Innovation: Organization & Management

Published by Taylor & Francis
Print ISSN: 1447-9338
The health of the population is compromised by poor dietary choices. Resolving this situation will require a substantial investment at many levels of science, agriculture and food industrialisation. If such investments are undertaken they will provide the opportunity to change the food marketplace from a product centric, to a consumer centric, strategy competing to deliver health benefits to individuals.
With the premise that patent data are reliable indicators of innovativeness, the empirical analysis of R&D?patents relationship is useful for monitoring the efficiency of the innovation process. This paper extends the research on the relationship between R&D spending and patent counts by estimating the impact of efficiency parameters. A data set from 1255 firms with nonzero R&D expenditures in Korea was studied. Results show that the difference in firms�� innovative performance is attributable to firm-specific characteristics, including propensity to patent and firm size, and differences in efficiency parameters. They also indicate that firms that conduct patent searches before starting R&D activities obtain an average of 13.9% more patents with an increase of one unit on the ��patent search�� scale. Results also show the importance of the role of IP managers and revenue splitting policy for employee-inventors in the innovation process.
Exxon Mobil and ConocoPhillips stock price has been predicted using the difference between core and headline CPI in the United States. Linear trends in the CPI difference allow accurate prediction of the prices at a five to ten-year horizon.
Patent classification categories and co-classification relations; core network for internationally registered Dutch patents ( k -core = 10; 2006; N = 3,287). Source: WIPO. 
Figure A1: Patent classification categories and co-classification relations for India, 2006. 
Research in the domain of 'Innovation Studies' has been claimed to allow for the study of how technology will develop in the future. Some suggest that the National and Sectoral Innovation Systems literature has become bogged down, however, into case studies of how specific institutions affect innovation in a specific country. A useful notion for policy makers in particular, Balzat & Hanusch (2004) argued that there is a need for NIS studies to develop complementary and also quantitative methods in order to generate new insights that are comparable across national borders. We use data for patents granted by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to map innovation systems. Groupings of patents into primary and secondary classes (co-classification) can be used as relational indicators. Knowledge from one class may be more easily used in another class when a co-classification relation exists. Using social network analysis, we map the co-classification of patents among classes and thus indicate what characterizes an innovation system. A main contribution of this paper is methodological, adding to the repertoire of methods NIS studies use and using information from patents in a different way. Policy makers may also find benefits in the social network analysis of the complete set of patents granted by the WIPO to firms and individuals in a country. Social network analysis indicates what innovation activity occurs in a countries and which fields of technology are likely to give rise to innovative products in the near future. We offer such analysis for the Dutch and Indian Innovation Systems. This social network analysis could also be done for a Sector Innovation System, and we do so for Nanotech to determine empirically the knowledge field relevant for this emerging scientific domain.
Three typical transition step types
This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural change, and (ii) a sequence of steps oriented towards incremental innovation on the side of the vehicle. The system is approached from a multi-actor perspective, taking into account the multiplicity of views and interests of actors involved. Based on interviews a quick scan is made in terms of their Willingness to Participate (WTP). We find that on long term goals, a positive WTP and a high degree of consent are the case. For the short term the opposite is found. Management should therefore be directed at facilitating short term innovations: in the case of an incremental strategy, by stimulating market development; and in case of a radical strategy, by providing finance and institutional legitimation.
Successful small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognised as being an important component in the industrial development, and its consequent social benefits, of all economies. However, e-commerce has been described as altering the structure of whole industries, dampening profitability and leveling business practices. SMEs will not be immune to these effects and must therefore find a way of successfully adopting this new technology. Many SMEs are currently developing e-commerce services, however there is little systematic research into how they are doing this and what the organisational and environmental factors associated with adoption are. This study addresses this gap through an exploration of the level and sequence of adoption and the factors associated with this adoption. The research, which focuses on the particular case of the UK and was carried out by means of a mailed questionnaire, found four distinct clusters of adoption. The four clusters appeared to form a set of sequential steps or stages, through which firms passed during the adoption of e-commerce. Seven factors were found to be associated with their adoption of e-commerce. Six of these factors were consistent with factors previously identified as associated with the adoption of traditional IT systems by SMEs, whilst one new factor was identified which would appear to be unique to, or at least more significant in, the domain of e-commerce adoption. A more detailed analysis of the adoption factors over the four adoption stages demonstrated that SMEs adopting e-commerce are likely encounter the acculturation effect. Adoption of innovation studies invariably assumes that the factors associated with adoption are linear in nature. This study highlights that these factors may well be more complex than currently assumed and hence forms a useful starting point for future innovation studies.
