Industrial and technological development of Societies and changing land use patterns and mismanagement in harnessing more of the nature, caused to vulnerability of lifecycle, plant and animal organisms and natural landscapes and so formation of sustainable society is in trouble. In this regard, environmental sociology relying on the ecological interpretation is to investigate the environmental problems with using sociological knowledge. Therefore, the new concept of ecological Citizenship is formed that focused on the functionality and responsibility and cultural capital is an important factor in improving citizens' responsibility. In this study, the relationship of ecological citizenship and cultural capital is investigated using the survey method. The survey instrument was a questionnaire that utilizes foreign research using exploratory factor analysis of its components have been identified and localization. The Population study is, citizens over 15 years in Tabriz are 670 of them using multi-stage cluster sample and sampling method were selected. The findings show that, ecological citizenship with the 78.57% is relatively good. However, the cultural capital with 52.97% has been somewhat low. Pearson correlation test shows that there is a significant and positive correlation between cultural capital and its dimensions (except Institutionalized dimension) with ecological citizenship. Regression test results show that the three dimensions of cultural capital, could explain 7.4% of the variance of ecological citizenship.
Covid-19 has encountered the global economy with numerous challenges, including foreign investments. States are obliged under international law for the health and security of their citizens. However, measures taken to secure public health in the face of a disease outbreak have caused many losses to investment activities. Governments are tossed up between the protection of public health and foreign investment, and they often choose the former and adopt necessary measures. Through a descriptive-analytical method, this article tends to answer the key question that “what are the legal aspects of foreign investments that have suffered losses, and how all these measures adopted by states are legally justified?”. Therefore, after an introduction to the crisis, in three chapters, the States' international commitment to control infectious diseases, legal dimensions of foreign investment, and the legal challenges of dispute resolution are analyzed. Finally, it is concluded that the States are committed to controlling the spread of infectious diseases under the international health regulations and the core human rights instruments. Therefore, declaring a state of emergency and other restrictions are not only justifiable but also the part of an international commitment. However, these measures expose foreign investments to unprecedented damages. The overflow of the investment claims is considered a serious threat to the receiving States. Considering the present uncertainty, due to the lack of recorded judgments by international courts and tribunals on this issue, IIAs, customary international law, and the rules of responsibility of States will eventually shape the foundations of the decisions of these authorities.
One way to learn how to write an academic article is by analyzing some good and effective articles and taking lessons from them. In this way, I have chosen two articles from two different political positions, i.e. “The End of History” by Francis Fukuyama from the Right and “Modernity, Unfinished/Incomplete Project” by Jürgen Habermas from the Left. The prime purpose of this paper is to provide a translation and summary of Fukuyama’s article and the second objective is to analyze the text for extracting some theses, assumptions, research questions , etc. and finally is to compare these lessons with those that I have learned from analyzing the Habermas’s article (that I have published in a philosophical academic journal “Hekmat Va Falsafeh”). The author shows how these experiences can provide some criteria for writing academic articles and evaluating them. As we see in this paper, identifying a radical thesis, supporting it with convincing evidence and reasons and making a contribution to t
Contrary to our current approach to water as a colorless, odorless and tasteless liquid, Iranians used to consider it as a purifier, the most precious substance which was dowry of their profit's daughter, and the resource of the whole life on earth. The main aim of this article is to present an explanation for how the alteration in the mentality of the Iranians regarding water has led to excessive water consumption. I have attempted to illuminate the factors that have affected this change. In pursuit of this goal, the article proceeds in five steps. 1) The theoretical basis on which the paper relies is discussed by using the psychology of advertising and the findings of cultural studies. 2) As a prologue for the historical account, a brief outline of water supernal value among Iranians before the modern era, through secondary written sources, is raised. 3) The urban water resources management in Qajar Tehran is described by analyzing the data gained through historical maps and documents besides memories both at the macro and micro levels of the city. This will show the physical organization of water resources and problems associated with the operation of water. 4) The Iranian mentality on water during the Qajar period is explained based on historical evidence. It is also discussed how the promotion of tap water has led to the alteration in water concepts and its value in the Iranian mind. 5) According to the previous steps, two categories of strategies and tactics for the propagation of optimal water use are proposed.
