International Forestry Review

Published by Commonwealth Forestry Association
Online ISSN: 1465-5489
Publications
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of Forest Department (FD) staff and local people regarding the implementation of Joint Forest Management (JFM). The study involved an investigation of 110 people from 14 village forest committees falling under seven forest divisions of two forest circles Hoshangabad and Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh State of India. Both FD staff and local people indicated a trend towards developing positive perceptions towards each other and a significant improvement in the inter relationship between the two was found. Both sides perceived that JFM has instilled a participatory approach in the functioning of the FD and committees to some extent. However, both also consider that JFM is yet to be institutionalised and joint efforts on their part are essential to make it sustainable for use in the future.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine what lessons can be learned, when trying to control illegal logging, from international agreements that already face the challenge of illegal production and trade. In recent years a number of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), in particular those dealing with wildlife and fisheries, have developed strategies to cope with illegal trade, and in February 2003 the Kimberley Process on conflict diamonds was set up to exclude conflict diamonds from world markets.
 
Article
The diversity of criteria and indicators (C&I) sets is often a cause for uncertainty and confusion, and probably one of the reasons for the still unsatisfactory acceptance of C&I as a support for implementation of sustainable forest management. In order to address this erosion of confidence in C&I this paper evaluates the diversity of five C&I sets (CIFOR, ACM, FSC, ITTO and Tarapoto) relevant for the Brazilian Amazon by analysing frequencies of C&I in relation to parameters about content and quality. The study demonstrated that the C&I sets, although addressing the social, technical, ecological and economic dimensions of sustainability, exhibit different thematic foci. A general lack of validity was attested as well as missing specificity and practicability of the indicators. In order to increase objectivity and transparency, the C&I have to reflect more clearly and unambiguously what is actually assessed. It is recommended to include a discussion about verifiers and assessment methods in the development of C&I sets. To avoid misunderstandings and to introduce the possibility for less complex and more practicable C&I sets, the authors recommend constriction of the objective of the assessment to more clearly serve the potential clients and frame-conditions for its application.
 
Article
The importance of forest cover to watershed management in the Caribbean Islands is indicated by an example from St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles. As early as 1791, the King’s Hill Reserve was set aside purportedly to attract clouds and rain for the benefit of land owners in the vicinity (Birdsey et al. 1986). Moreover, a 1912 proclamation on the same island was aimed at protecting forest lands above 1,000 feet (about 300 m) in elevation, the source of the island’s water supplies. Similar proclamations were issued on other islands in the Lesser Antilles. In the interim, St. Vincent’s population has grown considerably as have the residents’ demands for domestic and commercial water supplies (See Box, p.227).
 
Article
This paper outlines a new approach to addressing the problem of illegal logging in countries where current government enforcement is of limited effectiveness. Although focused on tropical producer countries, the approach proposed is also applicable to temperate regions, particularly countries with economies in transition.Independent Verification of Legal Timber (IVLT) is designed to support Governments in their efforts to improve regulation of the forest sector. IVLT will provide Governments with comprehensive information on production and trade in forest products nationwide. In addition, most importantly, it will provide regular and transparent feedback to government enforcement agencies on companies' compliance with legislation. IVLT also complements certification by making it easier for individual producers to reach the standards required by certification schemes.
 
Article
In the past decade the leaders of the 35 small island nations with developing economies have found the political resolve to act together and thus in aggregate to overcome the constraints of the three elements that describe them: • they are small in area so they usually lack natural resources (but conversely they do not lack human resources which place increasing stress on those natural resources) • they are islands isolated from developments in the continents to which they belong (although that isolation may attract tourism and often attendant problems) • their economies are in development (which implies that they lack economic clout, and are easily overlooked – unless of course they have some strategic importance which can, like tourism, be a mixed blessing).
 
Article
The quantity and type of wood residue generated from small-scale selective logging and sawmilling operations were estimated and the combined recovery rate, i.e. the potential final yield from a tree was determined. The log recovery rate and lumber recovery factor (LRF) were 38.3% and 36% for both operations respectively. The combined recovery rate of both operations, i.e. the potential final yield from a tree in average was 14%. With current estimated logging intensity and log recovery rate, a total of 334 trees or a logging unit of 166.6 ha is needed for production of 2,000 m3 round wood annually required by the case study sawmill. With the current estimated 36% LRF the sawmill produces 720 m3 of sawn wood from annually delivered 2,000 m3 round wood. With the increase of the current average combined logging and sawmilling recovery rate from 14% to 28%, the case study sawmill would require 40% less forest land than it now requires for the same sawn wood output and at the same time usable sawn wood output would be increased by 22%.
 
Article
The vast forests of the Russian Far East and Siberia represent one of the last great forest wildernesses in the world, containing large expanses of boreal and northern temperate forest types. These forests are of global importance as habitat for rare and endangered species, for the richness of biodiversity in areas such as the Sikhote-Alin Mountain Range and Sakhalin Island, and to help mitigate against the effects of global climate change. They are also home to tens of thousands of indigenous peoples for whom the forest is a spiritual as well as physical space and which also provides traditional livelihoods for many thousands more forest-dependent people. However, despite the seeming vastness of the forests in the Russian Far East and Siberia, research has shown that they are becoming increasingly fragmented, particularly in the accessible southern areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East (Global Forest Watch Russia 2002), and much of this fragmentation is as a result of industrial forestry.
 
Perceived utility of university subjects to career foresters.
Article
A review of forestry education based on literature and a survey of 186 foresters reveals the diversity of interests within the Australian forestry profession. The survey refl ects the utility of subjects such as silviculture, mensuration and forest management, and highlights the need to include subjects such as human resource management, business studies and communication skills in forestry programmes. Results also suggest that there is the need for more innovation in the teaching of foundation subjects such as chemistry. Important but unexpected findings from the survey were the high proportion of respondents who stated that their bachelor studies provided their formative career preparation, and the acknowledgement of the role of vacation work experience in reinforcing formal academic study.
 
Article
Productivity of commercial acacia and eucalypts plantations in Southeast Asia was analysed using company inventory data to assess growth rates and their variation and trends. Growth rates of in Sumatra, Indonesia ranged between 22 and 35 m/ha/yr before impacted by fungal disease, which reduced growth to 15 m/ha/yr or lower. The first rotation of , which replaced in Sumatra, produced 16–18 m/ha/yr. In south Vietnam, growth of acacia hybrid in the second rotation averaged 23 m/ha/yr and generally exceeded that of acacia plantations in the first rotation. Growth of acacia hybrid in north Vietnam was slower, at 18 m/ha/yr. Eucalypts in China grew at between 15 to 28 mha/yr. Growth rates were highly variable spatially within estates managed by individual companies for both eucalypts and acacias. Understanding this variation spatially and in time is critical for developing holistic management and better targeting of research efforts. Spanish Se ha analizado la productividad de las plantaciones comerciales de acacia y eucalipto en el sudeste de Asia, por medio de datos de inventario de empresas, con los que evaluar las tasas de crecimiento, su variación y sus tendencias. Las tasas de crecimiento de Acacia mangium en Sumatra (Indonesia) se situaron entre los 22 y 35 m³ por ha y año, antes de ser afectadas por una enfermedad fúngica, que redujo el crecimiento a 15 m³/ha/año como máximo. El primer turno de Eucalyptus pellita, que ha reemplazado a A. mangium en Sumatra, produjo entre 16 y 18 m³/ha/año. En el sur de Vietnam, el crecimiento de un híbrido de acacia en el segundo turno fue en promedio de 23 m³/ha/año y, en general, sobrepasó el de las plantaciones de acacia en el primer turno. El crecimiento del híbrido de acacia en el norte de Vietnam fue más lento, de unos 18 m³/ha/año. Los eucaliptos crecieron en China entre 15 y 28 m³/ha /año. Las tasas de crecimiento fueron muy variables espacialmente dentro de fincas administradas por empresas individuales, tanto para eucaliptos como acacias. La comprensión de esta variación en el espacio y en el tiempo es fundamental para el desarrollo de una gestión integral y una mejor dirección de los esfuerzos de investigación. French La productivité des plantations d'acacia et d'eucalyptus dans l'Asie du sud-est a été analysée en utilisant des données d'inventaires de compagnies pour évaluer leur taux de croissance et leurs courants et variations. Les taux de croissance de l'Acacia mangium à Sumatra, en Indonésie, allaient de 22 à 35 m³/ha/an avant qu'il ne soit atteint par une mycose qui réduisit la croissance à 15 m³/ha/an, ou moins encore. La première rotation de l' Eucalyptus pellita, qui remplaça l'A. mangium à Sumatra, produisit de 16 à 18 m³/ha/an. Au Vietnam du sud, la croissance d'acacia hybride atteignait une moyenne de 23 m³/ha/an en seconde rotation, et excédait généralement celle des plantations d'acacia en première rotation. La croissance des acacias hybrides au Vietnam du nord était plus lente, à 18 m³/ha/an. Les taux de croissance connaissaient de grandes variables spatiales au sein des propriétés gérées par des compagnies individuelles, pour les eucalyptus autant que pour les acacias. La compréhension de ces variations spatiales et dans le temps est cruciale pour développer une gestion holistique et donner aux efforts de la recherche des buts plus précis.
 
