International Journal of Adolescence and Youth

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 0267-3843
Publications
Delinquency trajectory groups – females.
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors-essentially the converse of the protective factors above.
 
PIP Through use of a semi-structured interview schedule, the abortion decision-making process of 150 Dar es Salaam adolescents (mean age, 17.5 years) admitted with abortion-related complications was analyzed, with particular emphasis on the involvement of social networks. The male partner was the most frequent (47.3%) first confidant after pregnancy was suspected, followed by close relatives (35.1%) and girlfriends (14.0%). 62.0%, 41,7%, and 68.8% of these confidants, respectively, advised the teen to terminate the pregnancy; the remainder tended to express a lack of interest in her predicament. The link to an abortionist was provided by mothers, sisters, or aunts in 33% of cases, by the male partner in 32% of cases, and by girlfriends in another 24%. Male partners were more likely to provide funds for the abortion--especially if the woman was a student--than to help her access an abortionist. When abortion-related complications created a need for hospitalization, only 18% of male partners provided assistance; this burden fell upon female relatives. It is postulated that male involvement, beyond the provision of money, is inhibited by the potential legal and social consequences of illegal abortion in Tanzania.
 
Many students in Botswana migrate from small rural villages and towns to the larger urban centres to attend university, and are subsequently required to adapt or acculturate to their new environments. However, the existing literature and research on acculturation experiences of students who migrate from rural-to-urban centres in Botswana is almost non-existent. The current study was therefore a qualitative exploratory investigation of the experiences of the students who migrate from rural-to-urban centres. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who contributed to a Talking Circle focus group. Researchers transcribed the interviews and used content analysis to uncover response themes. Findings indicated that the majority of students experienced some culture shock and a number of environmental and specific systemic stressors in their first two years of university life. Theoretical implications for understanding rural-to-urban acculturation and practical implications for university counselling approaches are also discussed.
 
Sample for Study II, number of participants answering all questionnaires before and after the intervention and number of participants answering at both time spots. 
In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants answered questionnaires at three time periods. Study I (N = 49) examined the effect of the intervention compared with the control group. Study II (N = 41) examined the relationship between the same psychological variables and change in mastering skills with horse. The intervention group reported a significant increase in perceived social support compared with the control group. There were no differences in self-esteem and general self-efficacy between the groups. The results from study II showed that a lower level of perceived social support prior to the intervention predicted an increase in mastering skills with the horse during the intervention.
 
This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs.
 
Adolescent children of mothers with HIV face a host of stressors that place them at increased risk for poor outcomes. Using covariance structure analysis, this study examines adolescent risk outcomes and their relationships to maternal health, as well as the potentially protective factors of family environment and self-competence. The final model indicated that poor maternal health was negatively related to a protective family environment, which in turn was negatively related to adolescent risk outcomes. A protective family environment was also positively related to adolescent self-competence, which was negatively related to adolescent risk outcomes. Implications of the study are discussed, including how these findings can influence interventions aimed at reducing the risk for poor outcomes among adolescent youth with HIV-infected mothers.
 
PIP Questionnaires completed by 700 secondary school teachers in Nigeria's Lagos, Kaduna, and Cross-River States revealed a generally positive attitude toward family life education. 53.56% of respondents were female and 31.5%% were or had been married. Their average age was 28.3 years. One third of the teachers were not parents, and only 15.5% had children as old as their students. The teachers expressed agreement with the importance of school-based sex education (71.6%), the potential for family planning to improve health (82.9%), concern with rapid population growth (68.7%), and awareness that teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are major social problems in Nigeria (84.7% and 74.9%, respectively). Most identified ages 10-14 years as the ideal time to talk to children about sex. Half considered it the mother's responsibility to provide sex education, and most felt it is easier to talk to a female child. 45% of teachers agreed that contraceptive services should be available to adolescents. The factors associated with a positive attitude toward family life education were female sex, single marital status, Christian religion, and teaching in a coeducational school.
 
