The increasing relevance of societal challenges has recently brought social entrepreneurship to the fore due to its capacity to leverage entrepreneurial processes to achieve social value while ensuring profits. In this study, we apply an experimental research method to analyse the concept of social entrepreneurship comprehensively. More specifically, we develop bibliometric analysis and web crawling techniques to gather information related to social entrepreneurship from Scopus and Wikipedia. We conduct a comparative network analysis of social entrepreneurship’s conceptual structure at academic and non-academic levels. This analysis has been performed considering scientific articles’ keywords and Wikipedia webpages’ co-occurrences, enabling us to identify four different thematic clusters in both cases. Moreover, plotting the centrality and density of each cluster on a bi-dimensional matrix, we have sketched a strategic diagram and provided the thematic evolution of this research topic, based on the level of interaction among clusters, and the degree of cohesion of keywords in each cluster. This paper represents one of the first attempts in the entrepreneurship literature to shed light on the conceptual boundaries of a research topic based on the analysis of both a scientific and an open-source knowledge database. Our results reveal similarities and discrepancies between those two different sources of knowledge, and outline avenues for future studies at the intersection between social entrepreneurship and the research domains of digital transformation, performance measurement, entrepreneurial ecosystems, and ethics. We also call for a further conceptualisation of social entrepreneurship in the face of the increasing complexity that characterises grand challenges.
This article contributes to the studies on the transition towards circular business models in incumbent entrepreneurial firms. The focus of our research is the plastic packaging industry, a paradigmatic case of firms with a high environmental impact who are currently under pressure to change their business models. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted an exploratory research on five case studies, longitudinally analyzed over two years. The results of our research suggest that the circularity challenge raises dilemmas about how to interpret the transition to sustainability. On one hand, the transition may be interpreted in a reactive way, based on compliance to the law and the highest possible levels of continuity. On the other hand, the transition may be interpreted in a proactive way, based on radical experimentation and openness to change. Our results highlight that the reactive-proactive dilemma unfolds at three interconnected levels: the firm’s network (including the customers), the entrepreneur, and the organization. Our study also suggests that the entrepreneur is in a position to play a pivotal role in the multi-level adoption of a proactive (or reactive) view. More specifically, our longitudinal analysis suggests that if the effectiveness and impact of transition to circularity is to be maximized, then a multi-level proactive view of the circularity transition is key to transforming the three interconnected levels (network, entrepreneur, organization) into a proper, sustainability-oriented innovation ecosystem.
A traditional stereotype of the entrepreneur is that of a lone hero. However, many entrepreneurs engage in new businesses as members of entrepreneurial teams. These teams usually perform better in terms of employment generation, innovation, and profits. Thus, a relevant question is why some individuals get involved in entrepreneurship through a team rather than alone. Our explanation is focused on two variables related to the entrepreneur’s human capital: their educational level and their intrapreneurial experience. There are conflicting arguments on how these variables lead an entrepreneur to join a team, and we argue that the degree of individualism of the society helps us understand the discrepancies. We use a sample of 66,716 early-stage entrepreneurs from 66 countries surveyed by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2014 and 2017. Our results show that entrepreneurs with higher levels of education and intrapreneurial experience are more likely to be involved in the entrepreneurship process as members of teams. However, the effect of educational level is less pronounced in individualist contexts. In addition, we find that the motivation to enter entrepreneurship partially mediates these relationships, as individuals endowed with higher human capital are likely to enter entrepreneurship driven by an opportunistic motivation, which in turns makes them likely to need or join teams to reach their goals.
From 2021 onwards, female entrepreneurship is expected to grow very substantially as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The introduction of teleworking and staggered hours in many countries at national or workplace level will make possible the conciliation between labour and family life. The purpose of this paper is to identify the most influential explanatory factors in the behaviour of female entrepreneurship in Europe so as to subsequently propose efficient economic policy measures to promote it. The distinction between opportunity and necessity female entrepreneurs have been considered since both motivation and factors are different in each case. 15 econometric models using the panel data method for a sample of 20 previously selected European countries (grouped by their GDP level) during the period 2001 to 2018 have been estimated to determine which explanatory factors affect female entrepreneurship and necessity-based female entrepreneurship. The empirical analysis used demonstrates that more women enter into entrepreneurship due to necessity rather than in pursuit of opportunity for European countries both with higher levels of GDP and for countries with lower levels of GDP. In this context, the following policy measures should be implemented to promote female entrepreneurship in Europe: the optimization of government spending (training courses and mentoring, public procurement, stronger networks, support in reconciling business and family life, etc.), the government incentives for subsidizing high interest rates to support women in accessing financing, and the improvement of entrepreneurship education to increase the confidence of women in themselves in their own entrepreneurial capabilities.
This work focuses on the importance of responsible human resource management, and its link to innovation and reputation, which are deemed to be relevant intangible assets for all firms, although particularly for entrepreneurial SMEs, and which are of particular interest since they have remained relatively unexplored despite their key role in the business fabric. Specifically, we present an explanatory model comprising three variables; the latent independent variable is socially responsible human resource management (SR-HRM), and the corresponding endogenous variables are reputation and innovation. In order to empirically validate the conceptual model developed, we design a survey which has been answered by a representative sample of entrepreneurs of their own firms. Using partial least squares (PLS), we analyse both the measuring model as well as the structural model. Results prove satisfactory and allow us to confirm the direct positive and significant relation between socially responsible human resource management and reputation, as well as the causal relation when innovation acts as a mediating variable.