Motivations for entering strategic alliances
We examine the potential impact of interconnectivity of value chain partnerships through electronic means (e-business practices) on the management of Public Sector Agriculture R&D in Australia. We review the changing forms of managing research and development, the forces driving these changes, and R&D processes that are theoretically consistent with the move towards value chain involvement and the increase in active constituents in Public Sector Agriculture R&D. We then explore the potential of emerging e-business models to change the patterns of inter-connectivity, speed and omnipresence of partners in the value chain. Three e-business R&D management practices are identified that provide the prerequisite flexibility necessary to take advantage of opportunistic markets. These R&D business practices are: compressing R&D to reduce time to market, fostering co-development to enter a market at the last moment and building flexible products that allow adjustment at the last possible moment. Some fundamental reallocation of existing resources will be required to meet these markets. Implications of these e-business practices for R&D management are discussed.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that a firm's communication network structure has a significant impact on its innovative capability. We know that in many cases, small world network structures in particular lead to improved innovation output. This paper is the first to test whether or not this finding is also true inside of large project-based firms We study a project team with 130 members using complex network analysis. The team's project includes several innovations, and the knowledge sharing networks do have small world structures. However, these networks have much more hierarchical structures than those measured in other innovation networks. We conclude that identifying a small world structure is only the first necessary step in analysing such networks. We identify a hierarchical generative mechanism for these structures, which demonstrates that gaining a better understanding of the history and evolution of particular networks is a critical step in analysing them. Copyright © eContent Management Pty Ltd. Innovation output; networks, small world structures; communication networks; complex network analysis; knowledge sharing; network evolution.
Research consortia have played an important role in the economic success of several East Asian countries. This paper looks at the ways these consortia - which are created for strategic rather than cost-saving purposes - have evolved over time. Three models for institutional learning are suggested, and three case studies are presented of research consortia in each model. The cases demonstrate the centrality of learning in facilitating the development then transition from innovation diffusion capabilities to innovation generation capabilities in East Asian firms. Cases are provided of the Samsung Electronics in Korea, the clusters of firms that are associated with ITRI in Taiwan, and the technological development of Ericsson China. Reference is made to the use of institutional innovations in the East Asian context such as patent pools that supplement more conventional forms of R&D collaboration.
With the development of the knowledge economy' in many advanced industrial nations, there has been a growing interest in regional innovation systems and the role that universities might play in these. One result has been the demarcation by government actors of specific spaces for the creation, transfer and transformation of knowledge. Such spaces have been given various names, such as 'smart regions; 'science cities' and 'innovation corridors: Whilst the associated policy rhetoric has much in common with the earlier interest in science and technology parks there are also clear distinguishing differences. More recent policy initiatives have sought to foster industry clusters within these spaces to contribute to economic development and diversification and link this to economic, social and cultural regeneration. This paper explores policy-driven creation of 'innovation areas' by focusing on two contrasting examples: Newcastle Science City in the North East of England and the Gold Coast Pacific Innovation Corridor in Queensland, Australia. The paper compares the rhetoric of university-industry-government policies with the realities.
