in different companies at various levels/ positions. with the aim of getting a deeper understanding of how the diversity climate has changed since Covid-19 from the employees' perspective. Finally, the researchers suggested some solutions and discussed the study's novelty as well as the potential scope for future research.
 
Research background related to research topic
The impact of population growth on economic growth for the upper middle income group during 1985 and 2016
Impact of Birth Rate on Economic Growth for the Upper Middle Income Group during 1985 to 2016
ABSTRACT: Contrary to neoclassical view, the population and its components are one of the factors affecting long-term economic growth. Some studies have pointed to the negative impact of population growth and others on its positive impact. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of population growth on economic growth during 1985 to 2007 and 1985 to 2016 among the 32 member countries of the upper-middle income group. Using World Bank data (2016) and the panel’s method, the impact of population growth and birth rate on economic growth in two continuous periods has been investigated. The results show that the more we approach the present time, the impact of population growth and birth rate on economic growth in upper-middle income countries decreases; consequently, if the effect of these two components i.e population growth and birth rate is not controlled in this group of countries and countries with lower income, it will be led a negative effect on economic growth. Therefore, considering this research, the effect of demographic factors can be shown as long-term; it is important to note that by declining population growth and birth rate in this group of countries, investment, productivity of workforce and the population in age of activity increases. Economic growth reduces due to the disruption of the balance and the increase in population on the economic power. By increasing one unit of the population growth, economic growth has achieved to 0.17% reduction in 2016 from 0.26% increase in 2007. Keywords:Population Growth, Economic Growth, Balance, Birth Rate, Sustainable Economic Growth
 
A systematic literature review (SLR) from 1991 to 2019 is carried out about EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) excellence model in this paper. The aim of the paper is to present state of the art in quantitative research on the EFQM excellence model that will guide future research lines in this field. The articles were searched with the help of six strings and these six strings were executed in three popular databases i.e. Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Around 584 peer-reviewed articles examined, which are directly linked with the subject of quantitative research on the EFQM excellence model. About 108 papers were chosen finally, then the purpose, data collection, conclusion, contributions, and type of quantitative of the selected papers are discussed and analyzed briefly in this study. Thus, this study identifies the focus areas of the researchers and knowledge gaps in empirical quantitative literature on the EFQM excellence model. This article also presents the lines of future research.
 
This study aims to prove the effect of inflation and corporate social responsibility on stock returns with profitability as an intervening variable in mining listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The population of this study is 47 mining sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI). The sampling technique uses a purposive sampling method which has certain criteria in taking samples that have an annual financial report 2017-2019, in order to obtain 22 companies. mining sector is listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The method of this research uses analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based on variance, namely Partial Least Square (PLS). SEM with variance-based PLS so that it can handle two conditions, namely conditions with undetermined factors and conditions where the solution cannot be accepted. This study uses a computer program from smart PLS 3.2 which is to determine which variables are significant to stock returns in mining listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2017-2019 period. The results of this research show that: (1) inflation has a significant effect to stock returns; (2) inflation has a significant impact on profitability; (3) corporate social responsibility has a major impact on stock returns; (4) corporate social responsibility has a significant impact on profitability; (5) profitability has a significant impact on stock returns.
 
This article aims to make an analysis on how the new reconfiguration of the global economic order, where the EU is one of the three main actors, most likely based on strong protectionist tendencies, affects the EU's ability to support more intense national economic policies and stricter rules aimed at reducing economic and social disparities. Our analytical study, one with an interdisciplinary character because, although the investigated aspects fit mainly in the economic sphere, they also have important and relevant connections with the field of international relations, follows four directions of investigation on opinions projected around the issue of economic inequality and its measurement. At the same time, the ideas around which we have built this material come to certify the already expressed views of economists that the reduction of major economic inequalities is not achieved strictly by economic measures but through a combination of factors, such as political and social programs or diplomacy. Also, our analysis brings to the foreground one of the most used instruments of measuring economic inequality, the Gini Coefficient. A series of conclusions resulted from this segment of our research, based on the interpretation of recent official statistics and data regarding economic inequality measured within the EU, illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of measuring such complex economic phenomena and what are the dangers that economists face when assigning certain figures to countries on the globe.
 
The Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis formulated by a classical British economist David Ricardo argues that a reduced tax now is a tax increase in the future, the substitution of debt for current taxes has no effect on aggregate demand. The main objective of this paper is to examine empirically the existence of the Ricardian equivalency in Ghana by using time series data running from 1990 to 2017 and ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration and Error Correction Model framework developed by Pesaran and Shin (1995,1999). We examined the long run relationship between the dependent variable household final consumption expenditure and independent variables government expenditure, deficit, GDP per capita and gross debt. The long run results showed a positive and significant relationship between GDP per capita and household consumption expenditure. The result of analysis supports the Keynesian conventional theory and found strong evidence against the existence of the Ricardian Equivalency Hypothesis in Ghana.
 
The paper deals with the important issue in management of academic staff at universities that is performance management. Particular case of Georgian National University SEU is discussed. Importance and peculiarities of the performance management at higher education institution is showed, relevant literature is analyzed, mathematical model for measuring performance indicator is constructed and relevant variables are revealed. These variables are introduced based on the priorities of the program and the goals and objectives of the university in general. Model is being implemented at SEU and all the academic staff members and administration are involved in it in order to clarify aims of establishing performance indicator and create supportive organizational culture for performance management process to be successful.
 
Never before has so much plastic existed within the environment as is currently the case. Cosmetics are a significant part of the plastic problem, both in terms of microplastics in the ingredients and through plastic-containing packaging. Generation Y is often seen as being environmentally conscious and sustainable. Contrary to this, however, Generation Y has proven to be carefree when buying plastic cosmetics. This article is intended to clarify the question of why German women of Generation Y buy plastic-contaminated, caring facial cosmetics, even though they are aware of possible damage. Results of an online survey (N=337) and a qualitative survey with experts revealed that the leading causes for the purchase of plastic-containing, caring cosmetics include the lack of plastic-free alternative products, the lack of transparency of product declarations and the enormous amount of time involved in the search for plastic-free cosmetic.
 
The Purpose: This study investigates the role of Artificial Intelligence- chatbot (AI chatbot) quality and AI chatbot users across various banking needs and its impact on customer acceptance of AI chatbots through the mediating role of perceived usefulness and ease of use. Design/methodology/approach – This quantitative study uses a cross-sectional time dimension. The questionnaire of this study was developed using multiple academic sources. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data, and the SmartPLS 4 software was used for the calculation. Finding - The findings indicated a significant positive direct relationship between AI chatbot quality and acceptance of AI chatbot (path coefficient of 0.138 and p-value of 0.022). At the same time, the direct relationship between the AI-chatbot user and the acceptance of the AI chatbot was insignificant (path coefficient = 0.0.096, and p-value = 0.246). While the results of the indirect relationship reveal that perceived usefulness and ease of use partially mediated the relationship between AI chatbot quality and acceptance of AI chatbots. The perceived usefulness and ease of use fully mediated the relationship between AI chatbot users and acceptance of the AI chatbot. Originality/value – The results of this study developed a framework for banking and other customer-oriented businesses in understanding and developing AI chatbots to address customer needs.
 
On present day, sharia insurance industry is having a significant growth yearly. The annual growth is around 3%-5% and potentially could achieve 20% yearly in growth. This research used the current existing service design element problems in sharia insurance industry as the basis for this research. Steps taken in this research is by using service quality in order to get the needs of the customer. The aims of this research are to design the renewal service of insurance in accordance with the customer needs and provide alternative solutions to the problems by conducting the research in one of sharia insurance companies in Indonesia. Further purpose of this study is to implement the renewal service design recommendation that match the customer needs. The methods used in this research are TRIZ with service quality and service blueprint in seeking the current and improved condition. This research also uses service design method as the basic theory in creating high quality service system in accordance to customer requirements and service redesign method for recreating an improved version of the service. The output of this research is the improved service design recommendation mapped in service blueprint. Furthermore, the research also gives alternative solutions on the existing problem which can be applied to the service.
 