Up until now, studies on entrepreneurs and their relationship to business performance have focused primarily on analyzing the entrepreneur as an individual. While studies have been conducted on the entrepreneurial team, their focus has centered on team size and degree of diversity - cultural, age, gender - leaving a gap in the analysis of the effect of a team’s competencies on the outcome of the ventures. This research aims to help fill this gap by using the psychometric instrument DISC. This research analyzes entrepreneurship by opportunity, evaluating the performance of 109 Colombian companies and the composition of their entrepreneurial teams. The results obtained provide the basis for better understanding of the make-up of entrepreneurial teams, considering the variances and interdependencies of the competency development level among their members. They reveal that identifying the similarity or heterogeneity in certain groups of competencies, as well as how developed they are, can have an impact on the ventures’ success. The cluster analysis carried out suggests that highly developed competencies associated with the ‘dominance’ dimension in the members of an entrepreneurial team are essential. These must be above-average in heterogeneous levels among the team members. They must also be accompanied by the ‘steadiness’ competency provided by the team-oriented partners, as well as an average, homogeneous level of competencies associated with ‘conscientiousness’ if the new business is to achieve good financial results in its early years. The ‘influence’ dimension did not play a significant role. The teams made up of more homogeneous partners obtained the poorest financial results. Furthermore, the study provides new perspectives for measuring business performance in a venture, as well as for evaluating the relationships between the entrepreneurial team's competencies and the company’s results in the first years of business. Accordingly, it offers inputs for future research.
This paper analyses the relationship between board of director (BoD) attributes and
financial performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Although SMEs
are the backbone of world economies, most studies on this relationship focused on
large companies and did not consider many typical or recommended processes and
activities carried out by SME BoDs.
We monitored a set of variables related to BoD attributes such as composition,
characteristics, structure and processes for 184 Italian SMEs along with their financials
over a 4-year period (2014–2017). We controlled for enterprise-specific characteristics
such as annual sales growth, assets value, sales turnover, leverage, company size
(employees), firm age, generational changes, director ownership and familiness.
Using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model with time-period and industryfixed
effects on financial performance data, we found a significant correlation between
certain BoD attributes and financial performance. In particular, in our model, BoD
members’ adequate competences and skills, presence of committees or individual
delegates within the BoD, adequate and timely-furnished documentation before BoD
meetings, monitoring of conflicts of interest of BoD members, BoD risk analysis and
management, BoD member performance-based remuneration, and disclosure to
stakeholders influenced the ROA ratio, are used as a proxy for financial performance.
Our findings support the importance of the BoD and its attributes in influencing the
financial performance of SMEs. BoDs are proven unique resources for companies.
Keywords Board of Directors · BoD attributes · Financial performance · ROA ratio·
SMEs · Family firm · Agency theory · Resource based view
This study explores how the corporate entrepreneurship (CE) of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) evolves under varying conditions of state ownership and control, laws and norms, and competence in the market. For this purpose, we present a longitudinal case study focused on the Spanish postal operator Correos using qualitative archival data and interviews. Our results indicate that the willingness and capacity of an SOE to act entrepreneurially depends critically on its degree of autonomy from the state and on the extent to which its legal and market environments increase its dynamism, complexity, and hostility. We also show that the development of CE in an SOE may lead to improved service quality, operational efficiency, and business specialization; facilitate its market positioning; and foster its sustainability through the exploration and exploitation of strategic alliances that can increase its business scope.
In an attempt to open the black box of high-growth firms within turbulent economic environments, this paper explores the role of corporate strategy, employee human capital and R&D capabilities in achieving exceptional growth performance in a crisis-hit economy. Relative and absolute growth measures based on both employment and sales are computed utilizing survey data on 1500 firms in the midst of the Greek crisis. Our findings indicate that adopting a geographical diversification strategy significantly increases the likelihood of becoming a fast-growing firm, irrespective of the growth metric used. Entering in diverse product markets and taking advantage of R&D capabilities appear to additionally contribute to relative employment change in HGFs of smaller size. Based on the absolute employment growth indicator, we provide some evidence that HGFs of larger size are able to grow fast through product diversification, acquiring other firms or by investing on training low-skilled employees. Nevertheless, hiring already highly educated persons seems to matter only for sales HGFs, while research collaborations are found to negatively affect the probability of growing fast in terms of sales.
The aim of this study is to examine the differential impacts of networking in the public and private spheres on the export performance of first- and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs, as well as native-born entrepreneurs. We apply transnational and ethnic theories to elaborate hypotheses using data collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor on 26,591 native-born entrepreneurs, first-generation immigrant entrepreneurs, and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs. In examining this fairly global representation of entrepreneurs, we found that such networking had a significant impact on the exporting of second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs. More specifically, we show that although they benefited the least from private-sphere networking, compared to first-generation immigrant and native-born entrepreneurs, they derived more benefits from public-sphere networking than the other two groups. This study contributes to the theory in this field by accounting for the skewness of dual-embeddedness among immigrant entrepreneurs and its effect upon networking and export performance.
Relatively little is known about how born-global companies (BGs) innovate abroad during their lifecycle or about how the international innovation activities of BGs are related to their social capital. The network concepts of relational, structural, and cognitive social capital are almost completely neglected in the international business literature on BGs’ innovation activities according to a dynamic approach. The aim of this research is to study the direct and indirect effects of structural, cognitive and relational social capital on BGs’ product innovation by including the mediating role of market and technological knowledge acquisition. We develop a set of hypotheses that we combine and test in a structural equation model. We provide results with theoretical and practical implications for BGs in terms of both social capital and innovation abroad.
Team start-ups have substantial advantages over solo start-ups, but teams often do not live up to their potential due to conflicts creating unfavorable team dynamics. Based on an experiment with 665 individuals in 133 randomly composed teams participating in a new-venture simulation, we found team members’ deep-level characteristics that trigger motivations to act, i.e., achievement motivation and leadership orientations, to be particularly important sources of task conflicts. We found that diversity in leadership orientation reduces conflicts because not all team members can lead at the same time. Unlike hypothesized, we found that diversity in achievement motivation also reduces conflicts, for which, ex-post, we explore potential reasons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mediating task and relationship conflicts differently affect team outcomes due to their different nature of task-relatedness: while task conflicts affect task-related team efficacy and may escalate into relationship conflicts, relationship conflicts directly affect team satisfaction, but not team efficacy. Further emphasizing the importance of a motivational basis of conflicts, we found that individuals’ general self-efficacy, a more belief-related construct, affects team outcomes only through team efficacy, but not via conflicts.
