Introduction: The article presents the results of a study of 17-18 year students from various universities of Novosibirsk and identifies the prevalence of the tendency to various forms of psychosocial dependencies among the youth. The relevance of the work is predetermined by the increased dissemination of various psychosocial addictions among the youth and formation of youth subculture of addictive behaviour. Early detection of persons exhibiting a high propensity for various forms of psychosocial addictions, will predict negative trends in the youth environment and in a timely manner provide them with psychological and pedagogical help. The aim of this work is to identify among the 1st - 2nd year students in Novosibirsk the prevalence of the propensity for dif ferent types of psychosocial dependencies. Materials and Methods: over 10 thousand students aged from 17 to 18 years participated in the sociological study in Novosibirsk. The authors developed a special computer programme to identify propensity to addictions. The obtained results were processed using methods of variationa l and difference statistics. Results: many of 17-18 year old students have no addiction. The 17-18 year old girls have a higher level of propensity to tobacco addiction compared to boys and a tendency to increase the number of people with high risk of dependence to psychoactive substances. Young men with a high propensity to dependent behaviour have a higher risk to "heavy" types of dependence than girls. Discussion and Conclusions: The described tendencies reflect the general situation in the society, associated with the formation of youth subculture of addictive behaviour. The results should be considered in preventive and educational activities in universities. Methods for identifying addictions are effective in the correctional activity of psychologists. The authors intend to investigate the behaviour of students in high schools and in universities to reveal propensity to addictions.
Introduction. The forced transition of Russian universities to distance learning in 2020 and accelerated digital transformation of educational processes in higher education are the first effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. A key aspect of measuring higher education quality is the perception of its formats by students as university change agents. The aim of the study is to identify the factors that determine the applicants’ positive attitude to learning that includes online elements in the context of the Russian universities’ transition to the blended learning model. Materials and Methods. The empirical base of the research includes the results of an online sociological survey conducted among the applicants for Ural Federal University undergraduate and graduate programmes in 2021. The methods of classification, factor analysis, and coefficients of pair correlations were applied. Additionally, for comparison, data from 2015 for a similar sample (1st year bachelor’s degree students) were used. Results. Positive attitudes towards online and blended learning are gradually increasing. The factor analysis of data from 2021 showed that applicants who support the online and blended learning include: those aspiring for master’s degree upon completing their bachelor’s degree course; those who choose their degree field rationally – men who apply for a state-funded education in any Russian university (including participants of federal contests – ‘Academic Olympics’). The above groups are formed mainly under the influence of external factors. Another group includes those oriented towards self-realization – women who choose their degree field relying on their personal inclinations for a future profession (the influence of internal factors). Discussion and Conclusion. The research results contribute to the development of scientific ideas about the blended learning model and emphasize the value of institutional research based on feedback from university students for making informed management decisions on change. The materials of the paper will be useful when designing the educational process in the Russian universities’ transition to the blended learning model.
Introduction. During the COVID-19 pandemic variety of digital tools and technologies were demonstrated owing to the global digitalization of education and the total transition to online learning. The purpose of present research is to determine factors of digitalization of education and their effect on transformation of social values among high school students in conditions of the COVID-19. The results of research on social values of students were considered using comparative analysis. It was revealed that the paradigm of values among young people changed from an individual-personal one at the beginning of the XXI century to the social oriented paradigm – tolerance, openness, public recognition through social networks, self-development and contribution to the community. Materials and Methods. The analysis of pedagogical experience in the field of digitalization of education allowed to formulate the main factors of global digitalization of education and to highlight positive and negative aspects of online learning. According to M. Rokich’s method, an empirical study of instrumental values transformations was carried out among 137 students of Ural Federal University in the conditions of full-time online learning. A questionnaire method was implemented to determine studentsʼ attitude to online learning during COVID-19 pandemic and possibility for further development of this form of learning. Results. It was revealed that only 13.7% of respondents did not notice any decrease in the quality of learning and did not experience discomfort in obtaining knowledge in online form. According to the studentsʼ opinion the values that are subjected to transformation are the following: efficiency, self-control, responsibility, honesty. It can be concluded that the era of network personality and new scientific knowledge in pedagogy has begun. Online learning is a fait accompli which requires scientific substantiation of a new didactics and social values system development among students in a digital education environment. Discussion and Conclusion. Achieved results contribute to ecological system of new digital services that change life and educational activities of a human, as well as transform his personality and values system. Thus, for the purpose of health and emotional intelligence preservation in students the continuation of interdisciplinary study of various aspects of education digitalization is required.
Introduction. The article is concerned with the impact of social microenvironment on the spiritual and moral upbringing of young people and its reflection in philosophical and pedagogical legacy of Russian émigrés in 1920s-1930s. The relevance of the problem is given by the fact that spiritual upbringing nowadays becomes one of the leading directions in the educational policy of the state. The study of positive historical and pedagogical experience in upbringing the young generation can greatly assist in the implementation of the policy of spiritual and moral education of children and young people. The purpose of this article is to analyze the spiritual and moral upbringing and its emotional and value aspects, as well as the influence of the social microenvironment (church, school, family, children’s and youth organizations) on the process of spiritual and moral upbringing of children in the works of philosophers and educators of Russian émigrés in 1920s-1930s. Materials and Methods. The methodological basis of the research was a systematic approach to understand the holistic pedagogical process and the scientific research devoted to the study of the philosophical and pedagogical heritage of Russian émigrés in 1920s-1930s. The main research method is the theoretical analysis of documentary and archival sources; pedagogical, psychological philosophical and historical literature on an investigated problem; the retrospective method, the method of interpretation (explanation, comparison, analogy), methods of synthesis and generalization, questionnaire. Results. The review of theoretical works and practical experience of philosophers and teachers of Russian émigrés convinces us that while working in the 1920s-1930s, they anticipated some areas of contemporary humanistic pedagogy with its focus on education based on universal moral values, humanization of education, and the focus on the emotional sphere of children in the education process. The leading methodological approach to spiritual and moral education, as it reflected in many philosophical and pedagogical works of Russian émigrés in the 1920s-1930s, is the stimulation of the moral feelings of the child, the actualization of his emotional sphere in the process of upbringing. This occurs in the process of organizing emotional and moral educational milieu which is conducive to the development of moral feelings. Discussion and Conclusions. The creation of the emotional and evaluative milieu was conceived in pedagogy of Russian emigration as an organization of pedagogically targeted influence of church, school and family on the development of the moral feelings, and as the organization of the life and work of children’s and youth organizations with the same objectives. The study of education and development of pedagogical theory and practice of the Russian émigrés will add to the historical context of culture and pedagogy of Russia unjustly forgotten ways of solving problems spiritual and moral education and patriotic upbringing of youth. It will make available to pedagogy ideas and concepts, reflecting universal and spiritual and national values.