Article
Acacia and eucalypt plantations, managed over rotation cycles of 5–8 years, are important resources for wood production in Southeast Asia. This paper reviews the processes that determine the productivity of successive crops under tropical environments and how the local management impacts on them. Experimental results show that if plantations are managed according to recognised scientific principles, productivity can be sustained and improved and the properties of the soil can be conserved. Field visits and review have identified key risks, the critical constraints on production and the challenges for improving system management. Sustaining production will be strongly dependent on developing an integrated approach to management, bringing together the best outcomes from genetic improvement, coordinated efforts on resource protection and site and soil management which conserves and enhances the productive capacity of soils. This requires both new investments in and redirection of research and development, and stronger partnerships amongst all stakeholders committed to sustainability. Spanish La plantaciones de acacia y eucalipto, cuando son gestionadas en turnos de rotación de 5 a 8 años, son recursos importantes para la producción de madera en el sudeste de Asia. Este artículo revisa los procesos que determinan la productividad de los cultivos sucesivos en ambientes tropicales y los impactos de la gestión local sobre ellos. Los resultados experimentales muestran que si las plantaciones se gestionan de acuerdo con principios científicos reconocidos, la productividad puede sostenerse y mejorarse y se pueden conservar las propiedades del suelo. Mediante visitas de campo y revisiones se han identificado los principales riesgos, los factores limitantes críticos de la producción y los desafíos para mejorar la gestión del sistema. Mantener la producción dependerá en gran medida del desarrollo de un planteamiento integral de la gestión, que reúna los mejores resultados de la mejora genética, los esfuerzos coordinados en materia de protección de los recursos y una elección del sitio y un manejo del suelo que conserve y mejore la capacidad productiva de los suelos. Esto requiere tanto de nuevas inversiones en investigación y desarrollo, como de su redireccionamiento, así como de alianzas más fuertes entre todos los actores comprometidos con la sostenibilidad. French Les plantations d'acacia et d'eucalyptus gérées dans des cycles rotatifs de 5 à 8 ans sont des ressources importantes pour la production de bois en Asie du sud-est. Cet article examine les processus déterminant la productivité des récoltes successives dans les environnements tropicaux, et la manière dont la gestion locale les impacte. Des résultats expérimentaux montrent que si les plantations sont gérées selon des principes scientifiques reconnus, la productivité peut être soutenue et améliorée et les propriétés du sol préservées. Des visites et des rapports effectués sur le terrain ont identifié les risques clé, les contraintes critiques sur la production et les défis auxquels une amélioration de la gestion du système doit faire face. Une production soutenue sera fortement dépendante d'un développement d'une approche intégrée de la gestion, réunissant les meilleurs résultats de l'amélioration génétique, des efforts coordonnés pour protéger la ressource et une gestion du sol conservant et encourageant sa capacité de production. Ceci requiert de nouveaux investissements et un changement de direction dans la recherche et le développement, ainsi qu'un partenariat plus étroit entre toutes les parties prenantes désireuses d'obtenir la durabilité.
 
Major issues found for each stakeholder grouping directly relating to plantation forestry in the Upper Clarence catchment  
Eucalypt plantation established on land previously grazed by cattle.
Article
An annual trade deficit in Australia for forest products of approximately $2 billion (Aus$), predominantly in paper, pulp products and sawn timber, makes sound argument for continued support of plantation forestry expansion. Existing government policy promoting afforestation through fiscal tax-based incentives for Managed Investment Scheme (MIS) retail forestry however, has raised many questions regarding the need for performance targets and accountability criteria in response to the collapse of several private plantation companies during the global financial crisis of 2009 and 2010 that had been responsible for managing a large sector of the national estate. This paper reports on the first stage of a social research case study for a sub-tropical rural community in north-eastern NSW, Australia that had been undergoing rapid land use-change to plantation forestry prior to the global financial crisis. Socio-political, economic and environmental concerns of stakeholders are identified through social research methods to provide insights for a follow-up study using participatory modelling. Community concerns raised also help inform debate on the need to reform existing federal retail forestry policy to improve triple-bottom line sustainability.
 
Article
"Rajasthan presents evidence for the existence of one of the most advanced works of ancient mining and accompanied deforestation globally. Mining continues to be an important economic activity in Rajasthan. However, economic benefits of mineral extraction also accompany environmental, economic and social costs. Mine waste dumps and mined out areas viewed simply as the legacies of past may appear overwhelming environmental hazards presenting ugly picture of cultural landscape. However, mine wastes can be transformed into an opportunity for learning, adaptation and productivity enhancement for sustainable livelihoods through ecological restoration. Here we propose a strategy for mine spoil restoration aimed at creating a multifunctional ecosystem in mine waste dumps. We suggest that dredging and sediment removal from traditional tanks and ponds can potentially be used to prepare the substratum over the mine wastes for direct seeding. It will also create enhanced decentralized water storage capacity for wildlife and people. Our strategy combines the concomitant revival of traditional water harvesting systems, ground water recharge, enhanced biomass production and an adaptation to random recurrence of droughts in Rajasthan."
 
The 'new wave' of investors in commercial plantations in Africa Country Investors Comments
Article
The increasing demands now being placed on Africa's natural and planted forests mean that they cannot sustainably supply the wood products the continent needs. Serious shortages of wood are forecast in many countries for the near future and this has serious socio-economic implications as well as contributing negatively to global climate change. Whilst tree plantations have long been seen as a way to combat such impacts by producing wood products in a cost-effective way, the current level of tree planting in Africa is well below the level required to meet the predicted demand from the populace and industry. Of the estimated 3.8 million hectares of commercial plantations in Africa, the most successful ventures have generally been where the private sector has been encouraged and supported to invest in commercial-scale tree planting and these point the way to the future expansion of plantations in Africa. Spanish La creciente demanda que están acusando los bosques naturales y las plantaciones de África supone que no van a ser capaces de proporcionar de forma sostenible los productos de madera que necesita el continente. Se ha pronosticado a corto plazo una grave escasez de madera en muchos países, lo que supone graves consecuencias socio-económicas, así como una contribución negativa al cambio climático global. A pesar de que las plantaciones forestales han sido consideradas durante mucho tiempo como una forma eficaz en función del costo de combatir estos impactos mediante la obtención de productos de madera, el nivel actual de la plantación de árboles en África está muy por debajo de las cifras necesarias para satisfacer la demanda prevista de la población y la industria. De las aproximadamente 3,8 millones de hectáreas estimadas de plantaciones comerciales en África, las inversiones con mayor éxito han sido generalmente aquellas en las que se ha alentado y apoyado al sector privado a invertir en la plantación de árboles a escala comercial y éstas señalan el camino para la futura expansión de las plantaciones en África. French Les demandes croissantes pesant sur les forêts naturelles et de plantations en Afrique signifient que ces dernières ne peuvent plus fournir la demande du pays d'une manière durable. Une pénurie sérieuse de bois est prévue dans de nombreux pays dans le futur proche, ayant de sérieuses implications socio-économiques et contribuant négativement au changement climatique. Alors que les plantations d'arbres ont été longtemps considérées comme à même de combattre de tels impacts en produisant des produits du bois à bon marché, le niveau actuel de plantation des arbres en Afrique est bien en deça de la prévision du niveau nécessaire pour faire face à la demande de la populace et de l'industrie. Sur les 3.8 millions d'hectares estimés de plantations commerciales en Afrique les initiatives ayant eu le plus de succès ont généralement été celles où le secteur privé a été soutenu et encouragé dans l'investissement à planter des arbres sur une échelle commerciale. Ces initiatives montrent le chemin à emprunter pour parvenir à une future expansion des plantations en Afrique.
 
Article
Plantation development in Australia has had a history of starts and stops. In the four major softwood plantation regions, forecasts of future availability provide very little scope for expansion of softwood sawmilling. In the three major hardwood plantation regions, considerable scope exists to increase exports of woodchips or expand pulp processing. Plantation development is presently in the doldrums, pending rationalization of hardwood estates by companies that bought the recently demised Managed Investment Schemes. Following this rationalization, industrial softwood growers will need to purchase or acquire access to additional land to meet processors' desires to upscale and remain internationally competitive. Large-scale purchase is generally not economically or politically viable. However, farm forestry has public good benefits through structural adjustment, carbon and, in some localities, salinity mitigation. Government assistance to foster farm forestry could break this nexus.
 
Article
For Tanzania's emerging REDD+ policy to successfully build on existing community based natural resource management structures, a critical analysis of the outcomes of existing policy approaches for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation is needed. Our research addresses this aim, and provides an analysis of Tanzania's four prominent natural resource management programmes. Our analysis focuses on impacts on poverty alleviation (PA) and ecosystem services (ES). The research, conducted between June 2011 and April 2012, involved a 10-months period in Tanzania engaging with key policy and academic experts and reviewing relevant literature. Programmes relating to forests, environment and development as well as to community-based natural resource management in Tanzania were reviewed. These were further analysed based on governance themes, namely their level of: (1) decentralisation; (2) intersectoral integration; (3) community access to resources; (4) operational simplicity; and (5) equitable benefit sharing (both within the local community/user groups, and between governance levels). We derive a relative assessment of the degree of influence (High, Intermediate, Low) and nature of influence (Positive, Neutral, Negative) of the programmes on ES and PA outcomes. Building on this analysis, we provide contextual insights and recommendations specific to Tanzania for nascent policy initiatives (e.g.REDD+). The need for such contextual recommendations has been profoundly stressed. Spanish Para que la nueva política de REDD+ de Tanzania pueda sustentarse con éxito en las estructuras existentes de gestión de los recursos naturales de base comunitaria, es necesario un análisis crítico de los resultados de los planteamientos utilizados en las políticas existentes relacionadas con servicios ecosistémicos y reducción de la pobreza. Nuestra investigación se enfoca en este objetivo, y presenta un análisis de los cuatro programas más importantes de gestión de recursos naturales en Tanzania. Nuestro análisis se centra en los impactos en la reducción de la pobreza (RP) y los servicios ecosistémicos (SE). La investigación, realizada entre junio de 2011 y abril de 2012, requirió un período de 10 meses de diálogo con expertos claves de Tanzania del mundo académico y de temas políticos, así como una revisión de la literatura relevante. Se revisaron una serie de programas en Tanzania relacionados con los bosques, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo, así como con la gestión de los recursos naturales basada en la comunidad. Estos últimos se analizaron en mayor profundidad en cuanto a asuntos de gobernabilidad, y en particular su nivel de: (1) descentralización; (2) integración intersectorial; (3) acceso de las comunidades a recursos; (4) simplicidad operacional; y (5) distribución equitativa de beneficios (tanto dentro de los grupos locales de la comunidad y usuarios como entre niveles gubernamentales). Se infiere una evaluación relativa de la influencia de los programas sobre los resultados en cuanto a la RP y los SE, en términos del grado de influencia (Alta, Media, Baja) y de su naturaleza (Positiva, Neutral, Negativa). Sobre la base de este análisis, ofrecemos ideas contextuales y recomendaciones específicas para Tanzania en cuanto a iniciativas políticas incipientes (p. ej. REDD+). Se ha insistido en gran medida en la necesidad de tales recomendaciones contextuales. French Pour que la REDD+ émergeante de la Tanzanie puisse faire avancer les structures de gestion des ressources naturelles existantes à base communautaire, une analyse critique des approches politiques existantes pour les services d'ecosystèmes et le soulagement de la pauvreté est nécessaire. Notre recherche fait face à ce besoin et offre une analyse des quatre programmes de gestion des ressources naturelles principaux en Tanzanie. Notre analyse se concentre sur les impacts sur le soulagement de la pauvreté (PA) et sur les services d'ecosystèmes (ES). La recherche, conduite entre juin 2011 et avril 2012, a inclu une période de dix mois en Tanzanie, avec un engagement avec des experts clé de politique et académiques et une lecture critique de la littérature appropriée. Les programmes ayant trait aux forêts, à l'environnement, au développement, ainsi qu'à la gestion des ressouces naturelles à base communautaire en Tanzanie ont été étudiés. Ils ont été analysés plus profondément en se basant sur des thèmes de gestion: leur niveau de 1) décentralisation, 2) intégration intersectorielle, 3) accès de la communauté aux ressources, 4) simplicité opérationelle et, 5) partage équitable des bénéfices ( au sein de la communauté/des groupes utilisateurs, ainsi qu'entre les niveaux de gestion). Nous en dérivons une évaluation relative du degré d'influence ( fort, intermédiaire et faible) et de la nature de cette influence (positive, neutre et négative) des programmes sur les conséquences sur les ES et le PA. En élaborant sur cette analyse, nous offrons de éclaircissements contextuels et des recommendations spécifiques à la Tanzanie pour des politiques naissantes ( par exemple: la REDD+). La nécessité de telles recommendations contextuelles a été profondément souligné.
 
