Insect Systematics & Evolution

Published by Brill Academic Publishers
Print ISSN: 1399-560X
Publications
A taxonomic review of the North American band-winged grasshopper genus Encoptolophus Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae) was conducted. This genus is hypothesized to be non-monophyletic following a cladistic analysis of the genera in the Chortophaga genus group. We examined all species currently classified in this genus group for morphological characters and one behavioral character. The phenotypic character data were combined with three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA. A parsimony analysis was performed on the combined data resulting in two equally parsimonious trees. Encoptolophus, as historically defined, is resolved in three separate clades. The results support erection of a new genus, Nebulatettix Gómez, Lightfoot & Miller gen.n. to comprise one of the groups historically classified in Encoptolophus. In addition, we transfer the species Encoptolophus californicus Bruner to Chimarocephala Scudder, comb.n., a combination used historically. The evolution of certain characters in the Chortophaga group is discussed, and a key to the genera is provided.
 
Trophophoresy is exhibited in two ant genera: Acropyga (Formicinae), in which all 37 species are thought to be trophophoretic, and Tetraponera (Pseudomyrmecinae), in which it has been observed in only one species, T. binghami. This study analyses a dataset comprised of both morphological and molecular (D2 region of 28S rRNA and EF1-alpha) data. Evidence is presented in favor of Acropyga being monophyletic, hence trophophoresy has evolved only once within the Formicinae and twice within the ants overall. The data further suggests that Acropyga belongs within a clade containing Anoplolepis, Aphomomyrmex, and Petalomyrmex. Aphomomyrmex and Petalomyrmex were found to be the sister group to Acropyga. The results indicate that the Lasiini and Plagiolepidini are not monophyletic and are in need of reexamination. Given the extant pantropical distribution of Acropyga it is speculated that Acropyga maybe of Gondwanan origin and that trophobiosis was the first form of agriculture to evolve in the ants.
 
We conduct the first molecular studies of the higher level phylogeny of bethylid wasps (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Sequences of the 500-bp D2/D3 expansion regions of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene are obtained for 33 bethylid species in 18 genera covering all four commonly recognized subfamilies, and an additional 13 outgroup species. A 450-bp sequence of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene is obtained for a smaller subset of those species. Strong support is found for the monophyly of Bethylidae, and for Bethylinae as the sister to the other bethylid subfamilies. Pristocerinae are supported as monophyletic. A species of Mesitiinae clusters with the Sclerodermini (sensu lato), these two strongly supported as a monophyletic clade. The Epyrini are supported as monophyletic, but our data do not demonstrate whether Pristocerinae or the Mesitiinae+Sclerodermini clade are their closest relatives. Kishino-Hasegawa tests reject the monophyly of the Epyrinae. Our results are consistent with Kieffer's original five major subtaxa of Bethylidae.
 
17. The genus Syncalypta Steph. (Coleoptera: Byrrhidae). The Canarian spp. Syncalypta integra Woll., S. granulosa Woll., S. tenerifensis n.sp., and S. canariensis Franz are found to belong to subgenus Atlantopsis Franz as is also S. ovuliformis Woll. from Madeira. The type material of all Canarian spp. is investigated and a key, based also upon genitalia, is given. 18. The genus Macrocoma Chap. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A key of all Canarian spp. is given, viz. M. divisa Woll., M. obscuripes Woll., M. dubia Woll., M. latifrons Har. Lindb., M. splendidula Woll., M. splendens Har. Lindb., M. occidentalis n.sp., and M. occidentalis franzi n.ssp. The species are very similar and closely related to eachother and genital structures are found to be of importance for their separation.
 
470 family-group names in the Geodephaga are recorded with their authors and dates. 393 are based on type genera. Names originally proposed in a vernacular form are noted, along with their first subsequent Latinization. Names based on type genera which are junior homonyms, unjustified emendations or incorrect subsequent spellings are also indicated. In addition, where a type genus has an irregular stem the correct form is given.
 
A comparative description of imagines, subimagines, and nymphs of Cloeon dipterum (L.) s.r., C. cognatum Stephens stat. nov., and C. inscriptum Bengtsson stat. nov. is given on the basis of reared material from southern Poland. The recognized and probable synonyms of these species are discussed on the basis of the data from European literature. Remarks about the material from other parts of Europe and about the type specimens of the three species are also given.
 
Structure and function of the external genitalia of both sexes of Zygaena Fabricius, 1775 are reviewed and analyzed with special reference to their importance as pregamous isolation mechanisms. The male external genitalia possess two highly specialized sclerotized structures, i.e. the lamina dorsalis and the lamina ventralis. Both show a considerable change of position during copulation and are thought to function as opening mechanisms for the mechanically well closed female genitalia. During copulation, the cornuti of the aedoeagus are found in a position adjacent to two sclerotized rims in the ductus bursae of the female. Pheromone specificity and sperm incompatability are regarded to act as main isolation mechanisms in the reproductive biology of closely related Zygaena Fabricius species.
 