Every individual investor has an error in making a decision to buy or sell shares. Mistakes in making predictions can be minimized by understanding his personality and the steps taken in getting better returns. This study uses Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), secondary data, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and stock simulations emphasizing the decision-making process when buying and selling shares. The initial AHP model gives the results of the target shares purchased, accounting information selected Price Book Value (PBV) that is undervalued, Return on Assets (ROA) around 10-20 percent, Return in Equity (ROE) around 20-40 percent, type of ownership Indonesian SOEs selected stocks for the long term, while short-term tend to be private, and use technical analysis by looking at the upward trend that is using moving average indicators, MA5 above MA20. As a result, individual stock investors who have only become stock investors for less than 1 year have stock returns of around 2-4 percent, already become investors, 1-3 years will get a return of around 10 percent, stock returns will rise again, long-term investments will be made. around 20 percent. The risk for short-term investment will be greater than the long-term investment. The DISC personality that fits this stage is precisionist.
 
The study investigated the mediating roles of both market sensing and product management in the impact of business analytics on market adaptation in the eCommerce industry in Nigeria. A sample of 40 firms was selected using both probability and nonprobability sampling techniques. The questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents and quantitative analysis was used to analyze the data collected from the survey. After the application of factors analysis to verify the both reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the result shows that product management has a significant mediating role in the relationship between business analytics and market adaptation while market sensing does not. This study recommends that firms particularly the ones in the eCommerce industry should allow business analytics to dictate changes to be made to their product lines, composition, and structure among others (product management), and by this, they will be able to adapt easily to changes in any market they find themselves.
 
Infrastructure Projects are large investment by the public and/or private sector that required enormous financial resource commitment to build physical asset and facilities needed for economic development so that the company need project financing to support with. Project finance is based on debt repayment from project companies’ revenue and not on the sponsors or the developer’s balance sheet, so the project companies should assure the cash flow is sufficient for debt repayment and dividend payment. Beside that investors still have to analyze the value created in that project with highest positive Economic Value Added. Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT) need to cover cost of invested capital to create value so that the ratio of NOPAT to total Project Cost (Return on Invested Capital) is should be more than the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The capital structure doesn’t have an optimum weight and cost as long as the Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) higher than WACC.
 
The study was carried out to examine the level of awareness on financial instruments and familiarization with any other financial instruments apart from the Letter of Credit (L/C) and Bank Guarantee (BG). Furthermore, it examined the impacts of COVID-19 on business working capital and the level of readiness of the business to take advantage of financial instruments when fully innovated and globally acceptable. The study used primary data obtained through experience, observation, and opinion sampling from thirty businesses in Nigeria with a digital market presence. Data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method of measures of frequency. From the study, an average respondent is aware of financial instruments application for financing their business working capital. However, very few are familiar with other financial instruments apart from L/C and BG. Unarguably, COVID-19 has impacted business working capital and many respondents are willing to take advantage of financial instruments when fully innovated and globally acceptable based on the principle of good faith amongst all actors in the GVCs trades. The recommendations include the need to embrace the Global Registry of Financial Instruments (GRoFI) and encourage in-country and regional domestication by the Central Banks and Multilateral Development Banks. Furthermore, the global and national leaders may embrace the Multilateral Committee on Financial Instruments (MultiCoFI) to work out the fine details to innovate financial instruments facilitating trade for development.
 
R 2 Value of the Endogenous Constructs and Relevance of the Path Coefficients
Findings of Hypotheses Tested from the Theoretical Model
The objective of this study was to fill the knowledge gap through analyzing the influence and linkage of buyers’-suppliers’ attitude towards e-procurement adoption in developing countries, Tanzania in particular. This study was guided by Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and the Technology, Organization and Environment model. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The study also used non-probability (purposive) sampling and probability (stratified) sampling techniques. Sample size was 157. Questionnaires and documentary review were used for data collection. The collected data were analysed by using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling with the help of SmartPLS 3 software. Findings reveal that buyers’-suppliers’ attitude has direct influence and links the performance expectancy, relative advantage and legal framework towards e-procurement adoption in public sector. The findings and recommendations of this study are anticipated to improve the adoption of e-procurement in developing countries, Tanzania in particular.
 