Article
Selective logging in Guyana differs little from logging elsewhere in the tropics. Timber companies harvest a small number of species without much care for the remaining stand and hence future yields. Logging intensities tend to be low ( 5 m3 ha-1), but in Chlorocardium rodiei (greenheart) forests, high yields are obtained because harvestable stems tend to occur in clumps. Consequently, large gaps are formed in the forest canopy. Skidder movements near the stumps destroy commercial regeneration and compact the soil, further affecting forest recovery. A reduced impact logging (RIL) system was designed to redress these environmental problems. It was shown that conventional greenheart logging (CL) is not likely to be sustainable. RIL was successful in reducing skidding damage by 65% (disturbed ground area) and in reducing the average size of felling gaps by 40%. Total loss of canopy cover was not reduced due to group-wise felling in CL as opposed to more scattered felling in RIL. The implementation of RIL did not lead to an increase in logging cost, despite CL having the advantage of group-wise felling, because a higher yield was obtained per hectare and skidding was more efficient.
 
Variety of Elements Constituting a Paradigm in Plantation Research 
Elements for studying plantation paradigms and their shifts. Source: own elaboration, drawing on Pretzsch (2013) Aspect Element Explanation
Changing area of forest plantations worldwide with the most influential milestones of global forest plantation politics (Own elaboration, plantation area from: Evans and Turnbull, 2009; FAO 2010). List of acronyms at the end of this article 4 
Article
This paper traces macro-level trends and changing approaches to plantation forestry, with particular emphasis on tropical and subtropical regions. Introducing the theoretical concept of a paradigm and drawing on the notions of discourse and epistemic community, it analyses the development of knowledge structures present in the history of plantation forestry. The historical context with an economic and developmental focus is provided to better understand the political economy of forest plantations in the South. A typology of plantation paradigms according to the selected criteria is put forth to illustrate both the discursive and technical changes plantation projects underwent in time. The paper concludes with a critical discussion on the parallels between the historical developments, change in economic thought and development aid and their influence on tree-planting activities as well as the strengths, weaknesses and challenges for both the plantation and general forestry epistemic community in the years to come. Spanish Este trabajo rastrea las tendencias a nivel macro y los enfoques cambiantes hacia las plantaciones forestales, con especial énfasis en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Introduciendo el concepto teórico de paradigma y basándose en las nociones de discurso y de la comunidad epistémica, se analiza el desarrollo de las estructuras del conocimiento presentes en la historia de las plantaciones forestales. Se proporciona el contexto histórico con un enfoque económico y de desarrollo para comprender mejor la economía política de las plantaciones forestales en el Sur. Se plantea una tipología de los paradigmas de las plantaciones en relación a criterios seleccionados, para ilustrar tanto los cambios discursivos como técnicos a los que fueran sometidas las plantaciones a lo largo del tiempo. El artículo concluye con una discusión crítica sobre los paralelismos entre la evolución histórica, el cambio en el pensamiento económico y la ayuda al desarrollo y su influencia en las actividades de plantación de árboles; así como las fortalezas, debilidades y retos de las plantaciones y de la comunidad epistémica forestal en general para los próximos años. French Cet article retrace les tendances au macro-niveau et évolutions dans l'approche aux plantations forestières, se concentrant en particulier sur les régions tropicales et subtropicales. S'appuyant, d'un point de vue théorique, sur le concept de paradigme et mobilisant les notions de discours et de communauté épistémique, il analyse le développement des structures de savoir au sein de l'histoire de la foresterie de plantation. Le contexte historique, et en particulier ses aspects économiques et développementaux, est présenté dans un premier temps afin d'éclaircir les caractéristiques de l'économie politique de plantations forestières dans le Sud. Une typologie des différents paradigmes ayant guidés aux pratiques de plantation selon les critères spécifiques est avancé afin d'illustrer les changements tant discursifs que techniques qu'ont connu les projets de plantation. L'article conclut par une discussion critique sur les parallèles établis entre les événements historiques, les évolutions de la pensée économique et l'aide au développement, et leur influence sur les activités de plantation forestière ainsi que sur les forces, faiblesses et défis à venir pour la communauté épistémique foresterie en générale et celle des plantations en particulier.
 
Article
This paper describes the variety of management practices for the Butter tree (locally called Chiuri) in Makawanpur district, Nepal. Chiuri is a highly valued multipurpose species which has been customarily used and managed by local communities on state forest lands and on unregistered and registered private lands. As a result of their high value of the trees to local people, in the early 1990s the District Forest Officer issued tree certificates for the trees on state forest lands to their ancestral users. In addition to this pseudo-legitimisation of private access to and use of Chiuri trees on state forest lands, private tree tenure rights exist for (un)registered private lands. As a result of the specific tree tenure conditions, the local pattern of management practices for Chiuri is different from the usual tree management patterns under different land tenure regimes. Often, on state and community forest lands indigenous tree management practices are restricted to socially-oriented control measures on resource extraction, whereas on private lands biologically-oriented management practices may also take place. The most intensive tree management practices usually occur on well-established private lands. In contrast, the management practices for Chiuri trees on state forest lands involve both socially-oriented and biologically-oriented management practices and the tree management itself is more intensive on the unregistered than on the registered private lands. The Chiuri management practices have a positive effect on forest conservation, and so the example of Chiuri user certificates on state forest lands provides an interesting alternative to the Nepalese strategy of stimulating community management as a means of forest protection.
 
The amounts of industrial plantation and wood planned in the scope of strategic plan* Years
Article
SUMMARY The objectives of this study were to provide information on the history of forest plantations and the institutions responsible for plantation works in Turkey, and to make recommendations for the solution of problems relating to plantations. Plantation activities can be divided into three periods in Turkey according to the legislation, starting in 1937. Under the Forest Law 3116 plantation activities were implemented systematically by the General Directorate of Forestry between 1937 and 1956. In the second period (1956–1986), plantation activities increased as industrial plantations were initiated. The third period, covering 1986 to the present-day, saw, in addition to afforestation, plantation establishment for non-timber purposes such as erosion control, range improvement and energy. There are many political problems as well as institutional ones that have influenced plantation activities in Turkey and these have on occasion led to a reduction in forestry activities during certain periods. Although the Development Plans and the report of the Turkish National Forestry Program and the Forestry Special Expertise Commission include many objectives and policies regarding forest plantations the majority of these have not been fulfilled.
 
Article
A simple method is applied to provide a preliminary assessment of climate change impacts on the species planting domains for (teak), (mahogany) and (Caribbean pine) in Fiji and in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. Climate values in a 10 minute grid (approximately 18 km spacing) are used to identify locations with climatically suitable conditions for the species. The impacts of climate change on plantations of all three target species in Fiji are considered to be low in 2030 and 2050. However, impacts may become medium for and in 2080 using an A2 'business as usual' scenario, as some areas begin to fall outside climatically suitable limits for these species. The likely impacts of climate change on sites in PNG and Solomon Islands are also assessed as low, as the main plantation areas remain largely in climatically suitable areas until at least 2050 under the A2 scenario. The implications for vulnerability of these plantations are discussed, along with strengths and weaknesses of the method, and possible further analyses. Spanish Un método simple se aplica para proporcionar una evaluación preliminar de los impactos del cambio climático en los dominios de la plantación de especies de Tectona grandis (teca), Swietenia macrophylla (caoba) y Pinus caribaea (pino caribe) en Fiji y T. grandis en Papua Nueva Guinea y Salomón Islas. Los valores climáticos en una rejilla 10 minutos (unos 18 km separación) se utilizan para identificar lugares con condiciones climáticamente adecuadas para la especie. Los impactos del cambio climático en las plantaciones de las tres especies objetivo en Fiji se considera que son bajos en 2030 y 2050. Sin embargo, los efectos pueden llegar a ser medio para S. macrophylla y P. caribaea en 2080 utilizando un 'business as usual' A2 escenario, ya que algunas zonas comienzan a caer fuera climáticamente límites adecuados para estas especies. Los probables impactos del cambio climático en T. grandis sitios en PNG y las Islas Salomón también se evalúan tan bajo, ya que las principales áreas de plantaciones siguen en gran medida en las áreas climáticamente adecuadas por lo menos hasta 2050 bajo el escenario A2. Se discuten las implicaciones para la vulnerabilidad de estas plantaciones, así como las fortalezas y debilidades del método y los posibles nuevos análisis. French Une méthode simple est appliquée pour fournir une évaluation préliminaire des impacts du changement climatique sur les domaines d'implantation d' espèces pour Tectona grandis (teck), Swietenia macrophylla (acajou) et Pinus caribaea (pin des Caraïbes) à Fidji et T. grandis en Papouasie- Nouvelle-Guinée et Salomon Îles. Valeurs climatiques dans une grille de 10 minutes (à environ 18 km de distance) sont utilisés pour identifier les endroits avec des conditions climatiques appropriées pour les espèces. Les impacts du changement climatique sur les plantations des trois espèces cibles à Fidji sont considérés comme faibles en 2030 et 2050. Toutefois, les impacts peuvent devenir moyen pour S. macrophylla et P. caribaea en 2080 en utilisant un 'business as usual' A2 scénario, comme certaines régions commencent à tomber en dehors climatiquement limites appropriées pour ces espèces. Les effets probables du changement climatique sur T. grandis sites PNG et les Îles Salomon sont également jugés faibles, comme les principales zones de plantation restent largement dans les zones climatiquement adaptées au moins jusqu'en 2050 selon le scénario A2. Les implications de la vulnérabilité de ces plantations sont discutés, avec les forces et les faiblesses de la méthode, et d'éventuelles nouvelles analyses.
 