Pyrobombus (Pyrobombus) lapponicus (Fabricius, 1793) and P. (P.) monticola (Smith, 1849) are described from type material. The male and worker are described of the former; the lectotype and a paralectotype (worker) are designated and in addition the male of P. monticola is described. Type studies of rondoui Vogt, 1909 and scandinavicus Friese, 1911, previously regarded as subspecies of P. lapponicus, revealed conspecificity with P. monticola. Furthermore, the subspecies hypsophilus Skorikov, 1912 and konradini Reinig, 1965 are also regarded as forms of P. monticola. The status of glacialis Schneider, 1902 is uncertain. P. lapponicus is distributed in northern Europe: Fennoscandia - eastwards in the northern parts of the USSR, while P. monticola exhibits a boreo-alpine distribution: Fennoscandia, eastwards on the Kola peninsula, the British Isles, Italy, the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Balkan mountains. In Fennoscandia P. lapponicus is found both in alpine/subalpine habitats and in adjacent coniferous forests, whereas P. monticola is restricted to alpine/subalpine areas. A comparative diagnosis of the two species, reinforced by drawings, is given. Metric studies of male abdominal sternite 7, hind basitarsus and position of ocelli on the vertex of queens were made to establish their diagnostic value. Some remarks on the biology of both species are also provided. The status of the Nearctic forms allied to P. lapponicus are discussed.
 
Phylogeny of the bee genus Colletes and selected outgroups from the Colletidae according to maximum parsimony analysis of the combined cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 28S dataset with a gap- substitution-ratio of 3:1. Numbers above are bootstrap values (values <50 not shown). Grey species names indicate that only one sequence was available for analysis: – – –, only 28S; - - -, only COI. 
Phylogeny of Colletes Old World subgenera and North American species-groups included in this analysis in their biogeographical context. Distributional data by Kuhlmann (unpubl.). 
A phylogenetic analysis of the intrageneric relationships within the bee genus Colletes using a combined data set of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and 28S sequences is presented and its implications for historical biogeography are investigated. We analyzed 91 out of 469 described Colletes species (19.4%) from the entire range of distribution and 25 outgroup taxa representing all colletid subfamilies closely related to Colletinae. Eight different combinations of alignment parameters were used for the 28S data, and our combined data set comprised between 1801 and 1845 aligned nucleotides with COI contributing 339 informative bases and 28S between 318 and 360 informative sites. Our results corroborate the monophyly of about half of the Old World subgenera and show the need for a taxonomic re-delimitation of other groups currently accepted. The phylogenetic results confirm the South American origin of Colletes and multiple faunal exchange events between North America and Eurasia. The last continent colonized was Africa south of the Sahara, which experienced at least two independent invasions.
 
The Australian species of Dolichurus Latreille are revised. The revision includes a key to species, diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps. Four species are recognised, three of which are new: D. ]astos sp. n., D. carbonarius, D. crenatus sp. n., and D. yungaburra sp. n. Relationships among Australian Dolichurus and extralimital species are briefly discussed.
 
The genus Kiransus Makhan, 1994 erected for a hydrochid species, K. aschnaae Makhan, 1994, with a unique and extremely modified tergum 8 (= 'sternum 5' of Makhan), is placed as a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Hydrochus Leach, 1817, in which it represents a highly derived, subordinate clade, here referred to as the 'Hydrochus aschnaae species group'. A redefinition of this clade is proposed, based on the discovery of three new species, Hydrochus tuberculatus sp. n. from Burkina, H. nigeriensis sp. n. from Nigeria and H. ensifer sp. n. from Sudan. Structural peculiarities in the abdominal apex of Hydrochidae are outlined and attention is called to certain features of phylogenetic importance.
 
The epimorphic status of geophilomorphs has been questioned several times during the last decade. The variation in number of segments for Strigamia maritima (Leach) from a population in Western Norway is described. The total material shows a significant increase in the number of segments from the foetus to the maturus senior stadium. However, divided into males and females this increase is clearly shown to be caused by a shift from males dominating in the younger stadia to females dominating in the older stadia. The epimorphic status of the geophilids is not violated by our investigation on S. maritima.
 
The 23 species of Bembidiini revised in this paper were earlier referred variously to subgenus (or genus) Cillenus Sam. or to closely allied taxa. It is shown that the five New Zealand species are taxonomically quite isolated and different from Bembidion; for these the new genus Zecillenus was erected. All remaining species are true members of genus Bembidion belonging to five different subgenera, all previously named. Subgenus Desarmatocillenus Netolitzky contains 13 species distributed from Tasmania to Japan; three other subgenera are restricted to China, Formosa and Japan, respectively. The single European species, B. laterale Samouelle, constitutes subgenus Cillenus s. str.—Six species, Zecillenus embersoni and 5 Bembidion, adelaideae, foochowense, hebridarum, kasaharai, seticorne, are described as new.—None of the subgenera shows clear affinities to any other subgenus of Bembidion. This was judged primarily on the structures of the internal sac of penis.
 