This article presents the foundations, current structure and trend of academic research into leadership factors in female entrepreneurship to provide scholars in the field with an overview of the followed research directions and to explore whether the same traditional patterns are reproduced in gender studies on entrepreneurship and leadership. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science database from 2000 to 2020 was used. With a performance analysis of variables (e.g. authors, publications, journals and countries), and thanks to scientific mapping, the links among these variables were studied. The results show that the trend of publications increased from 2015, but with little influence and output. The most influential and productive countries are the USA and Spain. 35% of the journals are based in the USA and 25% in England. The most influential ones deal with entrepreneurship, business, management and leadership. Although the foundational base is influenced by the author Ahl, known for calling for new research directions related to women entrepreneurs from a social construction perspective, the most influential articles continue to investigate gender with a dominant male bias. The network analysis reveals cooperation between different countries and authors with the USA dominating. The ambiguity of entrepreneurial leadership field due to the overlap of entrepreneurship and leadership disciplines reveals through the co-citation of journals different specialisation areas: business and entrepreneurship, management and psychology, organisational behaviour. This work provides researchers with an overview that encourages them to overcome the dominant male normative lens from new epistemological perspectives.
In today’s volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) era, entrepreneurs face highly uncertain startup environments. Thus, traditional methods for launching startup businesses must address the challenges associated with uncertain environments. Based on the definition of startup as “the practical activity of starting a business in an uncertain environment”, the greatest challenge in startup is reducing uncertainty. Thus, this paper defines the lean and agile startup (LAS) method by using the business model canvas (BMC) as an iterative tool and combining the customer development (CD) method and agile method (AM). LAS is an upgraded version of lean startup (LS) that provides entrepreneurs with a “0-to-1” startup exploration method. It allows entrepreneurs to promote startup exploration activities through the “hypothesis-exploration-test-cognition” iterative model, thereby evolving their ideas into sustainable business models. Moreover, this paper articulates a developmental approach for building iterative startup software based on LAS. It therefore offers entrepreneurs a convenient and visual iterative tool for startup to improve the effectiveness of startup exploration.
As the integration of entrepreneurship and strategic management, strategic entrepreneurship (SE) and related research has been developing for more than 20 years. Enterprises need such a holistic perspective to survive and thrive in the current competitive environment, capturing the efforts to achieve long-term goals, as do entrepreneurs and managers. A comprehensive review scans the evolution of this integrated domain based on 365 publications extracted from Web of Science (WoS), which span from 2001 to 2021, while the knowledge and methods of bibliometrics are mainly employed to complete the process of analysis. To be specific, three aspects are primarily focused on: general characteristics of publications, cooperative relationship network and crucial content. All the analysis steps are realized through bibliometric visualization software VOSviewer and CiteSpace, and the results are then demonstrated in the form of data and graphs for conclusion and discussion. By providing an overall insight into SE, this article gains researchers’ better understanding of theoretical construction and achievements. More importantly, scholars may pay more attention to the development and research of SE from multiple fields.
After the share structure reform, controlling shareholder embraces more intimate related-party transactions to tunnel. Under the split of the CEO duality, the agency of the controlling shareholder is more complicated, and its cost is higher. This article focuses on the impact of controlling shareholder features and board characteristics on related-party transactions and examines their influence under the regulation. The empirical research reveals: (1) Cash flow rights are partly negatively related to related-party transactions and deliver a U-shaped non-linear curve relationship, suggesting the “incentive-barrier” effect. Pyramid shareholdings provide a natural barrier for controlling shareholders to the tunnel. (2) From the second-largest shareholders to the tenth-largest shareholders, it is challenging to balance the hidden tunneling behavior of the controlling shareholder, and they are possible to conspire with the controlling shareholder. (3) The CEO duality can enhance the influence of controlling shareholder characteristics on related-party transactions. (4) Under the regulation of the board’s independence, the influence of controlling shareholder characteristics has weakened on related-party transactions. These findings ascertain new proof on the influencing factors of related-party transactions.
Tourism is one of the prime contributors to economies although its role is complex and it is composed of several sectors whose success is interdependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate and gather data as represented by tourists' consumption of products and services in the year period 2014 2018, as the basis of an entrepreneurial business opportunity model. Secondary data were analyzed using a retrospective study approach, which compared the performance of different sectors of the tourism industry. Based on the results within the five-year period, domestic tourism contributed a higher share of internal tourism expenditure than inbound tourism. The expenditure on products and services by domestic tourists was ranked as follows: 1) miscellaneous, 2) travel agencies and other reservation service, 3) Shopping 4) accommodation services for visitors, 5) food, beverage and restaurant services, 6) entertainment and recreation services, and lastly, 7) transport services as the lowest contributor. Nevertheless, inbound tourism expenditure also contributes significantly to overall tourism expenditure in the Philippines and to the country's economy. Based on the results of the study an entrepreneurial business opportunity model of tourism was constructed as a guideline for existing and aspiring entrepreneurs within the industry.
Actualmente, tanto macroempresas como microempresas se han adaptado a las
necesidades que el Covid-19 generó en la sociedad, sin embargo la cultura corporativa, no
se basa en ganar dinero, sino más bien en restaurar la confianza que se mitigó en el usuario.
Asimismo, la emergencia sanitaria, motivó a reactivar emprendimientos que beneficien al
consumidor, desde trueque de víveres, hasta adaptaciones de producción aunque limitada
pero funcional para el consumo diario. Las microempresas ecuatorianas son un ejemplo de adaptación a la realidad emergente, y de adopción de alternativas para mantenerse en el mercado, desde la perspectiva de la confianza hacia el consumidor.