This paper attempts to clarify the effect of using learning strategies in the second language acquisition. The shift of emphasis placed in second language learning from teacher and teaching to learner and the learning has resulted in the identification and the use of learning strategies to enhance language learning. The paper outlines the background of learning strategies and discusses how strategies are classified paying special emphasis on second language learning. The use of learning strategies in the leaner-centered context is investigated paying special attention to instructional models of language learning strategies.
The aim of the research is investigating the motives, amount, and affecting factors of University of Tabriz postgraduate students of scientific social networks. The method of this applied research is a descriptive survey. The gathering data tool was the researcher constructed questionnaire, and the data analyzed by descriptive and inferential tests such as chi-square. The findings showed that 67 percent of the students are familiar with scientific social networks and use them. The primary motivation of the students was being informed about news in science and knowledge, being in contact with other researchers, and tracking the activities of the other researchers. Other findings of the research showed that there is a significant correlation between grade and age with the amount and motivation of the use of scientific social networks. The results also showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between the gender and important educational groups and the amount of use of scientific social networks. The student's familiarity with scientific social networks is not satisfactory, and most of them do not use them, or their use is shallow.
Today, identity politics is one of the most important analytic tools of social scientists. With this approach, they focus on political attitudes and interests of social groups who are mainly concerned with gender, race, ethnicity or religion. Attitude towards the female sexuality is one of the most important spectrums in their study. The epistemological development is rooted in the fundamental social changes and its understanding requires a careful study of some aspects in contemporary political literature of Iran. The main question of this study is the focus on gender in the contemporary political literature that may lead to the realm of identity politics in Iran. Any focus on identity and gender discourses will involve a critical analysis and application of the Fairclough’s model on Shamlou’s poems. Thus, a social scientist may tend to answer the questions of identity politics and gender issues. Our hypothesis is that Iranian society has gradually moved towards a new understanding of the conce
Culture teaching generally focuses on helping foreign language learners develop an understanding of the culture of the target language and, ideally, positive attitudes towards it. In today’s world, the domination of English in entertainment, mass media and new media may sometimes be accompanied by unbalanced views. This interdisciplinary paper draws upon pragmatics, anthropological and cultural studies findings and shows how they can be utilised in language pedagogy. It argues that in a world where non-native speakers of English outnumber native speakers, culture teaching should widen its aims: in addition to helping learners develop positive attitudes towards and knowledge of the culture of the target language, it should also aim to develop a more explicit understanding of the rules of the learners’ own culture. It focuses on the concepts of communicative competence and pragmatic failure, and then presents a model of analysis of Persian culture, analysing the concept and components of ‘face’ and
Complexity of interdisciplinary concept, which is a result of complex nature of sciences and various theories, calls for more scrutiny on quality, background as well as concepts and approaches related to this issue. Therefore, a better understanding of interdisciplinary courses requires exploration of the concept of interdisciplinary studies which constitute the first part of this paper. In fact, many theorists maintain that shortcomings of interdisciplinary studies as well as complexity of issues facing human society and paradigm changes in human society which pave the way for transition from an industrial to a knowledge-based society, are major issues related to interdisciplinary courses which should be explored.
The second part of this paper stresses on conceptualizations regarding interdisciplinary courses which have been written on the basis of different approaches including, inter alia, alternating, normative, and epistemological approaches which lead to different conceptualizations on interdisciplinary courses. Despite those differences in conceptualization on interdisciplinary courses, they have a common point: the necessity of attending to interdisciplinary studies in order to solve complex human problems. Genealogy and Background studies, which can play a great role in better understanding of interdisciplinary courses and differentiate them from pre-disciplinary studies, focus on factors affecting developments in this scientific area which includes typology of interdisciplinary courses.