North American members of the Liodessus affinis (Say 1823) species complex are revised. The species group comprises four species. Two new species are described: L. noviaffinis (type locality: Gainesville Forest Insect Lab, Alachua Co., Florida) and L. saratogae (type locality: Saratoga Springs, San Bernardino County, California). Liodessus obscurellus (LeConte 1852), formerly considered a junior subjective synonym of L. affinis, is given specific status. The following synonymies are established: L. affinis microreticulatus (Hatch 1928), L. charlottii (Clark 1862), L. emilianus (Clark 1862), L. erythrostomus (Mannerheim 1852), L. macularis (LeConte 1852), and L. nigrinus (Casey 1884) = L. obscurellus. All of these names were previously treated as junior subjective synonyms of L. affinis. Also, L. youngi (Larson & Roughley 1990) = L. abjectus (Sharp 1882). Lectotypes are designated for L. abjectus, L. charlottii, L. erythrostomus, L. emilianus, L. macularis, L. nigrinus, and L. obscurellus. A neotype is designated for L. affinis. Liodessus nanus (Aubé 1838) is considered a species name of uncertain status, but is probably a subjective synonym of L. affinis. A key is provided for the nine known species of North American Liodessus Guignot. The genus Liodessus is diagnosed, and its taxonomic history and questionable status as a natural group are discussed. The L. affinis complex is diagnosed, and its taxonomic history and natural history are discussed. Male genitalia are the only consistently useful structures known for differentiating species in the L. affinis complex. Females are not distinguishable based on currently known morphological features but may be identified using geographic information. Characters used previously, including coloration, punctation and general shape are too variable within and between species to be useful for species diagnosis or delimitation. For each species in the complex the following are provided: a bibliography of the species, discussion of type specimens, taxonomic history and synonymy, diagnosis, variation, etymology (for new species), geographic relationships, natural history, and geographic distribution. Distribution maps and illustrations of important structural features are provided for all species of the complex. For other Nearctic species of Liodessus the following are provided: a brief bibliography of the species, diagnosis, distribution, remarks about bionomics and/or taxonomy, and illustrations of important structural features.
 
It is established that Musca conformis Fallén, 1825, in the combination Pegomya conformis (Fallén), is a valid senior synonym of P. esuriens (Meigen).
 
The west Palaearctic cicada Melampsalta varipes (Waltl, 1837) has been studied for the first time in Spain. After a summary of its taxonomy and the designation of a neotype, its distribution and habitat in Spain and Portugal are given. M. varipes can be considered as a typical Mediterranean cicada essentially found in open fields, i.e. with low percentage of ligneous plants. The increase of tourism activities and the abrupt agricultural practice modification probably modify its habitat endangering the populations. Males call either when static on a perch or in flight. The song is attractive to both sexes, one singing male stimulating a chorus from surrounding males. The calling song consists of monotonous trains of short echeme and long echeme. Each echeme is composed of two parts: a successive short train of pulses and a sustained train of pulses. The structure of the signal varied among individuals in both temporal and frequency parameters suggesting individual acoustic markers. The duration of the inter-echeme silence may act as a simple specific recognition process. The frequency pattern show two groups of frequencies which could guide the female over long distances to males and then help them to localize males at close range.
 
Sarcophaga alpina Zetterstedt, 1838 is established as a new junior synonym of Musca genarum Zetterstedt, 1838; stelviana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, stat.rev., in the combination Calliphora stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm), replaces alpina: authors, not Zetterstedt, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for Musca genarum Zetterstedt, 1838, Musca laticornis Zetterstedt, 1838 and Acrophaga stelviana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891. The type-species of Acrophaga Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 has been misidentified and it is recommended that the nominal species Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 be designated as type-species.
 
Macrolophus contains a small group of Palaearctic species with very simple and similar external morphology. The classification of these species has been based on variable characters such as body measurements, the height of the black band-shaped macula behind the eyes and the colour of the first antennal segment. Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa 1853), Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur 1839) and Macrolophus costalis Fieber 1858, are the most reputed predators of the genus. The classification history of M. melanotoma and M. pygmaeus shows a great number of misconceptions that have left the identity of the two species in confusion. Despite the economic importance of these two species, they have not received comprehensive taxonomical treatment until now. In this work, the morphological and sequence variation of a cytochrome b fragment (320 bp) were analysed to determine the identity of M. melanotoma and M. pygmaeus. Macrolophus costalis, Dicyphus cerastii Wagner 1951b, Dicyphus tamaninii Wagner 1951b, Cyrtopeltis geniculata Fieber 1861 and Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter 1895) were used as outgroup taxons in the phylogenetic analyses. Several evolutionary models were explored under a maximum likelihood framework. Macrolophus melanotoma and M. pygmaeus were classified as two distinct species based on monophyly, molecular and morphological data. Nodes at the species level were supported by high bootstrap values. M. pygmaeus and M. costalis are sister species, M. melanotoma basal to them. The shape of the black macula behind the eye may be used as a diagnostic character to differentiate M. melanotoma from M. pygmaeus with some degree of confidence.
 
