International Journal of Consumer Studies

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1470-6431
Discipline: Business & Management
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Aims and scope

The International Journal of Consumer Studies provides an international forum for academic and research papers relating to all areas of consumer research. IJCS is ranked as an A grade journal by Australian Business Deans Council.

It publishes articles of interest to an international audience and at the leading edge of consumer research throughout the world. We have broadened the scope of the journal. The scope of the Journal includes: Consumer sciences and their applications; Consumer Psychology; Consumer Behavior; Consumer Education; Marketing Research and Consumers.



Recent publications
Procedure of systematic review
TCCM framework
Publication trend
Distribution of studies among different regions
Mobile financial services (MFS) have been a powerful innovation to provide cost‐effective services and wide coverage to the unbanked population of the world. The topic has gained considerable attention from researchers but lacks a clear guideline or directions for future prospects. Therefore, this article presents a systematic literature review on MFS adoption. Using the Web of Science database, the paper reviewed 118 articles and revealed significant models, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, and variables that explain consumers’ adoption of MFS. The paper also outlines highly cited authors, studies, and journals utilizing international platforms such as Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and SCImago Journal Ranking. The findings of the systematic literature review indicate the technology acceptance model (TAM) followed by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) as the leading conceptual framework, and MFS adoption antecedents can be organized into six different categories, viz. Cognitive determinants, affective determinants, social‐based determinants, trust‐based determinants, barrier‐based determinants, and consumer‐based determinants. The paper concluded with an agenda for future studies with corresponding gaps in the literature.
Consumers develop powerful connections with brands and they feel a strong bond or attachment to favourite brands that can lead to re‐purchase behaviour, reduced price sensitivity and increased customer loyalty. Gaining greater in‐depth knowledge of brand attachment offers a powerful means of understanding and facilitates modelling the mechanisms for achieving greater profitability and increased revenue for firms. The purpose of this paper is first to map the antecedents, mediators and consequences of brand attachment; second to provide scholars with a map of prior research as a starting point for future research; and third to offer insights to extend understanding of how consumers relate to and engage with brands. The antecedents to brand attachment are categorised under five headings: brand related concepts; self‐brand connection and connection; congruence and the self; emotional drivers of brand attachment; and service related concepts. The consequences of brand attachment are categorised as: brand loyalty and switching resistance; purchase intentions and willingness to pay; and word of mouth. The review and future research agenda utilise the TCCM structure: (T) theory and concepts;
A framework for explaining anxiety in the Covid‐19 experience
Anxiety experienced during Covid‐19: suppressors, resilients, and intensifiers
COVID‐19 turned the lives of all people across the world upside down. Everyone faced the threat of catching the virus and denial of access to the physical marketplace. For many, it also brought the threat of partial or full unemployment. This trinity of upheaval produced heightened anxiety. The purpose of this paper is to understand how consumers coped with anxiety during the pandemic and lockdown periods. We hypothesized that consumers coped with such anxiety by engaging in diverse creative and productive activities, which served as anxiety suppressors. In addition, we hypothesized that one’s enduring mind positivity provided resilience and helped consumers mitigate their anxiety. In survey data from a random sample of 550 consumers in U.S., we found support for these hypotheses. Consumers who engaged in voluntary productive activities suffered less anxiety. And consumers with higher resilience levels also felt lower levels of anxiety. Additionally, we found that enjoyment of shopping intensified the experience of COVID‐19‐induced anxiety. The research framework linking this specific set of antecedents to COVID‐induced anxiety and its affirmation in this study are new to the literature and therefore offer a notable contribution to it. These findings show two pathways to marketers: Organize and promote voluntary productive activities and offer means for consumers to cultivate personal resilience, on for‐profit and not‐for‐profit platforms. Also, we suggest a future consumer research agenda for when fate again brings us face‐to‐face with similar or even lesser catastrophes, which, according to scientific forecasters, it sadly but surely will.
Regression standardized residual.
Structural model. ATB, attitude toward behaviour; AW, awareness; BI, behavioural intention; HB, herd behaviour; IDI, investment decision involvement; PBR, perceived barrier; PEMER, perceived emergency; PR, perceived risk; PU, perceived usefulness; SE, self‐efficacy; SH, saving habit; SMI, social media influence; SN, subjective norm
Artificial neural network diagram.
The current study intends to identify the behavioural antecedents of investors’ attitude and investment intention toward mutual funds using a robust SEM‐ANN approach. It focuses on novel factors in the purview of the covid‐19 pandemic, increasing digitalization and social media usage. The research outcome indicates that attitude (ATB), awareness (AW), and investment decision involvement (IDI) have a significant positive relation with investment intention (BI). In contrast, perceived barrier (PBR) negatively relates to investment intention. Herd behaviour (HB) and social media influence (SMI) do not influence investment intention towards mutual funds. Moreover, all the tested predictors share direct relation with the attitude towards mutual fund investment, barring perceived risk (PR), which has an inverse relationship. As per the outcome of ANN sensitivity analysis, attitude is the most crucial determinant of investment intention. It is followed by awareness (AW), perceived barriers (PBR) and investment decision involvement (IDI). Among the significant determinants of attitude, self‐efficacy (SE) is the most important determinant, followed by perceived usefulness (PU), perceived emergency (PEMER), subjective norms (SN) and perceived risk (PR).
Many local businesses have and are continuing to struggle as a result of the pandemic crisis due in part to reduced consumer spending. However, the motives behind why some consumers are more supportive than others toward local businesses in such a crisis is not adequately understood. We address this gap in the literature through three experimental studies where we examine how the core consumer value of religiosity explains consumer response to crisis as consumers seek to act in ways that align with their value system. Study 1 (257 adults from MTurk) shows a positive relationship between religiosity and support for local businesses but only during a pandemic. Study 2 (307 adults from MTurk) shows that this relationship is greatest for local (vs. non‐local) businesses, and caring for one’s neighbors mediates this effect. Finally, Study 3 (200 adults from MTurk) uses advertising to prime a focus on one’s neighbors, revealing that a neighbors‐focused ad increases local business support to similar levels for consumers of all religiosity levels. Findings build on belief congruence theory with implications for marketing practitioners in the current pandemic crisis and other crises of medical, environmental, and of other origins.
Previously, signaling status had been primarily studied from the conspicuousness of luxury brands, including high prices and prominent designs. However, less attention has been directed toward other elements of brands that could be strategically managed in order to enable consumers signaling status. This study synthesizes the literature using a framework based on four intangible attributes of luxury brands: user profile, purchase usage, personality and values, and heritage. The topics studied under each of the four intangible attributes were analyzed using a systematic approach. Based on the interconnectedness of the topics studied, this review proposes that the intangible attributes used as a framework may have a synergistic interaction, in contrast with the current perspective that considers them as independently and equally relevant for consumers signaling status. It also reports the psychological function of these intangible attributes and supports the notion that consumers use luxury brands either to routinely affirm their status within a group or to enhance that status. This review contributes to the literature on luxury and signaling by considering luxury consumption as a social process. A functional perspective on the intangible attributes of luxury brands provides the basis for some insightful directions to advance this field of research.