The budget or financial plan, as one of the most important tools of the policy-making system and a vital lifeline of the government, has greater impact on directing the future course of a country. It can stimulate the knowledge-based economy and cause the growth and development of the biotechnology sector as one of the top innovations of the present century. The present study is an attempt to investigate and find the coordinates and features of an appropriate budget policy for developing biotechnology in the country. With a combined approach framework, this article uses an analytical method and determines the proposed features through interviews with policy-making, budgeting, and biotechnological experts. Utmost, the components of an appropriate budget policy were extracted in 16 main categories: national division of labor, institutional structural reform, strengthening the biotechnology development center, reforming laws and regulations, reforming the law to protect knowledge-based companies, establishing stability and consistency in laws, reforming the country's budget structure, strengthening the pyramidal role of budget, reforming budgeting methods, operational budgeting, reforming the country's research budget, reforming financial safeguard models, reforming commanding phases, information technology infrastructure, adherence to budget principles, and monitoring of credits spending.
The hard/soft as well as disciplinary/interdisciplinary divides have been interesting topics in the history and philosophy of science. In this study, these two divides will be revisited in the light of the sub-genre, "article title". The article title is the initial section of any article that readers encounter and decide whether they continue to follow the text. To conduct the study, 6000 article titles (3000 Persian and 3000 English titles) published in peer-reviewed and ISI journals in 12 disciplines and interdisciplinaries have been collected and their length as well as the frequency of three punctuation marks, i.e. colon (:), comma (,) and question mark (?) are counted. It is revealed that 72281 words make the whole corpus with 12 words as average for each title. The Persian titles are reported longer than English ones, whereas the frequency of three punctuation marks is higher in English corpus. The results indicate that the research article titles have become longer during years and decades both in Persian and English. In sum, the findings confirm that the previous scholars' position on the rigidness of hard/soft as well as disciplinary/interdisciplinary divides are also acceptable in sub-genres such as article titles.
Science diplomacy is a developing foreign policy and international relationship among nations is affected by science and technology. Because of the major role of higher education in the production and dissemination of science and new technology, this important organization has always been attractive. This study is an investigation into measurements and factors for developing science diplomacy and the role of higher education as a fundamental factor in foreign diplomacy. This study is of applied type. The researcher-made questionnaire is the tool for data gathering in this paper. The sample in this research is composed of the faculty members of Khajeh Nasir Toosi University. The results show and confirm 3 dimensions and 33 elements for developing science diplomacy and 5 factors and 21 measurements for the role of higher education in developing science diplomacy. The main suggestions for higher education and foreign policy are developing infrastructure, developing international cooperation among universitie
The subject of this study concerns Urmia Lake which is one of the most valuable water habitats in Iran and investigation of crisis in the drop n of water level, significant decrease in the lake’s surface area and increase in its salinity.. In order to have better understanding of the processes that affect the lake's water level fluctuations and assess the contributions of every responsible parameter, System water consumption was designed. System water consumption was designed in The Lake Basin in the Vensim and the effects of each variable on the water level of the lake were evaluated using a set of different scenarios The findings suggest that in comparison to other variables, the operation of dams (26%) as well as an increase of water requirement (16%) by variables have played a role in reducing the input to the lake. Climate variables had an effect of 16% within the time span of 1999-2014. Although Hydrograph indicates the aquifer deterioration in some of them, the entrance to the lake water budget is negligible
One of major concerns of human beings regardless of their religion or school of thought is to observe ethical issues. This paper discusses the issue and lays emphasis on observing ethical matters in teaching in virtual learning environments in general and computer assisted language learning in particular. The paper tries to throw light on the current status of observing ethical issues in virtual learning environments and drawing both instructors and students’ attention to this issue. The research has been conducted by using two questionnaires one given to students and the other to instructors. Data analysis revealed that majority of instructors observed ethical issues when confronted with students’ personal details. Students were most sensitive regarding disclosing their personal photos in these virtual environments; however, they were comfortable if their personal details were controlled by the instructors. The Chi-Square test showed no substantial difference between gender and observing ethical issu