This paper investigates the drivers and facilitators of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in three New Zealand state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Illustrative cases reveal that those aspects typically associated with entrepreneurship, such as innovation, risk acceptance, pro-activeness and growth, are supported by a number of other elements within the public sector context studied. These elements include external drivers related to performance, including operational excellence and cost efficiency. They also comprise internal facilitators such as a more flexible culture, an investment in people, a focus on branding, and the deliberate application and transfer of knowledge. The implications are twofold. First, that innovation and entrepreneurship in the public sector can go beyond government policy-making, with the SOE model representing an important policy decision and sector of the New Zealand Government. And second, that the impact of several SOEs on international markets suggests competition on the global stage will increasingly come from both public and private sector organisations.
Excutive Summary: In the early 1980s when IBM launched the Personal Computer, senior executives of many multinational corporations (MNCs) demonstrated little initial interest in reaping the returns on investments promised by budding technology pundits. Corporate adoption of subsequent advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) have since promulgated worldwide. Today, MNC managers have come to regard ICT as a key differentiator of their competitive advantage. Drawing from metrics produced by the World Economic Forum, this paper comparatively assesses the viability of Chinese, Japanese, and U.S. firms as they increasingly compete for global market share, relying on technology as a critical success factor
This paper focuses on the innovation networks of high-technology Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) within a Science and Technology Park (STP). More specifically, the study examines the role of network ties in high-technology SMEs by focusing on the linkages employed by small businesses to learn, adapt to technological change, and innovate. The paper presents evidence from a recent survey of Brisbane Technology Park (BTP) and this illustrates how the competitiveness of local high-tech firms will be enhanced by the suggested model, which describes the need for oscillation between weak and strong ties at different stages of the innovation process and diffusion.
This paper reports key findings from a four year study of cross-sector collaborative R&D projects in Australia testing a theoretical model formulated to explain partner collaboration experience and perceived project success. The study contributes to the understanding of knowledge-intensive collaborations, and indicates how their benefits can be sustained under conditions of high uncertainty. The study was of cross-sector collaborative projects within the Australian Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) Program which involved multiple partners and which focused on the commercialization of R&D. The model was empirically tested through a survey of project leaders and the results provided support for the three main effects hypothesized. The theoretical, methodological and pratical implications of the study's findings for the field of interorganizational relations (IOR) are discussed, and a new construct of project management competence is proposed as a determinant of positive partner experiences and the project level. This study adds to the growing body of work on interorganizational collaborative arrangements by providing systematic empirical support for the theoretical model of cross-sector R&D collaboration at the project level and at the completion or near completion phase of project development. Yes Yes
Both creative industries and innovation are slippery fish to handle conceptually, to say nothing of their relationship. This paper faces, first, the problems of definitions and data that can bedevil clear analysis of the creative industries. It then presents a method of data generation and analysis that has been developed to address these problems while providing an evidence pathway supporting the movement in policy thinking from creative output (through industry sectors) to creative input to the broader economy (through a focus on occupations/activity). Facing the test of policy relevance, this work has assisted in moving the ongoing debates about the creative industries toward innovation thinking by developing the concept of creative occupations as input value. Creative inputs as 'enablers' arguably has parallels with the way ICTs have been shown to be broad enablers of economic growth. We conclude with two short instantiations of the policy relevance of this concept: design as a creative input; and creative human capital and education.
This paper analyses the role of creative industries in affecting an economy's innovation performance. We conducted a survey of more than 2,000 creative industry enterprises from Austria which are defined by a combination of sector affiliation and the degree of creativity of the services they offer. We show that the creative industries are among the most innovative sectors in the economy. They support innovation in a variety of other sectors through creative inputs, such as ideas for new products (i.e. innovation content), supplementary products and services (such as software) or marketing support for product innovations. What is more, they are also an important user of new technology and demand innovations from technology producers, particularly information and communication technologies. Own innovative activities are a key driver for supporting innovation. Creative industries are no homogenous sector, however. While software and advertising show the strongest links to industrial innovation, architecture and content providers contribute rather little to industrial innovation. A main barrier to fully utilising the innovative potential of this sector is the lack of time at the side of creative entrepreneurs which reflects the small average firm size and the high share of sole traders. Innovation policy in support of creative industries should thus design programmes that are suitable for micro firms.