This study analyzes whether the perceived risk of purchasing technological products is less influential on the process of technological adoption when this effect is moderated by the product's multifunctional category (hedonic vs. utilitarian product characteristics). Four experiments were developed according to scenarios related to the multifunctional content (level of complexity according to the product category) of the technology and the number of functionalities in the products. The perception of risk has less effect on adoption when the product characteristics are manipulated to be more utilitarian or heighten the consumer's social value. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of which categories are less influenced by the perceived multifunctional risk of purchasing and adopting a new technology, as well as of when individual values overlap with consumers’ risk perceptions. It also contributes managerially by identifying the profile of individuals who are more likely to consume innovations characterized by high complexity and functionality, and by providing guidance for the development of innovative products that prioritize utilitarian, rather than hedonic, characteristics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Existing studies show the role of empathy with nature in improving attitudes toward the environment. This article demonstrates that induced empathy with nature can improve environmental behaviors and commitments. We find that environmental commitment and behavior are positively affected by empathy with nature and establish a causal model between empathy with nature and pro‐environmental behavior. We further investigate the relationship between self‐construal (interdependent or independent), empathy with nature (existing or non‐existing), and pro‐environmental behavior. The results indicate that participants who have empathy with nature display stronger pro‐environmental behavior, particularly in the private domain. Commitment to the environment plays a mediating role in this relationship and self‐construal plays a moderating role. Specifically, for individuals with interdependent self‐construal, empathy with nature promotes pro‐environmental behavior, whereas for individuals with independent self‐construal, empathy with nature has no statistically significant effect on pro‐environmental behavior.
Conceptual model of the study
Expected results: As advertising scepticism increases, the effect of two‐sided messages in eliciting higher credibility (H1) and higher purchase intentions (H2) will be stronger
Interaction effect of consumer advertising scepticism and message sidedness on advertising credibility (a) and purchase intentions (b). Shaded areas represent the Johnson–Neyman regions of significance. The values on the horizontal axis represent the mean ± 1 SD (study 1)
Interaction effect of consumer advertising scepticism and message sidedness on advertising credibility (a) and purchase intentions (b). Shaded areas represent the Johnson–Neyman regions of significance. The values on the horizontal axis represent the mean ± 1 SD (study 2)
Interaction effect of consumer advertising scepticism and message sidedness on advertising credibility (a) and purchase intentions (b). Shaded areas represent the Johnson–Neyman regions of significance. The values on the horizontal axis represent the mean ± 1 SD (study 3)
It has been generally assumed that higher levels of skepticism towards advertising invariably lead to higher resistance to advertising appeals. The main purpose of the present research was to examine whether highly skeptical consumers’ resistance can be overcome by appeals associated with higher credibility. We tested our hypotheses using message sidedness as an advertising variable that has been associated with higher (two‐sided) vs. lower (one‐sided) credibility. In three experimental studies, we examined more vs. less skeptical consumers’ responses to two‐ vs. one‐sided appeals. We found that two‐sided messages are more effective in increasing purchase intentions, through enhanced credibility, but only for consumers who are more skeptical of advertising. Less skeptical consumers trust both messages equally and their purchase intentions are not affected by the type of message. Importantly, we also showed that highly skeptical consumers trust two‐sided appeals as much as their less skeptical counterparts. The study contributes to the literature on advertising and persuasion knowledge by showing that advertising skepticism does not elicit a single response tendency, as originally conceptualized. Rather, advertising skepticism is more consistent with the underpinnings of the Persuasion Knowledge Model, in that higher knowledge about persuasion tactics aids consumers to better cope with, and not invariably resist persuasion attempts. We conclude that transparency pays off because it may entice a more skeptical audience and, at the same time, it does not harm less skeptical consumers’ trust and purchase intentions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This study develops and validates a model, based on personal cultural values theory and psychological research, in relation to technology adoption. The model focuses specifically on the future use of on-demand air mobility (ODAM), which is expected to have significant implications for city commuting and personal well-being in the years ahead. We employ a path modelling approach, in addition to recently advanced analytical methods such as the finite mixture partial least squares (FIMIX-PLS), measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) and multi-group analysis, to validate the model using a dataset of 627 young consumers from the Czech Republic. The research model explains 45.2 percent variation in the future use of ODAM using our global model. This variance explained in the future use of ODAM increases to 62.3 percent and 64.5 percent respectively, when we segment our data set into two groups. The results also show that tradition has significant influence on technology anxiety, personal innovativeness, and desire to use ODAM. Independence positively affects personal innovativeness but not the desire to use ODAM. We also find that technology anxiety influences the desire to use, which in turn influences the future use of ODAM. However, we find group differences in the influence of ambiguity intolerance on technology anxiety, desire and personal innovativeness. Thus, the study also evaluates the existence of significant differences between two groups in our dataset. Overall, the study suggests that individual cultural values play a particularly important role in influencing the future use of ODAM through psychological characteristics. The research implications of the study are discussed in the article.
Conceptual model
Interaction between the use of humour and the type of service agent on service satisfaction
Study 2: Indirect effects of chatbot humour on service satisfaction. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
Technological advances have enabled firms to automate customer service by employing artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots. Despite their many potential benefits, interactions with chatbots may still feel machine‐like and cold. The current study proposes the use of humor by chatbots as a gateway to humanizing them and thereby enhancing the customer experience. Across three experimental studies, the results reveal that (i) the use of humor enhances service satisfaction when it is used by a chatbot but not when it is used by a human agent, (ii) this chatbot humor effect is serially mediated by enhanced perceptions of anthropomorphism and interestingness of the interactions with the chatbot, and (iii) while both positively and negatively valenced chatbot humor may enhance the interestingness of the interactions, socially appropriate (i.e., affiliative) humor as opposed to inappropriate (i.e., aggressive) humor leads to enhanced service satisfaction. This study extends the understanding of the humanization processes of chatbots and provides guidelines for how firms should use chatbot humor to positively influence consumers’ service satisfaction.
Conceptual model
Empirical model. ***p < .001; **p < .01, *p < .05
With the emergence of social media, the trends of selfies have become common across various social networking platforms as a distinctive way of self‐presentation. It has aroused the interest of various scholars to comprehend the consumer adoption behavior for social media. Thus, built on the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective, this paper developed a model to empirically test whether and how critical factors of consumer selfie posting behavioral intention on social media affect behavioral intention and word‐of‐mouth to consequently enhancing their adoption behavior towards social media to post selfies. The data was gathered from 353 young consumers who post their selfies clicked via smartphone on their social media accounts. The results revealed that consumer innovativeness, participation intention directly and indirectly affect consumer adoption behavior for social media to post their selfies. Additionally, the study identified that among all critical factors, participation intention and perceived behavior control have strongest influence on behavioral intention to post selfies followed by consumer innovativeness, attitude towards selfie posting and subjective norms. The study contributes to the extension of TPB by adding participation intention and positive WOM, adoption of social media. This research validated the significant roles of consumer innovativeness, participation intention, positive WOM and intention to post selfies in predicting the adoption behavior. Practitioners and marketers of social media sites can improve the usability and effectiveness of positive WOM and intention to post selfies to attract more young consumers.
Systematic literature review—articles identification process
Time‐period analysis of resources. Note: *2021 includes one article accepted to be published later.