An increasing number of people have become users of social media, mostly looking for social contacts and networking. But what kind of social capital do social networking services (SNSs) provide? University students' (N = 90) experiences of and opinions on social media were studied through a semi-structured questionnaire. The following research questions were set for this study: (1) What kinds of benefits do university students perceive in the usage of social media? and (2) What kind of social capital does social media produce according to university students' opinions? Their answers were analysed with the qualitative content analysis method. The results revealed that SNSs can increase students' social capital in many ways, such as in the form of peer support groups and learning environments, and enhance bonding and communality in them. These possibilities should be better studied in educational contexts, as they can have a positive impact on students' well-being, engagement to studies and, thus, study success.
 
Alternative School Day (ASD) is a project for adolescents who have difficulties in several areas. Nine pupils (14-16-years-old), their parents and teachers were interviewed during autumn and spring. The pupils attended ASD one day per week. All of them had a working-class background. The study focuses on the school as a middle-class arena, and for pupils with other class background, it represents an 'away ground'. Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital and habitus, and Giroux's emphasis of individuals as intentional actors, have been used to study domination and resistance in schools. The findings may indicate that there exist both domination and resistance in schools.
 
Schema of the basic model. 
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable.
 
Intimacy within relationships and the parent-child bond in particular is said to provide feelings of acceptance, warmth, sensitivity and an appreciation of self and can impact positively upon health and well-being of individuals. Views of intimacy can differ across cultures however, and may not be universally shared or understood. Accordingly, societies will have differing perspectives on how intimacy should be displayed between parents and children. For contemporary Chinese households living in Britain, we do not have an understanding of how residency in the UK may impact upon traditional Chinese values in terms of parent-child intimacy levels. Through a qualitative study with a set of 12 diverse Chinese families living in Britain, using repeat interviews over a nine-month period, Chinese parents and children were asked to reflect on past and present childhood experiences to uncover the ways in which intimacy is displayed and promoted within the parent-child dyad.
 
Types of bullying the younger children themselves reported. 
Child's report about the teen sibling's verbal responses on hearing of the bullying. 
Type of advice the bullied child reported that the teen sibling provided. 
The prevalence of bullying among children, and the sometimes tragic consequences as a result, has become a major concern in schools. The larger research for this study reported on in-depth interviews with 28 elementary and middle school-age boys and girls (7-12 years) who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, mostly on school grounds, and the responses of their parents and teachers. Responses of the children's teen siblings to the younger child's revelations of being bullied are the focus of this report. In-depth interviews with each teen sibling (n = 28) and with each bullied child revealed how the children viewed the teen siblings' supportive strategies. Almost all the children (89%) reported that their older siblings talked with them and offered advice. The teen siblings shared with the younger ones that they too (71%) had been bullied, or they knew someone who had been bullied (18%). Teens gave the advice to 'bully back' to 11% and advice to 'tell someone' to 32% of the younger children. The children felt quite positive about their older siblings' advice (89%), which did differ depending on the bullied child's gender. Teen siblings gave advice to 'avoid bullies' to 77% of female and to 27% of male younger children.
 
Semantic differential adjective pairs.
Semantic differential ratings by contact with a friend or family member who had a teen pregnancy or was a teen parent. Higher values indicate positive ratings and lower values indicate negative ratings. 
Correlations between scores on the PTTM Judgemental and Supportive subscales with feelings and stereotyped perceptions of pregnant and parenting teens (N ¼ 255).
Youth may be particularly attuned to social evaluation during the teen years with implications for physical and mental health. Negative attitudes and stereotypes constitute an important type of social evaluative threat. Pregnant and parenting teens not only encounter challenges associated with their early transition to parenthood, but also are confronted with unfavourable attitudes of others. A university sample of 255 men and women responded to surveys targeting their feelings and beliefs about pregnant teens, teen mothers and teen fathers. Teen mothers were generally perceived more positively than pregnant teens who were perceived more positively compared to teen fathers. Social evaluations were generally unrelated to respondents' sex or race, but respondents who had contact with a friend or family member who had experienced a teen pregnancy were selectively more positive, as were freshmen compared to seniors. Risks attributed to early childbearing may be exacerbated by negative social evaluations.
 
Median monthly domestic household income (MMDHI) by household size 2009. 
This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological-developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people.
 