Introduction. Impetuous changes provoke a research into structural and substantive changes in modern childhood. Presentation of modern preschoolers differs from what their peers thought 10 and 20 years ago. It is necessary to determine the basis of preschool children’s self-image and to identify those specifications that remain unchanged and those that demonstrate significant changes. This will help to understand the fundamentals of building an internal image of a modern preschooler, highlight changes in its structure, and predict effective ways to accompany the development of a preschooler’s personality. Aim of the research: study the content components of the “self-image” of preschoolers, identify and describe the main dynamic trends in the self-image of preschoolers over the course of 13 years. Materials and Methods. The study of meaningful changes in the preschoolers’ ideas about themselves was organized using an interview. 211 preschoolers aged between 5 and 7 years old were interviewed. The study used the methods of cross-sections, the Kuhn-McPartland test modified by T. V. Rumyantseva, the method of studying the “self-image” by G. A. Uruntaeva and E. N. Gosheva, methods of mathematical statistics in the SPSS program. Results. The reflexive ego and the communicative ego are determined in the structure of the identification indicators of the self-image of the older preschooler as the stable characteristics. The dynamic tendencies are highlighted: modern preschoolers, in comparison with their peers in 2004, demonstrate more freedom and diversity in describing the identification characteristics of their physical ego and activity ego, at the same time they lose focus on relationships in the context of “me-others” (“social ego”). A comparative analysis made it possible to identify the zone of development of the self-image of modern preschoolers and the basis for the reconstruction of forms and methods of teaching and upb ringing. Discussion and Conclusion. The results of the research are important for the psychology of modern childhood. They clarify and supplement the description of the age-related characteristics of the development of self-awareness of modern preschoolers. The study allows us to place significant accents in the development of educational programs for preschool children in practice.
Introduction. The need to include authentic works of fiction in the foreign language teaching process is obvious, but the selection of texts of the appropriate level at the elementary and intermediate stages of Spanish teaching remains a challenge. Since this phenomenon has not been sufficiently explored, the aim of this article is to present a list of unabridged short stories that correspond to the intermediate level (B1 PCIC) and the results of the study on the benefits of using these stories as a means of stimulating communication skills in the Spanish class. Materials and Methods. To study the problem, a Likert scale questionnaire, oral interviews, and a check of the final work were carried out. The study involved 54 students from three Russian universities and one school where Spanish and English are studied in depth. The collected data were processed by methods of mathematical statistics in Microsoft Office Excel. For the study, 36 short stories by contemporary Hispanic authors were selected and pre and post-reading questions were developed to introduce the topic and stimulate oral speech. Results. Based on the results of the study, it was revealed that the selected stories correspond to the B1 level of the Cervantes Instituteʼs curriculum, and the topics presented in the stories stimulate communication in the class, pushing the fear of making a mistake into the background. Many Spanish teachers introduce unabridged fiction starting at B2 level. This experiment demonstrates the successful use of short stories at an intermediate level of language proficiency. Discussion and Conclusion. The results of the study contribute to the development and improvement of the methodology of teaching Spanish with the use of authentic fiction texts. The materials of the article will be useful for practicing teachers and methodologists of the Spanish language.
Introduction. This article presents the analysis of transformational changes in the Russian system of higher education. The authors aimed to develop a value-oriented model for the organization of educational activities. The concept of University 3.0 serves as a modern basis for ensuring the global competitiveness of national economies in the digital world. Materials and Methods. The methodological approaches of the study were systematic, comparative and problem-chronological methods. Results. The study expanded the understanding of the main stages of transformation in the higher education system in the Russian Federation. The results show that the destruction of the Soviet academic culture was accompanied by the destruction of the historical institutional balance. As a result, it became necessary to form new norms that define both the rules of interaction within the educational community and the place of this community in the overall social structure. The concept of Education 3.0 is designed to form these normative frameworks and ensure their interiorisation both in the pedagogical community and among students. It is revealed that in the modern Russian educational environment they are formed spontaneously, mainly due to the independent development of new technologies by students, while teachers continue to adhere to the previous educational concepts. Discussion and Conclusion. The practical significance of the study lies in the proposal of specific measures, the implementation of which will form the reputation of the University, attract additional investment, enhance its competitiveness both at the domestic and international level. The timeliness of the study lies in the fact that the analysis of the educational reform was carried out taking into account the needs of value-based management. The results of the study will be useful for the management of higher education institutions to reformulate development concepts, as well as for the executive authorities to further reform the educational system.
Introduction. An important place in the process of professional pedagogical education is occupied by the development of social abilities of students – future teachers. The relevance of the article is determined by the significant influence of the subject’s social abilities on the effectiveness of pedagogical activity. The purpose of the article is to establish the dynamics and content specifics of the development of social abilities of students under the influence of the process of learning at universities a nd the motivation of educational activity. Materials and Methods. Testing students of the Pedagogical University, enrolled in the academic track “Primary Education”. The total sample size is 104 people, including 1st year students – 24 people, 2nd courses – 21 people, 3rd courses – 31 people, 4th courses – 28 people. The following methods were used as diagnostic methods: methods for studying the properties of attention – “Red-black table”, “Confused lines”; for the study of social abilities, the “Test of Social Intelligence” was used by J. Guildford, M. Sullivan; to study the motivation of educational activity – a methods for studying the motivation of learning at a university by T. I. Ilyina, a methods for diagnosing educational motivation of students by A. A. Rean, V. A. Yakunin. The results of the empirical study were processed using the methods of primary descriptive statistics, the non-parametric comparison criterion Mann-Whitney U test, the rank correlation coefficient r-Spearman’s, and regression analysis; in order to analyze the characteristics of the psychological structure of social abilities, structural analysis methods were used. Results. The results obtained in the study expanded the understanding of the psychological factors in the development of social abilities of students – future teachers in the process of professional teacher education. As a result of the study, the main trends in the development of the individual’s abilities in the process of learning were identified, their role in the development of social abilities of students, the specificity of the relationship between the motivation of educational activity and social intelligence was established, the role of pedagogical practice in the development of social abilities of students was shown. The process of development of social abilities during training at a university can be divided into two stages. During the first stage (1–3 year), there is a restructuring of the psychological system of social abilities formed at the stage of school education, accompanied by an increase in the contradiction between the student’s perceptions and expectations of the content of training at the university and the existing level of development of social abilities. Under the influence of the inclusion of a student in the 4th year of study in active pedagogical practice (the second stage), the motivational sphere of educational activity is harmonized, leading to a qualitative increase in social intelligence and the development of the psychological structure of social abilities. Discussion and Conclusion. The results presented in the article will be useful to teachers of secondary and higher pedagogical educational institutions, employees of psychological services in order to increase the effectiveness of the formation of pedagogical abilities of students, accompanying the processes of adaptation of students to study at the university, overcoming the destructive trends of educational and professional development.
Introduction. The article presents the results of a study, whose purpose was to investigate emotional intelligence and empathic abilities as well as to identify correlations between these indicators in 3rd year medical school students. The relevance of the work is determined by the fact that both empathy and emotional intelligence play an important role in the formation of the professional competencies of future doctors.
Materials and Methods. The study was based around a survey of 92 students of the Sechenov University. Data gathering was carried out using the Assessment of the Level of Empathic Abilities by V.V. Boiko and The Emotional Intelligence Test by N. Hall. The relationship between emotional intelligence and empathic abilities was studied. Data were analysed using STATISTICA 8.0.
Results. The majority of the participants were found to have both an understated and a very low level of empathic capability. The least developed were the intuitive, rational and emotional components, while the most developed was the “installations that promote empathy” component. The majority of the participants had a low level of emotional intelligence in Hall’s terms, with the worst developed parameters seen to be “managing your emotions” and “self-motivation”. The most developed parameter was “emotional awareness”. The results showed an average positive correlation between Hall’s empathy and the total indicator of empathic abilities (r = 0.37, p < 0.01), the intuitive channel (r = 0.32, p < 0.01), the “empathy facilities” (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and the “empathy identification” (r = 0.26, p = 0.01) , as well as between “recognition other people’s emotions” and the total indicator of empathic abilities (r = 0.28, p < 0.05). The study found an average negative correlation between the “managing your emotions” and the “emotional channel” (r = -0.41, p < 0.001), the “rational channel” (r = -0.31, p = 0.003), the total indicator of empathic abilities (r = -0.28, p < 0.05).