15 new species from North America are described: I. alaskensis n. sp. (Alaska), I. atkasukiensis n. sp. (Alaska), I. blufusata n. sp. (Holarctic), I. christianseni n. sp. (Illinois), I. creli n. sp. (Alaska), I. inupikella n. sp. (Alaska), I. komarkovae n. sp. (Alaska), I. macleani n. sp. (Alaska), I. manitobae n. sp. (Manitoba), I. maxillosa n. sp. (Illinois), I. nanseni n. sp. (Holarctic), I. nixoni n. sp. (Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky), I. randiella n. sp. (Illinois), I. taigicola n. sp. (Alaska) and I. torildae n. sp. (Illinois). The systematic characters are briefly discussed. In particular the morphology of the antennae, labrum, maxillae, ventral tube and furca were found useful. Cyclomorphosis (occurrence of distinct summer and winter forms) was found in I. blufusata n. sp., I. neglecta Schäffer and probably I. inupikella n. sp. A key for separation of the new species and some related ones is given. All the new species belong to the subgenus Desoria Nicolet, 1841.
 
Apatania zonella is an accidental or facultative parthenogenetic species; the percentage of males observed in various West Norwegian populations ranges from 0% to 5.2%. On the Hardangervidda mountain plateau (over 800 m a.s.l.), the species has a flight period from late June to mid-September, and supposedly has a two year life cycle. In the western lowlands the species has a bimodal flight pattern: the first flight period is from mid-May to late June, the second flight period from early August to late October. Females with mature eggs have been taken during both flight periods, and the species supposedly has two more or less separate cohorts each with a one year life cycle. Morphometric variation of A. zonella in seven West Norwegian populations was studied using multivariate statistical methods. Specimens collected in three lowland populations in June were found to differ from specimens collected in the same populations in autumn, but they were obviously more similar to autumn specimens from the same locality than to specimens from the other localities. Most of the samples from the lowlands collected in autumn and the samples from the mountainous eastern areas were found to differ significantly. The specimens from the eastern mountain populations were generally larger than the specimens from the western lowland populations. Clinal shape variation was established, following more strongly a west - east gradient than an altitudinal gradient. The specimens in the eastern populations had generally smaller eyes, narrower heads and longer, narrower front wings.
 
A redefinition and taxonomic revision is given of the genus Lydda. Twenty-one species are attributed to this genus occurring in New Guinea and northern Australia. The zoraidine genera with short antennae are keyed and all Lydda species are keyed and redescribed with emphasis on the male and female genitalia. Four species are described as new: Lydda perlucida, L. guttata, L. cornuta and L. fusca; 16 species are transferred from Proutista to Lydda given 16 new combinations. P. awarensis Van Stalle, 1986 is synonymized with L. gemina Muir, 1913. Arfaka Distant, 1907 and Afakia Kirkaldy, 1909, former synonyms of Proutista are now considered as synonyms of Lydda. The Afrotropical species attributed to Lydda are transferred to Diostrombus, new subgenus Lyddastrombus, giving seven more new combinations. Proutista jezeki Dlabola, 1979 and P. jezeki Dlabola, 1981 are transferred to Diostrombus s. str., giving D. jezeki (Dlabola) comb. n. and D. adila (Dlabola) comb. n. A lectotype is selected for Lydda elongata, Lydda perkinsi, L. lutea, L. lurida, L. decisa, L. straminea, L. lumholtzi, L. australis, L. gemina, L. koebelei, L. calypso and Philadelpheia pandani. Diostrombus muiri nom. n. is proposed for D. cocos Muir, 1928, a secondary junior homonym of D. cocos (Muir, 1926) comb. n.
 
The larva and pupa of Asynarchus contumax are described for the first time, and compared with these of A. lapponicus. The two species live in temporary and permanent pools and have one year life cycles. Emergence and flight periods of both species were restricted to late June and early July in a pool with a short drying-up period. The flight period of A. lapponicus in a permanent pool was from early July to early September. A. lapponiclls was the dominant species in pools above the tree line, in the 1ow alpine belt, whiter, contumax was dominant in the sub-alpine belt. Neither species had an imaginal diapause. The active life of A. lapponicus and A. contumax, e.g. larval growth, pupation, emergence, mating, egg maturation, and oviposition, lasted 3-5 months, and 7-9 months were passed in a passive stage, probably inside the gelatinous matrix. The egg-masses laid on dry ground in basins during July-August were exposed to air temperatures of -20 to -30°C in late autumn in 1979, but larval hatching was normal next spring.
 
