Integrated Pest Management Reviews

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 1572-9745
Print ISSN: 1353-5226
Number of recorded insect interceptions and insect families made at the U.S. ports of entry during the period 1985-August 2001 by insect order
Summary data by receiving U.S. state for the 6825 scolytid interceptions at U.S. ports of entry during 1985-2000
Summary data for the 67 scolytid species that were identified among all the scolytids intercepted at U.S. ports of entry during 1985-2000
Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has maintained the ''Port Information Network'' (PIN) database for plant pests intercepted at the U.S. ports of entry. As of August 2001, PIN contained 6825 records of beetles (Coleoptera) in the family Scolytidae that had been intercepted during the years 1985–2000 from countries outside of North America. Of the 6825 scolytid interceptions, 2740 (40%) were identified to the species level, 2336 (34%) to only the genus level, and 1749 (26%) were identified to only the family level. Of the 49 identified scolytid genera, the 10 most common were Hypothenemus (821 interceptions), Pityogenes (662), Ips (544), Coccotrypes (520), Orthotomicus (461), Hylurgops (327), Hylurgus (266), Tomicus (194), Dryocoetes (166), and Hylastes (142). The 10 most common identified species were Pityogenes chalcographus (565 interceptions), Orthotomicus erosus (385), Hylurgops palliatus (295), Ips typographus (286), Hylurgus ligniperda (217), Ips sexdentatus (157), Tomicus piniperda (155), Hylastes ater (75), Hypothenemus hampei (62), and Polygraphus poligraphus (48). Of these 10 species, H. palliatus, H. ligniperda, and T. piniperda are known to be established in the continental U.S. The scolytids were intercepted from 117 different countries; the top 12 countries were Italy (1090 interceptions), Germany (756), Spain (457), Mexico (425), Jamaica (398), Belgium (352), France (261), China (255), Russia (247), India (224), U.K. (151), and Portugal (150). The scolytids were intercepted in 35 U.S. states and 97 port cities. In general, there was a positive relationship between the number of scolytid interceptions from individual countries and the value of the imports from those countries. Overall, 73% of the scolytids were found in solid wood packing materials, 22% in food or plants, and 5% in other or unspecified materials. The products most commonly associated with scolytid-infested wood packing materials were tiles, marble, machinery, steel, parts, ironware, granite, aluminum, slate, and iron. The food products and plants that were commonly infested with scolytids included nutmeg, palms, coffee beans, kola nuts, and macadamia nuts.
Level 1 monitoring: main results for each tree species (BB -Bark beetles; WBI -wood boring insects)
Emerging population of I. typographus on storm damaged spruce in the Northeast of France (unit = insects/m 3 )
After the December 1999 storms, two networks were set up over 2 years (2000 and 2001) to assess the scale and type of insect colonisation on storm damaged trees and to interpret these events for the future. The Level 1 network, was a large-scale survey that covered the entire storm area and provided qualitative observations on its 898 plots in which every major tree species was assessed. The Level 2 network, was a regional survey set up only in two regions: the ''Landes'' region and the Northeast of France. The observations were intensive and quantitative, devoted only to maritime pine in the ''Landes'' region and to Norway spruce in the Northeast of France. The Level 1 network indicated that less than 40% of the storm damaged trees were colonised by bark beetles in September 2000. No attacks were observed on standing trees in 2000 but many occurred during 2001 in spruce and maritime pine stands. The Level 2 network in the Vosges mountains showed a late colonisation in October and November 2000. The emerging population of Ips typographus on attacked trees reached 25 000–30 000 insects/m3. This huge population combined with the low rate of parasitism in 2001 leads to the expectation of increasing damage in spruce stands next year.
The Motax 33, a portable air-assisted controlled droplet application (CDA) sprayer, offers a new approach to the application of pesticides within coffee and other bush crops. It uses a rotary atomizer to produce small, uniformly sized droplets which are propelled into the crop foliage by a wide and turbulent air blast, allowing the use of low spray volumes. Compared with traditional high-volume techniques the sprayer offers the possibility of improved spray coverage and penetration at low spray volumes, typically 30--70 l ha–1, allowing more timely spray treatments with the potential to adopt more responsive integrated insect pest and disease management strategies
The pest control potential demonstrated by various extracts and compounds isolated from the kernels and leaves of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica) A. Juss. (Meliaceae) seem to be of tremendous importance for agriculture in developing countries. Laboratory and field trial data have revealed that neem extracts are toxic to over 400 species of insect pests some of which have developed resistance to conventional pesticides, e.g. sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn. Diptera: Aleyrodidae), the diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella L. Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and cattle ticks (Amblyomma cajennense F. Acarina: Ixodidae andBoophilus microplus Canestrini. Acarina: Ixodidae). The compounds isolated from the neem plant manifest their effects on the test organisms in many ways, e.g. as antifeedants, growth regulators, repellents, toxicants and chemosterilants. This review strives to assess critically the pest control potential of neem extracts and compounds for their use in the tropics. This assessment is based on the information available on the wide range of pests against which neem extracts and compounds have proven to be toxic, toxicity to non-target organisms, e.g. parasitoids, pollinators, mammals and fish, formulations, stability and phytotoxicity.
Inspired by the pioneering work in Canada and California in the early 1950s, the first European IPM task force – the “Working Group for Integrated Plant Protection in Fruit Orchards” – was established by the International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) in 1959. From the beginning, the implementation of IPM proved to be a problem because of its complicated and non-uniform requirements and insufficient economic benefits. In spite of these obstacles, IPM has become an accepted model for plant protection in all European countries and in the European Union. More than 30 working groups of the West and East Palaearctic Regional Sections of the IOBC (IOBC/wprs and eprs) organise research programs and information exchanges and actively promote the implementation of IPM into practice. IPM can be well implemented within the scope of Integrated Production (IP). Respective IP guidelines developed by IOBC/wprs working groups and local production organisations are currently being used, particularly in pome fruits and grapes. Studies have shown that IPM systems yield greater biodiversity and reduce pesticide use by at least 20% compared to conventional farming, as assessed using the treatment index. Some countries, such as Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, have developed national pesticide reduction programs. The European Union also supports IPM by issuing regulations and directives and by funding research programs. National action plans shall help to achieve faster and more consistent implementation of IPM in the Member States.