Article
Planted forests have increased globally in area in recent decades and are used for productive purposes such as wood production and ecosystem services such as soil conservation and biodiversity. Historically, these purposes have been largely regarded as mutually exclusive, reflecting market failure in the ability of investors to capture the benefits from ecosystem services. Trade liberalisation and global trade has also inhibited new plantation investment for wood in high land cost countries such as Australia. It is argued that market based mechanisms for ecosystem services may help overcome investment hurdles for private wood plantations, while delivering multiple benefits. An Australian case study is used to describe these trends and opportunities, including shifts away from direct wood plantation promotion to emerging policies for carbon, water and biodiversity. It is important that policy settings are designed to promote the potential net benefits from joint production and avoid any unintended negative environmental consequences. Spanish Las plantaciones forestales han aumentado en superficie a nivel mundial en las últimas décadas y se utilizan con fines productivos tales como la producción de madera, y servicios de protección como la conservación del suelo y la biodiversidad. Históricamente, estos propósitos han sido considerados ampliamente como mutuamente excluyentes, lo que refleja el fracaso del mercado en cuanto a la capacidad de los inversores para aprovechar los beneficios de los servicios de protección. La liberalización del comercio y el comercio mundial han inhibido también las nuevas inversiones en plantaciones de madera en países con un alto costo de la tierra, como Australia. Se argumenta que los mecanismos basados en el mercado para los servicios de protección pueden ayudar a superar los obstáculos de las inversiones en las plantaciones de madera privadas, al tiempo que ofrecen múltiples beneficios. Se emplea un estudio de caso de Australia para describir estas tendencias y oportunidades, entre ellas los cambios que se alejan de la promoción de plantaciones directas de madera y las políticas emergentes para el carbono, el agua y la biodiversidad. Es importante que los parámetros de las políticas estén diseñados para promover los beneficios netos potenciales de la producción conjunta y evitar las consecuencias ambientales negativas no deseadas. French Les forêts de plantation ont globalement accru en superficie au cours de ces dernières décennies et sont utilisées en des buts productifs tels que la production du bois, ainsi qu'en des service protecteurs tels que la conservation du sol et la biodiversité. Historiquement, ces buts ont été longtemps considérés comme mutuellement exclusifs, réfléchissant l'échec du marché dans l'inaptitude des investisseurs à glaner les bénéfices des services protecteurs. La libéralisation du commerce et le commerce global ont également inhibé de nouveaux investissemente en bois dans les plantations où le coût de la terre est élevé, comme en Australie. Le débat indique que les mécanismes pour les services protecteurs basés sur le marché pourraient aider à surmonter les obstacles à l'investissement dans les plantations privées, tout en débloquant de nombreux bénéfices. Une étude-cas australienne est utilisée pour décrire ces courants et opportunités, en incluant les mouvements s'écartant d'une promotion directe de la plantation de bois pour se concentrer sur les politiques émergeant pour le carbone, l'eau et la biodiversité. Il est important que les bases de la politique soient formées pour promouvoir les bénéfices nets potentiels résultant d'une production jointe et évitant toute conséquence environnementale négative non intentionnée.
 
Influences on planting behaviour and recommended support strategy (based on Herbohn et al 2005).
Article
The Community Rainforest Reforestation Program (1993-2000) was an attempt to create healthy vegetated catchments that maximize wood production, environmental protection and employment in eastern Australia. Despite a AUD10 million outlay, these goals were not fulfilled, because of limited resources and continually changing circumstances (goals, staff, institutions) that hampered the efforts of both researchers and coordinators. Both technical and managerial lessons need to be learned: blanket guidelines are rarely helpful because species, nutrition and silviculture need to be matched to each site; vigour, provenance and nutrition of nursery stock is critical to plantation success; health surveillance should not be overlooked; early growth trends may not reflect commercial outcomes; experiments should be planned and adequately funded to examine mission-critical problems thoroughly; and records should be archived, and secured in more than one location. Inability to securely maintain long-term forest research data has been a common failing in many forestry endeavours. Experience suggests that researchers should rely on their professional networks rather than their employing agency to secure data and other records contributing to a professional knowledge base.
 
Structure of farmers' income in 2000. 
Boxplot showing the contribution of forest income for each category of income in 2000. 
Idealised model of contribution of forest sector to farmers' income for different forest development contexts. 
-Wallis test for change in relative contribu- tion of agriculture (crops and livestock), forestry and off- farm to farmers' income between 1985 and 2000 by low, middle and high change in income categories. 
Article
Forestry and poverty analyses in China show an ambiguous relationship. While the co-occurrence of forest rich areas and poor counties has been noted by some authors, others have stressed the role played by forestry in these areas where it is frequently one of the few options available. Our study indicates that the expansion of off-farm income is the fundamental development process taking place in many areas of rural China. Forestry can offer good income generating options to farmers, but as the local economy develops forestry tends to be displaced by more attractive alternatives. There are niche specialisation opportunities even for rich farmers, normally linked to a certain degree of vertical integration, enhanced by specific features of some forestry uses like bamboo.
 
Barriers to VPA implementation according to private sector actor groups in Cameroon 
Article
SUMMARY The development and operationalization of timber tracing and legality verification systems are an important objective of FLEGT (Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade) Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs). These systems are developed at the national level in order to ensure that all relevant timber circulating in the country meets the legality requirements agreed upon in the VPA. To date, no country that has signed a VPA has fully implemented these VPA systems. Using a qualitative methodological approach, this paper explores the perceived barriers to VPA implementation according to Cameroon's private forestry sector. The paper applies an analytical framework for forest rule compliance in order to better understand the institutional and individual constraints facing VPA implementation. The study identifies the following barriers to VPA implementation in Cameroon: corruption, informal nature of domestic sector, non-sensitive timber demand, technicalities of VPA/LAS, high cost of legality and lack of awareness on the part of the private sector.
 
Article
Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap and estimate trade and economic impacts of non-tariff barriers and compare them to the impacts of tariffs. Ad-valorem equivalent estimates for a set of well-defined non-tariff trade restrictions are incorporated into a global forest products trade model. Nontariff barriers are found to be less common than tariffs but have similar or bigger aggregate impacts on trade, production, producer revenues, consumer expenditures and value added as tariffs. There is uncertainty in the estimation of ad-valorem equivalence of non-tariff barriers that serves as a caveat on the results. Impacts of reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers are often different across regions and products. While not free from uncertainty, the results underscore the importance of analysing both types of trade policy and the need for continuing comprehensive trade liberalization.
 
Bottle tops placed upside down over the project area on a photocopy of a 1:100 000 map. (From left: Rod Keenan, Hartmut Holzknecht and Eileen Kolokol. Photo by Jerry Vanclay).
Participants simulating area control. Notice the selected tops in the background arranged in columns year by year, with four tops taken each year. (From left: Vitus Ambia and Sobbie Giok. Photo by Jerry Vanclay).
Participants near the end of a rotation simulating volume control with feedback, revising the allowable cut at mid-rotation. Note the tops already selected (harvested) laid out year by year, illustrating the different area harvested each year as each token represent approximately 1,000 ha. The map of the forest is obscured by the laptop computer. (From left: Eileen Kolokol and Barnabas Wilmot. Photo by Jerry Vanclay).
Article
Forest planning and management concepts can sometimes be difficult to grasp. Games provide an effective way to demonstrate different concepts and facilitate deeper understanding of approaches and practices to sustainable forest management. In this paper we describe a game devised to demonstrate alternative ways to set allowable harvest levels in large (>10,000 ha) native forest planning units. The game requires minimal materials (photocopies of relevant maps and a few hundred beer bottle tops), and can be played and debriefed in 2-3 hours. The game focuses on the principles underlying area control and volume control of timber harvesting, and provides a basis for discussion of inventory and monitoring needs. The game has been popular and effective in courses for forestry professionals in developing countries, and for students in an undergraduate forestry course.
 
Article
Reduced impact logging has been shown to be environmentally beneficial by reducing damage to the forest stand and soils, but is only one component of good forest management. The implementation of RIL is largely contingent on satisfying concerns about cost to the producer and the values of benefits. While many of the direct costs and benefits associated with RIL have been quantified, there are still a number of unanswered questions and potentials bottlenecks. The cost of training, extra wage demands, monitoring, verification and foregone timber have not always been accounted for in cost comparisons between RIL and conventional logging systems. While direct benefits of employing RIL through waste reduction could be considered universal, benefits derived through other income generation schemes, such as carbon offset, are not so clear. Institutional and economic constraints will continue to reduce the likelihood of RIL implementation in those regions where lease conditions promote short-term management objectives.
 