Distribution of resources across different journal categories or book
Proposed classification schema of brand‐level CSR delivery mechanisms
Over the past few decades, scholars have outlined several corporate social responsibility (CSR) classifications to analyse the wide range of brand CSR initiatives. This has resulted in independent and fragmented research that is mostly not comparable due to the focus on different CSR types. Previous literature reviews have analysed the overall CSR domain or focused on specific brand CSR activities, like cause‐related marketing. A comprehensive review of CSR classifications is not available to the best of the authors’ knowledge. This article synthesises the literature on CSR classification and proposes a holistic brand CSR mechanism classification schema. The study systematically reviews the CSR classifications outlined in 104 academic resources published between 1979 and 2021. These resources include 103 articles (across 47 ABDC listed journals) and one book. The review utilises the 5W1H – Who, Why, What, When, Where, and How – analytical framework to reveal the underlying rationale of different CSR classifications. The 5W1H analysis indicates that the majority of CSR classifications are from the overall business perspective rather than the product brand perspective. It also suggests the importance of the CSR delivery mechanism, i.e., how CSR is delivered. The review finds a lack of conceptual basis in the extant brand CSR mechanism classifications and a near absence of CSR co‐creation options – an essential emerging domain in brand CSR. To address these challenges, we propose a conceptually grounded classification schema for brand CSR mechanisms with 10 classes to capture the feasible options holistically and parsimoniously. We describe the proposed classes and sub‐classes, provide real‐life illustrations, and assess the proposed classification’s robustness. The implications of this study for theory, practice, and consumers are discussed. Leveraging the proposed classification, we identify several avenues for further research.
Participant perceptions of the source of the default options (Study 1)
Default effect as a function of Default Explanation Condition (Complex Context Condition) in Study 2. Retention measured on a scale from 0–8, with 8 indicating that the participant has chosen the default option on all eight questions.
Participant perceptions of the source of the default options (Study 2)
The power that default options have in shaping choice has been well established, yet relatively little is known about how decision‐makers experience and interpret such preselected options. Research suggests that individuals assume defaults represent a recommended course of action, yet the basis for this recommendation is unclear. Across two experimental studies, we explored consumer theories of default recommendations, examining spontaneous and experimentally manipulated perceptions of the basis of the default, and the impact on decision‐making across different contexts. Evidence across diverse populations and tasks shows that options were retained to a greater extent when represented as the default, consistent with classic default effects. Furthermore, a significant default effect emerged when the decision context was framed as complex. In line with research on social influence, defaults were most effective when they were presumed to reflect the most popular option (regardless of context). Interestingly, participants rated defaults as being more likely to represent the most popular option, regardless of decision context or default explanation provided to them. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the contexts in which default choices are relied upon and how those defaults are perceived by decision‐makers.
Mechanism of trust transfer
Conceptual framework
Results of structural model analysis
Interaction between trust in OFDA and PEDR
The recent growth of OFDAs (Online food delivery apps) centralized the restaurant’s business in electronic distribution platforms. Recently, a few researchers have attempted to understand consumer behaviour towards using OFDAs. However, various aspects related to the usage of OFDAs have not been explored. Drawing from trust transfer theory, the purpose of this study is to fill this gap by investigating the trust transfer from OFDAs to restaurants and to address the boundary condition of trust transfer by examining the moderating effect of Perceived effectiveness of dispute resolution (PEDR) between trust in OFDAs and trust in a restaurant. The model was tested via structural equation modeling (SEM) using data obtained from 836 users of OFDAs through structured questionnaire. The results show that trust in OFDAs positively influence the trust in restaurant which ultimately leads to the consumers’ continuous purchase intention. Further, PEDR positively moderates the relationship between trust in OFDAs and trust in a restaurant. Additionally, disposition to trust and online reviews significantly develops consumer trust in OFDAs. The present research makes substantial theoretical and practical contributions as it develops a trust transfer mechanism by considering an emerging mobile‐commerce field. The study provides a first theoretical outlook on consumers’ continuous intention to use OFDAs, using trust transfer theory, which has not been considered so far. The findings provide information for food delivery platforms on how to manage conflict resolution to succeed in the market and help restaurants in selecting the most effective food delivery platforms with which to collaborate.
Design and production of the intervention survey
Consumer education on food handling behavior is regarded as an effective method to improve domestic food safety and prevent foodborne illness, but is usually overlooked in rural areas. Using a presurvey and two rounds of postsurveys targeted at rural consumers from China included in a randomized controlled trial, this study investigated the effectiveness of two information interventions—a leaflet with tips for best practices and the leaflet plus consumer education sessions conveyed by phone—and compared them with a control group. Cloth use behavior was the target in the trial and five specific aspects were evaluated: (1) whether the cloth was made of old clothes, (2) whether the one used to clean kitchen tables was also used to wash dishes, (3) whether it was hung to dry, (4) how it was disinfected, and (5) how long the cloth was used before being discarded. Firstly, consumers’ behavior was scored by summing the above‐mentioned five behaviors. The results estimated using the difference‐in‐difference model showed that respondents in the leaflet‐only group improved to a greater extent than those in the control group, but their difference in progress was not statistically significant until the second round of the postsurvey. Respondents in the leaflet‐plus‐phone group were quicker to adopt suggested practices and made discernible improvements compared to those in the leaflet‐only group in the first round of the postsurvey, but the gap between these groups narrowed to statistically insignificant in the second round of the postsurvey. It was concluded that one consumer education session was effective and made a difference in the long term, whereas more education sessions produced normative behavior at faster rates, showing a significant improvement in the short term. Then, the study estimated the effectiveness of interventions on the five specific behaviors separately. The results were estimated using a probit difference‐in‐difference model and showed that the suggested behaviors with lower costs or a greater difference from past behaviors were more likely to be adopted by consumers. Consumer education facilitates proper food handling practices among rural households, which should be considered by policy makers.
(a) Adoption of individualistic thinking drops significantly as a result of the manipulation. (b) Adoption of ethical thinking increases significantly as a result of the manipulation
Adoption of individualistic thinking fully mediates the positive effect of time spent on social media on liking morally ambiguous content
The likelihood of sending likes to morally ambiguous postings at two conditions
Ethical reminder moderates the indirect effect of individualistic thinking on the relationship between time spent on social media and liking morally ambiguous content (No ethical reminder: W = 0; Ethical reminder: W = 1).
Joyful selfies taken at disaster sites create a controversial topic in terms of moral boundaries in digital life. While some consider it acceptable to take smiley selfies in a tragedy zone, others find this behavior morally questionable. This article demonstrates empirically that excessive time spent on social media explains, at least partially, a greater tendency to like morally ambiguous content on social media. Specifically, this article shows that consumers tend to like more questionable content (such as smiley disaster selfies) on social media when they spend more time online. Further, this article shows that this effect is mediated by increased individualistic thinking. Responses to the survey experiment (N=206) compared the tendency to like morally ambiguous content between groups of little, moderate and excessive use of social media, and tested for the mediating role of individualistic thinking on the relationship between time spent and liking behavior. Secondly, the moderating role of an ethical reminder on time spent and the fact of liking morally ambiguous contents is demonstrated. In the presence of an ethical reminder, the effect of time spent on social media and liking morally ambiguous content becomes insignificant. This article contributes to theory on social media consumption by offering a novel underlying mechanism, such as increased individualistic thinking, as one variable that partly explains the liking for morally ambiguous content. This article also offers practical contributions for social media platforms and policy makers, showing that ethical reminders could be a possible and simple nudge to help consumers act more morally or become aware of morally questionable content.