Los procesos de enseñanza – aprendizaje del Diseño Gráfico, se enmarcan en diversas
vertientes visuales para resolver problemas que la sociedad actual demanda. Una de esas
vertientes a tratar en la presente investigación, es el cartel, y cómo el educando y docente,
gestionan un análisis específico en sinergia, sobre el comportamiento que éste adquiere
para emitir un mensaje. En la carrera de Diseño Gráfico – FACSO- Universidad de
Guayaquil, se realizaron dos workshops experimentales sobre lenguaje gráfico y técnicas de comunicación visual, con el fin de desarrollar el nivel compositivo del educando y a su vez, evolucionar los conocimientos sobre la funcionalidad del cartel, desde la perspectiva no sólo conceptual, sino también estratégica para resolución de problemas gráficos.
Sustainability is a global trend that requires balancing environmental, social, and financial concerns. Issues related to social and environmental responsibility have attracted growing research interest in the research domains on small businesses and large multinational companies, but they are yet to be explored in the context of internationalized small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which experience the liabilities of foreignness and smallness but whose share of and impact on the world economy are growing. This study connects entrepreneurial decision-making with business responsibility and explores the effects of effectual decision-making logic on responsible business practices (RBPs) and their outcomes in the context of internationalized SMEs.
The empirical part of the study was based on the survey data from a sample of 179 Finnish SMEs. The results obtained via linear regression modeling showed that a more pronounced effectual logic can lead to more RBPs in internationalized SMEs. The RBPs, in turn, were found to have a positive impact on the competitive performance of these SMEs, thus serving as mediators. This study contributes to the literature on responsible decision-making in both the research areas of internationalization of SMEs and small business responsibility.
This paper assesses the ways in which the characteristics of entrepreneurs from transition economies, and the extent to which they participate in making business decisions, affect their propensity to make rational/risky decisions in a work environment. A multicontextual analysis of entrepreneurial decision-making is provided, facilitating a better understanding and the further advancement of entrepreneurship in the transition countries of Montenegro and Serbia. Logistic regression and a Structural Equation Model (SEM) were used to assess data collected from a stratified random sample of 260 entrepreneurs. The results reveal that the demographic characteristics of entrepreneurs have a significant impact on their propensity to make rational/risky decisions. Elderly entrepreneurs with more years of service are more prone to make rational decisions in comparison to younger entrepreneurs, who lack business experience and thus rely on intuition, leading to risky decision-making. Additionally, the results show that the more involved entrepreneurs are in the decision-making process, the more risky decisions will be made; while more employee inclusion leads to business decisions based on rational thinking. The results also reveal that entrepreneurs in transition economies have formed attitudes towards the nature of entrepreneurial activity. Finally, these results reveal that entrepreneurs who consider levels of economic development, national culture, and intuition to be important when making business decisions are more prone to implement risky decisions. Considering the obtained results, this paper provides guidelines for the future research of this issue in transition countries and other developing economies.
Entrepreneurship is one of the business forces with the greatest power to transform today's society, due to its ability to discover and take advantage of new opportunities to satisfy customer new and changing needs and expectations. Customer relationship management (CRM) has proved to be both a highly influential business management strategy and a powerful business management technology solution, with a particularly relevant impact in the area of entrepreneurship. CRM has helped drive growth and future expectations and has had excellent results in terms of return on investment wherever it has been implemented. An exhaustive review of previously published findings in a specific subject area can uncover new lines of research. This paper uses semi-systematic review to the study of the reality of the link between CRM and entrepreneurial marketing in business. This approach is used to comprehensively describe the state of the art of the impact that CRM can have in the modern business environment, through the empowerment of entrepreneurial marketing. In a structured manner, the present paper reviews the 86 most relevant studies of how CRM affects entrepreneurial marketing policy development through its alignment with relationship marketing and customer-centric business models. The growing use of CRM in companies is one of the pillars of technological and social change in entrepreneurship, being a clear example of how big data can benefit society. The study focuses on the period from 2015 to 2019.
What makes one type of entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) more conducive to entrepreneurial dynamics than another? EE research is a hot topic, and considerable progress has been made as regards its elements, network, and actors’ components. However, some scholars regret the absence of an empirical analysis of EE as a whole to understand how EE configuration operates. To introduce this perspective, we propose an unexplored inter-organizational ties analysis among all EE actors, at a country-level scale. Based on the network theory perspective, we conduct an exploratory research in five low-income African countries, using innovative research methods (the quantitative graph theory, web scraping, the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis) to understand the organizational patterns in these EEs, and their impact on entrepreneurial outcomes. At the core of this perspective lie inter-organizational ties measures of closeness, cohesiveness, and inter-connectedness, which are key causal conditions for high entrepreneurial dynamics levels and rates in low-income countries. This research underlines the importance of EE network attributes to facilitate the easy distribution of entrepreneurial nurturing components to entrepreneurs. It also highlights the importance of ease of information and knowledge flow, as well as a strong collaborative and coopetitive environment to make an EE more conducive to entrepreneurial dynamics.
The agricultural and agri-food sectors have substantial environmental impacts due to the great volumes of food, energy, water, and packaging waste that these businesses generate. Eco-innovations present an important opportunity to mitigate this effect. Even though eco-innovation seeks to reduce environmental damage in the food and agri-food sectors, researchers have paid slight attention to the role of eco-innovation in agribusiness; however, several insights suggest that it would be worthwhile to examine the motivation drivers toward the adoption of eco-innovations. The current study sheds light on the driving forces of eco-innovation and its impact on sustainable business growth. This paper tests a set of hypothesized relationships that focus on a sample of 306 Tunisian enterprises. We harness structural equation modelling to examine the relationship between the driving factors of eco-innovation and enterprises’ sustainable business growth by analysing the eco-innovation strategy's mediating effects. The findings reveal: (1) regulatory-side drivers constitute the most influential factor that motivates entrepreneurs to adopt an eco-innovation strategy, (2) there is a positive relationship between eco-innovation strategy and enterprises’ sustainable business growth, and (3) eco-innovation strategy plays a fully mediating role between the driving factors and enterprises’ sustainable business growth. The present study led us to consider that an entrepreneur with an emotional attachment to the environment is designed as a decisive driver for eco-innovation.