The reduction of pre- and post-harvest yield losses due to pest attack represents a substantial contribution to the increase in food supply which will be absolutely essential in future. Not only must more food be produced but, in addition, this must be accomplished in an ecologically, economically and socially sustainable manner in a broader concept of food security improvement and poverty alleviation. Integrated pest management can play a key role in this process. Firstly, constraints and anticipated global food production requirements are presented in an overview. This is followed by a discussion of the various knowledge acquisition techniques for identifying and eliminating knowledge gaps with a view to solving pest problems in a systematic manner. It is concluded that the development of better integrated approaches based on an expanding theoretical, methodological and empirical basis will produce solutions which are more effective, sustainable and competitive compared with the currently prevailing procedures for pest problem solution.
Some ambrosia beetles are primary attackers of healthy, living trees, but in recent years normally secondary species have been increasingly observed attacking living trees, either as exotics or in their native geographic ranges. We identified five factors that could underlie an increasing prevalence of attack by secondary ambrosia beetles on living trees: (1) early flight before the host tree has recovered the ability to resist attack in the spring, possibly associated with climate change; (2) nutritional independence from the host that may enable ambrosia beetles to feed on ambrosia fungi that live on dead tissue in a living tree; (3) potentially pathogenic fungi that could become more pathogenic with climate change or through hybridization with exotic strains; (4) cryptic behavior that facilitates international transport and the establishment of exotic species and genotypes; and (5) a complex chemical ecology that enables secondary ambrosia beetles to locate stressed living trees that may temporarily appear to be suitable hosts for secondary beetles. We propose four avenues of research that will lead to an increased understanding of attack of living trees by ambrosia beetles, and may facilitate the implementation of effective pest management strategies and tactics: (1) intensive surveys, particularly for exotic beetle species and associated fungal strains; (2) molecular genetics studies that would facilitate the identification of known and new strains and genotypes, particularly of ambrosia fungi; (3) studies of the pathogenicity of ambrosia fungi as well as other fungi that could predispose trees to attack; and (4) investigations of the chemical ecology of tree-attacking species that could lead to new pest management tools and tactics.
Leafminer populations in weeks with the three highest counts during 1996 in the IPM trials. On all three dates, the methomyl ‡ permethrin treatment had signi®cantly more leafminers (Fisher's Protected LSD Test, P , 0X05) than any other treatment tested. See text for details on sampling procedures. 
Net pro®t analysis from a fresh market tomato plantings 1997. The height of the bars indicates the potential gross pro®t the crop when the market value (dollar value of the cartons) changes. Horizontal lines show the cost of the chemical and the IPM strategies. The net pro®t (gross pro®t from the crop minus the cost of pest control) are shown directly above the chemical standard and IPM program bars. 
Costs for production of fresh market tomatoes. Water costs based on 150.6 cmahectare, seed and transplant costs based on 14 332 plantsahectare; labor includes some transplanting and watering costs. Miscellaneous category includes overhead, fertilizer, and several minor additional expenses. Cost of pesticide application includes only the tractor and driver, pesticides are listed separately; see text for chemicals used in each treatment and numbers of applications 
The diversity of competing interests in North America provides a remarkable series of divergent messages to growers. Depending on what crop they produce or how they farm, they may be heroes or villains, loyal or unpatriotic, or stewards or ravagers of the environment. Even relatively minor changes in farming practices can result in significant public or political response. Considering that growers may risk 100% of their crop yield on a potential savings of 10% (or less) for investment in pesticides, it is not surprising that growers are slow to adopt IPM programs. Well-intentioned appeals to eliminate pesticides, or save the environment at all costs, are usually not effective. Likewise, a high failure rate can be expected from attempts to legislate IPM, implement programs that focus on only part of a pest complex, or adoption strategies that do not include on-farm testing and extensive educational efforts. However, some strategies have proven effective. Growers who have experienced loss of pesticides due to resistance are receptive to management programs which avoid or delay resistance. Many programs have been adopted piecemeal, starting with sampling programs followed by treatment thresholds and modified pesticide use. One of the most successful approaches has been an economic comparison of grower standard and IPM programs using partial budgets. Increased net profits provide powerful incentives for program adoption.
World-wide, integrated pest management (IPM) has become the accepted strategy for plant protection over the last five decades. Cotton growers in the Cañete valley, Peru were amongst the first to adopt a combination of pest management practices to save the cotton crop from the ravages caused by pests despite applying 16 insecticide sprays on average. However, it was not until 1959, that the concept of ‘‘integrated management’’ was born in the United States of America (USA). A panel of experts from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) put the concept of IPM in operation in 1968. Advancements made in IPM systems for developing sustainable pest management strategies in the USA, Europe, Australia, Asia, Latin America and Africa have not generally resulted in wider adoption of IPM, though there have been some successes. Pesticides remain the main-stay of many IPM programs throughout the globe. In the USA and Europe, there is government legislation and mechanisms for implementation and evaluation of IPM programs, especially in Europe, where IPM innovation systems involving the government, researchers, farmers, advisory agencies and market forces are part of a system to reduce pesticide use. In the developing countries farmer education in IPM has gained impetus since 1989, through the Farmer Field School (FFS) extension methodology, originally developed for educating farmers in rice IPM. The FFS model of extension has spread from Asia to Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe. In the developed countries the systematic periodic evaluation of IPM programs provides feedback for improving and formulating future strategies, but in many developing countries there is no periodic evaluation of IPM programs for assessing the extent of adoption and long term impact. This chapter provides a broad overview of IPM programs, policies and adoption of IPM practices in the North America, Europe, Australia, Asia, Latin America and Africa.