The following eight new species are described from Bolivia; Desmopachria (Desmopachria) aphronoscelus, D. (D.) bolivari, D. (D.) draco, D. (D.) psarammo, D. (D.) rhea, D. (D.) taniae, D. (Pachriostrix) chei and D. (Portmannia) youngi. Figures of male genitalia are provided for each species.
 
Samples from Scandinavia, Svalbard, Canada, Alaska, and NE. Siberia have been examined, and the following species are described or commented: absoloni (Börner, 1901), groenlandicus (Tullberg, 1876), schoetti (Lie-Pettersen, 1896), ursi Fjellberg, 1984, aborigensis sp. n. (NE. Siberia), alnus sp. n. (NE. Siberia), interruptus sp. n. (NE. Siberia), nataliae sp. n. (NE. Siberia), nudus sp. n. (Alaska, Yukon), pingicolus sp. n. (Alaska), and reversus sp. n. (Alaska, Yukon). An identification key is given.
 
Isotoma notabilis Schäffer, I. agrelli Delamare and I. ekmani nom. nov. are easily separable by differences in the maxillary lamellae. I. ekmani is reported from Arctic Canada, Greenland and alpine habitats in Sweden and Norway. I. agrelli has been found in France and Norway. The distribution of I. notabilis is cosmopolitan.
 
Twenty-two Chinese species of Copidosoma are studied. Two species, C. baii and C. phaloniae, are described as new to science. Thirteen species are recorded from China for the first time: C. albipes, C. anceus, C. ancharus, C. aretas, C. boucheanum, C. chalconotum, C. flagellare, C. fuscisquama, C. peticus, C. serricorne, C. subalbicorne, C. terebrator, and C. tibiale. Two synonymies are proposed: C. dailinicum (of C. sosares) and C. heliothis (of C. primulum). A key to species is given and photomicrographs are provided to illustrate morphological characters of the species.
 
Eriocottis, the type-genus of Eriocottinae Spuler, 1898, hitherto placed in Incurvarioidea, is redescribed and shown to possess ditryse female genitalia, and is allocated to Tineoidea. Based on two synapomorphies, the Eriocottinae, Deuterotinea Spuler, 1901 (Deuterotineidae), and Compsoctena Zeller, 1852 (Compsoctenidae), are demonstrated to constitute a monophyletic group and are given family rank, Eriocottidae. As this family shares one probable synapomorphy with the Psychidae, a sister-family relationship is suggested. The Eriocottidae are believed to represent one of the earliest evolutionary lines in Tineoidea. A classification of taxa above species level is presented; this divides the Eriocottidae into two subfamilies: Eriocottinae and Compsocteninae. Cronodoxa Meyrick, 1922, is a new synonym of Deuterotinea Spuler, 1901. The Atychidae are assigned to Sesioidea.
 
The Microtinae flea Amalaraeus penicilliger is represented by four subspecies in Europe. The differentiating characters of the males are described and their relationships studied. The origin and supposed dispersal in relation to Pleistocene Glaciation and the mammalian host species are discussed. A. p. pyrenaicus ssp.n., the fourth European subspecies, is described.
 
The previously overlooked geometrid genus Palleopa Walker, which includes one described, widespread species: innotata, is reviewed. The genus has an eastern Bassian distribution, south of latitude 28°S, in the moist forests and woodlands of south eastern Australia from sea level to over 1000m. The distinctive larvae feed on the foliage of Eucalyptus trees. The immature stages are described and the life cycle is illustrated for the first time.
 
[A lectotype is designated for Spirostreptus antillanus Pocock, 1894. Orthoporus grenadae Chamberlin, 1918 and Gymnostreptus klagesi Verhoeff, 1941 are new synonyms of Orthoporus antillanus (Pocock, 1894). Morphological variability in a population of O. antillanus from Cole's Cave, Barbados, Lesser Antilles, is described and evaluated. The great variability in the structure of the gonopod coxite is particularly emphasized as many species of Orthoporus have been based on differences in the gonopod coxite., Elodes elongata Tournier, 1868, sp.rev., is shown to be identical with E. koelleri Klausnitzer, 1971, syn. n. E. elongata: Klausnitzer, nec Tournier, is described as E. tricuspissp. n. Features that distinguish this species from true elongata and from E. minuta (Linnaeus) are described and figured. Due attention is paid to previously ignored differences in the female bursa.]
 