Overview of the four community based forest management regimes in Nepal CF LHF CFM BZ 
Article
Community based natural resource management (CBNRM) is predominantly viewed as a practice undertaken by a local community. Despite prolific research on CBNRM, little is known on how multi-scale regimes evolve to influence and shape local level resource management practices in specific contexts. In this paper, I demonstrate that Nepal's community forestry initiatives have evolved into regimes of governance beyond the local level. I also argue that the regime view of CBNRM helps to understand how different actors including donors, various government units, and particular groups of civil society from local to national levels engage in the politics of resource governance. Finally, I conclude that such multi-scalar politics shaping natural resource governance are crucial in explaining the livelihoods and conservation outcomes. The regime view can also offer new insights into public policy for more effective, equitable and sustainable management of resources. Spanish La gestión de recursos naturales basada en la comunidad (GRNBC) se entiende mayormente como una práctica llevada a cabo por una comunidad local. A pesar de la investigación prolífica en GRNBC, se sabe poco sobre cómo evolucionan los regímenes multi-escala a la hora de influir y moldear las prácticas locales de gestión de recursos en contextos específicos. En este artículo demuestro que los indicadores de silvicultura comunitaria de Nepal han evolucionado hacia regímenes de gobernanza más allá de la escala local. También mantengo que la visión de régimen de GRNBC ayuda a comprender cómo se involucran en las políticas de gobernanza de recursos los diferentes actores, como donantes, diferentes unidades del gobierno y ciertos grupos de la sociedad civil desde el nivel local al nacional. Finalmente, llego a la conclusión de que tales políticas multi-escalares, que determinan la gobernanza de los recursos naturales, son cruciales a la hora de explicar los medios de vida y los resultados de la conservación. El enfoque de régimen puede ofrecer también nuevas perspectivas sobre las políticas públicas para una gestión de los recursos más eficaz, equitativa y sostenible. French La gestion des ressources naturelles basée sur la communauté (CBNRM) est perçue principalement comme une pratique dans laquelle s'engage la communauté locale. En dépit de la recherche prolifique dont la CBNRM à été le sujet, la manière dont les régimes à plusieurs niveaux évoluent pour influencer et former les pratiques de gestion des ressources au niveau local dans des contextes spécifiques est peu connue. Je démontre dans cet article que les indicateurs de la foresterie communautaire du Népal ont évolué vers des régimes de gestion au delà du niveau local. Je déclare également que la vue régimentée de la CBNRM aide à comprendre comment les différents acteurs, comme les donateurs, les unités de gouvernement variées, et les groupes particuliers des sociétés civiles, de niveau local à national, s'engagent dans les politiques de gestion des ressources. J'en conclue finalement que ces politiques à plusieurs niveaux formant la gestion des ressources naturelles sont cruciales pour expliquer les résultats dans les revenus et la conservation. Le point de vue de ce régime peut également offrir de nouvelles idées pour diriger la politique publique vers une gestion des ressources équitable et durable.
 
Article
SUMMARY The Bolivian forestry law requires that 10 per cent of areas under forest management must be set aside as ‘ecological reserves’, serving as protected areas from resource extraction. These guidelines appear to be based largely on reserve design theory from the conservation biology literature including recommendations for large, contiguous blocks of reserves interconnected with other protected areas through corridor networks. Such recommendations, however, are largely applicable to protected areas that are embedded within fragmented landscapes or where there is significant threat of deforestation. In contrast, protected areas within managed forests in Bolivia are surrounded by areas of largely intact forest subjected to low-intensity reduced impact logging and where logging occurs with a felling cycle not less than 20 years. Following an analysis of the current Bolivian law, conservation goals, and pertinent literature, we argue that issues of size and connectivity are perhaps less important within landscapes dominated by areas under forest management for timber production compared to protected areas imbedded within fragmented landscapes. It may, therefore, be more effective to disperse ecological reserves throughout management units to protect critical habitat and sites prone to damage from logging.
 
Examples of inter-settlement fishery conflicts in DSNP 
Article
The paper describes underlying causes of conflicts between local people in Bulungan Research Forest (BRF), Indonesia with coal-mining and logging companies. Results show that conflict between local people and mining companies was triggered by the fact that the mining operation caused water and air pollution and soil degradation. Another cause for the conflict was the compensatory facilities (e.g. clean water, electricity, compensation fee, etc.) provided by the companies to local people that were often delayed or unsatisfactory. Local people perceived that their major problem with logging activities was the adverse impact to residual plants such as rattan, eagle wood, medical plants, etc. Not only that, logging companies did not allow local people to cut trees for their own uses such as for houses or churches. The paper concludes that there is a need for negotiation among those parties involved in conflict in such a way that negative impacts can be reduced and positive impacts can be enhanced.
 
Article
Forestry operations in the rainforests of south Cameroon require to be adapted to the prevailing physical, biotic and socio-economic conditions. Terrain used for logging is often steep and rugged. The forest contains many very large trees, though few of those are of marketable species. The forest is an important resource for the population, and forestry should be planned and executed in close consultation and cooperation with them. While much effort has been put in improving forest management, logging operations have changed little in recent years. Less than one tree per ha is felled, and logging damage is therefore limited. About 30% of the felled volume of timber is left in the forest. Some elements of reduced impact logging, such as winching and improved instruction and supervision, can reduce logging damage, wastage and negative effects for the local people and wildlife substantially, but other elements, such as liana cutting and directional felling, are less suitable under the prevailing conditions.
 
Social capital elements in comparison 
Article
Forestry activities are not implemented in a vacuum, but highly interlinked with other domains: social, cultural, institutional, economic, and political. Good governance that builds on effective local institutions and social capital enhancement becomes one of the key issues in studying and implementing forestry projects locally. The paper presents empirical evidence from a social forestry project implemented in the poorest departments of Eastern Paraguay. It provides a descriptive comparison of two neighbouring communities characterized by different institutions. There is a large difference in project performance in both areas in socio-economic terms. One community displayed high levels of social capital and was better prepared to take advantage of extension aid and “store” the acquired know-how. The other community, with low levels of social capital, benefited from the project activities only temporarily. The role of local institutions as project channels and the development of social capital are indicated as key factors for plantation projects to work effectively. Spanish Las actividades forestales no se ejecutan en un vacío social, sino en estrecha relación con otros ámbitos: social, cultural, institucional, económico y político. Así pues, la buena gobernanza, basada en instituciones locales eficaces y la mejora del capital social, constituye una de las cuestiones clave en el estudio y la ejecución de proyectos forestales a escala local. Este articulo presenta pruebas empíricas de un proyecto de silvicultura social ejecutado en los departamentos más pobres de Paraguay oriental. Proporciona una comparación descriptiva de dos comunidades vecinas, caracterizadas por poseer instituciones diferentes. Se observó una gran diferencia en términos socio-económicos en el resultado de los proyectos en ambas áreas. Una comunidad mostró altos niveles de capital social y una mejor preparación para aprovechar el apoyo de los servicios de extensión y “almacenar” el conocimiento adquirido. La otra comunidad, con bajos niveles de capital social, se benefició de las actividades del proyecto tan solo de manera temporal. El papel de las instituciones locales como canales de ejecución y el desarrollo del capital social se señalan como factores clave para la efectividad de proyectos de plantaciones forestales. French Les activités de foresterie ne sont pas mises en pratique dans un vide social, mais fortement liées à d'autres secteurs et domaines: sociaux, culturels, institutionnels, économiques et politiques. La gestion prenant appui sur des institutions locales efficaces et une amélioration du capital social devient par conséquent une des questions-clés dans l'étude de la mise en pratique des projets de foresterie sur le terrain. Cet article présente des preuves empiriques recueillies dans le projet de foresterie sociale mis en place dans les départements les plus démunis de l'est du Paraguay. D'un point de vue socio-économique, les différences de performance des projets dans les deux zones sont conséquentes. Une communauté présentait de hauts niveaux de capital social et était mieux préparée à prendre avantage de l'offre d'aide et à emmagasiner le savoir-faire acquis. L'autre communauté, d'un faible capital social, ne bénéficiait des activités du projet que temporairement Le rôle des institutions locales comme conduits des projets, et le développement du capital social sont considérés comme l'un des facteurs clé pour une conduite efficace des projets de plantation.
 
Article
Expansion of global industrial forest plantations, i.e. intensively managed productive plantations is evident due to the prevailing demand and supply drivers. Forest plantations alone will not be sufficient for meeting the growing industrial roundwood demand. Natural and semi-natural forests in boreal and temperate zones will maintain their important role as the raw material source. The supply from these forests, however, is not likely to increase from the current level due to the constraints related to logistics, profitability and ownership structure. Moreover, sustainable management of tropical natural forests will not result in any increase of roundwood supply. Therefore, developing the global industrial forest plantations sustainably will be crucial to meeting increasing wood demand in the long term. Sustainable development of plantations is likely to face a number of economic, environmental and social challenges, and requires strong measures from the key stakeholders such as governments, strategic and financial investors. Spanish La expansión global de las plantaciones forestales para abastecer la industria, es decir, de las plantaciones productivas bajo un manejo intensivo, es evidente si atendemos a los aspectos preponderantes que impulsan la oferta y la demanda. Las plantaciones forestales no serán suficientes, por sí solas, para satisfacer la creciente demanda de madera en rollo de uso industrial. Los bosques naturales y semi-naturales de las zonas boreal y templada seguirán manteniendo una importante función como fuente de materia prima. Sin embargo, es poco probable que aumente el volumen de suministro procedente de estos bosques, debido a factores limitantes relacionados con la logística, la rentabilidad y la titularidad de la propiedad. Por otra parte, la gestión sostenible de los bosques naturales tropicales no se traducirá en un aumento de la oferta de madera en rollo. Por lo tanto, el desarrollo sostenible a escala global de plantaciones forestales para abastecer la industria será crucial para satisfacer la creciente demanda de madera a largo plazo. Es probable que el desarrollo sostenible de plantaciones afronte una serie de retos económicos, ambientales y sociales, y requiera medidas enérgicas por parte de los principales actores, como son los gobiernos o los inversores estratégicos y financieros. French La croissance des plantations industrielles globales de forêts, c.a.d. des plantations de production gerées intensivement, est évidente du fait des pressions de l'offre et de la demande. Les plantations forestières seules ne vont pas être suffisantes pour faire face à la demande industrielle croissante de bois rond. Les forêts naturelles et semi-naturelles dans les zones tempérées et boréales vont maintenir leur rôle important de source principale du matériel brut. Cependant, la production de ces forêts ne va probablement pas augmenter du fait des contraintes liées à la logistique, au profit et às la structure des propriétés. De plus, la gestion durable des forêts naturelles tropicales ne va pas résulter en un accroissement de la production de bois rond. Par conséquent, le développement durable des plantations industrielles forestières va être crucial pour pourvoir à long terme à la demande croissante de bois. Le développement durable des plantations va très probablement faire face à un nombre de défis économiques, environnementaux et sociaux, et nécessite que des mesures fermes soient prise par les principales parties prenantes tels que les gouvernements et les investisseurs financiers stratégiques.
 