There is a very close relationship between substance abuse and delinquent and eventually criminal behaviour. The article covers the causes of adult and youth use of substance abuse leading to crime and then concentrates on both adults and youths separately. Factors such as gender and race are also associated with criminal activities resulting from, or associated with, substance abuse. The victims of substance abuse are not only those who are robbed, but also those in domestic violence. Efforts are made to prevent and treat the problem. There is however, no easy route in this area. Not all crimes are committed under the influence of drugs or due to drug taking, but many are committed for this reason. The reliance on drugs lowers inhibitions and rational thinking and once the individual has been addicted, there is a need to continue a career of crime, in order to satisfy the habit.
 
Examined substance abuse, mental health problems, and the psychosocial well-being of 100 postadolescents (aged 18–21 yrs) residing in a short-term shelter. Interviews revealed that Ss had high levels of social dysfunctions (e.g., low educational achievement, few job skills, poor work histories, and limited interpersonal coping networks). Ss had much higher prevalence rates for alcohol and drug abuse, depression, and schizophrenia than those found among comparable age groups in the general population. Comorbidity of diagnosed disorders was pervasive. Only 31 of the Ss had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) diagnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Surveyed 250 urban and 290 rural high school students in Nigeria to determine the nature and extent of substance abuse. Among lower class urban Ss, alcohol, antibiotics, cigarettes, stimulants, and tranquilizers were widely used. Only 12 urban Ss and no rural Ss had used Indian hemp. Stimulants, antibiotics, and alcohol were common among rural Ss, but less heavily used when compared with urban Ss. Most Ss reported using drugs to avoid sleeping or because they were prescribed by a doctor; however, 39 urban Ss (but no rural Ss) reported taking drugs to feel good/high. More males than females were involved in drug use/abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This report is based on selected data gathered as part of an international project with 2968 South Australian and 5377 Japanese students (10 to 15 years of age). Comparisons between the two countries highlight similarities in the different levels of perceived support from teachers, parents and peers as students progress through the lower to higher year levels at school. The focus of the analyses presented here is on the link between support from teachers and the well-being of students, while the project also considers support from parents and peers. In addition, this paper summarises the literature as to possible barriers to the maintenance of quality teacher-student relationships as students progress through the higher years of middle school settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This six-month longitudinal study was conducted with 311 adolescents and verifies: (1) if music preferences can predict depression; (2) if personality traits can predict music preferences; (3) if music listening can represent a protective factor against depression. Results indicate that Soul music listening (e.g., hip hop, R&B) is a predictor of lower depression levels in adolescent girls. Personality dimensions from the Big Five reveal various predictive relations with music preferences, for instance Openness predicts music eclecticism. Soul music listening is a moderator of the predictive relationship between Neuroticism and depression levels in adolescent girls, thus pointing to a possible protective effect. Research paths for studies on music and adolescent development, personality traits, and evolutionary psychology are succinctly discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Surveyed 1,717 7th–9th graders, using a standardized questionnaire, and conducted 8-yr longitudinal case studies with 40 Ss (aged 14 yrs at time of the 1st interview). Data on delinquency, aggression, drug abuse, and psychosomatic complaints were related to measures of the quality of Ss' relationships with friends, parents, and teachers. Frequency of substance use, delinquent behavior, and health impairment increased with (1) difficult scholastic achievement situations, (2) high parental expectations, (3) bad social climate in the family, and (4) difficult integration processes into the peer group. Implications for social support networks for adolescents are discussed, and approaches to strengthen the supportive potentials of schools are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptons of Stress: Standardized Solution of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis*
Polychoric/Polyserial Correlations of Observed Indicators