Discussion and Conclusion. Most of the participants have a low level of empathic abilities and emotional intelligence. The results of the study identify the need to develop empathic abilities and emotional intelligence in medical students with a focus on intuitive, rational and emotional channels of empathy, as well as “managing your emotions” and “self-motivation”, in order to train communicative professional competencies during the course of higher education.
Introduction. Psychological and pedagogical support for the professionalization of a teacher should be based on modern knowledge in the development of pedagogical abilities. The most popular strategy for studying abilities is still the analytical approach, which does not allow to consider abilities as a holistic, continuously developing psychological education. The purpose of the article is to present the results of research into the development of the psychological system of pedagogical abilities of students – future primary school teachers in the context of continuous pedagogical education at secondary school, pedagogical college and pedagogical university. Materials and Methods. The survey involved 201 subjects, including students of the pedagogical class (n = 15), students of the vocational pedagogical college (n = 82), students of the pedagogical university (n = 104). In order to study the psychological system of pedagogical abilities, test methods, questionnaires, self-assessment scales, as well as an analysis of indicators of academic performance were used. The analysis of the psychological system of abilities was made by using systemic indices (coherence, divergence, organization), assessing the homogeneity/ heterogeneity of structures, identifying the basic and leading components of the system. Results. The uneven development of the psychological system of pedagogical abilities at different levels of pedagogical education was shown. It has been established that the development of the system of pedagogical abilities during the period of study at school, college and university cannot be characterized as continuous. Students of the pedagogical class are characterized by a higher organization of the ability system than those in college and university; for college students – their continuous restructuring and a decrease in organization by the end of their studies; for university students – a more stable and progressively developing system of abilities. Qualitative differences in the structural organization of the system are determined by the different contributions of the types of abilities (individual, subjective, personal) to its functioning and achievement of academic results. The organization of the system of abilities of schoolchildren is largely determined by the abilities of an individual, college students – by the abilities of a subject of activity and personality, university students – by the abilities of an individual. Discussion and Conclusion. The conclusions formulated in the research paper serve the basis for the organization of special activities on the purposeful formation of the system of pedagogical abilities in the conditions of continuous pedagogical education.
Introduction. In a developed society, the state should invest in the education of the younger generation. In less developed countries, Albania included, there are no nation-wide studies to show the factors that affect the lack of students in classrooms. The purpose of this study is to predict, analyze, and evaluate the possible causes of student absenteeism using machine learning algorithms. The attributes taken into account in this study are related to the family, demographic, social, university, and personal aspects according to academic criteria. Materials and Methods. Student absenteeism covers any student that has not attended class, irrespective of the reason. The data set consists of 26 attributes and 210,000 records corresponding to the teaching hours of 500 students during an academic year at Faculty of Information Technology. The students participating in the survey range from 18 to 25 years of age of both genders. The compilation of the student questionnaire was based on reviewing the literature and analyzing 26 attributes that we categorized into 5 groups included in the questionnaire. Results. This paper provides knowledge in the analysis and evaluation of factors that lead students to miss lectures using machine learning. It is important to note that this study was conducted on students of this faculty, and as such, the results may not be generalized to all universities. That’s why, researchers are encouraged to test the results achieved in this paper on other clusters. Discussion and Conclusion. The paper provides recommendations based on the findings by offering different problem-solving strategies. The questionnaire used only for 500 Faculty of Information Technology students can be widely applied in any educational institution in the region. However, the results of this study cannot be generalized for the student and youth population of other regions or other countries. This paper provides an original and easily usable questionnaire suitable to various study programs and universities.
Introduction. Academic responsibility consists in the duty of higher education providers to their students. By implementing academic responsibility, these providers respond to the demands of their society. The purpose of this article is to explore and analyse: implementation of education and teaching; mentoring; service to the university; research, publication; community service and ch anges.
Materials and Methods. A qualitative research approach, employing the case study method, was used. Data were obtained from in-depth interviews from lecturers and students, field observations, as well as collating and reviewing documents.
Results. The results of the study show that, in the implementation of education and teaching, the planning stage refers to the process of drafting the semester lesson plan. Student-centred active and participatory learning models are maintained; in mentoring, the guiding process simultaneously combines academic guidance, career guidance and personal-social guidance. While service provision is prioritised as one of the important educational aspects, in the implementation of research, it improves the ability of lecturers to research; in publications, to meet writing standards, peer assessment standards and documentation standards; in community service, it consists at the level of how to devote the knowledge possessed by the academic community to the progress of society; in change leadership, it involves technology, structure and human resources.
Discussion and Conclusion. There is a commitment to support the implementation of academic responsibility of higher education through engagement in teaching, mentoring, serving the university, discovering, publishing, truth-telling, serving the community and leading change. This academic process shows the value of commitment to a better quality of higher education.
Introduction. The present study aims to predict students’ academic achievements based on the classroom climate, the mediating role of teacher-student interaction and academic motivation among Semnan University students. Materials and Methods. This study relied on correlation-and-description method of data collection. The sample population consisted of all undergraduate and postgraduate students at the Faculty of Engineering of Semnan University in the academic year of 2017–2018. Using a random stratified method, 200 subjects were selected as the sample (135 undergraduate and 65 master). Questionnaires of Patrick, Kaplan and Ryan’s classroom climate, Hernandez-Lopez’ teacher-student scale, Vallerand’s academic motivation questionnaire and Pace and Kuh’s student academic achievement scale were used. Reliability of the questionnaires was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha test. Results. There is significant positive relationship between academic achievement and classroom climate, teacher-student interaction and academic motivation. Classroom climate has a direct and meaningful effect on students’ academic achievements. Also, the climate of the classroom by mediating the teacher-student interaction has indirect and significant effects on students’ academic achievements. Classroom climate by mediating educational motivation has an indirect and significant effect on students’ academic achievement. Discussion and Conclusion. The results of this study suggest the importance of openness to the classroom climate, interaction between teacher-student and academic motivation is to increase students’ academic achievements.
Introduction. Developing students’ creative thinking is one of the current global trends in higher education. Despite the existence of a number of studies focusing on creativity enhancement, including its development by means of foreign language learning, the problem of the correlation of students’ creativity levels, academic profile (track) (STEM and humanities) and academic progress in mastering a foreign language remains open. The purpose of this study was to identify possible correlations: between the creativity of university students and their academic performance in a foreign language and between their creativity and specialization areas. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of 300 students (150 majoring in humanities and 150 in engineering) from two Tyumen universities. The study used an abridged version of the Torrance test of creative thinking, the second subtest “Incomplete Figures Task”. The collected data were processed using mathematical statistics methods in Microsoft Office Excel and Statistica 10.0. Results. According to the results of the study, a low level of students’ creativity was discovered in terms of originality and flexibility of thinking. These indicators were lower than those of the high school students in 1994. At the same time, two other indicators, fluency and elaboration, were higher than statistical norms. A positive correlation was found between academic performance in English as Foreign Language and elaboration. No relationship between academic performance in EFL and other indicators has been registered. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of creativity between students majoring in engineering and humanities. Discussion and Conclusion. The results of the study point to the need to find new ways to foster students’ creativity in the classroom, including creation of a creativity stimulating environment, pedagogical monitoring of students’ creativity, and measures to encourage creative teaching.
Introduction: the analysis of bachelor’s training objectives in “Pedagogical Education”, formulated by the Federal Educational Standards (FES), brings to the conclusion that there is a mismatch between them. Achiev- ing one assumes fundamentalisation of teacher’s education, and the other - the improvement of its practical orientation. The research reveals that teacher’s education component corresponds to the development of relevant scientific field. Proposed measures to achieve these goals are often in opposition to the components of teacher’s education. Since the training of students in all activities specified by FES, is carried out in a single educational process, there is a necessity to search for means that eliminate this mismatch, i.e., harmonise teacher’s education.