Relevance of the Path Coefficients
Findings of Hypotheses from the Proposed Theoretical Model
The objective of this study was to fill the knowledge gap through analyzing the buyers’ and suppliers’ perception on legal framework influence towards e-procurement adoption model in developing countries, Tanzania in particular. This study was guided by Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and the Technology, Organization and Environment model. The study adopted positivism philosophy and cross-sectional survey research design. The study also used non-probability (purposive) sampling and probability (stratified) sampling techniques. Sample size was 157. Questionnaires and documentary review were used for data collection. The collected data were analysed by using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) with the help of SmartPLS 3 software. Findings reveal that in the presence of performance expectancy, relative advantage and attitude, legal framework has an indirect influence towards e-Procurement Adoption Model. The findings and recommendations of this study are anticipated to improve the adoption of e-Procurement in developing countries, Tanzania in particular.
 
Results of T-Student test to evaluate the significance of path coefficients
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of perceived value on customer loyalty by examining the mediating role of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) advertising and customer satisfaction (a Case study of Jabama Company). This research is applied objectively and it is a descriptive and survey study based on the data collection. The statistical population of the study is consisted of the customers of Jabama Company in Iran among which 200 customers were selected through the structural equation method as the sample size. The sampling method was simple random sampling. Furthermore, to measure the research variables and evaluate the research model, a 20-item questionnaire was designed and sent electronically to the members of the sample population. Correlational method and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. For this purpose, the Smart Pls3 software was applied and the Sobel Test used for testing the mediating hypotheses. The results of the study indicate that the perceived value on customer loyalty has a positive and significant impact by examining the mediating role of eWOM advertising and customer satisfaction.
 
Children today are very comfortable using electronic technology, Internet, on line games and digital platforms. The dominant portion of the on line content is consumed via their parent’s technological devices. Knowing that children are not able to recognize media content from intentional advertising, raises the complex question of whether and how Internet advertising can be regulated and how children can be protected. The negative implications of children’s exposure to on line advertising can be categorized in: financial and psychological, and are summarized but not limited to: obesity, anxiety paired with influence over domestic spending’s, psychological and ethical issues. This raises the complex question of whether and how Internet advertising can be regulated and how children can be protected from the negative implications. The majority of research are focused on institutional regulations and industrial limitations but the importance and the role of the parents as a regularity mechanism is underestimated. The theory recognizes that certain parental style differs on how they view online exposure of their children and that influence their role in the process on regulation children exposure on online advertising. From the other side digital literacy of the parents is very important milestone in the proses positioning the parents in a role of as a self-regulation mechanism of children exposure. The industry and the regulators should be alerted for this matter in all parts of the world, since this issue is rising negative implication.
 
In this study, we assess the debt sustainability of emerging economies in Sub-Saharan Africa. We specify a dynamic panel threshold to estimate the debt threshold for primary surplus and economic growth. The results reveal a non-linear threshold effect. First, with a threshold value of 17.95%, the primary surplus has a strong positive relationship with the debt-to-GDP ratio. Second, economic growth is maintained when the debt-to-GDP ratio is about 52%. The study recommends that governments in SSA should make conscious efforts to restore fiscal discipline that will keep the debt burden at a rate reasonable enough to sustain and avoid debt overhang problems.
 
The policy of import substitution dominated developing economies especially Sub-Sharan African countries up till 1970. The focus later shifted to pursuing growth through increased export. Recently, countries of the West Africa Sub-region are clamoring for a revisit of growth through import substitution policies. This study therefore delved into the question of whether ECOWAS countries should go for import substitution growth strategy, or to develop strategy that promotes export-led growth, following the law of comparative advantage or a considerable mix of the two strategies. Using an export-augmented neoclassical production function, the study tested how relevant is the Export-led Growth Hypothesis for the ECOWAS sub-region over the period 1980-2014. Evidence does not offer a strong support for the Hypothesis in the short run but a strong evidence for improved capital stock and labor causing growth. However, long-run results suggest a significant relationship between export and growth but currently negative. A likely explanation of this negativity is that although exports, in the West African sub-regions has the tendency of increasing growth in the long run along with other factors of production, the present conditions of export, especially manufactured and agricultural exports, is experiencing a kind of “Import surge”. That is the import content of exports is high and the local content is low, thus reducing the spillover or multiplier effects. This was confirmed by the strong bilateral causality between export and import discovered in this study. A policy mix of import substitution and export promotion strategies was recommended for countries in this sub-region. Policies that will promote technological innovation in manufacturing and linkages with local suppliers alongside incentives to produce towards export are imperative. Production towards export should be focused on manufactured and agricultural products where each country has the highest comparative advantage so as to reduce the import content of the export.
 