Main policies that have shaped the Chilean forest sector in the last four decades Policy Period Description 
Forest plantations area between 1975 and 2012 
Article
Over the past 40 years Chile has implemented a set of forest policies that have been very successful in generating economic benefits. Yet the reasons for that success are also at the root of the growing conflicts around forestry. The main policy has been the promotion of exotic plantation forests that has resulted in the development of a significant export-oriented forest sector, whose ownership is highly concentrated. The expansion of plantations has had negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts on local communities and indigenous peoples, resulting in growing inequalities and conflicts at the local level. Native forests, while important contributors to local livelihoods, have received far less policy attention. For Chile to prosper, policymakers need to better consider how native forests can contribute to local economies, while export-oriented forest companies must find sustainable ways to mitigate or avoid their negative impacts. Without a rebalancing of forest policies, these divergent outcomes will continue to exacerbate local conflicts, compromising the long-term sustainability of both sectors. Spanish En los últimos 40 años Chile ha implementado un conjunto de políticas forestales que han sido muy exitosas económicamente. Sin embargo, los factores que propiciaron dicho éxito están en la raíz de los crecientes conflictos que enfrenta el sector. La principal política ha sido la promoción de las plantaciones forestales con especies exóticas de rápido crecimiento, lo cual ha impulsado el desarrollo de una gran industria orientada a la exportación, cuya propiedad está altamente concentrada. Al mismo tiempo, la expansión de las plantaciones ha tenido impactos negativos en términos sociales y ambientales, afectando principalmente a comunidades campesinas e indígenas, lo cual ha resultado en crecientes inequidades y conflictos a nivel local. Los bosques nativos, que contribuyen significativamente al sustento de la población local, han recibido bastante menos atención por parte de las políticas públicas. Para que Chile prospere con equidad, las autoridades deberían fortalecer e incentivar la contribución de los bosques nativos hacia la sociedad, mientras las grandes empresas forestales encuentran vías para mitigar o evitar los impactos negativos de sus operaciones. Si las políticas forestales no se equilibran, las asimetrías existentes continuarán exacerbando los conflictos, comprometiendo la sostenibilidad de ambos subsectores. French Le Chili a mis en pratique un ensemble de politiques forestières au cours des dernières quarante années, qui a été un réèl succès pour ce qui est de générer des bénéfices économiques. Toutefois, les raisons de ce succès sont également à la racine des conflits croissants autour du secteur forestier. La politique principale a été la promotion des forêts de plantation exotiques qui a résulté en un développement d'un secteur forestier notable, orienté vers l'exportation, dont la propriété est extrèmement concentrée. L'expansion des plantations a eu des impacts socio-économiques et environnementaux négatifs sur communautés locales et les populations indigènes, produisant des inégalités croissantes et des conflits au niveau local. Les forêts natives, bien qu'étant des contributeurs importants aux revenus locaux, ont reçu bien moins d'attention de politique. Pour que le Chili prospère, il est nécessaire que ceux qui conçoivent les politiques considèrent mieux comment les forêts natives pourraient contribuer aux économies locales, alors que les compagnies orientées vers l'exportation devraient trouver des moyens durables de mitiger ou d'éviter leurs impacts négatifs. Sans un rééquilibrement des politiques forestières, ces résultats divergeants vont continuer à exacerber les conflits locaux, et compromettre la durabilité à long terme des deux secteurs.
 
Article
SUMMARY China's state-owned industrial forests, mostly in its Northeast region, are an important source of timber and environmental services in the country. In this paper, we use a break-even price approach to project the long-term timber supply from the state-owned forests in Heilongjiang, the largest timber producing province in the region. Our results show that, at given prices and costs, future sustainable timber production could double the 2006 level and reach the historical high in a full rotation of 40–60 years. This indicates that the region is positioned towards a forest recovery after many decades of over-harvest and decline in mature forest stocks.
 
Article
In recent years, the increase in China's timber demand has brought increased sourcing by Chinese logging companies worldwide. In Africa, Chinese companies have established both timber buying and logging operations. Although Zambia is not a major producer, it is a repository of several valuable wood species, attracting several Chinese logging companies. The presence of these export-oriented companies is potentially a matter of concern in regards to rural livelihoods and the environment. Using a comparative approach to understand the differences in effect between Chinese and non-Chinese companies, we ask how the timber trade affects rural livelihoods. The results of household and community –level fieldwork in Western Province suggest that the activities of both Chinese and non-Chinese logging companies bring limited benefits to rural communities. Meanwhile, non-Chinese logging companies provided more local employment opportunities. In contrast, Chinese logging companies outbid their non-Chinese counterparts in the local timber market, providing greater opportunities to small-scale loggers. Spanish En los últimos años, el incremento de la demanda de madera en China ha provocado un aumento del suministro de compañías madereras chinas en todo el mundo. En África, las empresas chinas han establecido operaciones de compra y de aprovechamiento de madera. Aunque Zambia no es un gran país productor, es un repositorio de varias especies valiosas de madera, que atrae a varias empresas madereras chinas. La presencia de estas compañías exportadoras es potencialmente un asunto preocupante en lo que respecta a los medios de vida rurales y el medio ambiente. Utilizando un enfoque comparativo para comprender las diferencias de los efectos entre empresas chinas y de otros países, preguntamos cómo afecta el comercio de madera a los medios de vida rurales. Los resultados del trabajo de campo a nivel de hogares y comunidad llevado a cabo en la Provincia Occidental sugieren que las actividades de las empresas chinas y de otros países aportan beneficios limitados a las comunidades rurales. Por una parte, las compañías madereras no chinas brindaron más oportunidades de empleo local. En cambio, las empresas madereras chinas ofrecieron precios superiores que sus homólogas de otros países en el mercado local de la madera, proporcionando mayores oportunidades a madereros de pequeña escala. French Ces dernières années, l'augmentation de la demande du bois en Chine s'est traduite par un accroissement des importations chinoises à travers le monde. En Afrique, les sociétés forestières chinoises ont mis en place des centres d'achat et d'exploitation du bois. Bien que la Zambie ne soit pas un grand producteur, il regorge néanmoins plusieurs espèces de bois précieux, attirant plusieurs sociétés forestières chinoises. La présence de ces sociétés est un sujet de préoccupation pour le bien-être des populations rurales ainsi que l'environnement. À l'aide d'une approche comparative mesurant les différences entre les sociétés chinoises et non-chinoises, nous essayons de comprendre les effets du commerce du bois sur le bien-être des populations rurales. Les résultats des recherches effectuées aux niveaux des ménages et des communautés dans la Province occidentale suggèrent que les activités des deux sociétés forestières chinoises et non-chinoises apportent des avantages limités aux populations rurales. Cependant, les sociétés forestières non-chinoises fournissent plus d'emplois aux populations rurales. En revanche, les sociétés chinoises offrent des possibilités aux petits exploitants forestiers en achetant le bois sur le marché local.
 
A uniform monoprogeny (full-sib) stand of E. grandis in Brazil (courtesy Suzano)
Expected capture of potential genetic gain with varying overall selection intensities (S) and proportion of propagable individuals (P) (after Figure 2 Haines and Woolaston (1991)). Average rooting % of some important species is indicated 
Major potential benefits of clonal forestry Potential Benefits Threats to Realisation 1 Increased yield of high quality wood "Best" genotypes are not easy to define (gxe risk) -and may not propagate 2 Increased crop uniformity Looks nice but is there real added $ value? -can be uniformly bad as well as good
Article
The industrial use of hybrid eucalypt clones has been hugely successful in Brazil and a limited number of other countries but there are many circumstances where it is less risky and more economically sustainable to plant seedlings. This is particularly true for difficult-to-root pure species and for organizations which do not have the financial and technical resources to manage a sustainable clonal program. Type of planting stock does not add value ; it is the ultimate return from the harvested crop which matters to growers. Case-by-case analysis of deployment options is recommended, taking into account the growers' objectives; species biology; technical capabilities and budget for R&D; and the scale of nursery production which greatly affects plant unit costs. To assist such decisions pros and cons of clonal forestry are presented together with the technical requirements for clonal and seed production programs and for the middle course of vegetative multiplying tested superior families. Some case study examples are discussed. Spanish El uso industrial de clones de eucalipto híbrido ha tenido un enorme éxito en Brasil y otros pocos países, pero son muchas las circunstancias en las que emplear plántulas de vivero es menos arriesgado y, en lo económico, más sostenible. Esto es particularmente cierto para especies puras de enraizamiento difícil y para las organizaciones que no cuentan con los recursos financieros y técnicos con los que gestionar un programa clonal sostenible. El tipo de material de plantación no añade valor de por sí; lo que importa a los productores es el rendimiento final tras el aprovechamiento. Se recomienda analizar, caso por caso, las opciones de plantación, teniendo en cuenta los objetivos de los productores, la biología de la especie, las capacidades técnicas y el presupuesto para I+D, y la escala de producción en vivero, la cual afecta en gran medida los costos unitarios por planta. Para facilitar este tipo de decisiones se presentan los pros y contras de la silvicultura clonal, junto con los requisitos técnicos de los programas de producción de clones y semillas y para la opción intermedia de reproducción vegetativa de familias superiores controladas. Se discuten algunos ejemplos de estudios de caso. French L'utilisation industrielle des clones hybrides d'eucalyptus a eu énormément de succès au Brésil et dans un nombre limité d'autres pays, mais il existe d'autres circonstances où il est moins risqué et plus soutenable économiquement de planter des semis. Cette dernière alternative est particulièrement vraie pour les espèces pures ayant des difficultés à établir des racines et pour les organisations ne possédant pas de ressources financières et techniques pour gérer un programme de clones soutenable. Le type de plantation n'a pas de valeur intrinsèque; c'est le bénéfice ultime résultant de la récolte qui compte pour les exploitants. Une analyse cas par cas des options de déploiement est recommandée, prenant en compte les objectifs des exploitants, la biologie des espèces, les capabilités techniques et le budget pour le "R&D", ainsi que l'échelle de la nurserie, qui affecte énormément le coût des plants individuels. Le pour et le contre de la foresterie de clones est présenté, afin de faciliter de telles prises de décisions, ainsi que les nécessités techniques que requièrent les programmes de production de clones et de graines et le stade intermédiaire de multiplication végétative des familles supérieures testées. Des exemples d'étude-cas sont examinés.
 