Materials and Methods: a number of studies is concerned with identifying the content of fundamental and practical aspect of training Bachelor’s degree students. Fundamentalisation is strengthening the role of teaching methodology, in particular the methods of research, construction of training courses based on the computerised simulation, systems analysis and activity approach. The practical orientation of education is to form students’ skills based on theoretical and methodological knowledge and universal educational actions.
Results: modern methodological thinking serves a basis of harmonisation that embodies a number of profes- sional competence of a teacher extended on the fundamentalisation of education, and on a practical orientation as well. Searching for means of harmonisation of fundamentality and practical orientation of Bachelors training leads to the conclusion that among effective means are tasks that simulate real learning situations, a business game, its simulation, training projects, classes where the experiment is carried out. From the perspective of harmonisation of Bachelors training the author identifies requirements to lecturing and conducting workshops.
Discussion and Conclusions: the paper summarises the implementation of the theory of harmonisation of Bachelors training in “Pedagogical education”; presents samples of lectures and workshops that meet the requirement of that harmonisation.
Introduction. This article deals with the problem of studentsʼ understanding of educational texts and ways of diagnosing the level of perception and understanding of secondary texts. The relevance of the study lies in the importance of ways of interpreting and diagnosing the level of perception of educational texts to eliminate the objective reasons for the lack of understanding of educational texts and for further linguistic and psycholinguistic research on this problem. The aim of the article is to describe the results of the experiment aimed at investigating the denotative structure of instructional primary and secondary texts using comparative propositional analysis. Materials and Methods. The experiment involved 200 fifth-grade students of secondary schools in the Republic of Tatarstan. The material used was the social studies text for the 5th grade, edited by L.N. Bogolyubov and L.F. Ivanova, and the secondary texts – retellings performed by students. To study the problem we conducted a preliminary test of the respondents, in order to diagnose the levels of students’ perception and understanding of the original text the group of experts carried out a propositional analysis of the retelling. Results. In the course of the research it was revealed that the propositional analysis of texts-retellings and the subsequent comparison of denotative structures of the original and secondary texts are productive and informative procedures for identifying an objective picture of the perception and understanding of texts by schoolchildren. Propositional analysis of the texts showed that most of the experiment participants were able to identify the main idea of the read text and separate the main data from the secondary one. There is a discrepancy in the number of retained propositions in the retellings; the volume of the text varies significantly: semantic additions, simplifications, collapses, and offsets are detected. There is a partial restructuring of the propositions of the original text. The fact of discrepancy in the number of retained propositions is explained by the level of understanding of the primary text, interpretation of the text content and it may be due to the peculiarities of adolescent thinking. Background knowledge of the recipients, their emotional attitude, practical skills of independent work with the text, the ability to extract basic information from the text also affect the success of the retellings. Discussion and Conclusion. Materials of the article can be useful for elimination of objective reasons for misunderstanding of educational texts and for further pedagogical and psycholinguistic research.
Отмечены достоинства и недостатки использования стендовых лабораторных работ, выявлены пред-посылки к внедрению виртуальных лабораторных работ и их преимущества. Рассмотрены возможности и практика применения среды моделирования PSIM для создания виртуальных лабораторных работ при изучении курсов «Общая теория связи», «Цифровая обработка сигналов» и «Схемотехника телекомму-никационных устройств». Подтверждена эффективность повышения качества подготовки бакалавров направления «Инфокоммуникационные технологии и системы связи» на основе использования предло-женного виртуального практикума.Ключевые слова: лабораторный практикум; стендовая лабораторная работа; виртуальная лабораторная работа; среда PSIM.
Introduction. At the present time, more and more students are changing either their field of study or the university in the process of studying. This raises the problem of how to determine whether a student’s level of knowledge meets the host institution’s criteria. A simple comparison of competencies is not enough. Therefore, the authors propose a new system of comparing existing and required knowledge (competencies) at the new place of study. The purpose of this article is to present the results of research on the development and practical application of specific “competency trees” that allow for the automatic comparison and re-crediting of disciplines. Materials and Methods. The research is based on the methods of system analysis for weakly formalized problems: the method of expert evaluations and the method of the goal tree. For direct development the method of construction of binary decision trees was used. To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed method, methods of observation and comparison were used. Results. This article describes the specific steps for creating checklists based on multilevel competency indicator trees. The tables describe the four levels of competency acquisition. Based on the experiments carried out on the use of such tables for retake disciplines when transferring a student from one specialty to another, the following recommendations are made: if it is necessary to obtain a mark of the “Test” type in the Host University, the comparison is made according to the second level indicators; if it is necessary to obtain a mark of the type “Graded test/Test with a grade” in the Host University, the comparison is made according to the third level indicators; if it is necessary to obtain a mark of the “Exam” type in the Host University, the comparison is made according to the indicators of the deepest level for this indicator of the first level. The technique has been successfully tested for moving of a student within Kazan National Research Technical University named after A. N. Tupolev-KAI between the academic programs Aircraft Engineering and Applied Mathematics and Informatics. Discussion and Conclusion. The proposed multilevel system of interuniversity indicators will significantly simplify the procedure for transferring subjects for students who are moved from one study program to another at any level – whether within one university, or between different universities of the Russian Federation. The use of an automated system for comparing the level of knowledge of a student when moving from one university to another will not only reduce the time of a student and teachers, but also eliminate the human factor, bias and subjectivity in the process of making decisions about transferring, and increase the transparency of this process. All this together will contribute to the development of academic mobility of students, increasing their competitiveness in the labor market and strengthening academic interuniversity relationships both in Russia and abroad.
Introduction. As part of the Bologna process since September 1, 2016, the Russian government has granted the right to award academic degrees to leading educational and scientific organizations on par with Dissertation Defense Councils under Higher Attestation Commission, modeled after the system adopted at OECD member-states and universities. Currently, 27 educational and scientific organizations are exercising this right. However, the problematic issue is the assessment of their efficiency. The purpose of this research is to analyze the efficiency of Dissertation Councils of the above-mentioned scientific and educational organizations by comparing them in terms of efficiency with classical Dissertation Defense Councils established by the decree of the Ministry of Education and Scie nce of Russia. Materials and Methods. The research objects are Dissertation Councils of scientific and educational organizations of higher education (hereinafter referred to as pilot organizations) that have the right of independent award of academic degrees according to the Federal Law No. 148 issued on May 23, 2016 “On Amendments to Article 4 of the Federal Law ‘On research and state scientific and technological policy’”. Dissertation Councils efficiency analysis is made using following indicators: Dissertation Councils members’ compliance with the Higher Attestation Commission requirements, structure of candidate and doctoral defenses, Dissertation Councils members’ publications and publication activity of degree seekers. Statistical data analysis methods were applied including mean comparison me thods, clustering, factor analysis. Results. There are 337 pilot Dissertation Defense Councils and 374 classical Dissertation Defense Councils. In 2016, 24% of defenses were reviewed by pilot councils of the total number of defenses in classical Dissertation Councils of the entire network. In 2018 70 doctoral and 591 candidate defenses in “pilot” councils were held, amounting to 7% of the total number of defe nses in classical Dissertation Councils. Discussion and Conclusion. The article will be useful to the heads of federal authorities making management decisions in the field of training and certification of highly qualified scientific personnel, to the chairmen and scientific secretaries of dissertation councils, as well as to scientific and pedagogical workers carrying out analytical studies in this subject area.