One of the most important challenges for social venture entrepreneurs is acquiring resources. Reward crowdfunding is considered a suitable tool for meeting the financing needs of social ventures, whose backers are particularly interested in firm ideas and core values rather than in collaterals or business plans. A strategic factor that is able to influence the outcome of crowdfunding campaigns is the entrepreneurial narrative. Very few scholars have examined the key factors that support a crowdfunding campaign, particularly those on reward-based crowdfunding platforms, and the effects of entrepreneurial narratives on investors’ decisions. Aiming to fill this research gap, this paper investigates how entrepreneurs in the technology industry describe their social ventures and projects on Eppela, an Italian reward-based crowdfunding platform. Thematic analysis was applied to detect the five following key factors of effective entrepreneurial narratives in reward-based crowdfunding campaigns for social ventures: 1) problem/need; 2) project; 3) product; 4) team; and 5) venture. Each key factor includes specific subfactors. Lexical data analysis was then performed to identify the following expected effects of the examined entrepreneurial narratives on potential investors, leading these investors to understand, trust, and approve the project proposal, and thus, finance the social venture’s project: 1) reassurance, 2) reliability, and 3) credibility. Based on these results, this study proposes an explanatory model about how to design effective entrepreneurial narratives to be presented to contribute as much as possible to the success of projects in crowdfunding platforms.
This study explores the influence that entrepreneurial cognition, in terms of the dichotomy
in human information processing, has on the earliness of internationalization and post-entry speed. Entrepreneurial cognition is investigated through the lens of the dual-process theory, which posits that human information processing is formed of two systems, the experiential cognitive system (System 1) and the rational and analytical cognitive system (System 2). The speed of the entire internationalization process is analyzed in terms of earliness (how soon after inception a company enters its first international market) and post-entry speed (how fast it enters new markets after the first internationalization). Drawing on ten cases, we find that companies that internationalized earlier and faster were managed by entrepreneurs with higher levels of the experiential cognitive system. In contrast, companies that internationalized later and more gradually were managed by entrepreneurs with higher levels of the rational cognitive system. Thus, our study reveals that the speed of the entire process of internationalization is governed, at least partially, by the entrepreneur’s cognition. On the basis of our findings, we introduce three propositions on the moderation that the entrepreneur’s cognition exerts on the well-established relations between environmental signals and both earliness of internationalization and post-internationalization speed.
An alliance is an effective strategy for knowledge-intensive businesses in competition. Yet, little is known about how strategic alliances work within small firms in the telecommunications industry, which plays an essential part in the COVID-19 pandemic infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of strategic alliance on firm performance among small entrepreneurial firms (SEFs) in the telecommunications industry. The study uses structural equation modeling to analyze primary data obtained from a sample of 74 small entrepreneurial firms in the telecommunications sector. We find that strategic alliances significantly and positively impact partners’ performance in terms of financial, operational, and organizational effectiveness among small entrepreneurial firms in the telecommunication sector. Drawing on the findings, we recommend small entrepreneurial firms pay particular attention to pre-alliance and post-alliance issues, including partner similarity, alliance experience, partner’ reputation, complementary skills, industry scope, commitment to improving trust and skill, and collaboration to boost performance. In addition, based on the results of this study, we discuss research implications for challenges of telecommunications SEFs in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.
Entrepreneurs rely, to a degree, on intuition while they also rely on rationality. Both are associated with formation of expectations for new venture creation as well as perseverance of efforts in managing the new venture and its creation. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data from three distinct countries over a ten-year period are used in logistic regression analysis to find, not unexpectedly, that intuition and rationality vary in impact across countries and over time. While the findings confirm past findings, they also provide intriguing new insights into the dance between intuition and rationality in entrepreneurial processes.
How can cognitive biases affect the birth and evolution of entrepreneurial ventures? In Entrepreneurial Decision Making (EDM), this lively research question remains largely unaddressed when the world of Unicorns, as a per se entrepreneurial species, is considered. Thus, through this conceptual article, we aim to contribute toward knowledge creation in this context. We start by proposing a conceptual framework of Unicorns’ EDM based on a behavioral approach. Through three propositions, this novel framework advances how the birth, transition, and consolidation of a Unicorn may be explained by the sequentially intertwined occurrence of biases, from which establishment and legitimization eventually emerge. We complement the framework with examples from the social media industry and then discuss its main implications for theory and practice.
The present research proposes a theoretical framework for a thrivable entrepreneurial ecosystem in which thrivability is a novel entrepreneurship approach that embeds a comprehensive view in which sustainability is ‘the way to walk’ rather than the goal to reach. A thrivable entrepreneurial ecosystem aims to create prosperity through ecosystem resource (re)generation and transformation to define long-term economic goals. The framework is applied here to address the grand challenge of sustainable development in wineries. A local wine ecosystem in Italy is employed as a case study supported by mix-method-based, in-depth data collection (survey and interview). Results from the study support the idea that organizations can collaborate in a thrivable entrepreneurial ecosystem as a unique entity respectful of nature, driving economic viability of both firms and territories by improving quality of life, and caring for natural resources and local communities. This novel entrepreneurial approach may represent a turning point for facing increasingly grand business challenges.