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a well-known innovation that accords with modern environmental management''s (EMs) best practice. In this paper, it is examined in two ways. First, a recent IPM knowledge diffusion project in a region of Thailand, where durian is extensively grown, is described and analysed in relation to the adoption of both its philosophy and methods by growers. Particular use is made of a theory of innovation (Rogers) to depict the intensity, rate and scale of adoption by the durian growers. Second, attention is focused on IPM as an expression of theory and practice in change management. What is shown is that successful adoption of IPM depends upon a number of factors, notably durian growers perceptions of relative advantage and the way the approach is communicated and learned by them through practical application. In terms of change management theory, the intelligent way IPM knowledge was transferred, through the mediating role of agricultural extension workers (AEWs), reflected the current emphasis on collaborative partnerships and learning as an effective means of managing change in complex environments.
Change in Pesticide Use (kilograms of Active Ingredient per Hectare) on Australia cotton crops. Significant reductions have been achieved on both conventional and INGARD® cottons over the last 5 years. Source: Cotton Consultants Association Market Audit Survey 2003.  
Insect pests represent a significant limitation for production of many crops. Traditional reliance on pesticides brings significant economic costs and environmental liabilities of off-target drift, chemical residues and resistance. IPM has long been proposed as an alternative. The adoption of IPM in the Australian cotton industry provides a valuable overview of the key components of IPM and the issues around successful implementation. IPM must be founded on a thorough understanding of the ecology of pest and beneficial species and their interaction with the crop and will provide a range of tactics which must be integrated by the producer to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. The emerging era of insect resistant transgenic cottons offers real prospects to provide a foundation for more sustainable, economically acceptable IPM with the integration of a range of non-chemical tactics and much less reliance on pesticides.
Abstract The era of green revolution has witnessed a tremendous change in the outlook of agriculture development. Green revolution emphasized the increased availability of food grains through the use of high yielding varieties, plant protection measures, and application of increased dosage of synthetic fertilizers, coupled with irrigation management. It not only increased the food grain production but also the utilization of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Over-reliance on the use of pesticides during green revolution has resulted in environmental pollution, ground water contamination, resurgence of pests, and poisoning of food sources, animals and human beings. Extensive application of fertilizers has changed the soil properties and acts as a major barrier in sustainable agriculture production. Farmers and agro-based industries could thrive only through the technological innovation that goes in harmony with IPM practices. Several advances have been made in the research and implementation of control strategies for the management of pests and diseases, which could be integrated into a sustainable agricultural system. The chapter focuses on these advances in various control measures and gives an account of various successful IPM programs from around the world. The success of any IPM program would depend on the understanding and acceptance from the farmers, and the integrated approach needed in form of policy making, communication and networking from the governmental and non-governmental agencies. The policy makers have to be advised to allocate budget for the extensive training, motivation of farmers and promotion of IPM through the establishment of IPM networks. Restructuring, both research and policy issues, will pave way for sustainable agriculture production through IPM.
Integrated pest management systems were developed originally in response to the appearance of insect populations with resistance to common insecticides. Cotton with its heavy dependence on insecticidal sprays was one of the first crops in which the effectiveness of control declined due to resistance in the target pests. Although insecticide resistance is more of a problem in large scale production systems, the IPM approach can also benefit the smallholder by reducing the number of sprays required with consequent cost savings. Where crop growth is adversely affected by diseases, competition from weeds or poor management, the full benefit of insecticide spray programmes cannot be realised. To be fully effective, insect control should therefore be integrated with other crop protection activities. This paper reviews the insect pests, diseases and weed problems of cotton in Africa and discusses the possibilities for extending the principles of IPM to cover all the crop protection activities with practical examples drawn from both small scale and larger scale production systems.
Streak disease of banana and plantain caused by banana streak virus (BSV) was first reported in the Ivory Coast in 1974 and occurs in at least 16 countries in Africa. Based on genomic characteristics, BSV has been shown to be a member of genus Badnavirus. Efficient and reliable diagnostic methods for BSV have recently become widely available. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on its causal agent, geographical distribution, symptomatology, transmission, host range, available diagnostic techniques and management options for the disease in Africa. Further research needs are identified in light of the widespread occurrence of BSV in most plantain/banana germplasms and the difficulties in obtaining BSV-free plantlets through tissue culture.
The story of Prostephanus truncatus in Africa is described from its original outbreak in Tanzania in the late 1970s to the present day. Information is given on the differing control methods put in place by infested countries and how co-ordination of local programmes and inputs from technical assistance agencies was approached by an agencies. The influence of changes in development thinking on the management of storage pests is considered. The current status of P. truncatus is addressed, inlcuding its impact on the international maize trade, particularly that provided for famine relief. The introduction of Teretrius nigrescens as a biological control agent is described. We also provide some milestones in efforts to manage the pest, describe the effectiveness of pest management in terms of cost benefit and suggest some new avenues that may lead to a sustainable reductioning in P. truncatus in Africa.
Coffee in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) is an important cash and export crop for small-scale farmers. The crop suffers heavy yield losses due to damage caused by a wide range of indigenous pests (insects, diseases, nematodes and weeds). Current recommended pest control measures include a combination of cultural, resistant/tolerant cultivars and the use of broad spectrum chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticides are far more popular at the farm level than any of the other recommended pest control measures. Coffee pest control strategies are often aimed at individual pests with little consideration of the implications for the total coffee pest complex and its agro-ecosystem. This unilateral approach has resulted in increased pest pressure on coffee and some of its companion crops, outbreak of new pests of coffee, development of pest strains resistant to the cheap and commonly available chemical pesticides, increased environmental problems, increased health risks to man and livestock and an overall increase in the costs of coffee production, thus forcing many farmers to neglect their coffee plantations. Measures to alleviate the above problems, particularly the high production costs, are needed to improve coffee production and increase the cash return to the small-scale farmer. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers the best prospects for solving the above problems. However, lack of national IPM policies, poor extension systems, inefficient research-extension-farmer linkage and the lack of a holistic approach will delay the development and implementation of appropriate, acceptable and sustainable IPM practices.