1,717 adolescents (aged 13–16 yrs) completed a questionnaire regarding school success and status insecurity as manifested in doubts about employment and in socio-emotional distress. Additional factors were gender, social class, and relationships with parents. Risk of failure in school and its actual occurrence constituted a source of psychosocial stress. Status insecurity correlated with an above-average incidence of dissatisfaction with school performance, health complaints, and psychosomatic disorders. Social conflict with parents about previous scholastic achievement and future educational plans were intervening variables that magnified the effects of poor school performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the relationship between adolescents' sexual experience and their orientations toward sexual issues (attitudes toward sexual permissiveness, preferred courtship styles, importance of knowing things about partner before having sex, and relational assertiveness). A random sample of 244 adolescents (aged 15–18 yrs) were interviewed twice within 1 yr and were divided into 3 naturally occurring groups of adolescents: (1) sexually experienced adolescents at both interview times; (2) sexually inexperienced adolescents at both interview times; and (3) adolescents who were sexually inexperienced at the 1st interview but had sexual experience before the 2nd interview. Results did not support the hypothesis that the transition to a sexually experienced state influences sexual orientations. Rather, the results suggest that the transition to 1st intercourse is more likely to be due to changes in sexual orientations preceding sexual intercourse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Used questionnaire data to identify the incidence and management of menstrual disorders among 180 Nigerian students (aged 16–35 yrs). About 92.2% of the Ss had their 1st menses between the age of 11 and 16 yrs. The majority of the Ss indicated that the disorders or pains usually coincided with an examination period. 37.9% of those that experienced menses at the time of an examination/interview had their abilities/performances affected due to reduced learning or thinking abilities. Behavioral changes were experienced by 108 Ss. Emotional instability including lassitude and depression alternated with emotional outbursts, anxiety, irritability, and purposeless energy. 10 of the Ss admitted severe pain to be the cause of suicidal feeling. Most Ss tolerated the situation they experienced or took self-prescribed drugs or drugs introduced by parents or friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Violence in Australian schools is perceived to be on the increase and most of this violence is said to be caused by boys. The traditional view is that males are the more aggressive sex. Recent research in Scandinavia (e.g., K. Bjorkqvist al, 1992) however, has questioned this gender polarized view of aggression in suggesting that gender differences may be qualitative rather than quantitative. This paper reports a study of gender and developmental differences in aggression among students in South Australian schools. A modified version of a peer estimation technique, the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (K. Bjorkqvist et al, 1994), was administered to 422 students across 4 yr levels (Years 2, 6, 9 and 11) in 2 Catholic high schools and 4 Catholic primary schools. Boys were found to be more physically and verbally aggressive than girls but girls used more indirect aggression at the higher year levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Notes that self-esteem is a potentially important measure for screening problems of social adaptation which underlie and predict mental health problems. Measuring change in self-esteem is also an important way of assessing success of therapeutic programs of various kinds. The usefulness of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is indicated from a review of various studies in Canada and America. In the present study, a stratified sample of 4 comprehensive schools in England, and of classes in 2 6th form colleges yielded normative data on the Likert-scaled RSES for 665 male and 665 female pupils aged 12 to 19. Among the measures completed was the RSES. In each age group females had significantly lower self-esteem than males, and females were more than twice as likely to have "devastated" self-esteem. Some evidence of construct validity is available for both sex groups within age categories, from significant correlations with previously validated measures of mental health problem categories, using scales from the Ontario Child Health Survey, (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Data were analyzed from 2 linked national projects in Canada and the UK that dealt with the educational and occupational experiences of 808 youths (aged 15–18 yrs) in 2 contrasting labor markets in the UK, as well as 259 Canadian youth in Ottawa and 482 youth in Newfoundland. In both the Canadian and English samples, self-confidence was high and orientation to new technology was positive. Most Ss displayed individualistic interpretations of the labor market, although general commitment to work was less marked in the