Tanzanian Company size by Family consideration Note: Author's own
Customer loyalty and satisfaction are crucial for the success, prosperity and survival of a business. However, customers' preferences differ according to their attitudes towards products and services, as well as the culture and conditions in which they live, which can influence their preferences when choosing a business. More than 90% of all businesses are small and medium-sized enterprises, and about 50% of private businesses in Europe and 80% in Africa are family businesses. These businesses are considered the engine of economic development and growth and are instrumental in job creation. However, if these businesses were not favoured by their customers, they would have no chance to survive and fight poverty, which is typical of African countries. Our study, therefore, identifies and compares what type of company customers from developing countries (represented by the Mbulu region, Tanzania) prefer and whether their preferences are similar compared to respondents from more developed countries (represented by Liberec, Czech Republic). By testing several hypotheses, a dependency was found between customers' attitudes when choosing a company and their place of origin. African respondents prefer large non-family businesses to small or medium-sized family businesses, while European respondents prefer small or medium-sized family businesses.
 
This paper studies the situation of the blue economy in the Albanian part of the Adriatic Sea. As a country with a considerably long coastal line, it bears a lot of potential for the development of this sector, which includes tourism, fishery, maritime transport, and trade, as well as other related activities. The study focuses on tourism because it is one of the main contributors to the state budget, and to the fishery, due to its impact on tourism, gastronomy, exports, and the ecosystem. Data on these sectors during the last decade will be presented, with a special emphasis on the impact that Covid–19 pandemic had on tourism and fishery, how it shaped even afterward the way people make tourism, as well as their view on health and free time, due to its enormous economic and psychosocial impact. Another turning point in the performance of our blue economy is the actual armed conflict in Ukraine. Russian and Ukrainian tourists have increased impressively during the last years in Albania, and this aggravated situation has already begun to show its negative impact on our blue economy. The importance of this study lies in keeping up with the steps undertaken by our government towards this crucial sector of the economy, in terms of legislation, and real support with the right strategical politics undertaken and foreseen for the near future. It delivers recommendations to enhance these strategies to overcome the actual boundaries and develop further necessary reforms in favor of a sustainable blue economy.
 
Consumers Price Index (CPI) Source: (World Development Bank)
Gross Domestic Product Source:( World Development Bank)
Mortgage rate for house purchase Source:( World Development Bank)
The housing market is a very important sector worldwide and occupies a significant part of their capital stock. Given that the economy is experiencing a difficult situation, because of the Covid-19 pandemic crisis, also based on the financial crisis of 2007-2008, their impact has been immediate in the change in house prices. Moreover, this paper will contain the investigation of some of the macroeconomic variables that affect housing prices in Albania. The study is built on econometric models, using bound test to understand what correlation relationship exists between GDP, inflation and mortgage rate and evaluating the "Autoregressive Distributive Lags" model in the short-term period, as well as looking at the perspective of a long-term period according to the "Vector Error Correction" (VEC) model. From the result obtained from E-views software, it is shown that depending on the time periods, the impact of these macro variables is different. If in the short term it seems that the impact of the mortgage rate is not a very substantial variable or inflation can have a negative impact, in long-terms is the opposite. To have a model that is as reliable and strong as possible, "battery" tests have also been analyzed to diagnose its constituent elements such as heteroskedasticity, autocorrelation, normality and the CUSUM / CUSUM square test for stability of the model. This paper applies to all areas, whose political implications can be found mainly for the bank, various investors or even policy makers, which may be the Bank of Albania, which should pursue policies to stimulate economic growth and show caution in the level of inflation created or setting the mortgage threshold.
 