The parasltie flowering plants, Striga species, represent the largest biological constraint to cereal and legume crop production in sub-Saharan Africa. Eighty-three percent of Striga worldwide (35 species) occurs in Africa. Among them, Striga hermonthica causes the greatest damage. The IITA's scientists began research on breeding maize for horizontal resistance to Striga in 1982. By 1995 a comprehensive approach to combat Striga on maize had been developed and demonstrated. This included the development of a simple field infestation technique, the discovery of durable resistance genes, genetic studies of resistance genes and the formation of many resistant varieties (hybrids and synthetics) with high grain quality, high grain and stover yields and a combined resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. Multilocation testing and subsequent seed multiplication of the resistant varieties was carried out by national programmes in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo. Striga-resistant maize varieties show horizontal resistance not only to S. hermonthica, but also to another species, Striga asiatica. Based on the results of a 15 year research, an integrated approach using resistant varieties and cereal-legume intercropping or rotation is recommended as a sustainable and permanent solution to combat Striga in Africa. This horizontal resistance package, with a combined resistance to other biotic stresses, could be applicable not only to Striga problems in other crops such as sorghum, millet, rice and cowpea, but also to other parasitic weeds, such as Orobanche species. This paper reviews and discusses why, approximately a century's research work on parasitic weeds, has not led to a major research breakthrough.
Cocoa is a key or source of income and poverty reduction in the humid forest of Southern Cameroon. Cameroon like other African countries went through a major economic crisis in the early 1980s with a decline in international commodity prices and significant changes in macroeconomic policies. Structural adjustment reforms following the economic crisis led to removal of fertilizers and pesticides subsidies, cocoa price liberalization and the overall withdraw of Government interventions from the cocoa sub-sector. Cocoa input price increases have been compounded by the devaluation of the CFA Franc, which doubled the prices of the imported pesticides which were considered key to the control of cocoa pests. This overall economic shock led to changes in cocoa producer's production decisions as a response to minimize cost. Among the changes the use of alternatives to imported chemicals for cocoa pest control. Farmers responded to the high prices of pesticides by developing, from local botanical knowledge and pest management strategies, which include plant extracts and plant extracts mixed with pesticides at different proportions. This is a major decision given the importance of imported chemical in the cost of production of cocoa. Valuable indigenous knowledge from farmers could be used also as an effective support system for communicating and diffusing modern knowledge and technologies to farmers. The paper describes the farmer knowledge-based alternatives to chemical pesticides for pest control in cocoa fields as a response to high pest control costs. Pest management specialists are urged to take advantage of this shift in practice and assess their effectiveness for further use. Two sets of questions are posed: (1) were the conventional insecticides, with all their problems, really necessary? and (2) are the materials derived from locally grown plants effective pest management agents or are they, in some way, placebos?
Some common weeds recorded as alternative hosts for nematodes and plant pathogens affecting crop species 
Weed control is one of the most important crop protection activities undertaken in both intensive and low-input farming systems. However, even under intensive systems, crop protection which is less dependent on pesticides may require that weeds be managed to obtain a balance between crop and non-crop vegetation to encourage an increase in natural enemies of crop pests. In the low-input farming systems which sustain much of the rural population of Africa, weed control is usually done by hand and clean weeding is often beyond the labour resources of the farming family. The vegetational diversity of peasant agriculture in Africa to which weeds make their contribution, helps to decrease the risk of disease and pest epidemics. In addition to the pest control benefits of a diverse agroecosystem, weeds contribute to the resource base of the rural community, providing a source of secondary foods, medicines and insecticides. Weed control within an integrated crop protection system appropriate to the needs of the resource-poor farmer, requires that weeds are managed in such a way that their biodiversity is maintained and the more useful species retained within the field or field margin. Those weeds with high food potential or which have pesticidal or medicinal properties might be deliberately encouraged within the crop or field margins. Certain weed species may harbour important pests or diseases of local crops and therefore should be selectively removed. The paper reviews and discusses the literature on the beneficial and deleterious effects of weeds and argues for a weed management strategy which balances the effects of weed competition on crop production with the ethnobotanical and pest control attributes of individual weed species and weed communities.
The markets for organic produce offer the opportunity for smallholders in Africa (and elsewhere) to increase their income through access to the price premiums paid in Europe and North America. Facing declining soil fertility, the high cost of off-farm inputs and the collapse of state or para-statal input credit schemes, organic farming offers a sustainable solution for resource-poor farming communities, quite apart from the lure of price premiums. The use of purchased inputs is already at a low level in the smallholder sector in Africa and this may allow farm produce to immediately meet organic standards. The principles of IPM can be applied to organic agriculture to achieve adequate pest and disease control with the restricted use of pesticides that is required for farm produce to meet organic standards. The paper describes some of the problems facing smallholders wishing to access organic markets and describes the IPM options available, which meet the standards of organic certification.