English samples. Within this framework of beliefs and values, the English samples displayed slightly greater ambivalence than did their Canadian counterparts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Investigated the association between age and length of stay and recidivism in 228 male juvenile offenders (aged 12–18 yrs) who were followed up to 10 yrs after leaving a multi-faceted treatment program for troubled youth. A success rate index, which divided the number of months that Ss were reincarcerated after leaving the program into the total number of months since leaving the program, was used to analyze follow-up information. Longer stays and older Ss lessened the likelihood of later incarceration. Social and emotional growth, a quality treatment program, length of stay, and age at the time of leaving the program were important factors with regard to future reincarceration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Provides an overview of juvenile delinquency and the process involved in its cause, prevention, control, and treatment in Africa. African governments should discourage the tendency of criminal justice administrators and researchers to impart concepts developed in western countries without critical appraisal of the basic concepts and their pertinence to the African situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Social aggression is aimed at hurting others through damaging their peer relationships, and occurs more typically among girls than boys, especially in the teenage years. We have previously reported that Australian teenage girls and their teachers explain such behaviors in terms of friendship-group processes and creating excitement. While verbal behaviors such as spreading rumors play an important part, this paper presents evidence, in a sample of 15-yr-old girls, that nonverbal behaviors are also an important aspect of social aggression, serving functions such as conveying dislike and excluding individuals from peer groups. Such behaviors are often subtle and can be used in ways which enable offenders to protest their innocence. Implications for interventions to alleviate the damaging effects of social aggression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Compared 211 male alcoholic inpatients (AIs; the probands) with 200 nonalcoholic men (aged 20–65 yrs; the controls) and compared the children (CH) of both groups in a 15-yr longitudinal study of subsequent life and development. There were 169 controls with low/moderate alcohol use (ALU) and no drug use (DU; Group 1A); 31 controls with low/moderate ALU with DU (Group 1B); 171 AIs with high ALU but no DU (Group 2A); and 40 AIs with high ALU and DU (Group 2B). Groups 1B and 2B had the most psychosocial problems. Social assistance was more often needed by proband groups. There were 201 proband and 189 control CH (all Ss aged 16–32 yrs). The proband CH and the CH of group 1B accounted for a larger number of visits to wards and clinics for somatic symptoms and to psychiatric clinics and wards than did other groups. Groups 1B and 2B were often involved in drug crimes, and their CH's social maladjustment and health status resembled each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the extent and pattern of out-group (OG) contact amongst Catholic (CA) and Protestant (PR) 1st yr university students (48 males and 222 females, mean age 20 yrs) in Northern Ireland. Attitudes towards mixing with members of the OG were also considered, together with a complex of constructs identified in the literature as being central to friendship development. These included group identification, self-disclosure, OG attraction, and trust. Gender differences were also taken into account. Results revealed significant differences between religious groups and between genders. CAs displayed a greater inclination to disclose to a friend of the same religion. They also recorded a stronger feeling of group identification than their OG counterparts. Females, compared with males, reported higher levels of OG trust, a greater willingness to self-disclose to a friend of both the same and other religion and "to others" collectively together with higher levels of social attraction towards the OG. Both males and females preferred disclosing to a friend than a stranger. The contribution of relational dimensions to an understanding the association of CAs and PRs is explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
As counseling programs are being strained by the ever increasing needs of todays students. Other methods of helping the students are being used. The peerhelper program is one method that is optimistically being tried. Information is presented here on the background, training procedures, and evaluation methods (both subjective and objective), of the program. It is difficult to evaluate the programas pointed out in one evaluation study that had inconclusive results. Although the peer helper program appears to be useful and worthwhile, caution is urged until enough data appears to substantiate the effectiveness of the program.
 