Model diagram
Research gap
Result of single and multiple objective optimizations
Nowadays, the growing trend of environmental concerns is significantly higher than in the past while the business also focuses on the supply chain more to serve the customer demand using the lowest resources possible which leads to two main decisions which are capacity, and product allocation. Therefore, this research aims at designing a multi-product, multi-period, and multi-echelon supply chain network with factories, internal warehouses, external warehouses, and customers while also trying to lower the environmental effect of the supply chain through gas emission. For this problem, large data of products and 20 periods of planning horizon of a real-world polymer industry are considered. The product deliveries use direct shipment from both internal and external warehouses. We develop bi-objective mixed-integer linear programming to find the most optimal product allocation and capacity while minimizing the total logistic costs which include warehouse and transportation cost and total emission through transportation. The problem is solved by the min-max approach through a mixed integer linear programming model using CPLEX software. After we get the result, we compare it with the single-objective model’s result to determine the trade-off between the total logistic cost and emission gas. Our base case result shows a better overall satisfaction level among all the models.
 
Structural Equation in AMOS
The interactive effect of export strategic orientations on export market learning ambidexterity has been studied in this paper. Export market orientation and export entrepreneurial orientation, as strategic orientations, have a complement feature among them, while ambidexterity itself is a complement form of exploration and exploitation. In this study, the relationship between these two complement effects was examined by using 291 export SMEs located in Turkey which is an emerging economy. According to the results, a great impact from interactive effect of strategic orientations to ambidexterity is examined. Also, in line with the previous researches, the results confirmed that export strategic orientations individually have impact on exploration and exploitation. The findings help provide a more complete understanding of how export strategic orientations might be related to export market learning dimensions. It is revealed that both types of orientations provide different managerial efforts individually and interactively to develop and foster exploration, exploitation and ambidexterity in export markets.
 
Determination of Foreign Exchange Rate Under Freely Floating Exchange Rate System
Cyclical fluctuations in the exchange rate
Linear Relationship between Foreign Exchange Reserves and Exchange Rate
This paper analyses the impact of foreign exchange rates on the foreign exchange reserves and the real Gross Domestic Product in India. These variables are essential for India’s external sector policy. Some basic definitions of the different kinds of exchange rates are covered in light of India’s economic context. This is followed by a literature review on the dilemma of adopting a strong or a weak exchange rate policy and its implications on the economy. Presented after this is a model of the cyclical nature of currency fluctuations in an economy. Empirical evidence shows that currency depreciation causes an increase in foreign exchange reserves and economic growth. Data from the International Financial Statistics of the International Monetary Fund and World Development Indicators of the World Bank has been utilised using econometric tests and software to verify the hypothesis. Results are ascertained and concluding remarks are made thereafter. Certain limitations to the research have been described as well.
 
Communication is always an important part of establishing a business’ sense of direction and growth; information needs to be accessed by the receiver in an appropriate way and put across in a clear, impactful and engaging way so that it will have an effect on the user. This research paper gives a detailed review of external communication strategies in the blockchain industry and how startups could revise their strategies over time to build trust and reputation. Even if the blockchain industry is becoming the preferred choice for businesses to securely conduct transactions, not many blockchain projects find acceptance amongst investors. Blockchain projects focus on raising funds for their ventures at a stage where they seldom have a viable product and using unregulated means of fundraising like initial coin offerings (ICO) or initial exchange offerings (IEO) have in turn been used to accumulate capital for such projects. With trust depleting in these means of fundraising, blockchain are becoming increasingly aware of the need to tailor their communication with potential investors. In this study, we’ve conducted cross-sectional studies across two separate times, once in 2017-18 at the time ICOs found prominence and then later in 2021, exploring how external communication strategies were revised and improved upon over time to ensure success and favour amongst users and investors.
 
This paper aims to investigate Fertial’s CSR communication, to comprehend whether it is a voluntary adoption or it is due to external stakeholders’ influence. Unlike many empirical researches that have been carried out to address the matter of voluntary CSR communication, we have focused our research on analyzing data collected from Fertial’s “house journal”, which is called “Fertial News”. We have adopted a qualitative data analysis method for this research, in order to analyze codes assigned from the last ten issues of Fertial News. The results of this study show that most of Fertial CSR communications are considered as feedback to external stakeholders’ influence, in comparison to the amount of social information voluntarily communicated by Fertial.
 