In recent years, research has recognized that creativity is a social process. By communicating with others, individuals get access to novel perspectives and unique knowledge, and they can get political support for their ideas by ensuring that they meet others’ standards. Based on the different function of idea-related communication, we expected the structure of idea-generation networks to differ from that of idea-validation networks. Specifically, we expected different effects of leadership status and tenure. Our results indicated some differences in the structure of the two networks. This leads to the recommendation that future research on idea-related communication and creativity needs to distinguish the different phases of the creative process.
It has long been recognised that government and public sector services suffer an innovation deficit compared to private or market-based services. This paper argues that this can be explained as an unintended consequence of the concerted public sector drive toward the elimination of waste through efficiency, accountability and transparency. Yet in an evolving economy this can be a false efficiency, as it also eliminates the 'good waste' that is a necessary cost of experimentation. This results in a systematic trade0off in the public sector between the static efficiency of minimizing the misuse of public resources and the dynamic efficiency of experimentation. this is inherently biased against risk and uncertainty and therein, explains why governments find service innovation so difficult. In the drive to eliminate static inefficiencies, many political systems have susequently overshot and stifled policy innovation. I propose the 'Red Queen' solution of adaptive economic policy.
A new approach to public sector innovation is proposed here that amounts to 'innovation by doing less' or innovation by experimental elimination. This approach seeks a systematic and rigorous methodology, drawing upon the literature of policy experiments and evidence-based policy, to develop ways of reducing government or public services under experimental conditions. This model reverses the normal experimental and control groupings, where the experimental group consists of a negative policy or strategic elimination and the control group is the regular public sector service. This is proposed as an experimental methodology to procedurally down-size or slow the growth of the public sector in a scientifically robust manner that is, in effect, public sector innovation in reverse.
Recent developments in information technology have been accompanied by concerns involving public policy and government service delivery. Calls are made for social policy to address an apparent digital divide, for public policy to encourage technological innovation in the new information society, and for government service delivery that uses new technology to support improved individualised service. At the same time, concerns are raised about increased surveillance and invasions of privacy. The rhetoric of New Public Management also sees new technologies are a means to improve government service delivery through the use of performance indicators and market-like forms of operation. In what ways do these changes involve new forms of governing and the configuration of social relations? This paper outlines these issues being investigated in a three-year study of e-government.
In the present paper we investigate whether and to what extent green innovations significantly differ from non-green ones, in terms of i) inter and intra-organizational relationships leading to their development and ii) technological characteristics, as complexity and novelty. Then, we study the impact of these organizational factors and technological features on the value of green innovations. In particular, we focus on a specific type of green innovations, as green technological innovations, and consider green patents as proxy for them. Analyzing green and non-green patents developed by a sample of companies included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index, we find that green innovations have important peculiarities compared to conventional ones. Specifically, developing green innovations requires establishing collaborations with external actors as well as among internal actors to a greater extent, while the technologies underling green innovations seem to be characterized by a higher degree of complexity and novelty. With regard to the value of green innovations, results show that the most valuable ones are those that more highly rely on collaborations among internal actors, whereas higher levels of novelty seem to be detrimental, at least in the short-medium term.
The fast growing ubiquitous infrastructure technologies are capable of improving current urban management and infrastructure planning and development capabilities. These technological advancement urban infrastructure developments in the Republic of Korea have recently shifted from an old paradigm of conventional infrastructure to a new paradigm of intelligent infrastructure provision. This new paradigm, so called ubiquitous infrastructure, is a combination of urban infrastructures, information and communication technologies and digital networks. Ubiquitous infrastructure refers to an urban infrastructure system where any citizen can access any infrastructure and services via any electronic devices regardless of time and location. This paper introduces this new paradigm and new schemes for urban infrastructure planning and development in the Republic of Korea and discusses the potential positive effects of ubiquitous infrastructure on Korean cities to achieve sustainable urban development.
This paper introduces the analytic context of public sector innovation studies along with an overview of the nine papers in this volume. But it also seeks to advance a new research agenda in public sector innovation studies from the economic perspective of the incentives to innovation in the public sector. This argues for a practical model of public sector innovation that is less about imitation of the market sector or other public sector best practice and more cognizant of the scientific method of randomised controlled experiments.