Describes pupil perspectives on remedial education in 2 UK schools where 27 13–16 yr olds were interviewed in groups about attitudes toward ability, learning difficulties, remedial teachers, and the curriculum. The simplistic view of the growth of anti-school values was criticized, but a "no-win" syndrome was found to operate in the web of attitudes adopted toward clients of remedial departments. It is suggested that greater integration of support within mainstream lessons may offer advantages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Double simplex model of moral development for all youths aged 15 to 24.  
Standardized effects on moral intention, delinquent intention, and moral values of higher stages for a youth aged between 15 and 24
Standardized effects on social desirability and moral values of lower stages for a youth aged between 15 and 24.
Standardized effects on moral intention and delinquent intention for a youth aged either between 20 and 24 or between 15 and 19.
Examined measures of moral consciousness and moral intention and their linkages for Chinese youth in Hong Kong. This study aims at testing the cognitive–developmental model of moral consciousness along 7 stages, in ascending order: moral confusion, hedonism, personal interests, interpersonal and intrapersonal accord, societal order, societal progress, and universal principledness. A face-to-face survey of 1,500 Chinese youths (aged 15–24 yrs) in Hong Kong provided data for analysis. The survey benefited from focus groups, which helped formulate items to measure moral consciousness. Structural equation modeling shows that 1-step effects of moral consciousness on those of a stage higher were significant and more positive than 2-step effects of moral consciousness on those of 2 stages higher. Moreover, effects of the moral consciousness of higher stages are more positive on moral intention and more negative on delinquent intention than moral values of lower stages. The cognitive–developmental model appears to hold with regard to Chinese youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
The author describes his experience as a senior clinical psychologist in a prison treatment program, where he observed the cruel practices inflicted on learning disabled, emotionally disturbed adolescent and young adult male prisoners. For punishment as well as when suicidal, prisoners were often shackled to a marble slab, sometimes in the nude. Prisoners were often screamed at by the guards to get compliance. The implications of these practices are discussed. While there were psychotherapists to work with the emotional disturbance and teachers in the prison school to work with the learning disabilities, too much of the structure of the prison system did not lend itself to treatment. Effective treatment of offenders seems to call for a multifaceted approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Examined the connection between adolescents' tastes and those of significant individuals in their social environment. The importance of the social network and correspondences in cultural style (CST) between adolescent, best friends, and parents were considered. The analysis was based on the responses of 644 Dutch teenagers (mean age 14.9 yrs) to a questionnaire about their own and others' preferences in the areas of music, reading material, film, television, art, culture, and recreation. Four CSTs were distinguished. These CSTs were characterized respectively by elite, informational, romantic, and "virile" interests. Ss' CSTs tended to correspond closely to those of their best friends. Ss reported no conflict between their own tastes and those of their parents. There was no evidence of a parent–peer conflict in which youth distance themselves from their parents and focus exclusively on their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Compared data on 677 adolescents from L. Biron et al (1975, 1977) and on 676 adolescents from G. Cote et al (1986) on the stability of delinquent conduct of 14–15 yr old adolescents between 1974 and 1985. Ss responded to the same questionnaire about their delinquent conduct and their social life. Criminal delinquency of adolescents was equivalent in scope and direction, despite a slight tendency to decrease. Hidden delinquency among minors was considered normal, because it was so widespread (i.e., found in more than 80% of Ss). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses research findings relative to the link between learning disability (LD) and juvenile delinquency (JD) and provides a model for additional research to prove this relationship. Current research results tend to create more confusion and uncertainty than fact on which sound theories can be built. The 1st focus of research should be on the nature of the causal relationship between LD and JD. From the existing literature, 5 possible relationships can be identified: (1) LDs cause JD, (2) JD causes LDs, (3) some 3rd factor causes both JD and LDs, (4) LDs and JD develop independently but react with each other to produce a situation in which 1 or both become more severe, and (5) the relationship is spurious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Discusses the low rate of juvenile delinquency in Japan interpreted through a body of cross-cultural research on delinquency. Several trends are significant: (1) More crimes are being committed by younger juveniles, (2) the percentage of juveniles arrested for crimes who are students has increased dramatically, (3) the number of life endangering or fatal crimes has dropped sharply, (4) most of the crimes involve some form of theft, and (5) the number of sexual offenses has been steadily dropping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Investigated ethnic self-identification among 122 Turkish and 119 Chinese adolescents (aged 12–17 yrs) living in the Netherlands. Ss completed measures of self-identification and global self-esteem. Turkish Ss completed measures of perceived competence and social competence, and Chinese Ss completed measures of self-concept stability, happiness, and collectivism. Four types of self-identification were identified: dissociative, assimilative, acculturative, and marginal. Turkish Ss showed a stronger dissociative self-identification than Chinese Ss. Among Turks, an acculturative orientation (particularly a marginal one) was associated with lower self-esteem. Among Chinese Ss, both these orientations were associated with less self-concept stability, less happiness, and a less collectivistic orientation. Collectivism was also positively associated with happiness, but at the same time, among the older Ss, with low self-concept stability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Assessed 3 recent school-to-work transition program models regarded as intervention successes. Factors associated with the most successful sites included private sector involvement in program planning, written contract with school site, cooperation of school personnel, information on social and personal competencies, information on occupational implications of choices, and information on psychological aspects of the work role. An analysis of the designs of the models revealed structural and programmatic flaws suggesting the development of an alternative educational model that would overcome limitations in these model designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
A young person showing strong destructive symptoms often has too much hatred toward adults, other authorities, and society for the "voice of reason" to penetrate or reach some fixed point in his or her psyche. Music, however, activates emotions raising problems of the real field of life to be dealt with in symbolic form. This paper discusses the theory and practice of music therapy in the treatment of institutionalized adolescents. Cognitive developmental psychology and the theories of Piaget, Freud, and Lewin are examined. Sections are: "Is Music an Early Form of Thinking?"; "Visions of Despair in the Background of Destructive Adolescents"; "Does Teenage Music Help in the Treatment of Destructivity?"; "Music in the Field of Life"; "Can Music Solve Crises in Real Life?"; and "The Opportunities of Music in Community Work." Music is seen as a treatment modality which may reach emotionally disturbed teenagers and traumatized individuals. (JBJ)
 