The type material of most European nominal species previously placed in Rhoptromeris and of some other species is studied. Notes are given on the type material, 10 lectotypes are designated and the identity of the species is discussed. Three valid Rhoptromeris species are found: R. heptoma (Hartig) [type species], R. villosa (Hartig) and R. rufiventris (Giraud) n.comb. The latter is the type species of Hexamerocera Kieffer which is synonymized with Rhoptromeris. The genus Rhoptromeris is described and compared with related genera. The three species found to be valid are figured and redescribed, and also a new species, R. nigriventris, is described from Sweden. R. heptoma is an important parasitoid of Oscinella frit (L.) (Dipt.: Chloropidae).
 
The spider genus Peucetia includes 54 species of medium-sized and widely distributed spiders. The majority of its species occurs in the tropical regions, of which only the African fauna has been recently revised. In the Neotropical Region 26 species were described, of which 17 are here synonymyzed. Peucetia tranquillini Mello-Leitão 1922, P. rubrigastra Mello-Leitão 1929, P. meridionalis Mello-Leitão 1929, P. villosa Mello-Leitão 1929, and P. viridisternis Mello-Leitão 1945 are considered junior synonyms of P. flava Keyserling 1877. Eight names, Peucetia similis Keyserling 1877, P. amazonica Mello-Leitão 1929, P. heterochroma Mello-Leitão 1929, P. maculipedes Piza 1938, P. trivittata Mello-Leitão 1940, P. duplovittata Mello-Leitão 1941, and P. roseonigra Mello-Leitão 1943 and Tapinillus argentinus Mello-Leitão 1941 are considered junior synonyms of P. rubrolineata Keyserling 1877. Both senior species are extremelly common, occurring from Colombia to northern Argentina. Peucetia macroglossa Mello-Leitão 1929, recorded only from Central Brazilian Amazonia and Guyana is considered a senior synonym of P. melloleitaoi Caporiacco 1947. Two species occur from Southern USA to northern Colombia: Peucetia viridans (Hentz 1832) and P. longipalpis F. O. P.-Cambridge 1902. The former is recognized as a senior synonym of P. poeyi (Lucas 1857), P. bibranchiata F. O. P.- 1902 and P. rubricapilla Petrunkevitch 1925 and the later as a senior synonym of P. cauca Lourenço 1990. Peucetia viridis (Blackwall 1858), known from Africa, southern Spain and Middle East is newly recorded from the West Indies. One new species, Peucetia cayapa sp. n., is described and illustrated based on males and females from Ecuador and Peru. Peucetia caldensis Garcia-Neto 1989, from Brazil, is transferred to Tapinillus Simon 1898. The type specimens of three species, P. quadrilineata Simon 1891 and P. thalassina (C. L. Koch 1847) from Central America, and P. smaragdina Mello-Leitão 1941 from Colombia are probably lost. Since their original descriptions are not sufficiently clear for their recognition, they are considered nomina dubia.
 
The type-species of all generic names previously treated as subgenera in Trybliographa and in the synonymous genus Pseudeucoila (corresponding to Cothonaspis sensu Kieffer and Eucoila sensu Kieffer) are examined. Most of these type-species are excluded from Tryblingrapha. 35 generic names are dealt with in the study; 29 lectotypes are designated and 22 synonyms are established on the specific level. New synonyms of Trybliographa are: Idiomorpha, Hypolethria, Psichacra, Adieris, Piezobria, Pilinothrix, and Anectoclis (all described by Förster). The genus Trybliowapha is exhaustively described and illustrated and the basis for the inclusion of the synonymized genera is discussed. The relationships with the closely related genera Eucoila and Bothrochacis and also with Leptopilina, Cothonaspis, and Rhoptromeris are discussed in ctadistic terms.
 
The genus Leptopilina Förster is revised on a world basis. The identity of 31 nominal species, including type species of four other genera, is discussed and 15 lectotypes are designated. Valid species of Leptopilina are L. longipes (Hartig) [type species], L. clavipes (Hartig) n. comb., L. heterotoma (Thomson) n. comb., L. fimbriata (Kieffer) n. comb., L. rufipes (Cameron) n. comb., L. atraticeps (Kieffer) n. comb., L. mahensis (Kieffer) n. comb., L. boulardi (Barbotin et al.) n. comb., and L. cupulifera (Kieffer) n. comb. Leptopilina heterotoma is the valid name for the well-known Drosophila parasitoid currently referred to as Pseudeucoila bochei (Weld). Leptopilina is not synonymous with Ganaspis Förster. Tryhliographa Förster is a senior synonym of Episoclu Förster n. syn. and of Pseudeucoila Ashmead (synonymy confirmed). Leptopilina is described and compared with related genera (Cothonaspis, Rhoptromeris, Odonteucoila). L. victoriae n. sp. is described from the Seychelles. The five Leptopilina occurring in Europe are redescribed on modern material and a key is given to them.
 