The ability to continuously innovate is of critical importance to the long-term success of enterprises, especially to the agricultural high-tech enterprises in China currently facing some crises of slow growth and mistrust from their customers. Based on the first-hand survey data of 125 agricultural hi-tech enterprises and extensive literature review, this paper attempts to analyze the innovation capability of Agricultural High-Tech Enterprises from two perspectives: Technological and institutional. The corresponding index system was constructed based on certain theoretical frameworks to assess the innovation capability in detail. The main conclusions are as follows: the overall level of technological innovation capability is barely acceptable; the technological innovation input capability of enterprises is stronger than the implementation and output capabilities; the institutional innovation capability of these enterprises is lower than technological innovation capability, which to a certain extent hindered the development of the latter. Relevant suggestions are derived based on these conclusions.
The ability to continuously innovate is of critical importance to the long-term success of enterprises, especially to the agricultural high-tech enterprises in China currently facing some crises of slow growth and mistrust from their customers. Based on the first-hand survey data of 125 agricultural hi-tech enterprises and extensive literature review, this paper attempts to analyze the innovation capability of Agricultural High-Tech Enterprises from two perspectives: technological and institutional. The corresponding index system was constructed based on certain theoretical frameworks to assess the innovation capability in detail. The main conclusions are as follows: the overall level of technological innovation (TI) capability is barely acceptable; the TI input capability of enterprises is stronger than the implementation and output capabilities; the institutional innovation capability of these enterprises is lower than TI capability, which to a certain extent hindered the development of the latter. Relevant suggestions are derived based on these conclusions.
Previous studies on innovation governance have focused on the governance of science, technology, and innovation from a long-term perspective. In this article we focus on the short term by exploring the generation and use of new scientific and technical knowledge to address an urgent societal crisis. We empirically analyse the emergency response during the first wave of COVID-19 infections in Iceland using a conceptual framework based on three theoretical components, namely, emergency management, innovation governance, and the innovation process as a problem-solving process. The empirical analysis is built on a systematic analysis of secondary data. Based on the results, we conclude that improvisation processes using existing knowledge and capabilities and triggered by unanticipated problems during a crisis are in some cases sources of successful innovation. In these cases initial problem-solving processes characterized by improvisation can be interpreted as blind variations that are retained and diffused through a series of complementary problem-solving processes that generate and use new scientific and technical knowledge. Furthermore, we extend the concept of innovation governance readiness to include both the readiness to exploit technological opportunities and the readiness to address unanticipated problems during a crisis and propose that our extension is useful for integrating long-term and short-term aspects of innovation governance.
Medical research and innovation to meet urgent demands in society is crucial, but the process contains many challenges. Moreso, impacts from medical research and innovation can take many years to materialise, not least because these activities are infused with various types of complexities due to heterogeneous networks, systems, and contexts. Although acceleration is currently a trending topic, little is known about the temporal complexities embedded in research and innovation processes. This paper analyses the time dimension of medical research and innovation through an empirical investigation of 30 research projects that were set up to respond quickly to the COVID-19 situation from June 2020 to July 2022. Funders and scientists were able to find ways to speed up many tasks, but many of the projects also saw delays and deceleration. An important explanation is that temporality is tied to a myriad of contextual characteristics that limit the opportunities of project leaders for coordinating and accelerating activities and outcomes. Attempts at acceleration seem to work best when substantial ongoing research activities can be shaped incrementally into new directions. Nevertheless, the results of the projects may be of limited value to the pandemic which served as their rationale, but they can serve as a foundation for better policies and practices that invoke the need for rethinking medical innovation in the future.