A multidisciplinary study was undertaken on the bionomics of the African armyworm in eastern Africa as a basis for the development of control strategies for this important pest of cereal crops and pastures. Relevant findings from studies on seasonal distribution, migration, field infestations and population cycles are reviewed in relation to understanding the causes for the onset and spread of armyworm outbreaks. It is concluded that the onset of the first outbreaks of an armyworm epidemic is caused by oviposition at high density by moths concentrated by wind convergence at storm outflows. The sources of these moths seem to be low-density populations which survive from one season to the next at sites receiving unseasonable rainfall. Some areas in Tanzania and Kenya are particularly prone to early outbreaks which are potentially critical for the initiation of a subsequent spread of outbreaks downwind throughout eastern Africa. These areas have low and erratic rainfall, and are near the first rising land inland from the coast. Below average rainfall prior to the development of outbreaks increases the probability of their occurrence. Their subsequent spread is enhanced by storms downwind which concentrate moths in flight and by sunshine during caterpillar development. Persistent wet weather reduces the spread of outbreaks. This study demonstrates the importance and value of developing and implementing a long-term monitoring system over a large region, in this case in Africa, not only for the generation of data used by the forecasters for the prediction and location of possible outbreaks, but also for obtaining a clearer understanding of the epidemiology of a highly mobile pest.
The optimal conditions required to market Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent against soilborne fungi and nematodes are discussed. These include a proper formulation, an efficient delivery system, and alternative methods for Trichoderma's application. The implementation of Trichoderma in integrated pest management (IPM) can be achieved using a soil treatment which combines reduced amounts of biocides/fungicides and the Trichoderma preparation. Biocontrol activity can be increased by combining two (or more) types of biocontrol agents. Moreover, the construction of a genetically modified Trichoderma can lead to the improvement of certain traits which are absent or not highly expressed in the native microorganism isolated from its natural habitat. Different Trichoderma harzianum and T. lignorum isolates were tested for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. In short-term experiments, improved growth of nematode-infected plants and decreases in the root-galling index and the number of eggs per gram of root were achieved when nematode-infested soils were pre- exposed to the T. harzianum preparations. A long-term experiment resulted in improved growth and higher yield of nematode-infected plants, but no significant change in the galling index, either by pre-exposure of the fungus to the soil or by enrichment in the root-ball. As biocontrol is an integral part of the IPM philosophy, judicious use of Trichoderma against soilborne pathogens, when demonstrated to be consistently effective, practical and economic, can serve as a model for the introduction and implementation of other biocontrol means into IPM.
Microbial control agents generally kill insects more slowly than chemical pesticides, and fast-moving migratory pests may not at first sight appear to offer the most promising targets for microbial control. Operators responsible for control may need to have recourse to chemical control agents. Nevertheless, there are many occasions when pests breed and feed outside the crop and a microbial control agent can be used. Similarly, immature stages may cause little damage and early treatment in the crop can avoid damage. Microbial control agents are particularly likely to be favoured if the pest breeds in a conservation area, and if a publicly-accountable agency is responsible for control. Other key points of importance are the IPM context, in particular detection, planning and forecasting of outbreaks and the role of natural enemies. With these points in mind, we identify several locust and grasshopper systems where microbial control is becoming established; additionally, Sunn pest of wheat and Armyworm are identified as promising situations forbreak microbials.
IPM Programs in Asia, including on rice, cotton and vegetables, have been broadly based on three dimensions. First is a solid IPM science basis including ecological interaction, plant physiology and soil-plant interactions. Second is policy for IPM, especially elimination of pesticide subsidies which cause over-use of pesticides and disrupt natural enemies leading to secondary pest outbreaks particularly on rice and cotton. Finally, the third dimension is farmer education through hands-on practical training. Lessons are drawn from the FAO Inter-Country Program for Rice IPM in Asia, the FAO-EU for Cotton in Asia and FAO Regional Vegetable IPM Program in South and Southeast Asia. A case study on cotton highlights broadened aspects of IPM activities through farmer empowerment.
The influence of historical farming practices, successful insect biological control programs, pest-resistant cultivars, and the benefits/risks associated with pesticide use shaped the development of IPM programs in the US during the 20th century. Recently, in several cropping systems, development of pest management programs that focus on deployment of transgenic crops have altered those based on pest ecology. Current IPM programs in the US are delivered to stakeholders through a network of private and public organizations, often with federal oversight dictated by national initiatives and funding programs. The impacts of these IPM programs vary among cropping systems and are often defined by specific management goals. In this chapter we review available information on US corn, wheat and cotton IPM programs, and discuss dissemination approaches, adoption trends among stakeholders, and the impact on production agriculture.
Based on current agroecological theory and IPM practices, this review explores the role of traditional practices, involving site selection, soil management, timing of planting and harvesting, crop resistance, intercropping, weed management, harvest residue management, post-harvest management, natural enemies management, mechanical control, repellents and traps in the natural regulation of potential pests. In synthesis, the literature suggests that although pest management professionals focus their efforts on pest control, the preventative approach taken by traditional farmers is more effective. Potential constraints to the implementation of this preventive pest management approach include:(1) lack of integration of ecological theory and pest management, (2) lack of cooperation among social and biological scientists, and (3) lack of real efforts to work with farmers as equals and support mechanisms that protect their knowledge.
Imports of pesticides have long been subsidised for use in the cocoa agroforests of the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. With the liberalisation of the cocoa and pesticides sectors and the devaluation of the local currency (CFA franc), farmers are facing fluctuations in the price paid for cocoa and the high cost of farm inputs. Without the support of the extension services, they themselves have developed traditional integrated control methods based on the use of plant extracts mixed with conventional pesticides. From a survey of 300 cocoa farmers, the study assesses the farmers' command of these methods, the pests controlled, the problems encountered and the institutional constraints in the definition and dissemination of integrated control methods. The study concludes with recommendations for research and development towards the better definition and dissemination of integrated control methods.
Alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is of Eurasian origin. This destructive pest of alfalfa (lucerne) was accidentally established in North America on three separate occasions. These introductions are commonly identified in the literature as biological strains: western alfalfa weevil, Egyptian alfalfa weevil (=Hypera brunneipennis Boheman), and eastern alfalfa weevil. Alfalfa weevil has been the target of classical biological control almost since its discovery in North America more than 90 years ago. These efforts have resulted in establishment of at least nine exotic parasitoids and egg predators: Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson), B. anurus (Thomson) and B. stenostigma (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae); Microctonus aethiopoides Loan and M. colesi Drea (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the latter of undetermined origin; Oomyzus incertus (Ratzenberg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Dibrachoides dynastes (Forester) and Peridesmia discus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae); and Anaphes luna (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). A fungal pathogen, Zoophthora phytonomi Arthur (Phycomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), of undetermined origin, is becoming an increasingly important alfalfa weevil mortality factor. Most major USA alfalfa production areas now benefit from a complex of alfalfa weevil biological control agents. Collectively, these agents have effected substantial reduction in the economic importance of alfalfa weevil across the northern USA However, biological agents provide only partial control of alfalfa weevil, and importance of their contribution differs considerably with production area. Still, the benefits achieved, especially from reduced need for insecticides in alfalfa production, mark this as one of the great success stories of classical biological control in North America.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., is among the most prized of forages, and is grown worldwide as a feed for all classes of livestock. It is one of man's oldest crops, and its cultivation probably predates recorded history. In addition to its versatility as a feed, alfalfa is well known for its ability to improve soil structure and, as a legume, is an effective source of biological nitrogen. As a perennial crop, alfalfa has a lifespan approaching 5 years, but in some areas of the world fields may remain productive for considerably longer. Such a long stand life affords ample time for the establishment and development of a diverse community structure by an abundance of organisms. In spite of system perturbations caused by frequent harvests and occasional pesticide applications, an alfalfa field provides a temporal stability which is uncommon among field crops. As a result of this stability, alfalfa supports an immense diversity of flora and fauna which, at times, exceeds that of riparian ecosystems. While most of alfalfa's inhabitants have little or no impact on it as a crop, a few are capable of causing extensive damage. Arthropods, plant pathogens, weeds, vertebrates, and plant parasitic nematodes can all cause significant yield and/or quality reductions and frequently contribute to shortening the productive life of the stand. This paper reviews the major strategies which have been developed to manage many of these alfalfa pests including: host plant resistance; cultural controls, such as harvest strategies, irrigation management, sanitation, planting schedules, and crop rotation; mechanical and physical controls; chemical control; and biological controls. Multiple pest interactions, e.g. insect-insect; insect-disease; insect-weed, and their management are discussed. Potential conflicts arising from the use of strategies which may reduce one pest but exacerbate others are also examined. A cross index of management strategies and their role in managing multiple pests is provided. Computer models, both ecological and economic, and their role in alfalfa pest management are discussed. Selected information sources on alfalfa and alfalfa IPM available over the Internet are listed. Alfalfa's role in the agricultural landscape, as it relates to pests, natural enemies, and pest management in other cropping systems as well as its role in crop rotation, is considered.
Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) are of economic importance worldwide. In Europe, Amaranthus retroflexus is one of the ten weed species of greatest economic importance. It is a serious problem weed in several field crops (e.g. maize), as well as in vegetables, orchards and grape vines. It is an annual spreading by seeds which have a long viabilityand are dispersed principally by wind and water, but also by machinery. There is great variability in seed germination which renders control with post-emergence herbicides difficult. In addition, triazine herbicide-resistant populations occur in ten European countries. The aim of this subproject of COST action 816 is to investigate the possibilities of classical and inundative biological control of Amaranthus spp., to characterize potentialbiological control agents and to develop methods for their integration with current phytosanitary measures in the target crops. The project was initiated with an extended literaturesurvey followed by field surveys for insects and pathogens associated with Amaranthus spp. in several European countries. Promising isolates of fungal pathogens have been tested ondetached leaves and whole plants, and initial studies on the application of pathogens causing damping off in seedlings have been made. Further, the variability of different provenances ofAmaranthus spp. in response to fungal attack has been investigated
Semiochemical-based mass trapping of the striped ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), has been the cornerstone of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme for ambrosia beetles on the British Columbia coast since 1981. However, there is no available tactic of protecting logs from attack that could be incorporated into the IPM programme. We tested nonhost volatiles (NHVs) from the bark of angiosperm trees for their ability to disrupt catches of T. lineatum in multiple-funnel traps baited with the aggregation pheromone lineatin. In one set of experiments, a blend of 1-hexanol and benzyl alcohol caused 77.9% and 80.0% reduction in captures of males and females, respectively, and in another a blend of methyl salicylate and salicylaldehyde caused reductions of 65.0% for males and 66.9% for females. All four NHVs combined caused reductions in captures for males and females of 82.3% and 81.4%, respectively, not much greater than to the blend of 1-hexanol and benzyl alcohol. However, because both blends were active alone, their redundancy when combined lends confidence to the selection of the four-component blend for operational testing. Although disruption was increased when a 16-component NHV blend was tested, or when ()–(E)-conophthorin was added to the four-component blend, addition of more compounds to the four-component blend was not considered operationally or economically justifiable. When deployed from low-density polyethylene tubes stapled along the length of pheromone-baited conifer logs, this blend caused prolonged and significant reductions in landing by T. lineatum and also by Gnathotrichus sulcatus (LeConte) and G. retusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). However, attacking beetles generally overcame the NHV treatment by the end of the flight period, leading to similar attack densities on treated and control logs. Therefore, we recommend that further operational investigations explore using repellent NHVs in combination with disruptive visual, tactile or gustatory stimuli.
Map of Brussels showing the part of the For et de Soignes managed by the Brussels Regional Authorities. 
A ‘bottle-trap’ on its post. 