In the procurement decision, the future price of the raw material plays an important role as it affects the budget and procurement plan. Inaccuracy in raw material price prediction affects the performance of procurement activity and budget plan. Low Ash Metallurgical (LAM) coke is one of the important raw materials used by various alloy manufacturing company. In India, this coke generally imported from the foreign market and followed a long-term contract with the supplier. The LAM coke price is highly volatile in nature. Hence, accurate forecasting of the LAM coke price is very important for any alloy manufacturing company to manage its budget for the procurement. The intelligent models such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) can learn the past pattern through their self-learning and adapting capability. In this study, the discrete wavelet transformation has been used to extract the past LAM coke price pattern and resultant series applied to train the ANN and ANFIS model to improve the prediction accuracy. From the study, it has found that the prediction error for both the model is less than 5%, hence those models can be used by the alloy industry to predict the LAM coke price.
 
The various applications of AI have not yet led to widespread acceptance in marketing. Nevertheless, AI has enormous potential to fundamentally change the field of marketing with its applications, making the topic highly relevant for companies. By analyzing current applications, potential use cases in the near future, implementation opportunities and optimization areas, the study can present a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impact of AI in marketing and on marketing as a discipline. In particular, it looks at potential applications and challenges for companies that provide insight into the future of marketing. These are relevant to remain competitive in the future. In particular, the sub-area of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) will be addressed. For this purpose, two research questions were posed. On the one hand, the use cases in marketing that are given by the automation of processes by means of AI are examined. Secondly, the question is posed as to how the potential of AI in marketing can be further expanded and what trends can be identified or what significance RPA forms in this context. The analysis is based on a qualitative survey in the form of interviews with experts from the field.
 
The supplier selection process has become an important area of research and professional activity, and it is fundamental to understand the types and trends of research in this field. The appropriate supplier selection decision is a fundamental strategic process and plays an important role in supply chain management. In the last decade, academic research on sustainability has evolved rapidly in the supply chain literature. However, there has been scant opportunity for the research community to complete a global assessment of sustainable supplier selection activities to date. This paper seeks to address this need by exploring sustainability in supply chain management, developing a sustainable supplier selection framework with a tool for its operationalization to help managers evaluate supplier selection decisions. Our proposed model is based on the TOPSIS concept as a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) model and is validated through a case study. This research work follows the best-in-class approach to comply with all applicable environmental regulations and laws in the supplier selection process.
 
In contemporary Project Management literature and practice, it is possible to distinguish two paradigms: the algorithmic-rational paradigm and the relational paradigm. The algorithmic-rational paradigm is characterized by a sequence of programming methodologies that constitute the classic corpus of knowledge on Project Management (WBS, CPM, PERT, Gantt diagrams). Following the diffusion of Agile methods, dissatisfaction with the algorithmic-rational paradigm has spread and a Visual Planning approach, based on the decentralization of planning and control and the abandonment of algorithmic techniques (such as CPM and Gantt diagrams) in favour of simpler, visual and physical tools, has become increasingly established. Visual Planning is the concrete manifestation of a relational project management paradigm. In this work, through an analysis of the key practices characterizing Visual Planning, we have identified the five fundamental principles that define this approach to project management. Then, to structure and guide the choice of a software application that can support Visual Planning, we have (1) identified several features which allow distinguishing one software from another, and (2) created a correlation matrix between the core principles of Visual Planning and the software features. Through this matrix, it is possible to evaluate and measure the adherence of project management software applications to the logic and practices of physical Visual Planning.
 
Research Framework Source: Developed by the researcher.
This paper intends to assess the impact of microcredit on Household Consumption and Assets in Nepal. The multivariate techniques used to achieve the objectives of the study. The study uses Nepal Living Standard Survey 2011 data, which covers 5,988 households. Considering the endogeneity in the microcredit participation of household, the study uses instrumental variable technique (IV method) for assessing the impact of microcredit on Household Consumption and Assets. After the adjustment of the endogeneity, distance of bank, distance of cooperative from household and holding of land size of household as the instruments, eligible household reduced 475 household from 779 total households of intervention group and similarly 2,953 households from 5,209 total households of control group. CMP (conditional mixed process) estimator used to give flexibility in terms of combining continuous and binary variables together in the same model. Multivariate analysis indicates that it has positive and significant relationship on household consumption and on assets, (household consumption is on Food Consumption, Non-Food Consumption and Total Consumption. And similarly, household assets are, on ownership of livestock such as buffaloes, cows, sheep, etc, Ownership on transportation such as Cycle or Motor cycle, Ownership on appliances, such as Refrigerator, Television, CD player) on intervention group than the control group. The result and finding and review of the literatures in this paper provided a wide range of evidence that microcredit programs can increase incomes and uplift families out of poverty. Microcredit would be a viable and potentially sustainable tool to reduce poverty in Nepal.
 