Research framework
Products selected for empirical research
Recently, research on customer engagement behaviour (CEB) has rapidly developed. However, comparative studies on the motivational drivers of CEB across different product contexts are lacking. This study aims to understand the nature of customer motivation (CM) and investigate how its elements and impact on CEB differ between product settings (tangible vs. intangible and high involvement vs. low involvement). Based on surveys of 2,080 consumers, this study validates CM for CEB as a construct comprising hedonic, normative, and gain dimensions. The findings highlight significant differences in the importance of hedonic and normative dimensions as affected by the product category. The findings of this study can help marketing and brand managers understand how they can improve their engagement strategies by stimulating motivation‐based CEB.
Halal food research has witnessed a distinct proliferation during the past decade. In this article we examine the intellectual structure of the field based on 302 PubMed documents written by 686 authors representing 45 nations and spanning thirty years (1990‐2019). The study applies bibliometric network techniques to explore the halal food impactful authors, influential journals, collaboration networks and emerging trends. Social network analysis (SNA) techniques are also used to unearth and mine the intellectual structure of the field. Additionally, we use keyword co‐occurrence techniques to scrutinize the field’s major schools of thought. Results show that the most impactful PubMed outlets publishing halal food research include Food Chemistry, Meat Science and the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Results also show that the authors’ collaboration network in halal food is sparse. Furthermore, results reveal a global “North‐South” schism between nations within the domain. Finally, the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) applied to obtain the halal food research conceptual map and its intellectual structure reflects the depth and breadth of the field.
Research model of factors influencing the number of potential microchip implant uses
Percentage of different potential microchip implant use across countries
Percentage of respondents willing to use microchip implants for different number of purposes across countries
Final model of significant (black) and non‐significant (grey) factors affecting the number of different uses of microchip implants
Passive radio frequency identification microchip implants have been the subject of public debate for nearly two decades, due to differing views on issues of privacy and impact on the human body, as well as actual successful applications in healthcare. Nonetheless, advances in technology imply that consumers may use microchip implants for identification, shopping, and other activities in the future. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics and habits of individuals who are more likely to use a microchip implant in the near future. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five countries: Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Convenience sampling and an online questionnaire were used to collect data from 2037 respondents. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the research questions and the results showed the predictors of willingness to use microchip implants. The potential microchip implant user is male, has multiple social media profiles, and has a history of losing keys, wallets, or ID cards. He tends to use credit cards, contactless payments and payment services when shopping. His willingness to use a microchip implant decreases with age. Based on these findings, retailers and other service providers can adapt their processes to successfully support the future consumer with microchip implant.
Conceptual framework
PYD strengthens the positive relationship between ATT and FRI
PYD strengthens the positive relationship between PBC and FRI
PSY dampens the negative relationship between ETJ and FRI
Structural model results
Online businesses incur significant losses because of fraudulent customer behaviour. This study investigates the factors motivating fraudulent customer intention on eBay. A conceptual framework is developed that extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) with religiosity factors, social detection risk, ethical judgment, and moderating factor of perceived psychological distance. A quantitative methodology is adopted that collects data from 450 respondents. Covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) is used to analyse the proposed hypotheses. Results reveal that intrinsic and extrinsic religiously negatively influences attitude towards fraudulent customer behaviour on eBay. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control positively influence fraudulent customer intentions, while ethical judgment negatively impacts it. Psychological distance strengthened the relationship between attitude, perceived behavioural control, and fraudulent customer intentions on eBay. Additionally, the association between ethical judgment and fraud intention was weaker for individuals with higher perceived psychological distance. The study contributes to the literature and provides insights to online businesses and cyber security developers into factors motivating fraudulent customer behaviour and strategies that can be used to combat this growing threat.
Conceptual model
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, insecure attachments and rising levels of loneliness threatened consumers’ well-being across the globe. Insecure and lonely individuals lack interpersonal support for positive and negative events resulting in the utilization of shopping as a coping mechanism. The arrival of the pandemic collided with the existing epidemic of loneliness, exacerbating loneliness and simultaneously changing shopping as it once was known. By virtue of lacking support, insecure and lonely consumers may be more motivated to engage in a particular type of shopping known as self-gifting. This research examines a conceptual model across countries with samples from collectivist and individualistic societies (n=610), revealing a universal framework to explain self-gifting motivation parallels for consumers affected by insecure attachment and emotional loneliness. Theoretical and practical implications provide cross-cultural research on the connections of attachment style and self-gifting to help the disconnections of loneliness in today’s world.
A framework for observational learning based on Banduraʼs OL Theory. All constructs are based on Banduraʼs social learning theory. The specific variables used to operationalize the constructs in the study appear in regular font (Reproduction is italicized since it is not investigated in our study)
Testing the observational learning structural framework. The response to the Regulatory Focus manipulation is measured with the scale for Regulatory Focus. The response to the Review Type manipulation is measured with the scale for Helpfulness of Reviews. Prior Knowledge as a moderator (represented across three studies) is not relevant to the OL SEM framework
When consumers have access to a large number of reviews for a product on multiple e‐tailer websites, they may rely mainly on aggregated summaries of online reviews (SORs) (e.g., percentage of reviewers recommending a product) instead of on textual content of individual reviews. The SOR type may be “High” (when a majority of reviewers recommend a product on multiple merchant websites), “Low” (when only a minority of reviewers recommend a product on multiple merchant websites), or “Mixed” (when a majority and a minority of reviewers recommend the same product across different websites). Consumers’ prior product knowledge and regulatory focus moderate the impact of SOR type on consumer decision outcomes. Across three studies (representing low, moderate, and high levels of consumer knowledge), we find that negativity bias holds across both promotion and prevention foci in the Low‐SOR condition. In the High‐SOR condition, the level of prior knowledge moderates the relationship between SOR and purchase intention. Mixed‐SOR has no effect. We also propose and find support for a framework for SORs by extending Banduraʼs observational learning theory. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications.
The online food ordering consumer journey
The food and beverage (F&B) sector has witnessed a significant rise in online food ordering and delivery companies. Through the consumer journey framework, this study aims to uncover the triggers pertaining to each stage in this journey. An exploratory qualitative research approach was adopted: semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 33 customers and 17 experts in the food industry from the Lebanese, Saudi Arabian and Emirati markets. A systematic understanding of the journey was devised alongside the triggers per stage to help both restaurants owners and online food aggregators to further develop their penetration and retention of customers using such platforms. The growing shift in emerging markets from ordering food over the phone to placing an order through OFAs has brought several implications on the customer purchase decision, as well as on the restaurants’ business perspectives. While this has had a dual growing impact both on the customer journey at large, and the way in which restaurants operate and market themselves, this field is yet under‐researched particularly in emerging markets in the Middle East.