There are different and at times contradictory concepts of Charismatic and Farrahmandaneh authority. Some researchers and translators have used these concepts interchangeably. There are, however, fundamental differences between these two. Based on the three types of authority in Weber`s view, in this article I have tried to clarify the meanings and boundaries of them. To do this, basic dimensions of the three Weberian types of authority are discussed along with Farrahmandaneh authority in order to clarify the status of Farrahmandaneh authority in Weber`s intellectual system. Since the concept of authority and different forms of it are understood and interpreted in different epistemic systems, to achieve a comprehensive understanding of it and in particular, to compare the types of Weberian authority with Farrahmandaneh authority, one has to rely on sociology, political science, and even history and literature. As far as the limits and scope of this article allow, the interdisciplinary nature of
Literary fairy tales and their adapted films often construct formulaic roles for female protagonists and their stepmothers, especially in works made for children. Certain symbols that have become a powerful influence on feminine identity help to form, inform, and deform the heroine's physical and sexual development in these tales. This paper explores the rigid definitions of womanhood as they relate to the metaphors of the magic mirror and the stepmother's curse in the classic tales and the cinematic renditions of Snow White. It scrutinizes the stepmother's interactions with her magic mirror, which constantly tells her that she is not the most beautiful woman in the world, as well as the stepmother's subsequent curses (involving a lace-stay, a comb, and a poisoned apple) due to envy of her younger and more beautiful stepdaughter. The mirror and the curses accomplish the goal of rupturing female kinship bonds and become incorporated into the heroine's coming of age. These objects first divide and conquer the stepmother and Snow White, and then they serve the patriarchal goals of marrying women and having them join their husbands' kinship group. For more than three centuries, the symbols have perpetuated an idealized representation of the female protagonist in both the classic tales and in the modern cinematic renditions. Although different writers and filmmakers have created variations on the storyline, the magic mirror and the stepmother's subsequent curse (especially the red poisoned apple) remain virtually the same in contemporary rewritings. Given the perpetuation of the symbols, socio-historical and psychoanalytical contextualization of femininity will help to illuminate the metaphors of the mirror and the curse in relation to the construction of womanhood. The magic mirror and the curse embody stereotypical gender norms that posit Snow White's youthful beauty as the ultimate desire in both pre-modern and modern culture. Strikingly, the magic mirror is commonly used in the storyline for vivid portrayal of the stepmother's envy of the heroine's beauty. The aesthetic of femininity represented by the symbolism of the mirror reveals a strong dichotomy between the stepmother and the female protagonist. The magic
The fundamental change in language research, which started with Saussure in the early twentieth century and led to the establishment of modern linguistics, restricted the said research within the so-called central part of language, i. e., the language system, without taking into consideration anything that was conceived as external to language as an autonomous system. In terms of its clearly-defined theoretical structure and subject, modern linguistics once again became an influential leading discipline in the humanities and social sciences. It achieved a great deal, but its achievements took place at the cost of isolating language from its environment and excluding the user of language and the context in which language is used from the scope of linguistic analysis. Although this stance has long been criticized by scholars who prefer to see language within a more extended context, it has generally been ignored by mainstream linguists who dominate linguistic circles. However, in the last few decades of the
In order to make the combination of different approaches in different disciplines possible, interdisciplinary studies need to be founded on a clear theoretical framework in which explorer’s mistake could be decreased. Thus, it is necessary to apply theoretical framework of the original discipline within the explorations in the other’s studies. This might lead the explorer towards an interdisciplinary conception of the subject. Investigating political thought in cinematic studies, the present study attempts to evaluate such hypothesis. Thus, based on Spragens’ Theoretical framework in formulating political thought, the cinematic works are analyzed beyond their aesthetic features, and so, the directors are studied as the narrators of political thought in visual mode.