The great majority of studies on the self-esteem of ethnic minority youth has been conducted in the United States, has focused on global personal self-esteem only, and has not considered the issue of dual group identity. Using a two-dimensional perspective we examined ethnic and national identification and its relationship to global self-esteem and self-evaluation in six separate domains. Analyses of data collected in the Netherlands showed that for ethnic minority group adolescents, ethnic identification and national identification were independent of one another. In addition, ethnic identification was positively related to self-esteem whereas national identification was not. Furthermore, compared to the Dutch, ethnic minorities had similar levels of self-esteem and domain specific self-evaluations. Among all groups, physical appearance was clearly the most important predictor of global self-esteem. The results support a two-dimensional conceptualisation of identification for ethnic minority adolescents. The paper also argues that studies on self-esteem should examine different domains of self-evaluation in addition to global self-esteem. Furthermore, the results suggest that not only ethnocultural factors, but also more general factors are important for shaping self-evaluation among adolescents.
 
This study investigates factors that are related to aggressive behavior, violent behavior, and aggressive and violent attitudes among African-American preadolescent boys. These factors include exposure to verbal aggression in the home, exposure to community violence, family structure, and peer behavior. Two analyses are performed. The first is based on the behavior ratings of group leaders who were conducting after-school groups with the boys. The findings revealed that leaders' ratings were unrelated to the boys' self-reported behavior or attitudes, as well as the family, community, and peer variables. The second analysis focuses on the effects of family arguments, exposure to community violence, family structure, and peer behavior on self-reported aggressive and violent behavior and attitudes. All of the variables except peer behavior affected self-control. Peer behavior, exposure to community violence, and family arguments affected aggressive and violent behavior. When multivariate analyses were performed, family arguments had a strong negative effect on both attitudes and behavior, positive peers had a strong positive effect on behavior, and age had a strong negative effect on self-control. The findings are discussed in terms of the contextual nature of violent behavior, and from an ecological/developmental perspective. Finally, the findings are also discussed in terms of their implications for practice.
 
The use of ?street vernacular? and ?bad? language is now a familiar feature of classroom and corridor interactions in secondary (11?18) schools. The initial experiences of trainee teachers when first visiting schools can, however, be varied and sometimes troubling. This paper uses selected examples to explore some aspects of the complex linguistic life of classrooms and argues for a more explicit understanding of teenage vernacular and the ways in which this can be managed by teachers. Emphasis is also given to the importance of developing critical insight into the social dynamic of language and a concomitant understanding of the ways in which discourse features are appropriated and exploited by commercial media. Lily and Rob were sitting at the table. Rob was shaking something on to a strip of foil. ?Oh, yeah,? said Gemma. Rob handed the foil to Lily. She lit a match and held it under the foil. There was this thick, sweet smell and a curl of white smoke. Lily held the foil to her mouth and ?Glop!? she said. She sucked down that curl of white smoke and clamped her lips down. And held her breath for ages. Then she breathed slowly out. She smiled like a snake. ?Now I feel good,? she said?? (Junk, Burgess (1996) p. 127)
 
This article considers the citizenship claims of young people and the consequences of these claims for the delivery of services to young people. In doing so, an analysis is offered as to how various problematising discourses of youth have shaped matters of policy formulation and service delivery. Although recent responses to service development have argued for the introduction of participative and empowering forms of practice, it largely remains the case that representations of the period of youth, which depict young people as ‘troubled’ and ‘troublesome’, predominate; these representations underpin ideologically driven commitments to control and regulate youthful behaviour. In turn, problematising discourses have produced problematising service responses. Change will only occur when such discourses are strategically challenged, resisted and responded to. In order to achieve this a different socio-political style and approach to developing policy and practice is required that actively promotes the citizenship rights of young people.
 