Entrepreneurship brings wealth to nations and contributes to their economic growth. People can take many paths to become entrepreneurs. Some join the family business, whilst others are born entrepreneurs, letting their innate intuition lead them into firm creation. For many, though, being able to learn and acquire the right skills is critical for a successful career as an entrepreneur. Like other human capital factors, entrepreneurial skills can be acquired. In today’s fast-changing society, it is of utmost importance for entrepreneurs not only to gain these skills but also to be surrounded by a supportive environment that will (1) guide them in the creation of their business idea and (2) help them succeed and keep their business alive. Taking the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as an initial theoretical framework, this paper studies the pathways that lead newly established entrepreneurs to successful firm performance. In this paper, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is used to study a sample of 49 entrepreneurs who responded to an online survey. The results reveal different pathways leading to successful firm performance. This study fills a theoretical and empirical gap and makes a valuable contribution to the literature on entrepreneurial behaviour by exploring the combinations of factors that best explain entrepreneurs’ success in achieving high firm performance. Examining the entrepreneurial process and the factors that guide entrepreneurs towards new firm success provides valuable insights that can help universities, policymakers and prospective entrepreneurs take better decisions.
The aim of this article is to explore the role of cognitive styles and intrapreneurship in health professionals' innovation outputs, as well the mediated effect of intrapre-neurship between cognitive styles and innovation output. This study used the survey method of data collection, through a self-administered questionnaire. Partial least square structural equation modelling method was used to analyse the result of the sample of 209 professionals of primary health care providers in Northern Portu-gal. Our findings reveal that cognitive style plays a significant role in intrapreneur-ship and innovation outputs, which are mediated by intrapreneurship. In particular, health care professionals with the rational cognitive style are likely to be more of a intrapreneur and innovative as compared to those with a intuitive cognitive style. Promoting intrapreneurship is crucial for successful innovation outputs. This study reveals that an understanding of the cognitive style of the health care professionals can help managers allocate appropriate individuals to different healthcare tasks. Our primary contribution to theory has been to highlight the importance of cognitive styles in intrapreneurship and innovation within the context of primary health care organizations.
How can entrepreneurs be effective when making decisions? To enrich current research on entrepreneurship and cognition, the present study shows how alertness and decision making are closely related. Prompted by the scant attention that scholars have paid to the link between alertness and the pathways of entrepreneurs’ thought, it proposes that being alert by adequately scanning and searching for information is likely to increase decision-making effectiveness. Distinguishing between rational and intuitive cognitive styles and based on a sample of 98 Italian entrepreneurs from small and medium manufacturing companies, the analysis shows that while a rational cognitive style significantly mediated the relationship, intuition did not play a role in shaping entrepreneurial decision-making effectiveness. The results suggest that developing individual alertness might not be sufficient for entrepreneurs to make effective decisions; a rational cognitive style might also be a key mechanism shaping this association.
This study aims at introducing subjective risk intelligence (SRI) in the context of small businesses to analyze how both rationality and intuition may influence the entrepreneurial decision-making process, particularly in affecting firms’ financial equilibrium.
SRI aggregates four dimensions: two positive attitudes (imaginative capability and problem-solving self-efficacy) and two detrimental ones (emotional stress vulnerability and negative attitude towards uncertainty). In particular, we argue that imaginative capability and emotional stress vulnerability refer to Kahneman’s System 1 (the intuitive), while problem-solving self-efficacy and negative attitude towards uncertainty appertain to System 2 (the rational).
We conducted an empirical investigation collecting data from an ad hoc survey administered to owners and managers of small businesses and their balance sheets over 2013–2017. After testing the proposed constructs’ reliability, we tested the influence that both Systems 1 and 2 have on SMEs’ financial structure through a pooled OLS regression estimator.
Results show that the intuitive and the rational components of risk intelligence affect entrepreneurs’ decision-making differently. The rational component seems to stimulate the entrepreneurial orientation to risk tolerance. The intuitive component limits the entrepreneurial propensity to take financial risks due to the desire for stability attached to this cognitive process. Accordingly, we highlight the importance of enhancing a balance between the two systems of thinking. Practical implications suggest that entrepreneurs with a dominant attitude towards problem-solving self-efficacy, or a positive attitude towards uncertainty, should invest in developing imaginative capabilities or emotional control, and vice versa.
This paper examines how entrepreneurs develop the intention to make their venture green, even when “being green” doesn’t happen right from the start, or where the company does not operate in a business that is considered green. It crosses the literature on entrepreneurial cognition and entrepreneurship-as-practice, as it seeks to contribute to the emerging literature on green entrepreneurship, and more precisely on the reasons and processes that motivate entrepreneurs to develop a green strategy for their company. Based on the idea that most ventures are driven not only by an entrepreneur, but by an entrepreneurial team, and through the use of the concepts of praxis and practices, we propose a model that explains how entrepreneurs develop the intention to make their venture that competes in a non-green field enter into a green strategy. We argue that “becoming green” is not a radical process, but is instead strongly influenced by the entrepreneurial praxis the entrepreneur progressively adopts and even plays with. An illustrative case study reveals how this model works.