Conceptual model. BAT, brand attachment; BCS, brand created SNS’s communication; BCSNS, brand communication on social networking sites; BV, brand vocal; CGS, consumer‐generated SNS’s communication; PI, purchase intention. Source: Authors
Mediation analysis Model No. 4, Process‐macro
ANN model for brand loyalty (BL), purchase intention (PI), & brand vocal (BV)
This study examines how brand communication influences consumer‐based brand equity through social networking sites in the presence of brand attachment as a mediator. The outcomes related to consumer‐based brand equity, such as consumers' pay intention and loyalty to a brand and a brand's vocal ability, are also explored in this study. An empirical investigation for 498 responses was carried using Smart‐PLS, Process‐Macro & Artificial Neural Network modeling (ANN) based hybrid approach. The analysis indicates that brand consumer‐based brand equity is high when a brand's communication on social media platforms is positive. A strong mediating role of brand attachment is confirmed. The study is unique in terms of explaining the role of brand communication on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and its impact on consumer‐based brand equity in the presence of brand attachment as a mediator. While focusing on Millennials' tech‐savvy characteristics and considering SNSs as an advanced tool for brand communication, brands should refine their marketing strategy.
Research model
Smartphones have evolved to be among the most important objects in peoples’ daily lives. However, little knowledge exists on users’ relationships with smartphones. This study examines the user‐smartphone relationship from an attachment perspective. More specifically, the present research develops an understanding of the different faces of smartphone attachment considering the perceived value‐in‐use of smartphones as a source. The findings of an online survey among smartphone users reveal that users are attached to the smartphone itself because of the value it derives during usage. Most interestingly, the effects of perceived value‐in‐use have been found to be ambivalent because they can enhance both positive (e.g., passion) and negative (e.g., separation distress) aspects of smartphone attachment. Moreover, specific compositions of the value‐in‐use define the individual facets of smartphone attachment. For instance, passion has been found to be determined by social, hedonic, and utilitarian value‐in‐use, whereas distress is triggered by both perceived utilitarian and hedonic value‐in‐use. In sum, this study’s findings help to understand and manage consumers’ smartphone attachment.
Mean purchase intention across manipulations of price, discount, and star rating. Group means are collapsed across time pressure conditions, because there was not a main effect of time pressure, nor did time pressure interact with any of the other main effects
Interest areas for each product ad
Mean gaze durations on the old price region as a function of discount and time pressure conditions
The field of consumer neuroscience allows researchers to account for an individual’s explicit reported behaviors as well as their implicit behaviors that are reflected in the neural mechanisms that occur during the purchase decision phase of a consumer’s online shopping experience. The purpose of the current study was to use eye tracking technology in conjunction with self‐report purchase intention data to observe the relative impact of star rating, price, discount, and time pressure on purchase decisions. The results suggest that purchase intention was most affected by star rating, price, and discount with higher purchase intentions on items with higher star ratings, lower prices, and greater discounts. The eye movement data revealed that these factors, as well as time pressure, influenced where consumers directed their attention in making their purchasing decisions. These findings have significant implications for future ecommerce marketing strategy, especially across efforts to increase purchase intention.
Research model
This study aimed to investigate consumers’ adoption intention toward augmented reality (AR)‐enhanced virtual try‐ons (VTOs) by examining the effects of consumers’ evaluations of technology attributes on their immersive experiences, perceived value, and adoption intention based on the Stimulus‐Organism‐Response (SOR) framework. To explain variations in consumers’ evaluations and adoption of AR‐enhanced VTOs, two important personality traits that pertain to the use of AR‐enhanced VTOs, sensation‐seeking tendency and technology anxiety, were incorporated to the model as moderators. Data for this study were collected via a self‐administered survey of students enrolled in 13 classes of a southeastern university in the U.S. A total of 398 respondents were recruited to participate in this study via a convenience sampling approach. A sample of 352 were retained for data analysis. Structural equation modeling and multi‐group comparisons were conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. The finding revealed that the two salient technology attributes of AR‐enhanced VTOs exerted significant positive influences on telepresence, which, in turn, influenced consumers’ perceived values and adoption intention toward AR‐enhanced VTOs. Also, the two personality traits moderated the proposed relationships among technology attributes, perceived values, and adoption intentions. The findings add to empirical support for the relationship proposed in the SOR framework. Further, the results of this study provide insights that can guide companies in improving and marketing VTOs.
The basic logic of social learning theory (Bandura, 1986)
The research framework
The results of the model of the product design field
The results of the model of the marketing field
The results of the model of the customer relationship management field
Customers’ online value co-creation activities can occur the whole management domain (i.e., product design, marketing, and customer relationship management) of a product. Previous studies have researched value co-creation from different angles, customers’ online value co-creation activities are more complex and its formation mechanism still worth exploring. Online communities need to create different environments according to different management fields to stimulate customers to participate in Online Value Co-creation activities. Existing research confuses different value co-creation activities in the entire management field without considering the different antecedents of Online Value Co-creation activities in different situations and different management domains. The purpose of this paper is to explore the formation mechanism behind customers’ online value co-creation activities during the whole management domain. Drawing on social learning theory, this study examines the influential role of environmental factors (i.e., innovation climate and social climate) of online communities and personal need factors (i.e., brand passion, satisfaction, dissatisfaction and desire for control) on customers’ value co-creation activities in the three fields of the management domain. Empirical analyses in this study reveal that these factors play different roles in shaping value co-creation activities in the three fields. The findings enrich our understanding of customers’ value co-creation activities in online communities and offer a broadened view of the value co-creation framework and climate theory. Understanding the factors that motivate consumers to engage in co-creation activities in different management domain enables firms to strategically manage their co-creation relationships and innovation processes.
Organising framework of the study
An important aspect of fashion e-commerce is the emergence of new types of consumer behaviours that occur online. These behaviours are diverse and include searching for, comparing, ordering and returning fashion items. They are driven by various motivations, characterised by different types of perceived risks and objectives, and carried out through different consumer activities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify and analyse consumer activities with an objective of managing the risk associated with fashion e-commerce. This qualitative study identifies and discusses 12 risk management activities that consumers employ in fashion e-commerce. These activities involve consumers searching for information and codes, making comparisons, adjusting their orders and delaying purchases. The activities vary in terms of their direction (product versus process) and the type of risk being managed (economic versus functional). The study extends the current understanding toward viewing fashion consumption behaviour as a combination of various consumer activities. The study further incorporates these activities into a tentative framework that helps illuminate the kinds of risk management activities consumers may employ. The activities identified in this study, along with the proposed categorisation, provide a framework for managers to consider in segmentation, web store design and the development of marketing communications. On a more general level, the study shifts the focus from how consumers perceive risk to how empowered consumers actively manage the risk in various ways.
Conceptualised framework developing from Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory (1957) and self‐identity
This research examines the tensions experienced by millennials between their desire to purchase fast‐fashion and their growing concern for sustainability. The ethical and sustainable consumption literature has long recognised this misalignment of value, often referred to as an attitude‐behaviour gap. While previous research has explored the reasons behind the attitude‐behaviour gap and the rationales constructed by consumers to alleviate any associated tensions between mismatched values, this has not been framed within Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, particularly for fashion acquisition. This seems somewhat remiss, especially given that Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance has been successfully applied in other consumption contexts and has offered commercial and social marketing opportunities for marketing activity development. The research utilises Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance on qualitative data collected from 38 millennial participants living in Scotland. Adopting an interpretive approach, a semi‐structured interview template was administered online and data were analysed thematically, revealing that an infusion of eco‐fashion awareness was filtering into millennials’ consciousness. While the millennials reported feelings of cognitive dissonance when purchasing fast‐fashion such as ‘irritation’ and ‘guilt’, unlike previous research, here they did not attempt to justify their behaviour in order to resolve their feelings of dissonance. Rather, the participants perceived this as an opportunity to reaffirm their preferences for sustainability for future consumption practice. Limitations include the small sample; nevertheless, the data contributes to the overall understanding of millennial eco‐fashion consumption, the attitude‐behaviour gap and the occurrence and resolutions of cognitive dissonance.