Article
Community forestry involves different stakeholders with diverse perspectives and interests in series of decisions and translating these decisions into actions. In decision-making processes, information plays an important role, but information perspectives differ across the users with different social status defined by economic class, caste and ethnicity, gender, education and access to an ,executive position'. People holding an executive position and those without it have conflicting views on the provisions of power sharing and access to information and resources. There are differences in perceiving and evaluating different qualities of information at various levels of policy processes, and what higher policy makers might think is important quality of information for community forest user groups may no longer be valued by the users. This paper explores multiple realities related to information in community forestry through comparative case studies and suggests that more facilitative, interactive policy process are desirable in securing a higher level of informed decisions
 
Article
Conflict may simultaneously help and hinder the local governance of community forests. Based on 499 observations of forest user groups included in the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) database, it is shown here that variables which are associated with good community forestry outcomes also correlate positively with the occurrence of conflict. This finding seems to be incongruent with the notion that conflict undermines collective action and therewith the potential for sustainable governance of community forests. Individual preferences cannot be easily amalgamated into a group preference. Efforts to articulate group preferences depend on the institutions chosen to reach compromises. These institutions are commonly challenged by those whose preferences are poorly served, adding to the potential for conflict. Therefore it is argued here, that the study of conflict in community forest governance should incorporate rules and rule-making procedures in its analyses.
 
Article
Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) in Indonesia have long faced competition between industrial demand for timber, the subsistence requirements of local communities and, more recently, global concern about the need to conserve tropical peat carbon stores, ecosystem services and biodiversity. This paper uses concepts of ecological distribution and environmental justice to investigate how tensions between conservation and livelihood goals have played out on the ground and examine who has gained and lost out from recent TPSF exploitation, conservation and rehabilitation initiatives. A central focus is how peat-based communities in Central Kalimantan have adapted their livelihoods to changing peatland conditions and management policies with particular emphasis on the livelihood impacts of conservation-with-development initiatives in the area. It is argued that despite recent emphasis on 'win-win' initiatives, the costs of environmental conservation are rarely distributed in proportion to their benefit. Spanish Los bosques tropicales pantanosos de turba (BTPT) en Indonesia han enfrentado durante mucho tiempo la competencia entre la demanda industrial de la madera, las necesidades de subsistencia de las comunidades locales y, más recientemente, la preocupación mundial sobre la necesidad de conservar los depósitos de carbono de turba tropicales, los servicios de los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad. Este articulo utiliza conceptos de la distribución ecológica y la justicia ambiental para investigar cómo las tensiones entre los objetivos de conservación y medios de vida han evolucionado en la realidad, y examinar quien ha ganado y perdido de la reciente explotación, conservación y las iniciativas de rehabilitación del BTPT. Un tema central es cómo las comunidades a base de turba de Kalimantan Central, han adaptado sus medios de vida a las condiciones cambiantes de turberas y políticas de gestión, con énfasis especial de los impactos sobre el medio de vida de las iniciativas de conservación con el desarrollo en la zona. Es importante de notar, que a pesar del reciente énfasis en las iniciativas de “ganar-ganar”, los costos de la conservación del medio ambiente rara vez se distribuyen en proporción a su beneficio. French Les forêts tropicales de marécages tourbeux en Indonésie ont longtemps fait face à la concurrence entre la demande industrielle de bois, les besoins élémentaires des collectivités locales et, plus récemment, la préoccupation mondiale sur la nécessité de conserver les stocks de carbone tropicales de tourbe, les services écosystémiques et la biodiversité. Ce document utilise les concepts de la distribution écologique et la justice environnementale pour étudier les tensions entre les objectifs de conservation et ceux de la subsistance et pour examiner qui a gagné et qui a perdu à cause de récent initiatives d'exploitation, de conservation et de réhabilitation des forêts tropicales de marécages tourbeux. Un des axes centrales est de savoir comment les communautés de Kalimantan Central qui dépendent de la tourbe ont adapté leurs moyens de subsistance à l'évolution des conditions de tourbières et des politiques de gestion avec un accent particulier sur les impacts sur les moyens de subsistance des initiatives de conservation-avec-développement dans la région. Nous suggérons que les coûts de la conservation de l'environnement sont rarement distribués en proportion à leur avantage, malgré la prépondérance récente des initiatives gagnant-gagnant.
 
Alignment of guiding principles and their interrelationship for user-oriented NFM planning 
Estimated relative predominance of political and technical character of tasks during a user-oriented NFM planning process 
Article
Political and socioeconomic settings for policy decision-making about forests are increasingly complex and characterised by growing user demands, the strong influence of non-state actors and an expanding internationalisation of forest policy issues. In this context, efforts in information provision must produce data that are not only technically reliable and cost-efficient but also relevant to and accessible by stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in national forest inventory projects as well as national forest programmes and forest policy processes in several countries, this paper proposes a set of principles and their application in key action areas of planning to help guide the process of designing national forest monitoring and inventory projects or programmes from the perspective of users of information in forest-related policy processes. Spanish Los parámetros políticos y socioeconómicos para la toma de decisiones políticas sobre los bosques son cada vez más complejos y se caracterizan por un aumento en las demandas de los usuarios, la fuerte influencia de actores no estatales y una internacionalización creciente de cuestiones de política forestal. En este contexto, los esfuerzos dirigidos a la provisión de información deben producir datos que no solo sean técnicamente fiables y rentables, sino también pertinentes y accesibles a las partes interesadas. A partir de las experiencias adquiridas en varios países en proyectos de inventarios forestales nacionales, así como en programas forestales nacionales y procesos políticos en temas forestales, este artículo propone una serie de principios y su aplicación en aquellas acciones clave que forman parte de la planificación, para ayudar a guiar el proceso de diseño de proyectos o programas nacionales forestales de monitoreo o de inventario desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de información involucrados en procesos de desarrollo de políticas forestales. French Les paramètres socio-économiques et politiques de prises de décisions dans le domaine forestier sont de plus en plus complexes. Ils dépendent notamment des demandes croissantes des utilisateurs des informations, de la forte influence des acteurs autres que l'Etat et de l'internationalisation des politiques forestières. Dans ce contexte, les efforts pour fournir l'information doivent produire des données non seulement techniquement viables et rentables, mais aussi pertinentes et accessibles aux parties prenantes. Cet article propose, en se basant sur des expériences gagnées au cours de projets d'inventaire des forêts nationales ainsi que sur des processus de politique forestière et des programmes des forêts nationales dans plusieurs pays, un éventail de principes et leur application dans des secteurs clés de planification pour aider à guider le processus de création de gestion des forêts nationales et de projets ou de programmes d'inventaire en se plaçant dans la perspective des utilisateurs d'information dans les processus de politique liée à la forêt.
 
Article
Drawing upon the resource-based view of the firm and a strategic view of stakeholder management, a survey of the global forest industry was conducted to measure the scale of corporate social performance. The impacts of social performance and its individual stakeholder-related components on financial performance and the perceived company performance (consisting of market share, turnover, sales, profitability, and corporate image) were examined. The results suggest that a four-dimensional stakeholder orientation of corporate social responsibility exists in the current practices. The aggregation of CSP (measured by stakeholder-related components) had a significant positive correlation with both the accounting-based financial performance and perceived company performance. Furthermore, results indicate that social strategies with an explicit orientation towards employees and philanthropy may represent a direction in value creation. Spanish A partir de una percepción de la empresa con base en los recursos y una visión estratégica de la gestión de partes interesadas, se llevó a cabo una encuesta sobre la industria forestal mundial para medir el grado de desempeño social de las empresas. Se examinaron los impactos del comportamiento social, y de sus componentes individuales en función de las partes interesadas, sobre el comportamiento financiero y la percepción del rendimiento de la empresa (consistente en la cuota de mercado, volumen de ventas, ventas, rentabilidad e imagen corporativa). Los resultados sugieren que en las prácticas actuales existe una orientación de las partes interesadas de cuatro dimensiones en cuanto a la responsabilidad social de las empresas. La agregación del CSE (medido por sus componentes individuales en función de las partes interesadas) tuvo una correlación positiva significativa tanto con el rendimiento financiero basado en la contabilidad como en la percepción del rendimient o de la empresa. Además, los resultados indican que las estrategias sociales con una orientación explícita hacia los empleados y la filantropía pueden representar una dirección en la creación de valor. French En puisant dans la vision basée sur la ressource de la firme et la vision stratégique de la gestion des parties prenantes, une enquête sur l'industrie forestière globale a été conduite pour mesurer l'envergure de la performance sociale réunie. Les impacts de la performance sociale et de ses composites individuels liés aux parties prenantes sur la performance financière et la performance perçue de la compagnie ( consistant de la part du marché, des bénéfices, des ventes, de la profitabilité et de l'image d'ensemble) ont été examinées. Les résultats suggèrent qu'une orientation quadri-dimensionnelle des parties prenantes quant à la responsabilité sociale globale existe dans les pratiques actuelles. L'Aggrégation de CSP ( mesuré sur des composites reliés aux parties prenantes) avait une corrélation fortement positive avec la performance financière, basée sur les comptabilités, et la performance perçue de la compagnie. De plus, les résultats indiquent que les stratégies sociales ayant une orientation spécifique vers les employés et la philanthropie pourraient représenter une direction vers la création de valeurs.
 
Article
The emphasis on pure economic explanations for economic development has recently shifted to cultural, social and institutional factors. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression equation is used to examine the relationship between deforestation and economic, institutional and social capital variables for 117 countries. Institutional, economic, and social capital variables are significantly related to deforestation, although there is no evidence to support the existence of an environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). While the results cannot be used to discuss any one country specifically, they do provide insight into the general roles of social and institutional factors in deforestation.
 