The dance metaphor allows us to figuratively depict entrepreneurial decision making processes. Being conventionally conceived of as a sequence of purposeful behaviors rooted in a rational cognition process, entrepreneurial decision making can be featured as a sort of ‘ballet’. This interpretation puts in the background the improvisational nature of decision making, which revokes ‘lindy hop’ as a dance style. The article intends to illuminate the role of intuition, highlighting its overlap with rationality in the entrepreneurial decision making dance. For this purpose, a bibliometric analysis followed by an interpretive literature review advances a comprehensive report of 66 peer-reviewed journal articles published from 1995 to 2019, constructing evidence on the nature of entrepreneurial decision making and on the interplay between intuition and rationality. Literature is categorized in five clusters, which are reciprocally intertwined. Firstly, intuition is unconsciously used as a strategy to deal with the uncertainty that inherently affects entrepreneurial ventures. Secondly, intuition is rooted in the entrepreneurs’ impulsivity, that echoes the role of emotions in decision making. Thirdly, the merge of rationality and intuition improves the entrepreneurs’ ability to keep up with the erratic rhythm of the decision making dance. Fourthly, the mix of intuition and rationality serves as a catalyst of entrepreneurs’ ability to thrive in complex and unpredictable environments. Fifthly, intuition generates drawbacks on entrepreneurs’ meta-cognitive knowledge, which should be carefully recognized. Embracing the dance metaphor, intuition turns out to be crucial to make entrepreneurs able to fill in the gap between rationality and uncertainty.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of the state legitimacy on of the different countries’ entrepreneurial activity’s development, the opportunities’ perception and the entrepreneurship’s motivations. This paper is set into the research field which analyze how the institutional environment influence entrepreneurship in different countries. Research framework has been built based on the Institutional Theory. To develop the model we use a set of data extracted from the European Social Survey and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor about 28 European countries and we analyze them through Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that state’s legitimacy influences the level of entrepreneurship in the different countries and the perception of the entrepreneurial opportunities and chances. Besides, the research shows that, in the scenario of the most legitimated countries, entrepreneurial activities is related to the need of self-employment. Based on the Institutional Theory, this research provide relevant contributions in the research field about entrepreneurship and countries’ institutions. From a practical point of view, the research shows ideas on how policymakers can improve entrepreneurial activity managing state legitimacy. Furthermore, the results provide new contributions in the research on the influence of the institutional context on the states entrepreneurial activity, providing an analysis and a comparison of the differences between countries, based on institutional theory.
Through the use of qualitative analysis, this paper examines the diverse tensions that social entrepreneurs have to deal with in their daily business activity. By using paradox theory and the hybrid organization model as a framework for analysis, we have found three principle causes of tension among social entrepreneurs: social vs economic sustainability; work vs family life; and resistance to change vs innovation. The results show the way in which social entrepreneurs in hybrid organizations resolve these conflicting tensions, usually through a selective coupling strategy, which is eventually complemented with alternative approaches such as compromising or decoupling. Social entrepreneurs tend to focus on one aspect of the tension and deal with it individually, which makes it more manageable. Change and innovation are the triggers for using strategies other than selective coupling, such as compromising or decoupling. When the level of tension rises further, compromising is then used. Decoupling is the last option chosen by social entrepreneurs, and is used only in cases where resolution is not possible with the other two strategies mentioned.
Does size matter for new firms and do they need to be large to be profitable? From small to large firms, a wide range of arguments have explored the possible strengths and liabilities associated with size. Despite the long interest in the relation between size and profitability, the empirical evidence is mixed and inconclusive. To date, studies focus mainly on established firms. In order to advance the knowledge on the relation, we examine the effects of size on the profitability of newly established firms in their first years of business. Overall, the results show that size has a positive impact on the profitability of new firms. In particular, increases in the number of employees have a positive effect on the return on assets that indicates that being small is a liability for new firms. Further, this finding indicates the need for a certain critical mass of employees when firms start out. By starting out with a higher number of employees, new firms may invest in the development of their performance by stimulating learning and motivation and, in this way, increase their profitability and their chances of survival. In addition to the liability of smallness, we also investigate the moderator effect of age. Our conclusions support the liabilities of obsolescence and senescence arguments that state that as firms age, they have difficulties in adapting to the external environment and face internal inertia.
Drawing from the resource-based view of the firm, Penrosean theory, and the resource dependence theory, it is argued in this study that the characteristics of directors are key factors for achieving the resources that listed SMEs will require to develop innovation, a scenario that often highlights the necessary replacement of the founding board members. We test our proposed relationships with a sample consisting of all the companies listed on the MAB (Alternative Spanish Stock Market) between 2010 and 2017. Our results offer new insights into the role of the founding board members, highlighting the need for the professionalization of the governance of these SMEs, by appointing independent outside directors and by decreasing the proportion of founding members on the board. Likewise, our results showed that this relationship is moderated by the age of the company.
This paper analyses the role that individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) plays in the success of international entrepreneurship moves. We focus on the mediation effect of international entrepreneurship in the relationship between IEO and firm performance. We argue that entrepreneurial experience constitutes an important source of IEO and propose an objective measure of IEO. The hypotheses are empirically analysed using a 22-year panel of family SMEs. Our results confirm the hypotheses and provide a better understanding of the role of IEO in the success of corporate strategies such as internationalisation. Specifically, IEO is found to improve firm performance indirectly by increasing the speed of internationalisation, and this effect is non-linear. Our study contributes to the literature by extending international entre-preneurship literature by offering a more complete view of the causes and consequences of IEO. Finally, our results also contribute to the literature on family firm heterogeneity.
Entrepreneurship research has matured and now spans multiple entrepreneurial contexts, including developing countries, emerging and transitional economies. However, collectivist economies have largely been ignored, partly due to difficulties in conducting research and partly due to the widespread assumption that they remain on the outskirts of entrepreneurial activity. In this paper, from the entrepreneurial event model perspective, we analyse entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents in Cuba, probably the best example of a collectivist economy that exists nowadays. Cuba is compared to Spain, a country that shares historical and cultural features but one which has a developed market economy. Findings indicate that desirability and feasibility constitute the main antecedents of entrepreneurial intention in Cuba, as other studies in market economy countries reflect. However, the influence of desirability on entrepreneurial intention is lower in Cuba compared to Spain, where the values of desirability and feasibility are significantly greater. These results seem to indicate that due to Cuba’s level of development, political regime and collectivist culture, entrepreneurship arises mainly out of necessity and the emergence of a strong entrepreneurial culture is stifled. This reflects a similar situation to the result obtained in previous studies in developing countries.
The process of buying and selling via internet platforms is referred to as E-commerce. E-commerce has become a worldwide trend in recent years. People from all around the world have begun to purchase things online. Mobile commerce, money transfer, inventory management, and other aspects of electronic commerce are included. With only a few clicks, anyone can send anything to anyone, whether it's money or presents. In the future, electronic commerce might have a significant economic impact. Internet business will permanently alter the face of business. Furthermore, in the twenty-first century, E-commerce will transform banking. E-commerce has had a wide range of effects on the increasing global economy. First and foremost, it has impacted information technology and all economic sectors; above all, E-commerce has boosted global productivity growth and its impact are too high. They are able to determine the number of qualified people required to advance their country's information economy, as well as calculate the amount of investment required to provide businesses with internet access. Some benefits are now in a position to compare their economies to those of their international competitors, and there are numerous ways to boost productivity growth in present emerging markets.