CSIRO, Australia largest public research agency, has changed appreciably over the past three decades as the social, economic, political and technological environment has changed. In this paper, we address five areas of change, namely the nature of the Organisation research, its research funding allocation, its patterns of collaboration, the way it transfers technology and its role in the national innovation scene. We look at some of the pressures leading to change and at the implications of our analysis for the future. CSIRO is no longer the dominant player in Australian science and innovation as other players, notably in the higher education sector, have grown and, despite its undoubted importance as a reservoir of scientific talent and its major scientific and commercial achievements, much uncertainty about its national role remains.
This paper investigates the transformation of research and development (R&D) in a world-leading Taiwanese bicycle manufacturing firm, the Giant Company, over the last four decades. A dynamic capabilities framework is proposed that focuses on seizing corporate strategy (business model and internationalisation) and on reconfiguring the organisation of R&D (structure and capability development). A longitudinal methodology is applied to examine the Giant Company by tracking its history from its establishment to the present (1972–2016). Interviews with the chief technology officer (CTO) and top managers as well as internal documentation are used to analyse the case. The results indicate that a fine alignment between the seizing corporate strategy and reconfiguring the organisation of R&D successfully transformed the Giant Company from an engineering-based organisation (1972–1987) to a development-based organisation (1987–1999) and then to a research-based organisation (2000 onwards). The paper concludes that the R&D transformation can be wider and more cyclically integrated with corporate strategy through the dynamic capabilities approach. Theoretical and managerial implications are suggested.
This paper presents the classification of academic publications on innovation management in banks. Using a range of online databases, a total of 700 articles were identified. Subsequently, 255 scholarly journal articles in 116 journals were selected, reviewed, and classified into five major categories based on the main focus of each article. These categories include: process of innovation, factors affecting innovation, types of innovation, measures of innovation, and protection of innovation. The articles were further divided into 31 sub-categories. The analysis of the selected articles was based on the year of publication, the journal in which the article was published, and the subject area. The study reveals that there is an increase in the number of articles published within the categories of process of innovation and factors affecting innovation. However, relatively few articles are published on measures and protection of innovation. A wide range of journals have published on innovation management in banks, but few journals have published extensively on the subject. The present study is the first identifiable literature review on managing innovation in a service sector such as banking between 1998 and 2008. The proposed classification framework helps in conceptualizing different facets of innovation management, and highlights the topic areas which tend to be relatively popular among innovation researchers. Potentially, the distribution of the articles among sub-categories and the comprehensive bibliography will help future researchers to explore understudied areas of innovation management.
Web 2.0 offers both technology and an environment that facilitates transparency and communication for users and stakeholders. With this opportunity, public sector e-services are given tools to engage their own employees in an atmosphere that not only fosters new ideas, but provides a framework for managing prototypes and pilot projects that encourage experimentation. In addition, this environment encourages collaboration and breaking down walls of information asymmetries between various stakeholders. Public sector e-services has a legacy of a risk adverse environment where many times the focus is on the politically charged short-term delivery of goals and results, lacking a long-term strategy of managing the risk and renewal cycle around service innovation. The promises and potential that Web 2.0 technologies may provide still have to deal with fragile systems that are currently in place in public sector e-services. Government regulators, consumer advocacy groups, and e-services need to understand how Internet innovation affects the end user/consumer directly. The central premise being that these groups are modeling consumer trends and may be making decisions on false or fabricated information, even suggesting this could lead to inhibiting overall Internet innovation.
This article investigates how business incubator support affects subsequent firm performance. We build on and extend a recent focus on organisational sponsorship mechanisms, applying the lens to business incubators. We first ask: Is there an overall effect of business incubator sponsorship on subsequent firm performance? Second, we ask: To what extent do the decisions of business incubator managers, in terms of allocating resources to start-up firms, impact the subsequent firm performance? We use a unique dataset consisting of the entire population of business incubators in Sweden and their start-ups from 2005 to 2015. Results indicate that business incubator sponsorship has a positive effect on firm performance, while the effects of various forms of sponsorship vary from large positive to neutral effects. Thus, we confirm earlier research on the positive effects of sponsorship and give input on how business managers can use sponsorship theory to provide more optimal resource allocation over time. It appears that coaching and legitimacy have more positive impact on firm level performance compared to other sponsoring activities. Sponsorship is a complex issue, meriting increased theoretical and managerial understanding of its forms and mechanisms. In this respect, our study of how the sponsorship activities of business incubators affect start-up performance complements and extends previous studies of how the effects of business incubator sponsorship depend on external contingencies..