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between some Corporate Governance indicators and the probability of modifying the independent auditor opinion in the Jordanian market. The sample consists of 104 non-financial firms listed on Amman stock Exchange for the year 2015. The logistic regression via SPSS is used to analyze the data. The results show that firm’s profitability (measured by ROA) and the number of institutional investors on the board of directors are significant negative predictors of the probability of receiving modified audit opinion by the firm. That is the higher the firm’s ROA and the larger number institutional investor representatives on the board of directors the less likely the firm will receive a modified audit opinion. On the other hand, the results also show that the board of directors’ size is significant positive predictor of receiving a modified audit opinion by the firm. That is the larger the size of the board of directors the more likely the firm will receive a modified audit opinion. Although, it is an unexpected result it agrees with some other studies results. Finally, board independence, board activity and the presence of audit committee have no significant impact on the type of audit opinion the firm receives.
 
Results of model two multiple linear regression
This paper investigates the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and tax avoidance. It also looks at how ownership structure impacts this relationship. Based on a sample of 300 European companies over the period 2014 - 2019, we use OLS regression models and come up with a negative relationship between corporate social responsibility and tax avoidance, which is consistent with the concepts of agency theory. Furthermore, we find that family businesses mitigate this relationship. These results show that family firms are more socially responsible than non-family firms due to their socio-emotional endowments, and consequently are less tax avoidant.
 
Retail banking customers are becoming increasingly versatile, requesting personalized financial products and services, provided in a fast, secure and cost effective manner. On the other hand, financial institutions struggle to gain customers’ trust and loyalty by designing new products with new features and putting emphasis on customer centricity. All these on-going changes overlap on the global rapid pace technological innovations such as digitization, artificial intelligence-related technologies which are continuously embedded into the basic, traditional financial products. On this background, the paper attempts to uncover whether there are differences and dissimilarities in the preferences of retail banking customers for relying on a specific banking product. It is performed a comparative analysis of the customers’ profile from 30 European countries, based on data extracted from World Bank’s set of financial inclusion indicators. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicates which countries exhibit similar patterns of their retail customers’ behavior in terms of financial services usage. The profile of retail banking customers in countries from Central, Western and Northern Europe is sophisticated, open to the implementation of technological innovations and digitization into the banking services. Customers in Eastern and Southern Europe countries are more reluctant in relying on digital banking technologies, use to save less and show a preference for using cash instead of debit/credit cards for making payments.
 
Identify and validate tools that anticipate the influence of macroeconomic indicators, whose history has indicated, at international level, episodes of economic collapse are the main objective of the paper. Using a logistic regression, I captured a model for quantifying the probability of banking crises, integrating indicators of the scoreboard on macroeconomic imbalances, as well as the sovereign risk premium for European countries. In this sense, the results show the premises underlying the elaboration of the analytical framework for the propagation of sovereign risk at the level of credit institutions.
 
This research is important because there are still many batik craftsmen unconsciousness of the importance of product quality and brand image in influencing the possibility of consumers buying products (batik Lasem cloth). Batik Lasem is a traditional Indonesian cloth originating from the City of Lasem in Central Java, Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to empirically examine product quality concepts consisting of eight (8) dimensions (performance, reliability, features, suitability, durability, service capability, aesthetics, and quality of customer perception) and brand image with a willingness to buy. The data collection was done involving 181 Lasem batik buyers in Central Java, Indonesia. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Three (3) hypotheses in this study were accepted. The result of the analysis shows that 1). There is a positive significant relationship between product quality and willingness to buy; 2) There is a positive significant relationship between brand image and willingness to buy, and 3). There is a significant relationship between product quality and brand image with willingness to buy.
 
Top-cited authors
Muhammad Yousaf
  • Westminster International University in Tashkent (WIUT)
Petr Briš
  • Tomas Bata University in Zlín
Ahmet Aytekin
  • Artvin Çoruh University
Devi Angrahini Anni Lembana
  • Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Jiarun Hu
  • Fudan University