Model of customer acceptance of service robots
A service robot is a physical entity integrated with information technology (IT) which can autonomously provide customized services to people. While the use of robots is regarded as one of the most important trends in service marketing, customer acceptance is still a major barrier to their application in service scenarios. This study examines robot characteristics (anthropomorphism, autonomy) and customer characteristics (role clarity, ability) as antecedents affecting customer acceptance of service robots from the perspective of service encounters. Subsequently, the study develops a conceptual model based the technology acceptance model (TAM). A sample of 406 respondents from an online survey in China was used to test the proposed conceptual model. The results show that anthropomorphism, autonomy and ability are positively related to perceived usefulness, while autonomy, ability and role clarity are positively related to perceived ease of use. Both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are significant antecedents of customer attitude. Customer attitude determines customer acceptance of service robots in service encounters. Our findings have implications for both researchers and practitioners.
Relationship between basic human values and co‐creation/co‐destruction behaviour
Relationship between traits and co‐creation/co‐destruction behaviour
Service systems create value when actors exhibit behaviours expected to facilitate resource integration and could destroy value when actors do not exhibit the expected set of behaviours. This study seeks to determine which groups of values and individual traits facilitate consumer co-creation and co-destruction behaviours. A data set of 390 online survey responses from consumers in the United States was analysed using multiple regression. The analysis suggests that values which express self-enhancement and openness-to-change are most likely to facilitate co-destruction behaviour, while values which express self-transcendence and conservation are most likely to facilitate co-creation behaviour. With regards to traits, we find that neurotic traits are most likely to facilitate co-destruction behaviour and least likely to facilitate co-creation behaviours. Conscientious and agreeable traits are least likely to facilitate co-destruction behaviours, while extraversion and openness traits are most likely to facilitate co-creation behaviours. This study contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the consumer values and traits which facilitate co-destruction and co-creation behaviour. This study also shows that the basic human values circumplex structure can be divided to reflect co-destruction and co-creation values. The polar opposites of the big five personality traits can be classified based on their tendencies to co-destroy or co-create value.
Overconfidence indices by gender
This study explores gender differences in financial knowledge overconfidence among older adults using the 2016 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We find that older females have relatively lower objective financial knowledge than do older males, while they evaluate themselves to be as financially knowledgeable as older males. Further, several measures of overconfidence in financial knowledge are higher in older females than older males. A number of robustness checks, including a propensity score matching (PSM) method, use of a polygenic risk scores (PGS), and a test of reproduction using the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) corroborate these gender differences. Results from decomposition analyses of two overconfidence indices show that relatively lower crystallized intelligence of older females is one of the main reasons that widens the gender gap among older adults. Lower likelihoods of attaining a college education degree and being in a relationship are additional contributing factors that explain the gender gap. This study provides insights into understanding the gender gap in financial knowledge and its implications for government education or intervention programs to support older adults’ wellbeing in retirement.
Interaction effect between product country‐of‐origin and the accent type. Figures in the chart indicate mean values
While accent effects have been studied in Western advertising contexts, there are contradictory findings on accent effects, and the moderating role of country‐of‐origin (COO), in other contexts. Few studies extended such accent effects to non‐English‐speaking cultural settings, particularly in emerging countries. This article fills this knowledge gap by examining accent and language effects on consumers’ perceived effectiveness of a spokesperson in Chinese advertising contexts. We explore how Chinese consumers evaluate spokespersons with standard and non‐standard accents, whether these accents are associated with belongingness, sophistication, and modernity, and whether COO moderates such accent and language effects on the perceived effectiveness of spokespersons. Across three studies, the findings demonstrate that compared with a spokesperson with a non‐standard accent (i.e., English‐accented Mandarin), spokespersons with standard accents (i.e., standard Mandarin and standard English) are perceived to be more effective. Furthermore, Chinese consumers associate standard Mandarin with belongingness, and standard English with sophistication and modernity, whereas English‐accented Mandarin has the lowest degree of these associations among the three accents. Although the moderating effect of COO is observed in Study 3, standard English is preferred for both advertised domestic and foreign products.
Means‐end chain framework
Hierarchical value map. Cut‐off point = 5 first row boxes identify product attributes; thick black squares identify psychological consequences; and double edge squares identify terminal values
The adoption of a vegan diet might have public, health, and environmental benefits; however, still little is known about veganism as the majority of studies on dietary lifestyles have focused on vegetarianism. Hence, in order to address this gap, the present study adopted a sequential and mixed (qualitative; quantitative) research approach based on laddering interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 400) to validate the motives for adopting a vegan diet. The results identified seven motives: economic, ethical, health-related, hedonic, animal empathy, respect for animal rights, and personal accountability. Three motives in particular – (i.e., animal empathy, accountability, and animal rights) appear to be the key determinants of consumer’s self-identification as vegan-oriented individuals. The study found five attributes (price, nutritious, freshness; tasty, eco/animal friendly ingredients) of vegan products associated with the afore-mentioned motives. Food marketers and policy makers could highlight such attributes to encourage the adoption of a vegan diet.
Research framework
The influence of the number of product inner packages on consumption (Study 1)
The influence of the number of inner packages on consumption (Study 2)
Interactive effect of the number of inner packages and restrained eating
Product packaging clues can lead to overconsumption and even obesity. While combined packaging represents a common packaging practice, it has not been addressed much in academia. To help clarify how marketers can optimize the relationship between the packaging’s number cues and consumption, this paper explores the effect of the quantity of inner packaging on consumption when the external packaging number is fixed. Across two experiments conducted in China, this study proposes that consumption increases with the number of the inner packages, while the total quantity of products is held constant and the Perceived Package Consumption Count acts as a partial mediator. For the restrained dieters, however, the effect of the packaging’s number cue on consumption disappears. The findings of this study have significant implications for consumers, marketers, and policymakers.
Food literacy is a concept that encompasses a range of skills and knowledge required by consumers to navigate an increasingly complex foodscape and ensure healthy dietary behaviours. It is important that these skills are developed from a young age as food related consumption behaviours can persist into adulthood. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the family’s dietary gatekeeper, the person primarily responsible for food shopping and meal preparation in the home environment, shares their food literacy skills and knowledge with young children and to identify any challenges they face in doing so. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents with high levels of food literacy who had children between 5 and 9 years old. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings identify that dietary gatekeepers share their food literacy capabilities with young children in four main ways: 1) communicating the relationship between food and health; 2) engaging children in food selection; 3) involving children in simple food preparation tasks; and 4) modeling healthy behaviours. These practices incorporate skills and knowledge related to the preparation, selection and eating domains of food literacy. Several challenges were also encountered by gatekeepers when trying to share food literacy including time pressure, safety concerns, lack of interest from children and conflict between siblings. The current study highlights the importance of developing initiatives to encourage and support dietary gatekeepers to educate and develop food literacy in young children and to assist them in overcoming the challenges in doing so.