Introduction. The article is concerned with the use of special electronic teaching tools to increase the students’ understanding of the subject and adaptation to the professional language environment of the host country, taking into account the mathematical education. Our purpose is to develop a methodology of multilingual support of mathematical courses in the host country to improve the effectiveness of students’ academic mobility using e-learning tools. Materials and Methods. The basis of the research was methods of system analysis and descriptive and analytical methods, primarily experimental. To identify advantages of the proposed approach the methods of empirical research were used (observation and comparison). To prove the efficiency, classical methods of measurement were used. Results. We analyzed the existing electronic learning environments and defined an e-learning environment Math-Bridge that allows for creating mathematical courses in several languages in parallel. For example, the e-training course “Optimization Methods” was developed in three languages for training Russian-speaking Master programme students. The comparative analysis of the target and control student’s groups showed that 100 % of the students in the target group achieved an excellent level of mastering competencies, while the control group has only 75 %. For the control group, the degree of motivation to mathematical studying has not virtually changed (increase by 0,86 %). In the target group the level of student interest to the mathematics increased from 0,9 % to 8,9 % (mean 2.21 %). Discussion and Conclusion. The results described in the article will be useful for the staff of international departments, administrations and deans, as well as teachers of those universities that participate in the students’ international academic mobility programmes.
Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones. The main attention is paid to such components of methodological system, as the principles and teaching methods classified according to the degree of learners’ active cognitive activity. The most interesting is the diagram of the relationship of learning principles, teaching methods and specific types of requests.
Materials and Methods: the authors used comparative analysis of literature, syllabi, curricula in medical informatics taught at leading medical universities in Russia.
Results: the original technique of training in putting queries with databases of MICROSOFT ACCESS is presented for analysis of information models in practical health care.
Discussion and Conclusions: it is argued that the proposed pedagogical technology will significantly improve the effectiveness of teaching the course “Medical Informatics”, that includes development and application of models to simulate the operation of certain facilities and services of the health system which, in turn, increases the level of information culture of practitioners.
Introduction: the problem of reforming the higher economic education in the field of training accountants and auditors is currently very relevant. Of particular interest in this context is the study of the current state and prospects for the development of the accountant profession and the tasks that face a modern accounting education. The purpose of the article is to assess the current state of preparation of accounting staff and the rationale for proposals for the formation of an educational trajectory in the field of training accountants and auditors, based on the priority of long life education, instead of education for life.
Materials and Methods: during the research, general and special methods of scientific knowledge such as analysis and synthesis, scientific abstraction, dialectical, systemic, structural-functional, comparative and statistical methods were used.
Results: we examined the current trends in the development of accounting education around the world and analysed the main differences. With the help of a random survey of students and employers, positive and negative aspects of the training programmes were revealed. The concept of transition to the accounting education throughout life (lifelong learning) is substantiated.
Discussion and Conclusions: the purpose of accountants’ education is to nurture highly qualified professionals. This goal determines the direction and form of the learning process. The authors of the article give recommendations for improving accounting education in coordination with state programmes and professional requirements.
Introduction: timeliness of the problem is predetermined by the theoretical and practical importance of studying determinants of self-development and the concrete strategy of self-improvement as one of its forms. The aim of the research is to reveal person’s preferences in choosing self-improvement techniques, the factors influencing this choice, to develop the algorithm of teaching a student how to use the self-improvement strategy.
Materials and Methods: theoretical, empirical and practical methods were employed in the course of the research. The author’s method of identification of priorities in choosing the strategy of self-improvement that had been tested on the students was used as diagnostic tools. Training in personal development strategy was applied as a practical approach.
Results: four strategies of self-improvement: acquisitions, disposal, transformation and restriction were highlighted and described. The students use the strategy of acquisition and disposal more often than transformation and restriction. The substantial analysis of each of these strategies is made. It is found out that the choice of priority strategy is defined by the level of expression of endeavours to self-development. At the high level of endeavours to self-development the priority strategy is most often the strategy of acquisition, at low level it is the strategy of restriction and disposal. The algorithm of teaching how to use strategy of self-improvement is developed including the enhancement of the level of awareness to the choice of strategy; clarification of purpose of these or those qualities for the person, their acceptance; transition to the strategy of transformation and restriction.
Discussion and Conclusions: the preference of self-improvement strategy determines the originality of personal development and provides understanding of specifics and mechanisms of changes. The received results can be used in the course of studying psychological disciplines, in the activities of psychological service at higher education institutions, and in the psychological support of personal development of students.
Introduction. We investigated the problem of comparative analysis of the world and national trends of development of information support of the university research and education and position of Russia in the world academic community. Materials and Methods. We analyzed international and national surveys with data processing methods. Materials comprise results of the latest survey of the Publishers Communication Group, initial data of annual surveys conducted by Russian National electronic information consortium and the data of the surveys conducted by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation in 2016 and 2017. Results. More than 90 % of world and Russian universities report of acquisition of scholarly resources via university consortia, 75 % of university funds are spent on periodicals. All peer groups demonstrate gradual migration to e-resources. In 2016, e-resources comprised 91 % of total acquisition expenses and e-books – 63 % of book acquisition. In Russia, more than 85 % of expenses on scholarly information belong to universities. From 2006 to 2014 average annual expenses on e-resources in Russian universities increased, however since the 2014, due to the economic crisis one can see shrinking of library expenses. This leads to a decrease in a number of acquired resources. Acquisition budgets of Russian leading universities (group 1) exceed budgets of non-leading universities (group 2) by ten times. In 2015, Russian universities spent 57 % of their acquisition budgets on the Elsevier databases. Discussion and Conclusions. Information support at Russian and world universities show common trends and features. The data on the e-resource expenses can be used as indicator of research activity in Russian institutions. It can also affect the information providers and scholarly journal publishers in development of the marketing, subscription and pricing policy in Russia.
Introduction. Positive psychology is one of the most rapidly developing directions of psychological science in the world. Over the past two decades, a large number of empirical researches confirm effectiveness and validity of theoretical studies and practical methods used in the framework of positive psychology. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research in this area in the Russian-speaking scientific community, despite of the presence of high-level scientific teams and individual researchers working in the framework of positive psychology. Probably an important factor in the “low popularity” of positive psychology among Russian authors is the lack of large-scale studies on wide samples of Russian respondents. The purpose of this article is to empirically confirm, the legitimacy of the practical application of the “VIA” model. As well as perform approbation, validation and publication of the Russian-language version of the questionnaire by K. Peterson and M. Seligman “Values in Action Inventory of Strengths” in Russian we suggest more reflecting the essence of the questionnaire name – “24 strengths of the personality”. Materials and Methods. The approbation was carried out on a wide sample of respondents from the professional sphere of education (N = 7 946), using statistical methods for checking the reliability of the questionnaire, including convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The reliability tests showed significant validity results, indicating the reliability of the psychometric tool. The scales of the Russian-language version of the VIA-IS questionnaire show more than sufficient internal consistency, The convergent validity test showed significant correlations with the following scales: Life Satisfaction Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, General Self-Efficiency Scale, and Professional Burnout (Maslach’s). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factorial structure of the questionnaire. We manage to meet the desirable “cut-off” model fit parameters of Confirmatory factor analysis. Discussion and Conclusion. Hopefully, publication of this Russian-language questionnaire will lead to an increase interest for research in the field of positive psychology in the Russian scientific community. The conclusions made by the authors contribute to the development of theoretical concepts of positive psychology, confirming the general structural integrity and practical validity of the model “VIA”. Moreover, this article provides for open use in the Russian scientific psychological community a universal psychometric technique in form of questionnaire with empirically proven reliability on a wide sample of respondents.
Introduction: this paper discusses the specifics of socio-cultural activities with people of the third age to overcome the social exclusion, identifies reasons for the decline of alienation level in this category of citizens in conditions of activity of cultural institutions.