The Oriental genus Letana is fully revised. 22 species are recognised. Male and female abdominal terminalia, the phallus sclerite and the stridulatory apparatus of males are introduced as useful diagnostic characters. Keys for males and females to the species are included. L. brunneri (Krausze, 1904) and L. melanotis Bey-Bienko, 1956 become new synonyms of L. rubescens (StÅl, 1861). Nine new species are described: L. infurcata sp. n., L. bulbosa sp. n., L. megastridula sp. n., L. intermedia sp. n., L. bilobata sp. n., L. magna sp. n., L. digitata sp. n., L. emanueli sp. n., and L. gracilis sp. n. First descriptions are given for the female of L. recticercis Chopard & Dreux and for the male of L. serricauda Ingrisch. The relations between the species are discussed on basis of the phallus sclerite. Faunistic data and distribution maps are added.
 
Three ant-like salticid genera, Enoplomischus Giltay, Kima Peckham & Peckham and Leptorchestes Thorell are revised. Kima is removed from the synonymy of Leptorchestes and revalidated. Three new species are described: Kima montana, Leptorchestes algerinus and L. separatus. Two specific names are synonymised: Enoplomischus chattoni Berland & Millot = E. ghesquieri Giltay and Leptorchestes halogena Metzner = L. mutilloides (Lucas). One new combination is proposed (K. reimoseri ex L. reimoseri). A lectotype for L. peresi is designated. L. semirufus Simon is regarded as nomen dubium. Identification keys are provided. A comparison of morphological features of the three genera indicates that Kima and Leptorchestes are more closely related to each other than either of them is to Enoplomischus. However, it seems still justified to place all three genera in the subfamily Leptorchestinae (sensu Simon 1901).
 
The larvae of Tipula (Arctotipula) salicetorum Siebke, 1870, is described. No differences in position of setae and numbers of protuberances were found between larvae of instars 2, 3 and 4. Arctotipula is the only European subgenus of Tipula with larvae not previously described.
 
The current concept of Aphanommata Wollaston, 1873 is revised and Brachytemnoides Folwaczny, 1973 is synonymized with it (SYN. N.). The genus and the two Old World species, A. euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) and A. filum (Mulsant & Rey, 1858) (COMB. N.), are briefly redescribed and keyed, and their genitalia figured for the first time. A checklist of the 5 included species is added.
 
The original material of Hymenaphorura sibirica (Ibllberg) was examined and a redescription of the species is presented. A lectotype is designated.
 
The genus Picobia Haller (Acari: Syringophilidae) is revised. The species of this genus are permanent parasites living in quills of bird body feathers. In total 19 species are recognized. Four new species are described from passerine birds (Passeriformes): Picobia locustella sp. n. from Locustella naevia (Sylviidae), P. biarmicus sp. n. from Panurus biarmicus (Panuridae), P. sturni sp. n. from Sturnus vulgaris (Sturnidae) and P. cissa sp. n. from Cissa chinensis (Corvidae). Two species are redescribed: P. dryobatis (Fritsch) and P. zumpti (Lawrence). A neotype for P. dryobatis is designated. A new diagnosis for the genus Picobia and a key to females are provided. Parsimony analysis of the genus is conducted. Host-parasite relationships are briefly discussed.
 
Bellido, D., Ros-Farré, P., Kovalev O. & Pujade-Villar, J., Presence of Plagiotrochus Mayr, 1881 in the Himalayan area, with redescription of Plagiotrochus semicarpifoliae (Cameron, 1902) COMB. N. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Insect Syst. Evol. 31: 241-245. Copenhagen, November 2000. ISSN 0013-8711. Plagiotrochus semicarpifoliae comb n. is transferred to Plagiotrochus Mayr from Callirhytis Foerster, 1869, and adults of the agamic form are redescribed and compared with other species of the genus. The plesiomorphic traits of P. semicarpifoliae suggest a Southeast Asian origin for Plagiotrochus, which could have migrated with their hosts to the Mediterranean area, where the most derived forms are present.
 
The phylogeny of the genus Anomalophylla Reitter, 1887 is investigated based on comparative morphology involving 68 characters. Three monophyletic lineages were recognized from the strict consensus tree within the ingroup: (1) Anomalophylla; (2) Gastroserica + Neoserica; (3) Microserica soppongensis + M. panzona. Monophyly of Anomalophylla was evident with highest branch supports in both analyses with unweighted and weighted characters, however its sister taxon was not apparent with present data set. Monophyly of Microserica species included in this analysis could not be shown according to the tree topology.
 
Trichopria stomoxydis n.sp., reared from puparia of Stomoxys nigra Macquart is described and redescriptions of the unique types of T. inconspicua (Kieff.) n.comb., T. oriphila Kieff. and T. congensis (Ghesq.) n.comb. are presented. A lectotype is designated for T. saxatilis (Kieff.) and the remaining two syntypes of that species in the BMNH are described as T. pseudosaxatilis n.sp. and T. nirva n.sp. Illustrations are given for all species.
 