Several species of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) have recently started attacking standing, living beeches (Fagus sylvatica) in southern Belgium. In 2001, 1.3 million m3 of apparently healthy trees were struck. So far the outbreak has been limited to the Ardenne, and partly the Gaume, areas, and Brussels has been untouched. The city of Brussels is surrounded by a vast 4300 ha forest, mainly planted with beech, the Fort de Soignes, of invaluable ecological and recreational value, of which 1600 ha belong to the regional authorities. In the spring 2001, these latter commissionned a study to assess the new threat to the forest. A 500 m500 m grid of small traps, baited with ethanol and lineatin, was deployed over the regional part of the forest. The main species caught were Trypodendron domesticum, Anisandrus dispar and, in high numbers, Xylosandrus germanus, an exotic species of Asian origin found for the first time in Belgium in 1994. Whilst there was a consistent homogeneity between catches within the same sites (2 traps/site, distant by 2–6 m), there were no spatial relationships between catches at larger distances for T. domesticum and A. dispar. For X. germanus, spatial autocorrelations were observed within distances of 2000 m, suggesting that this species has sufficient mobility to cover this range. The planning of the 2002 trapping campaign will take this information into account: the traps will be deployed within a smaller grid.
The addition of organic materials to soil has been used in managing plant-parasitic nematodes and has resulted in increased crop yield. Research on the utilization of waste materials such as oilseed cakes, chitin, compost, livestock and poultry manures, and cellulosic wastes appears promising for reducing populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. Nitrogen based amendments, plant phenolics, nematotoxic chemicals, development of predators and parasites of nematodes and microorganism stimulation have been considered to be promising agents for nematode management. In addition, organic amendments change the physical as well as the trophic structure of soil, which affects the pathogen development and overall plant growth performance. Mechanisms of action of organic soil amendments in relation to nematode management are yet to be fully explored.
Agricultural pest control scientists in the American Midwest currently work in a context created by the intersection of three distinct threads of innovation: (1) practices that increased the yields of corn (also called maize, Zea mays L.), (2) new ways of controlling pests, and (3) the use of corn grain and other biomass to produce fuel ethanol. Public policies beginning in the 1970s and strengthening in 2005 promoted the markets for fuel ethanol and thus generated higher average prices for corn producers. The higher prices combined with new insecticidal tools will encourage, under current circumstances, continued reliance on the chemical control strategy for insects attacking corn. Higher prices for corn will also encourage less rotation of corn with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), which in turn will exacerbate problems with corn rootworms. If production of ethanol from cellulose becomes commercially feasible, Midwestern farmers will probably convert land from corn, soybean, conservation, and pasture to switchgrass (Panicaum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus, thus altering the biological landscape and producing pest control effects that are hard to predict. Farmers currently have a minimal embrace of integrated pest management (IPM), and little suggests that embrace is likely to increase in the near future. As a result, Midwestern corn production remains vulnerable to long-recognized problems with pesticides: resistance, induction of population shifts of various species, and environmental risks. Pest control scientists working within the IPM strategy continue to have stimulating challenges in producing successful IPM practices.
The experimental testing of the hypothesis of population reduction by mass trapping with the establishment of treatment/control areas is a logistic problem on landscape scale. We suggest a possible test based on time-series analysis of tree-mortality data. Our example is helped by: an island effect, a 20-year tree-mortality record, and a very competitive synthetic aggregation pheromone. The successful development of synthetic pheromone (ipsdienol and E-myrcenol) dispensers, and the dose-response of wick-dispensers is briefly described. In the 2000 ha of spruce (Picea mongolica) forest reserve at Baiyinaobao, surrounded by grassland, 80 traps were employed for 3 years, catching 0.5–1.7 million beetles/year. In spite of intensive conventional management since 1982 (17 years), the long-term tree mortality had been oscillating around 600. During the first three years of mass trapping, tree mortality was down to 118, 100, and 88, respectively. Neither natural population cycles nor weather conditions could explain the 3-year mortality drop. Cycles did not drive the drop, as auto-correlation function (ACF) and partial ACF plots do not show any clear periodicity, only a weak 5-year cycle is visible. Weather did not explain the drop, as the 3 years of mass trapping had average rainfall and higher than average temperatures. Climate data show negative correlations of tree mortality and temperatures on year basis and a 20-year trend of increased monthly averages, especially for July temperature. The increased temperature (global warming) will increase stress on trees, but mass trapping may have counterbalanced this new threat to the forest.
The life historyof the annual weed Senecio vulgaris is described, as are theeffects of pathogens and insects on the plant. Using this basicknowledge, the use of the rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae andthe moth Tyria jacobaeae for control of S. vulgaris following thesystem management approach is discussed. The successfulapplication of the system management approach of biological weedcontrol requires a thorough knowledge of the interactions ofplant--natural enemies--environment--man. The available knowledgeabout this kind of interaction is discussed with respect to thebiological control of S. vulgaris
Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, is a major dietary staple in tropical Africa where it is most often cultivated. The production is, however, greatly hampered by severe infestation and damage by insect pests including the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. The damage and bionomics of the aphid are briefly introduced. Chemical, cultural, physical and biological methods, and use of plant resistance for A. craccivora control in cowpea are reviewed. Finally, prospects for integrated pest management are discussed
In The Netherlands, a computerized advisory system (called Gaby) for integrated pest management (IPM) in apple has been developed to support the decision making of individual fruit growers. Gaby provides clear monitoring recommendations when this is appropriate for a particular pest in (a defined area of) the orchard by using information concerning orchard characteristics, phenology of pests, previous field observations and insecticide applications. It recommends treatments only if control thresholds are exceeded, while indicating the most appropriate type and concentration of insecticide and the optimal time for control. Advice is accompanied by information on pest insects, damage symptoms, natural enemies, control thresholds, side-effects of insecticides and integrated fruit production guidelines. Gaby contains actual knowledge on the IPM of all major pests in Dutch apple orchards. In this paper we give a working description of Gaby and describe the separate decision schemes for each pest. These schemes reflect the present status of IPM in Dutch apple orchards.