Materials and Methods: the authors’ findings are based on the philosophical, sociological, cultural, psychological and pedagogical literature and research methodology: observation, survey and content analysis.
Results: the most effective methods of social and cultural activities in terms of overcoming the social exclusion of people of the third age were developed and experimentally tested. The main objective of the research was to examine the problems of exclusion among persons of the third age, as well as the possibilities of using social and cultural activities to overcome the social exclusion. In the paper the authors analyse the regional approach to the organisation of social and cultural activities of the elderly in institutions of social and cultural sphere. On the basis of the study the authors propose to extend and modify the variety of forms of leisure and intensify their use in working with people of the third age to overcome the social exclusion of an individual. All work on social and cultural activities with the elderly should be aimed primarily at optimising the social inclusion of elderly in society.
Discussion and Conclusions: organisation of social and cultural activities for the elderly is a host of opportunities for the realisation of creative ideas. It is these new approaches to the activities of cultural institution’s collective that help to enhance the interaction between cultural institutions employees and retirees. This study is not exhaustive and does not finalise the research into the role of social and cultural activities as a condition for overcoming the social exclusion of people of the third age. This topic needs further exploration.
Introduction. This article is devoted to the analysis of the process improving communicative qualities of graduates and future subject teachers through the integration of educational and extracurricular activities. The authors analyze main directions of implementation of interpersonal, group and organizational communication in teacher training. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the effectiveness of the program of developing communicative competences on the basis of project activities in the student scientific community by creating special diagnostic tools. Materials and Methods. As a methodological substantiation of the study, the competence approach is considered; the implementation of the latter, in conjunction with the systemic, innovation-technological, qualitative, activity-oriented and personality-oriented approaches, provides a higher qualitative level of vocational training of future teachers. At the theoretical stage of the study, the foreign and Russian pedagogical theory, practices, standards and solutions to the stated research problem were analyzed. To confirm the effectiveness of the experimental results, methods of mathematical statistical analysis were applied and a special diagnosis was created, compiled in accordance with the Professional Standard of the teacher based on content analysis of the contents of the answers, in terms of the availability of linguistic units of positive and negative connotations. The practical part of the research involved the student scientific community of the Pedagogical Institute. Results. Based on the created model for the content of the communicative competence of the future teacher, the author’s 72-hour program was developed for 6-month extra-curricular activities. It contained various forms of work: the implementation of brainstorming methods, communicative battles, a round table, essay writing, scientific stand-up, intellectual play, etc. The peculiarity of the program was that in each case, up to three roles were considered: coordinator, creative person, participant. The study presents a new perspective on the monitoring of the quality of education, in particular, the author’s diagnosis of analysis of communicative skills aimed at achieving goals of pedagogical activity . Discussion and Conclusion. Practical application of the provisions identified in the study on the integration of educational and extracurricular activities for the formation of communicative qualities of students can be realized in the organization of the educational and educational space of a higher educational institution of the pedagogical profile. The qualitative approach used in the study to analyze the labor intensity of educational disciplines in terms of counting credit units to estimate competencies can be applied as one of the indicators of monitoring basic educational programs. The study will be useful for teacher trainers wishing to improve the educational space of various learning or ganizations for this profile of training.
Introduction. The widespread use of telelearning raises the issue of ensuring its effectiveness. Researchers consider various factors, but student readiness for such learning has not yet become the subject of systemic research in domestic science. The objectives of the article are: to reveal personality predictors of online learning success, to identify the components of student readiness for such learning (on the basis of foreign works); to characterize the readiness and self-efficacy of students’ online educational activities drawing on empirical data. Materials and Methods The researchers utilized the methods of theoretical analysis of the problem and the survey method. The author’s questionnaire was used to collect the data on the online activity of the students, self-assessment of readiness and effectiveness of online learning. 252 first- and second-year IT-students participated in the survey. Results. Five components of students’ readiness for online learning have been identified: attitude towards online learning, self-directed learning, time management, communicative competence, and technical competence. The students’ attitudes towards online learning are ambivalent. The students understand the importance of such training, but they are not willing to invest enough time and effort into it. Two interrelated components (self-directed learning and time management) contribute most to the overall online learning readiness. Online learning self-efficacy is related to technical competence and attitudes towards online learning. Discussion and Conclusion. The results will be useful for further research of the factors and ways improving online learning effectiveness. The research prospects are the development of psychodiagnostic tools for assessing the online learning experience and readiness of students and the diversification of the sampling by adding students from different programme tracks and with different experiences in online educational activities.
Introduction. The article is devoted to the issue of learning activity of first-graders with intellectual disabilities, the relevance of which is dictated by the search for factors of effectiveness of the educational process. In the theory and practice of remedial education of learners of the studied category much attention is paid to their learning skills in the learning process, but for the first time the most significant in the dynamics of the ratio of opportunities and achievements in mastering the content of the adapted educational program is considered. The purpose of the study is to analyze the learning opportunities and the results of the performance of academic tasks in the subject areas of adapted programs by first graders with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods. The sample included 95 first-graders with intellectual disabilities. The following methods were used to process research results: standardized observation to explore learning opportunities and learning outcomes; pedagogical testing to study the results of the implementation of educational tasks in accordance with the subject areas of the adapted training programs (Russian, mathematics, etc.); Wilcoxon T-test, Spearman correlation analysis, principal component factor analysis followed by varimax-normalized matrix rotation, Statistica version 10. Results. We identified statistically significant variance in the structure of correlations between learning opportunities and the results of completing educational tasks in the subject areas of adapted programs at the current and intermediate cut in subjects studying for options 1 and 2 of ABEP. We have noted the variability of the factor structure of learning opportunities and the results of the implementation of educational tasks in the subject areas of ABEP at the current and intermediate cut in both groups. We found obvious advantages of practice-oriented skills in assignments in subjects such as visual activity, music, manual labor, etc. and the ways of their implementation (by joint actions, by showing and imitating) over verbal assignments (in subjects – Russian language, mathematics, reading, etc.) and methods of their implementation (orally, according to verbal instructions), which allows us to consider the importance of the practice-oriented skills in teaching first-graders with intellectual disabilities. Discussion and Conclusion. The results of empirical research make a significant contribution to special pedagogy, to its methodological resource, as they expand not only the understanding of the possibilities and results of learning of modern learners with intellectual disabilities, but specify the determinants of the dynamics of their learning activities.
Introduction. The article explores the conflict-related nature of educational activity. Analysis of modern scientific literature in Russia has revealed the fragmented nature of the study of this issue and the lack of a methodological foundation for the development of effective and practical conflict management strategies and programmes for regulating the impact on conflict situations in the educational process. The purpose of the article is to develop a theoretical and methodological tool for conflict diagnosis of modern higher education institutions and a model for monitoring conflict factors in modern institutions of higher learning.
Materials and Methods. The methodological basis of the study are fundamental principles of the current theory of organisational conflicts, the development of procedures and technologies for their resolution in the educational process, including management decisions making. The proposed model for monitoring educational activities was tested at St. Petersburg State University using quantitative and qualitative methods of research.
Results. It is substantiated that conflicts arising during the implementation of educational activities can lead to serious negative consequences, the removal of which requires considerable resources and time. The main characteristics and classification of various types of conflicts in the implementation of educational activities are singled out, the conflict determinants of the educational process as well as the relationships between students and teachers are investigated. In the empirical part of the work, basic principles and methods for organising conflictological monitoring of educational activity and requirements for its instruments are proposed. The use of monitoring allows to obtain valid results of a real picture of conflicts as an essential component of the effective work of the university.