A lectotype is designated for Spirostreptus antillanus Pocock, 1894. Orthoporus grenadae Chamberlin, 1918 and Gymnostreptus klagesi Verhoeff, 1941 are new synonyms of Orthoporus antillanus (Pocock, 1894). Morphological variability in a population of O. antillanus from Cole's Cave, Barbados, Lesser Antilles, is described and evaluated. The great variability in the structure of the gonopod coxite is particularly emphasized as many species of Orthoporus have been based on differences in the gonopod coxite.
 
J. Pérez (1895) described Bombus terrestris var. canariensis. This variety now is found to represent a separate species; with reference to the Code article 45:3d (1961) the name Bombus canariensis Pérez, 1895 n.stat. is used. On the Island of Madeira Bombus maderensis n.sp. of the B. terrestris-group was collected in Funchal. It is described and figured here.
 
Examination of 55 adult specimens of Epibolus (=Metiche) including all relevant types revealed that Spirobolus proporus Attems, 1896, Trigoniulus ruspolii Silvestri, 1896, Metiche bravensis, Attems, 1909 (non Silvestri, 1897), Metiche attemsi Kraus, 1958, and Metiche tanganyicense Kraus, 1958 are synonymous with Epibolus pulchripes (Gerstäcker, 1873), a species fairly widespread in southeastern Kenya and northeastern Tanzania. E. bravensis (Silvestri, 1897) comb. nov. (Somalia) and E. mossambicensis (Lawrence, 1967) comb. nov. (Moçambique) are provisionally regarded as distinct species. Lectotypes are designated for Trigoniulus ruspolii Silvestri, 1896 and Metiche attemsi Kraus, 1958. The vulvae of E. pulchripes are described for the first time. The postembryonic growth of E. pulchripes is probably hemianamorphotic. E. pulchripes is active during daytime and is probably aposematically coloured. The filling of the gonopods with sperm takes place during copulation by means of the protrusible penis.
 
The genera Chalinus Konow and Mocsarya Konow are revised. Eight species are recognised in Chalinus: C. berlandi Guiglia, C. braunsi (Enslin), C. haugi du Buysson, C. imperialis (Westwood), C. orientalis Guiglia, C. purpureiventris Cameron, C. somalicus Guiglia, C. timnaensis Kraus. Chalinus balianii Guiglia is proposed as a new synonym of C. berlandi Guiglia, C. schulthessi Guiglia as a new synonym of C. braunsi (Enslin), and the synonymy of C. congoensis Guiglia with C. imperialis (Westwood) is reestablished. Two species are recognised in Mocsarya: M. metallica (Mocsáry); M. syriaca Benson. Two nominal species, Oryssus oberthueri Saussure and Oryssus plumicornis Guérin-Menneville are treated as species inquirendae in Chalinus. Keys, redescriptions and distribution maps are provided for all recognised species.
 
The Silences of the Archives, the Reknown of the Story. The Martin Guerre affair has been told many times since Jean de Coras and Guillaume Lesueur published their stories in 1561. It is in many ways a perfect intrigue with uncanny resemblance, persuasive deception and a surprizing end when the two Martin stood face to face, memory to memory, before captivated judges and a guilty feeling Bertrande de Rols. The historian wanted to go beyond the known story in order to discover the world of the heroes. This research led to disappointments and surprizes as documents were discovered concerning the environment of Artigat’s inhabitants and bearing directly on the main characters thanks to notarial contracts. Along the way, study of the works of Coras and Lesueur took a new direction. Coming back to the affair a quarter century later did not result in finding new documents (some are perhaps still buried in Spanish archives), but by going back over her tracks, the historian could only be struck by the silences of the archives that refuse to reveal their secrets and, at the same time, by the possible openings they suggest, by the intuition that almost invisible threads link here and there characters and events.
 
The genus Othius Steph. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). A key of all Canarian spp. is given, viz. O. brachypterus Woll., O. neglectus n.sp., O. microphthalmus Coiff., O. philonthoides Woll., O. intermedius Korge, and O. coiffaiti Lohse. Several of the species are very similar to eachother; the size and structure of the eyes, the microsculpture of the elytron, and the shape of the male genitalia are found to be the best characters for their separation.
 
The systematic position of the family Trichoceridae, which includes 130 described species, about 110 of which are valid, is discussed and the family is placed near the Tipulidae. World distribution is given together with a diagnosis of the family, a key to the two subfamilies, five genera, and three subgenera. The annotated catalogue comprises all species described, journal of description, type museum, type material and locality, and the synonymies as establisched by the authors, especially for Holarctic species.
 
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Bradley J. Sinclair
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David Grimaldi
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Jakob Damgaard
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