Drawing on the perspective of socioemotional wealth, this paper explores the types of family involvement in family firms and their impacts on R&D investment intensity. Using data from the forecasts issued by A-share family firms listed on Chinese stock markets between 2008 and 2019, the study finds that the separation of ownership and control is negatively associated with R&D investment intensity in non-high-tech firms, whereas potential gains of socioemotional wealth from R&D activities by high-tech firms produce a positive influence that offsets the negative impact of the separation of ownership and control on R&D investments. It reveals the importance of gains of socioemotional wealth. In contrast to the separation of ownership and control, family involvement in management is negatively associated with firms’ R&D investment intensity in both high-tech firms and non-high-tech firms. Our results capture the diversity of family members’ identity recognition, which leads to family members’ different evaluations of the potential gains and losses of socioemotional wealth. Overall, the distinction between high-tech family firms and other family firms is shown to be significant, as is the distinction between the impacts of different types of family involvement.
Enterprises tend to change their production and emission behaviours to foster green entrepreneurship under endogenous innovation development pressure and exogenous environmental regulation. This research innovatively establishes a theoretical framework on the dual dynamic linkage of environmental regulation and green entrepreneurship. Based on the sample data of 293 thermoelectric industry enterprises during 2017–2020, this empirical research first measures green entrepreneurship with the entropy method and finds that Zhejiang has cultivated green entrepreneurship at a primary level. Green entrepreneurship witnessed growth from 2016 to 2019. The dynamic regression identification then validates the stimulatory effect of environmental regulation on green entrepreneurship cultivation through internal competitiveness enhancement. Finally, with the application of the triple difference method (DDD), this research verifies that green entrepreneurship is positive in cultivating technological innovation and significantly facilitates environmental regulation to achieve better regulation effects through overall enterprise pollution emissions, total sulfur dioxide emissions, and total nitrogen oxide emissions. It is necessary to coordinate all aspects to cultivate green entrepreneurship and green growth in the future.
The paper proposes an analysis of entrepreneurial intentions in the equine sector in Romania and the identification of the variables influencing economic growth in this field. The equine sector plays a strategic role in the development of durable, sustainable and social entrepreneurship. The combination of equine services can ensure a business's survival during a crisis, and businesses involving horses can be considered complex. The equine sector is constantly changing: it is affected by politics, the social environment and new competitors. Changing customer requirements make it a difficult area in which to develop a sustainable start-up ecosystem. The present study is important in drawing attention to the main impediments faced by Romanian entrepreneurs in the development of the equine sector, a sector which—because of the emotional and physical benefits that horses offer—has great potential. The horse industry needs true "enthusiastic entrepreneurs" who have the management knowledge and skills to make their business more professional and profitable. It was found that the firm's organisation method is an important factor in predicting business continuity, in achieving medium- and long-term objectives, and in ensuring business success.
This paper examines how the value of entrepreneurship by gender is related to regional behaviour. Researchers have traditionally defined entrepreneurial organization as separate to gender and to economic growth. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) we complete a dataset of 50 countries using variables such as total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) and opportunity-driven entrepreneurial activity (OPP). The methodology used proposes an analysis of regional convergence, comparing the evolution over time of both the rate of entrepreneurial activity and the ratios of opportunity-driven and need-driven entrepreneurial activity, distinguishing by gender. On the other hand, a regression model is proposed that explains the greater presence of female entrepreneurship. The results show that entrepreneurship by gender is an important factor to define different cluster of countries according to how men and women entrepreneurs create new economic opportunities.
The literature review indicates that bankruptcy law may play an important role in and be one of the factors influencing the development of entrepreneurship, innovation , and thus economic growth, among other things. In previous studies, the analysis of the impact of bankruptcy law on individual variables has been conducted independently. Our aim was to conduct a holistic analysis, taking several factors into account simultaneously. Therefore, a descriptive model was proposed, based on which the following research hypothesis was formulated: In countries charac-terised by an effective legal system and at the same time debtor-friendly bankruptcy law, the level of risk acceptance among entrepreneurs is higher, which is reflected in higher levels of entrepreneurship and innovation. Based on the selected variables, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted using linear models estimated on the basis of the least-squares method. Additionally, to strengthen the conclusions drawn, the models were assessed in such a way enabling the analysis of causality as defined by Granger based on the two-step process. The results obtained allowed us to confirm the research hypothesis: in countries characterised by an efficient legal system and at the same time debtor-friendly bankruptcy law, the level of risk acceptance among entrepreneurs is higher, which is reflected in higher levels of entrepreneurship and innovation. The research results are particularly important from the point of view of legislators who are responsible for drafting amendments to bankruptcy law. Including certain debtor-friendly provisions may, in the long run, lead to increased entre-preneurship and innovation, and thus economic development.
Green entrepreneurship has been increasing with growing attention to environment protection by a variety of stakeholders. Green innovation, as the essence of green entrepreneurship, has attracted a broad range of scholarly attention with yet inconclusive findings regarding its effect on firm performance. According to our analyses of 1667 firms listed on SME board and GEM in China during the period from 2010 to 2019, we find interesting results regarding the type of green innovation involved and the moderating effect of firm age on the link between green innovation and SME performance. More precisely, we find green utility-model innovation positively influences firm performance for SMEs, whereas green invention innovation does not contribute to firm performance overall. More interesting, our empirical results suggest that older firms benefit more from both green invention innovation and green utility-model innovation than younger firms. This research contributes to the literature on green entrepreneurship as well as green innovation.