Discussion and Сonclusions. A list of indicators has been determined, which makes it possible to assess the factors of conflict in the educational process. The authors make a conclusion about the need for conflict monitoring as an integral part of the management of the educational process, aimed at obtaining timely, relevant and objective information about conflict and conflict in higher education institutions and improving the quality of management. The results of the study will contribute to the development of specific solutions for the development of the education system as a tool for the formation of solidarity and socio-political stability values of modern Russian society.
Introduction. Changes in the industry impact the stable condition of working in a company or industry and it is not something that can be guaranteed again in the future. The proof is that there are many phenomena of job transfers or even layoffs in various business sectors due to COVID-19 pandemic. Many studies have examined the importance of developing career adaptability skills to face the changing needs of the industry. However, studies that discuss the mechanism of forming career adaptability skills involving important antecedent factors such as teaching quality, social support, and career self-efficacy of polytechnic students are still limited. Therefore, this study aims at examining the effect of teaching quality, social support, and career self-efficacy factors on the career adaptability skills of polytechnic students. Materials and Methods. This study involved 265 students at a polytechnic in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The students expressed their perceptions of the quality of their internship learning, social support, and career selfefficacy – data analysis used Structural Equation Modeling by Amos 18 software. Results. This study reveals that teaching quality and social support does not have a direct effect on career adaptability skills. Meanwhile, career self-efficacy has a direct effect on the career adaptability skills of polytechnic students. Other findings, teaching quality and social support have a direct effect on the career self-efficacy of polytechnic students. Finally, career self-efficacy mediates the effect of teaching quality and social support on the career adaptability skills of polytechnic students. Discussion and Conclusion. This study provides important implications for the development of learning in vocational education so that students have a good mastery of career adaptability skills. Vocational education practitioners must design a vocational teaching model that combines vocational teaching, social support, and career self-efficacy to form mastery of career adaptability skills for pop-polytechnic students. In addition, the development of a vocational education curriculum needs to include mastery of career adaptability skills for students in vocational education, be it vocational high schools or polytechnics. In further research, it is necessary to develop a vocational learning model that aims to inculcate career adaptability skills for vocational students.
Introduction. In the context of the export of educational services, it is of particular importance to design an efficient system of foreign students’ psychological adaptation. Owing to the ethnocultural background, foreign students feel that they are stigmatized minorities in the host society. Negative images and stereotypes are often internalized, resulting in stable low self-esteem in the stigmatized. Since self-esteem acts as a key parameter of the professional self-concept, social stigma and the experience of social identity threat activate the stigmatization of primary professionalization, thereby drastically reducing the efficiency of the received vocational education at the university. The purpose of the study is: to outline the phenomenon of primary professionalization, to reveal the nature of the relationship between the social stigma of foreign students and their self-esteem, and to describe the levels of primary professionalization. Materials and Methods. The study involved 124 foreign students. Participants were asked to answer questions of the Short Form of the Stigmatization Scale and Rosenbergʼs Self-Esteem Scale in order to track the relationship between social stigma and self-esteem. Further, in order to identify the basic barriers to primary professionalization and the participants’ perception of their stigmatized status, the respondents answered the questions of a semi-structured interview supported with the critical incident technique in a focus group format. Results. There is a correlation between the degree of obviousness of social stigma and self-esteem of foreign students. The categorization of the data obtained allowed the authors to substantiate the phenomenon of stigma of primary professionalization, to systematize the determining factors, and to describe its levels. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite the fact that social stigma has attracted active attention of world science for decades, we have not been able to find focused studies into primary professionalization in the format of education export. Studying the factors that lead to the development of stigma of primary professionalization, understanding its levels will help to design a system for its prevention, optimize the system of adaptation of foreign students to the realities of the educational system of the host university.
Introduction: it is known that inclusive education that opens access to education and facilitates students with special educational needs to socialize successfully is concentrated in special schools whilst mainstream teachers generally lack the methodology of teaching disabled students inclusively. The aim of the article is searching the best ways of educating students with special needs and providing specific conditions of the educational process in mainstream schools. Materials and Methods: The research is based on the results of fulfillment of a number of projects that deal with teaching and educating blind and visually impaired learners and in which all the authors of the article were involved. The problematic approach, the logical method and observation were applied to the research; analysis, comparison, generalization being the most important components of the study. The quantitative data were collected, analyzed and resumed as well. Results: The impact of project work implementation on academic and social skills development of blind and visually impaired students is shown and various types of projects that can be made by visually impaired learners are presented. The authors give their comments when analyzing different ways of adapting research activities to the needs of BVI learners. When speaking in detail on the role of web tools as maximizers of students' potential the authors refer to their own experience in implementing web tools in project work with blind and visually impaired learners. Discussion and Conclusions: university teacher-Training programs should be revised and improved by offering additional courses aimed at educating impaired students through doing research or project work. Special attention should be paid to developing the instructors' project management skills in terms of tea-ching English as a foreign language to learners with special needs. It should be noted that different methods and various technological tools are to be used in order to develop research and creative skills of blind and visually impaired learners in an EFL classroom. The article itself, its references and links can be used within the course of lectures and seminars on Methodology of Teaching Foreign Languages, and can also be applied when developing a course of re-Training of in-service teachers with particular focus on teaching foreign languages to students (pupils) with special educational needs.
Introduction. This article describes how universities are fulfilling their training assignments. Its relevance is determined by the growing need of teachers to correlate the learning results of specialists-to-be with learning assignments. The aim of the article is to describe a method for assessing the learning management system of higher education institutions by analysing learning outcomes and graduates’ turn-out. Materials and Methods. The study relies on the collection and analysis of the results of specialists’ training between 2015 and 2019. The joint use of the obtained data and methods of normative forecasting and interpolation allowed the authors to calculate and measure the intermediate results relative to the final ones, to build educational trajectories, which made it possible to evaluate the learning management system by dealing with training results and graduates turn-out. Results. For the first time the authors of the article showed that the measured results demonstrated not only the scope of specialists’ training and graduation, but they evaluated management of the educational process and developed necessary management decisions to regulate standards and measures for specialists’ training and graduation according to the specified final results. Discussion and Conclusion. The conclusions contribute to the development of the concept of learning management systems, provided that there are specified final results of the specialists’ graduation. Findings are of interest to the scientific and pedagogical community, professors, teaching staff and leadership of educational institutions.
Introduction. Current psychological and pedagogical research considers the problem of safe behavior formation among students of different ages. It makes an attempt to establish the conditions for psychological safety type’s formation. The aim of the article is to identify readiness for safe behavior, understanding and interpretation of dangerous situations in various life spheres among early and la te adolescents with mental disorders. Materials and Methods. The authors selected a questionnaire test by V. G. Maralov, which allows establishing types of the attitude of an individual in a dangerous situation (adequate, anxious, ignoring, uncertain); the “Scale of Subjective Well-being” screening method by G. Perue-Badu adapted by M. V. Sokolova for measuring the emotional component of subjective well-being, and the authors’ method for studying the perceptions among early and late adolescents with mental disorders and their normotypic peers of various types of danger (physical, social and informational). To confirm the hypothesis of the research a two-way variance analysis was done (Age and Mental Disorders factors). Results. The authors identified that neurotypical early and late adolescents are able to recognize dangerous situations and feelings of such situations’ participants, predict the consequences of these dangers and suggest relevant ways to avoid them. Age impacts the development of the ability to recognize all types of dangerous situations among students with mental disorders (in late adolescence it is higher than in early one). Age influences such an indicator of subjective well-being as health self-assessment: it is higher in late adolescence than in early one. Students with mental disorders have a lower degree of ability to recognize physical and social environment danger, to predict and avoid various dangers than their neurotypical peers. Mental disorders also bear on such indicator as “Signs that com e with psychoemotional symptoms”. Discussion and Conclusion. The article shall be of interest to researchers studying the problem of the safe behavior of young people in various situations. The results of the study can be used in further studies of the ability to recognize, predict and avoid dangerous situations by adolescents and young people with normotypic development and mental disorders.