Percent area of four basic land-use classes in Italy by year
The distribution of vulnerability score by land-use class, quality index and year in Italy 
Class-to-landscape score ratio in Italy by land-use class, index and year 
Article
The present study evaluates the vulnerability to soil degradation of four land-use classes (urban areas, cropland, forests and non-forest natural land) during 1960–2010 using the Environmental Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) to verify if forests mitigate the increase of desertification risk in Italy. Results indicate that forests was the class with the lowest level of vulnerability during the whole investigated period and with the growth rate (1960–2010) in the ESAI always below the one observed on a landscape scale. Non-forest natural land showed a moderate increase in the ESAI coupled with a relatively high vulnerability level. The temporal pattern of four indicators (climate, soil, vegetation and land management) composing the ESAI was analyzed to identify the variables which affect the level of vulnerability for each land-use class. Results contributes to the understanding of complex landscape-forest interactions in Mediterranean fragile ecosystems. Spanish Este estudio evalúa la vulnerabilidad a la degradación del suelo de cuatro clases de uso del suelo (zonas urbanas, tierras de cultivo, bosques, y áreas naturales no forestales) durante 1960–2010 por medio del Índice de Áreas Medioambientalmente Sensibles (ESAI, por sus siglas en inglés) para verificar si los bosques mitigan el aumento del riesgo de desertificación en Italia. Los resultados indican que los bosques fueron la clase con un menor nivel de vulnerabilidad durante la totalidad del período de estudio y cuya tasa de crecimiento (1960–2010) en el ESAI estuvo siempre por debajo de la observada a escala de paisaje. Las clase de áreas naturales no forestales mostró un aumento moderado en el ESAI, junto con un nivel de vulnerabilidad relativamente alto. Se analizó el patrón temporal de los cuatro indicadores que componen el ESAI (clima, suelo, vegetación y gestión del suelo) para identificar las variables que afectan el nivel de vulnerabilidad para cada clase de uso del suelo. Los resultados contribuyen a la comprensión de las complejas interacciones paisaje-bosque en los frágiles ecosistemas mediterráneos. French Cette étude évalue la vulnérabilité à la dégradation du sol de quatre classes d'utilisation de la terre (zones urbaines, terres de culture, terres naturelles boisées et non-boisées) dans la période 1960–2010 en utilisant l'Index des zones à environnement sensible (ESAI) pour vérifier si leurs forêts atténuent le risque croissant de désertification en Italie. Les résultats indiquent que les forêts sont la classe de plus faible vulnérabilité pendant cette période d'investigation et qu'elles connaissent un taux de croissance (1960–2010) dans l'ESAI constamment inférieur à celui observé à l'échelle du paysage. Les terres naturelles non boisées connaissaient un accroissement modéré dans l'ESAI couplé avec une niveau de vulnérabilité relativement élevé. Le modèle temporel de quatre indicateurs (climat, terre, végétation et gestion de la terre) composites de l'ESAI a été analysé pour identifier les variables affectant le degré de vulnérabilité pour chaque classe d'utilisation de la terre. Les résultats contribuent à la compréhension des interactions complexes entre le paysage et la forêt dans les fragiles écosystèmes méditerranéens.
 
List of respondents 
Stakeholder groups' general perceptions of effectiveness of Timber Task Forces (Source: Interview data) 
Article
SUMMARY This paper analyses the experiences and effectiveness of timber task forces to combat illegal logging. The paper is based on an analysis of 30 semi-structured interviews with members of timber task forces and other relevant stakeholders in Ghana. The paper finds that task forces have generally not proven effective in Ghana. The task forces are influenced by corruption; interference by powerful actors; fear of violence; and logistical and resource-related challenges. The paper suggests that effectively addressing illegal logging in Ghana will require a more normative approach that involves policy reforms addressing fundamental issues such as rights to trees and benefits from them. Without such reforms, timber task forces as well as other types of “hard” law enforcement become illusive.
 
Article
SUMMARY Deforestation of tropical forest is serious problem around the world. In this study, we aimed to reveal peoples' potential preferences for sustainable forest management such as REDD+ scheme, focusing on a comparison of the attitudes of people in Malaysia to those of people in Japan, through choice experiment survey of the hypothetical choice behavior of consumer purchasing certified wood product. Choice experiment is one of stated preference methods. The results suggest that both the Malaysian and Japanese people are willing to pay a premium for certified wood product made from materials produced under the sustainable forest management as the REDD+ aimed at reducing CO2 emissions and preserving biodiversity. The two peoples shared a common concern about the environmental problem of deforestation, which could contribute to global warming and the destruction of biodiversity. Thus this study indicated the importance of REDD+ and its certification programme for future development of REDD+.
 
Article
Zambia has one of the largest forest resources in southern Africa with almost 66% of its land mass under forest cover. However, indiscriminate harvesting of valuable timber resources for commodity-type products such as sawn-timber, charcoal and fuel-wood are the main drivers of forest depletion. Challenges related to customary-lands, land-tenure, lack of information about forest resources as well as the weak institutions is contributing factors that have accelerated to steady reduction of forest cover in the country. The need for investments in the forest products sector and an equitable sharing of benefits with local communities are pre-requisites to shift into higher value-added manufacturing. In the context, the implementation of the REDD+ initiatives, which aims to build capacity and technical knowledge on the ground together with improved monitoring, reporting and verifying of the forest resources data from a centrally planned command could help to arrest the depletion of the forest through better planning and management of the resources. Spanish Zambia posee uno de los recursos forestales más grandes del sur de África, donde casi el 66% de su territorio está bajo cubierta forestal. Sin embargo, la tala indiscriminada de valiosos recursos madereros para el mercado de productos como la madera de aserrío, el carbón vegetal o la leña es la principal causa de agotamiento del recurso forestal. Los retos relacionados con tierras de uso consuetudinario, la tenencia de la tierra, la falta de información sobre los recursos forestales, así como la debilidad de las instituciones son factores que están contribuyendo a acelerar la reducción constante de la cobertura forestal del país. La necesidad de inversión en el sector de los productos forestales y la distribución equitativa de los beneficios con las comunidades locales son requisitos previos para avanzar hacia un tipo de manufacturas de mayor valor agregado. En este contexto, la aplicación de la iniciativa REDD+, cuyo objetivo es fortalecer la capacidad y los conocimientos técnicos en el campo, junto con la mejora del seguimiento, la elaboración de informes y la verificación de los datos sobre los recursos forestales desde un punto central de planificación, podría ayudar a detener el agotamiento de los bosques gracias a una mejor planificación y gestión de los recursos. French La Zambie possède l'une des ressources forestières les plus larges du sud de l'Afrique, ayant presque 66% de sa masse de terres sous couvert forestier. Toutefois, la récolte indiscriminée de ressources forestières de valeur pour des produits de commodité tels que le bois de coupe, le charbon et le bois de chauffage est l'agent principal de la déplétion des forêts. Les défis liés aux terres habituelles, au régime foncier, à la carence d'informations quant aux ressources foretières, ainsi qu'à la faiblesse des institutions, sont des facteurs contribuant à l'accelération de la réduction soutenue du couvert forestier dans le pays. Le besoin d'investissements dans le secteur des produits forestiers et un partage équitable des bénéfices avec les communautés locales sont des conditions préalables pour établir une transition vers une industrie de transformation à valeur ajoutée plus élevée. Dans ce contexte, l'implémentation des initiatives de la REDD+, qui visent à construire la capacité et la connaissance technique sur le terrain avec une gestion, des rapports et une vérification des données de ressources forestières améliorés à partir d'un centre de commande centralisé pourraient aider à ralentir la déplétion de la forêt avec l'aide d'une meilleure planification et d'une gestion des ressources améliorée.
 
Article
Chronic stress and little physical activity play an increasing role in dominant civilization diseases. The positive contribution of nature to health has been examined in a multitude of studies. The ambition of this study is to review the present state of international research on exposure to forests and its specific effects on human health, particularly stress-reducing effects. The review focusses on research in Asia and German-speaking countries (GSC) in Europe, distinguishing between forest benefits for physical and mental well-being. Considering the objective of the EU Forest Action Plan (FAP) to contribute to quality of life by improving the social dimensions of forests, it also examines and compares the forest strategies and programmes of GSC. With regard to plan implementation at national levels, attention is drawn to preventive health care aspects. The results are discussed and challenges, especially for forestry in GSC, are deduced. Spanish El estrés crónico y la escasa actividad física desempeñan un papel creciente en las enfermedades dominantes de la civilización. La contribución positiva de la naturaleza a la salud ha sido examinada en multitud de estudios. La meta de este trabajo es revisar el estado actual de la investigación internacional sobre la exposición a los bosques y sus efectos específicos sobre la salud humana, en particular los efectos de reducción del estrés. La revisión se centra en investigaciones en Asia y en países de habla alemana (GSC, por sus siglas en inglés) en Europa, distinguiendo entre los beneficios de los bosques para el bienestar físico y mental. Teniendo en cuenta el objetivo del Plan de Acción de la Unión Europea en Defensa de los Bosques de contribuir a la calidad de vida mediante la mejora de las dimensiones sociales de los bosques, se examinan y comparan asimismo las estrategias y programas forestales de los GSC en Europa. En cuanto a la planificación de la implementación a nivel nacional, se hace una llamada de atención sobre los aspectos de la asistencia sanitaria preventiva. Se discuten los resultados y deducen los desafíos, especialmente para el sector forestal en los GSC. French Le stress chronique et la carence d'activités physiques jouent un rôle prépondérant dans les maladies dominantes de notre civilisation. La contribution positive de la nature à la santé a été examinée dans une multitude d'études. Cette étude a pour ambition de présenter l'état actuel de la recherche internationale sur l'exposition aux forêts, sur ses effets spécifiques sur la santé humaine, et sur ses effets pour réduire le stress en particulier. L'étude se concentre sur la recherche en Asie et dans les pays germanophones (GSC) en Europe, en distinguant les bénéfices des forêts pour le bien-être physique et le bien-être mental. Tour en considérant l'objectif du Plan d'action des forêts de l'Union Européènne (FAP) visant à contribuer à la qualité de vie en améliorant les dimensions sociales des forêts, il examine et compare également les stratégies forestières et les programmes des GSC. Dans le but de prévoir une mise en oeuvre au niveaux nationaux, notre attention est attirée sur les aspects des soins préventifs. Les résultats sont analysés et les défis en sont déduits, en particulier pour la foresterie dans les GSC.
 
Top-cited authors
Kate Schreckenberg
  • King's College London
Robert Nasi
  • Center for International Forestry Research
Terry Sunderland
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
David Kaimowitz
  • Climate and Land Use Alliance
Alain Karsenty
  • Cirad - La recherche agronomique pour le développement