The interaction between text direction and temporal focus and its effect on advertising persuasiveness (Study 1)
The interaction between text direction and temporal focus and its effect on advertising persuasiveness (Study 2)
Three‐way interaction between text direction, temporal focus, and product category for “feeling right” (Study 3)
Global brands are benefiting from the rapidly growing demand in China. Text displayed both vertically and horizontally is common in Chinese advertisements. The skillful use of text direction can effectively improve advertising persuasiveness. Using two studies, we find that the descriptions of an advertisement that are displayed vertically (versus horizontally) result in enhanced advertising persuasiveness among consumers who focus on the past. In contrast, the reverse holds for consumers who focus on the future. Furthermore, the results show that consumers’ sense of “feeling right” mediates the interaction effect. In addition, we demonstrate how product category plays a vital role in the three-way interaction effects between product category, temporal focus, and text direction on “feeling right.” Compared to utilitarian products, vertical descriptions of hedonic products enhance consumers’ sense of “feeling right” when they are in the past-focus condition. Our findings enrich advertising theory and practice. Meanwhile, we also elucidate the effects of text direction on Chinese advertising.
Research model
How to effectively examine the heterogeneous nature of consumer preferences across borders and cultures is a challenge for firms that use mobile social media. This study identifies the determinants of individuals’ mobile social media use behavior and profiles the resulting international microsegments. We propose a model that integrates different theoretical perspectives and sets of factors to explain mobile social media use behavior and test it on a sample of users in China and the United States via online surveys. We estimate a global model (GM) based on all respondents and three local models created by post hoc international microsegmentation. The three local models reveal the existence of three unobserved user segments: “usage goal experts,” “determined pragmatists,” and “pressured hedonists.” Perceived usefulness is the most influential factor in the GM, while users in the three segments significantly differ in their behavioral patterns, cultural value orientations, and demographic characteristics. This study is the first to examine unobserved heterogeneity and international microsegmentation in the mobile social media domain. It provides insights into the factors explaining use behavior and international microsegmentation for scholars and marketers operating in the global marketplace.
This paper explores whether mass prestige (masstige) campaigns, providing luxury and exclusivity for the masses, influence sentiments and attitude toward the brand among fashion customers and followers on social media, namely Facebook and Instagram. Two brands are selected within the fashion sector: a luxury fashion brand – Gucci – and a mass‐market fashion brand – H&M. This research grounds its methodology on a netnography, collecting a total of 336,504 comments. The comments are examined through sentiment analysis based on a text‐mining technique. The findings reveal that fashion brands can promote masstige strategies, sustaining attitude toward the brand, widening their range of offers and taking the chance on these types of campaigns without negatively affecting customers’ and followers’ sentiments on social media platforms. The use of comments to measure these topics empirically is a novelty of this research.
Conceptual framework
Mediation effect by path analysis. Unstandardized coefficients are reported. The unstandardized coefficient in brackets indicates the effect of eating with peers on brand food consumption after the inclusion of peer identity. ***Significant at the .001 level
This study tests the relationships among collective activities, peer identity, and preference for brand name products for Chinese teenagers. The findings are based on a survey of 917 urban Chinese teenagers, divided among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders and among three different tiers of schools (top, lower, suburban). A moderated mediation model is tested. The results show that eating with peers is related to preference for brand name food products, with the relationship mediated by peer identity. The non‐only‐child or only‐child status of teenagers has no significant influence on the relationships. However, school socioeconomic status (SES) is found to moderate the relationships. These results reinforce the need to strongly consider the role of social identity for understanding the development of long‐term consumption habits.
Research model for utilitarian/hedonic characteristics moderating the influence of green characteristics in consumption intention
ANOVA results for intension to use/purchase in the scenario of hedonic or utilitarian characteristics and with or without green attributes: (a) high environmental consciousness and (b) low environmental consciousness
Results of ANOVA for intention to use as dependent variable in the scenario of social values (egoistic or altruistic characteristics) with or without green attributes integrated
ANOVA for intention to use as the dependent variable in the scenario of brand trust versus green attributes at the center of periphery of the product
This paper evaluates how the convergence (integration) of green characteristics in multifunctional technological products/services affects consumers’ decision making, evaluating intention to purchase convergent products in these specific scenarios with green attributes. Three studies were developed. The first two focused on when the inclusion or exclusion of green attributes changes consumers’ perspectives related to (1) utilitarian or hedonic characteristics in the convergence, and (2) selfish or altruistic characteristics of technology usage. The last study incorporated a change in the independent variable from the inclusion or exclusion of green attributes to the inclusion of green attributes as a benefit. Therein, both research scenarios included green characteristics, one related to the periphery and other to the centrality of the product, with a moderating effect of (3) high or low brand trust according to the green convergence design. The results demonstrate that green characteristics are better suited to scenarios in which most of the convergence relates to utilitarian attributes in products, but egoistic characteristics in services, the latter of which reflects a hedonic perspective. Concerning both scenarios of a product with green characteristics, the green benefit is better suited to the utilitarian context, in which the brand is perceived as important, leading to a high level of trust.
The research strategy following SPAR‐4‐SLR protocol
Antecedents, decisions, and outcomes of opportunity cost consideration (current research)
Human beings have countless desires but bounded resources, and this limitation makes them choose between alternatives. Consumers are encouraged to be aware of the best alternative use of a resource (e.g., money, and time), which is known as the opportunity cost of their choice. The current systematic review addresses existing debates and ambiguities surrounding opportunity cost consideration by consumers. We review the origins, different definitions, antecedents, associated decisions, and outcomes of opportunity costs consideration through a detailed examination of the relevant literature from multiple disciplines such as marketing, psychology, and economics. The SPAR‐4‐SLR protocol is used to conduct the review and the ADO (Antecedents, Decisions, Outcomes) framework is used to organize our findings. We highlight and reconcile two different perspectives on the conceptualization of opportunity cost as the forgone value (by considering willingness to pay) versus the physical market value of the second‐best alternative. Different antecedents of opportunity cost consideration are categorized into three categories: Individual differences, Situational variables, and Information processing method. We discuss when and why consumers tend to neglect the opportunity cost, in which situations they are more likely to overestimate the opportunity cost, and what is the difference between consideration of opportunity cost of time and money. Results show that despite what the economics literature suggests, opportunity cost consideration does not always lead to positive outcomes. Based on the literature of regret theory, and differences between maximizers and satisficers, we discuss how opportunity cost considerations might lead to choice discomfort, regret, and dissatisfaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The conceptual framework of PMT adapted to our empirical application
Behavioural outcomes of the PMT cognitive process
Biosensors indicating presence/absence of bacterial contamination
Comparison of biosensors' WTP estimates by cognitive‐behavioural groups
Intelligent and active packaging could allow consumers to control cognitive reactions linked to the risk of consuming food products contaminated by microbiological pathogens and thus mitigating negative consequences of food safety incidents. However, despite advances in technology, consumers’ reactions and willingness to pay for active and intelligent packaging in the absence and presence of food safety incidents remain somewhat unexplored. To fill such a gap this study incorporates protection motivation theory (PMT) within a contingent valuation survey conducted in the UK to explore consumers’ behavioural responses to risk communication in the absence and presence of a food safety incident. These responses were moderated by the possibility of buying hypothetical meat products marketed with biosensors informing consumers of the presence of bacteria post-purchase. A singular approach was developed to identify the following four behavioural responses of the PMT’s cognitive mediating process: no response, fear, low response and danger control. Results indicate that the theoretical components of PMT play a different role in the absence and presence of food safety incidents. Respondents who receive risk information are willing to pay more than other participants to adopt precautionary behaviour and that purchasing behaviour varied across these four cognitive-behavioural responses. Governmental institutions, the food industry and retailers should consider working together to reassure consumers by investing in technology that may help consumers to mitigate fear during a food safety incident, but also to develop appropriate risk communication strategies that should focus more on the cognitive-behavioural outcomes analysed in this study.