Introduction. Currently, the key tasks of education are associated with successful socialization, the development of the personal maturity of the younger generation. At the same time, the socio-cultural transformations of modernity lead to a change in the ways and models of growing-up of schoolchildren. Despite the considerable interest of researchers in this problem, there are practically no works revealing the variable nature of the ways of growing-up of modern adolescents, reflected through their autobiographical ideas about the future. The purpose of the study is to identify the main structural and substantive characteristics of the trajectories of growing-up, reflected in the psychological autobiography of modern schoolchildren, and to determine their gender specificity. Materials and Methods. To look into the problem, an empirical study was conducted, in which 1 031 people took part – teenagers aged 12 to 17 years. Empirical data was collected by means of a modified version of the method “Psychological Autobiography” by E. Y. Korzhova. Mathematical and statistical analysis of the results was carried out by means of a one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation analysis using the Pearson linear correlation coefficient. Results. In general, the subjective time perspective of adolescents is characterized by a large time span, positive emotional coloring. Based on the results of correlation analysis, the main trajectories of growing-up of modern adolescents are determined. The gender specificity in the structural organization and the content of ideas about the future is revealed. For young men, the trajectories of growing-up associated with independence, a variety of impressions, material success, social recognition, creativity, entertainment, and the development of their inner world are more characteristic. Girls are focused on satisfaction with the process of life, communication, integration of spheres of life. Discussion and Conclusion. The conclusions made by the authors contribute to the development of modern scientific ideas about the variable and nonlinear character of building a life perspective in the younger generation. The results of the study can be used to build programs of psychological and pedagogical support of the processes of growing up and socialization in the conditions of modern society.
Introduction. The study sought to reveal socio-psychological factors of successful integration of institutionalized adolescents into mainstream schools. The relevance of the research is determined by the necessity to spread practices of integrating institutionalized children and adolescents into mainstream schools to expand their social experience. Materials and Methods. The purpose of the study was to explore the socio-psychological predictors that determine the successfulness of integration of institutionalized adolescents into mass secondary schools. Among the sociopsychological predictors of integration success, we analyzed the communicative characteristics of adolescents and the specifics of their relations with other subjects of the educational process. The study involved 678 people including students of secondary schools with integration programs, their parents and teachers. The empirical data were collected through questionnaires, expert survey of teachers, and projective drawing with subsequent expert evaluation of the results, as well as testing, including M. Kondash’ Anxiety Scale (to assess the adaptation of orphaned children in school), S. Bratchenko’s methods “Direction of the personal communication”, M. Snyder’s Diagnostics of communicative control (to assess their communicative potential) and J. Moreno’s Sociometry (to assess their place in the system of interpersonal relations with classmates). Results. The results show that about one out of ten institutionalized adolescents successfully integrates into the educational process of mainstream schools, while the others experience difficulties in this process. Significant predictors of successful integration are indicators that characterize the communication skills of institutionalized adolescents, as well as their relationships with “adult” subjects of the educational process (primarily, parents of classmates). The most favorable conditions for the successful integration of institutionalized adolescents into mainstream schools are associated with the first stages of their attendance at a mainstream education institution. Discussion and Conclusion. The findings contribute to social and educational psychology and can be used to develop scientifically-based system of social-psychological support of integration of institutionalized adolescents into mainstream schools, the targets which should be aimed at the development of communicative skills of institutionalized adolescents, and also on formation of system of their relations with other subjects of educational process.
Introduction. Diverse domains of life become more digitalized, social media (social networks, blogs, and information sharing services) have become an intrinsic element of daily life and activities such as education. Positive and negative consequences of social media use were discovered, which increased the awareness of their involvement in adolescents’ and young people’s psychological well-being and socializing. However, the characteristics of self-regulation in the context of increased social media usage remain unexplored. The study examined the association between self-regulation characteristics and the degree to which social media is integrated into adolescents’ everyday activities. Materials and Methods. The study included 336 teenagers (12–17 years old). Self-regulation features (the SSPM-2020 V.I. Morosanova questionnaire) and social network activity (The scale of integration of social media into daily activity, time spent on it, the numbers of social networks) were assessed. Correlation, comparative, and cluster analyses were used to process the data. Results. The integration of social media into an adolescent’s everyday activities varies according to their level of self-regulation. However, formal factors (time and quantity of social networks) do not change between self-regulation levels. Throughout adolescence, social media use is relatively consistent. Girls showed a stronger behavioral and emotional attachment to social media and deeper integration into daily routines. Discussion and Conclusion. Self-regulation development can lead to academic performance and increased self-control in the digital world. When examining the effects of distance learning and developing programs to enhance online learning, meaningful parameters for measuring adolescentsʼ social media integration into their everyday activities may be required.
Introduction. The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of the category “psychological safety” for the support of the life quality of modern people, which is influenced in a complicated way by physical health, psychological well-being, value preferences, features of social relations and their relation to the characteristic features of the environment. The state of psychological safety is a significant factor ensuring the effectiveness of еducation, upbrining and development of the younger generation. However, the personal resources that contribute to the support of this state among adolescents and young people in the educational environment are more understudied. The purpose of the article is to determine the resources of adolescents, which are the predictors of the state of psychological safety. Materials and Methods. The method “Psychological safety of the educational environmentˮ developed by I.А. Baeva was used to study students’ level of psychological safety. The method of S. Schwartz was used to assess the personality’s value orientations, to assess the level of psychological well-being – were used Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RPWB), the level of loneliness – UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, M. Ferguson), the level of hopelessness – Hopelessness Scale, Beck et al., the level of social intelligence – Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale, the level of aggression – Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, hardiness – Hardiness Survey (S. Maddi). The methods of mathematical statistics used in the research (descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyzes) are implemented by means of the IBM SPSS Statistics 19 package. Results. It has been proven that the resources of adolescents’ psychological safety in the educational environment are: values, psychological well-being, social intelligence, hardiness and a low level of aggressiveness. The state of psychological safety is influenced by such manifestations as conformity and following traditions, a positive image of the future, the experience of community with other people, the ability to understand and predict other people’s feelings and behavior, a sense of involvement in life events. Discussion and Conclusion. The article is of interest for researchers of psychological safety problems in education, practical psychologists and specialists of the education system for the evidence of prevention programs and ensuring the safety of the educational environment and its participants.
Introduction: development of international cooperation in different spheres of human activity requires a foreign language proficiency. That is why the issue of improving the process of teaching a foreign language during further education has acquired a special timeliness. In this regard there is a need for monitoring the quality of programmes of further adult education. However, the monitoring process is complicated because of the lack of unified standards and clear criteria for assessment.
Materials and Methods: as a basic criterion for evaluating the effeciency of adult education the author explores the level of a learner’s personal development. The paper discusses the main difficulties and barriers that make the learning process more difficult. The results of diagnostics of personal development of students of the educational programme “English without barriers” taught at Mari State University are discussed. Results: monitoring results have revealed positive dynamics for each personal criterion (motivational, cognitive, communicative) used to assess the quality of the programme of further adult education: level of language knowledge and skills has increased as well as the level of motivation of achievement; a positive communicative approach has developed; level of learners’ sociability has increased.
Discussion and Conclusions: the study showed that one of the most important effects of adult education is represented by students’ personal growth, also traceable in the development of cognitive, motivational and communicative spheres of personality. The highlighted effects can be used as basic criteria to evaluate the effeciency of educational activities of adults.