Coping strategies -means and standard deviations. 
Gender differences on primary and secondary coping scales -summary of means, standard deviations and t-tests. 
Correlations between secondary coping strategies and emotion regulation. 
This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed.
 
This study explored how (learning) experiences offered through outdoor experiential programmes, particularly the youth care farm approach, may (or may not) enhance young peoples' ability to recognise and then utilise available resources for personal growth, protection and health promotion. A total of 11 youngsters were asked to look back on their half-year stay on a care farm in the Netherlands, by using semi-structured interviews to elicit their experiences from a salutogenic perspective. Analysis revealed that several resources (and the interaction of these resources) on the youth care farm worked well for the youngsters; contributed to their personal development and to their sense of coherence: the feeling that the world is or can be meaningful, comprehensible and manageable, associated with positive outcome in endeavours linked to improving health and well-being. In general, the attitude of the farmer, working with animals, the informal atmosphere and being temporarily cut-off from the former environment were elements most positively highlighted by the youngsters. The farm environment was mentioned as calming, however, as structuring as well. The strength of the programme as an experiential learning opportunity appears to be the diversity and richness of resources (and stressors!) available to the participants. This creates various opportunities for learning: making sense, interpreting and giving meaning to resources and stressors. Further research into the impact of this kind of programmes, compared to more 'traditional' programmes, especially on the ability of youngsters to use resources to finish school, find employment and develop better relationships with their parents is recommended.
 
The present paper reports on a study of the efficacy of drugs education delivered to children aged 7 to 11 years through a carefully sequenced high-fidelity programme of classroom based curriculum enrichment activities supported by visiting drug education specialist educators. The programme was designed to map onto the national curriculum requirements of British primary schools and was framed within the conceptual boundaries provided by a ‘healthy lifestyles approach’. The programme operated through a spiral curriculum with each year of the programme building on the aims and objectives of preceding years. The overarching aim was to enable children to develop an increasingly sophisticated cognitive framework through which they would be empowered to make informed choices about being safe, healthy and drug-free. 240 children between 3+ and 10+ years of age, were assessed for knowledge and understanding of targeted healthy lifestyles issues prior to and at two points subsequent to the interventions. Children were drawn in approximately equal numbers from nursery classes through to year 6 across 14 schools in one large urban Authority in the North of England. The Authority had adopted a drugs prevention and education programme delivered by a National Charity and supported by teachers and parents. This paper reports on the data from a defined age segment of the total sample. Outcomes indicated that the intervention with subsequent teacher support in-class affected positively children's knowledge of how stay healthy and the likely impact of drugs, alcohol and smoking on the maintenance of health and well-being. However, it became clear that yr6 pupils in particular were overtly conscious of the likely future impact of older pupils on their ability to stay drug free on transferring to Secondary school. This study indicates that whilst interventions at primary school level can achieve valued objectives at the level of knowledge and understanding, the maintenance of these acquired dispositions into adolescence is unlikely in the absence of continuing programmes of education and support on a longterm basis. Interpreting what 10 year olds say, such programmes should enable individual children to acquire strategies of personal empowerment and support their intention to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
 
Conceptual model, of the core category, two main categories and six sub-categories, describing the strategies children adopted when trying to handle parental chronic illness by making life work for both themselves and their parents alone. Design: Daphne Macris.
This study explores the main concern and life strategies of children whose parents are chronically ill in a Primary Health Care (PHC) center in Stockholm, Sweden. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews, and qualitative inductive constant comparative analysis resulted in a conceptual model. The two main strategies the children used were to understand the situation and to adopt a parental role. Children saw themselves as main contributors into the functioning of their families. Results show that these children also viewed their situation as difficult. It is an important mental health task for professionals in PHC to reach out and inform both ill parents and their children that children are very interested and involved in their parents’ health. These children need respect for both their capacity and their vulnerability as they struggle to make life stable and functional for themselves and their parents. Further research and development of appropriate interventions are needed in this ethically challenging area.
 
Top-cited authors
Annmarie Grealish
  • King's College London
Niall Mccrae
  • King's College London
Betul Keles
  • King's College London
Vasilis Stavropoulos
  • Victoria University Melbourne
Emma Anderson
  • Federation University Australia