PBW infestations in cotton. (A) Eggs laid beneath the boll caylx, (B) ®rst generation larvae feeding in a cotton  ̄ower, (C) rosetted bloom caused by mature ®rst generation larva webbing petals together before pupation, (D) and (E) larvae feeding on maturing cotton fruit and (F) comparison of undamaged (left) and PBW-damaged boll (right). 
Arthropod predators of P. gossypiella in the southwestern United States
Parasitic Hymenoptera released for biological control of P. gossypiella in the southwestern United States
The pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is the key pest in cotton (Gossypium spp.) production areas in the southwestern United States and in many other cotton-producing areas of the world. The high costs of chemical control, continuing economic losses, secondary pest problems and environmental considerations suggest the need for ecologically oriented PBW management strategies. Extensive research has resulted in a broad array of monitoring, biological control, cultural, behavioural, genetic and host plant resistance methods that can serve as a base for the formulation of integrated PBW management systems. The life history characteristics of the PBW, in particular the high mobility of adults, indicate the need for combinations of selected integrated pest management (IPM) components implemented over large geographical areas. The areas involved present a wide range of PBW population densities, differences in cotton production methods and social and environmental considerations. The best option is tailor-made systems for targeted management areas with the selection of IPM components based on the PBW population density, crop production methods and economic feasibility. The unlikelihood of eradication indicates the need for long-term monitoring and programme maintenance following successful area-wide management. The success of area-wide PBW management is highly dependent on participation in the planning, site selection, implementation and assessment phases of the programme by all segments of the agricultural community. A highly effective extension--education communication programme is an essential component. Local uncoordinated efforts have not reduced the economic status of this pest in any area where it is an established pest. The potential long-term benefits of PBW population suppression on an area-wide basis appear to justify area-wide efforts in terms of reduced costs, more effective control, less environmental contamination and other peripheral problems associated with conventional control approaches.
A large number of pests are associated with groundnut but not all are economically important. The distribution of, losses and damage caused by groundnut pests are discussed, along with a variety of control measures and methods for their integration for effective pest management. Disease resistant/tolerant varieties, including Girnar 1, ALR 1, ICGV 87160, ICGV 86590, DH 8, TG 3, MH 16, ICGS 37 and TAG 24 from India have been released for general cultivation and could be used in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. A large number of advanced breeding lines possessing resistance to major diseases and insect pests have been identified. Biocontrol agents have been used successfully for insect and disease control. Intercrops such as pearlmillet and soybean suppress thrips, jassids and leaf miner; castor suppresses jassids and Spodoptera, and pigeonpea suppress early leaf spot, late leaf spot and rust. These plants act as traps or barriers for reducing pest incidence. The use of pheromone traps for gram pod borers, tobacco caterpillars and leaf miners, and the use of neem products against major insect pests and diseases, are novel approaches that may reduce the cost of groundnut production. If pest control measures are integrated in an optimum proportion and pest surveillance activity is strengthened further, maximum returns could be realized
A complex interaction of multiple factors has resulted in an oak decline event in oak-hickory forests of the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas and Missouri, U.S.A. The most striking feature of this situation is an unprecedented population explosion of red oak borer, a species of cerambycid beetle, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), which appears to be causing extensive mortality to mature red oaks (Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus). The insect is a native species, historically a minor pest of oaks, found throughout the eastern United States. Beetles normally reproduce in living oaks, as larvae initially feed in phloem tissue and subsequently bore into xylem where pupation occurs. The life cycle is two years in length and synchronous adult emergence occurs in odd-numbered years. Data from previous research indicate average attack densities of less than four per tree with a high of 71 on a single tree. Historical emergence densities are similarly low and the highest reported was 15 adults from one tree. Our research is concerned with understanding factors contributing to this outbreak; developing sampling methods for red oak borer; assessing oak mortality; and evaluating site and stand conditions associated with the current outbreak. Results of our initial sampling reveal dramatically higher average attack densities of 244 per m2 and emergence densities of 18 per m2 of bark surface area. We confirm a three-week period of adult emergence and activity during mid-June to early July. We also report on possible management responses by federal and state agencies to this remarkable epidemic and oak mortality crisis.
The bindweeds Calystegia sepium and Convolvulus arvensis aredifficult to control chemically. Calystegia sepium is often aproblem in maize or in vineyards, while C. arvensis is animportant weed of cereals. The biological control of these weedswith insects or fungal pathogens has been investigated since1970. More than 600 fungi collected in countries throughoutEurope have been isolated in our laboratories. The isolates withthe highest and most stable pathogenicity against bindweed belongto the genus Stagonospora. In a field trial in maize in 1995, oneof these Stagonospora isolates stopped the increase of groundcoverage by the bindweeds. In response to public concern aboutenvironmental problems caused by modern agriculture, new croppingsystems are being developed. Underseeding maize with a livinggreen cover achieves good control of a large spectrum of the weedflora typical of conventional tillage systems. However, C. sepiumand C. arvensis remain as problems. The research reported showsthat C. sepium is partly suppressed by the green cover, butescapes control by climbing the stems of the maize plants.Therefore, the application of spores of Stagonospora sp. in amaize field underseeded with a living green cover may allow alarge or a complete reduction of the herbicide input and promotea more sustainable agriculture
Much IPM technology for rice has been developed at research stations in Asia but on the balance little of it has been adopted by farmers who find many of the recommendations inappropriate. The farmer field school training method has made valuable inroads in overcoming this problem in that it has found that farmers value group learning and conducting farmer-led research which provides both knowledge and gives the farmers tools to fine tune technologies. For more effective training programs, extension worker and researcher team members need to better understand farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Anthropologists have developed methods to elicit ethno-scientific cultural subjective norms and perceptions from farmers which are discussed and complemented by surveys as well as other methods developed by rural sociologists and IPM practitioners.
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