Examples of food labels currently used in the market
Food labels created to reduce information asymmetry and help consumers make better food choices may have unanticipated effects, especially when the labels share common characteristics that may introduce confusion in making food choices. This study investigates how perceived relationships between different food labels may affect the price premiums of organic and local attributes for milk and fresh strawberries. Results show that the impacts of perception vary by product and label, and different food labels could positively affect price premiums on organic and local products. Results provide policy implications for better labeling and educational programs to reduce inadvertent confusion and improve consumer decision‐making.
Comparison of Maslow's model and two financial planning models for illustration purposes. These pyramids are meant to illustrate various applications of the triangular format; in this case, they are used to express a hierarchy of items.
A stylized framework for indebtedness (debt trap). This is a stylized representation of our framework, not meant to be a formal statistical model.
The psychological framework linking dark financial profile to indebtedness. This Figure is meant to express the constructs in a format used in structural equation modeling (SEM). (I⁺) means a positive influence, which, in path analysis, would be interpreted as a mutual causality.
Positioning the dark financial profile framework versus other consumer behaviour theories. This positioning map offers an overview of relevant consumer behavior theories. It plots them along two axes: the market, and individual dysfunctionality. The DFP framework is the only model that presents a possible loop, represented by the two arrows.
Avenues of research
This paper proposes a theoretical framework in an attempt to better explain the behaviors of some consumers of financial products during market crises. We review the established notions of irrationality and deception, and then add the construct of disconnection from financial needs, goals, and preferences. We propone that these three concepts, respectively cognitive, behavioral, and emotional in nature, create a dark financial profile by which these consumers unwittingly build debt. We use bibliometrics to highlight the current gap in the scholarly domains of interest and provide market examples of how the dark financial profile likely deploys in the marketplace. This is the first article to employ disconnection in such a context, and to improve the understanding of consumer behaviors in regard to disconnection, irrationality, deception, and debt. Thus, we enrich the literature on debt, which has at times ignored the role of the combination of these constructs. We investigate avenues of research for developing further our emerging framework, especially on the notion of disconnection, and suggest that this effort may assist in preparing effective marketing of financial education programs and improving lending practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Neural network plot of MPL—10‐8‐1
Actual and predicted overall brand equity based on masstige mean score items
Relationship between explanatory variables (masstige mean score scale items) and response variable (brand equity of prestigious mass brands)
ROC curve for accuracy of predictor model (data set: Train = 343, test, 85)
About Share on Abstract This study aimed to explore the two aspects of the Masstige mean score scale (MMSS) in the mobile payment system (MPS) context. The aspects included measuring the masstige value of MPS and validating MMSS as a measure while predicting the brand equity of prestigious mass brands. The research framework was developed by synthesising the past literature on masstige marketing and brand equity theory. Responses were obtained using a survey of four hundred thirty-eight mobile payment application users in India utilising a structured questionnaire. Masstige mean value of MPS brands was obtained through MMSS. Covariance-based structure equation modelling established the association between masstige value obtained through MMSS and overall brand equity. Non-compensatory data analysis method, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), was used to predict the brand equity of prestigious mass brands with MMSS items as predictors. The analysis of masstige mean value indicated the existence of mass prestige for MPS brands. Further, the path analysis indicated that the masstige value positively contributed to overall brand equity. The ANN's predictive analysis established that MMSS items as predictors are ninety-three per cent accurate in predicting brand equity for prestigious mass brands. The validation of the prestigiousness of the technology-based fintech MPS would be helpful to brand managers to target prestige-seeking consumers and charge a high price for premium and customised services. Also, the methodology promulgated to predict CBBE of prestigious mass brands based on MMSS items would be helpful to managers in determining brand equity of prestigious mass brands in the emerging economies. This study is the first to empirically validate the MMSS as a measure of brand equity for prestigious mass brands. It would help future researchers propagate the use of MMSS in the study of brand equity in varied contexts; also, this study significantly contributes to the literature on masstige explaining the masstige value of MPS brands in emerging markets.
Study model. Attachment styles' associations with relational marketing's outcomes mediated by trust and commitment.
Anxious and avoidance attachment styles lead to higher intention to stay and cooperation. *p < .05, **p < .01.
Secure attachment style leads to higher intention to stay and cooperation. *p < .05, **p < .01.
The main objective of this study is to use attachment styles theory to explore long‐term relationships in a service context using the mobile market as a case study. Attachment theory focuses on the primary link between maternal loss or deprivation and later personality development. This theory was extended to adult life and commercial contexts. Three attachment styles (secure, avoidant, and anxious) were used as the independent variables. Commitment and trust, as constructs of any relationship, were employed as the mediating variables, while intention to stay and cooperation were adopted as the dependent variables, as indicators of long‐term commercial relationships. A random sample of 1024 members of an online panel participated in the online survey. Structural equation modeling was performed to measure the validity of the constructs through confirmatory factor analysis, and to assess the hypothesized model as a single theoretical structure using path analysis. Associations were found between most of the study variables. Significant mediation effects were found between attachment styles and long‐term relationship indicators, intention to stay, and cooperation, with trust and commitment as the mediators. This study employs a unique theoretical model that has not been previously tested. The model and findings demonstrate that primary psychological structures play a role in creating and maintaining long‐term relationships.
Synthesis of predictive collaborative economy platform models as the basis for the meta‐analytic structural equation model (MASEM). Dotted lines represent non‐significant relationships. *p ˂ .05; **p ˂ .01; ***p ˂ .001.
Collaborative meta‐analytic framework with results
Collaborative economy platforms (CEP) have been investigated from various disciplines, theoretical frameworks, and methodological approaches. Subsequently, numerous models emerged to explain the cognitive process underlying intentions to use CEP. Yet, their findings are fragmented and diverse, impeding thereby theory development and management practice. This paper addresses this deficiency by a meta‐analysis of psychosocial determinants of collaborative economy platforms (CEP) use intentions. Based on information from a total of 27 independent samples, we find support for the relation between psychosocial determinants and CEP use intentions, as well as willingness to pay a premium price on CEP. The findings show that: (1) emotional and flexibility utility exert the strongest influence on use intentions; (2) functional and social utility exert more influence on willingness to pay a premium price; (3) CEP are primarily used for enjoyment and practical purposes; and, (4) hedonism does not strongly lead to an increased willingness to pay.
Journal metrics
10 days
Submission to first decision
Acceptance rate
$3,000 / £2,000 / €2,500
7.096 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
7 (2021)
Top-cited authors
Sue L.T. Mcgregor
  • Mount Saint Vincent University
Jing Jian Xiao
  • University of Rhode Island
Johanna Moisander
  • Aalto University
Morven G. McEachern
  • University of Huddersfield
Deirdre Shaw
  • University of Glasgow