Innovation is frequently cited as the battleground of international competitiveness in the 21st century and cities are increasingly viewed as the cauldrons of innovation, enriching not only their surrounding regions but their nations as a whole. Across the globe massive renewal is taking place in our cities, fundamental shifts in the nature of work and the workplaces they host, and transformation of their output as well as their consumption. Cities compete with one another to attract not only firms and direct foreign investment, but also skilled knowledge workers to develop their social capital and capacity for innovation. But is the attraction of top talent the crucial ingredient? In this study we examine the transformation of Barcelona and its historic cotton district to become an international hub of innovation.
This study addresses the dearth of research on what enables firms’ performance in the context of Industry 4.0 (I4.0). We investigate how I4.0 shapes the effects of firm investments over time and whether the effects of people and equipment depend on innovative management approaches. A longitudinal multi-sector study is conducted of 157 export-oriented, manufacturing firms in a European Union member state (Slovenia) over a 14-year period (in total, consisting of 1791 total observations). The findings suggest that firms which invest more in technology complement these costs by making investments in people, which over time leads to a higher firm performance. The I4.0 phase moderates this mediated relationship in that firms more advanced with respect to engaging in I4.0 tend to lower their human resources costs despite investing in technology while still showing a superior firm performance. This indicates the substitution effect of technology vis-à-vis human resources. The moderation of management innovation proved to be weaker, calling for a detailed look at its nuances across the studied levels. Taken together, our paper contributes in advancing the stream of research focused on internal factors and processes specifically related to firm investments and management processes, thereby leading to the outcomes of new technology use and capitalization. The findings highlight the link between I4.0 and technology management, and innovation, and complements the existing research on the link between management innovation and performance by contextualizing it within I4.0’s new technology and socio-economic changes.
Today, innovative performance is one of the key factors in the study of countries’ competitiveness. Innovative performance is the result of cooperation and interaction among the constituents of innovation systems. This paper aims to investigate the relationship among Common Innovation Infrastructures (CII), Knowledge and Technology Absorptive Capacity (KTAC) and innovative performance at the national level, considering their time lag. For this purpose, a model has been presented. The model consists of the above three mentioned dimensions and nine constructs. The validity of the model was measured, using the empirical data of 81 countries collected from various databases. The structural equation modeling and the AMOS software were used to analyze the relationships. The results of this study showed that goodness of fit of the conceptual model is indicated by the empirical data. The results also revealed that GDP per capita, strength of intellectual property system and policy stability have a positive impact on the KTAC, and that KTAC has a positive impact on the value-added of the industry and service sectors, high-technology exports, international patents and consequently on innovative performance.
Literature on technology absorptive capacity for new knowledge has shown business R&D investment, however measured, to be a key factor. Statistical analyses of Australian innovation survey data showed a strong relationship between technology absorptive capacity and the perceived importance of public sector research providers as sources of information and ideas for innovations. The policy implications of these findings are how to better balance government interventions between increased funding for the generation of new knowledge and improving the absorptive capacity for this new knowledge and the associated enterprise entrepreneurial propensity.
This paper analyses the impact of long-term university-industry collaboration on academic research productivity. Empirical studies show mixed evidence regarding how collaboration with industry affects scientific productivity, and there is a lack of understanding of the long-term effects of collaboration. This paper addresses this shortcoming using a unique longitudinal and comprehensive dataset of university-industry collaboration in Brazil. The results show that research groups that collaborate over the long-term with industry have better scientific performance, revealing that long-term collaborations between university and firms have a positive effect on academic productivity.
This article describes how cultural change supporting commercialization of research outcomes may be hastened in academic institutions. Important tactics include using productive faculty leaders (‘Lions’) as ‘champions’, supported by well-designed training events.
While the existing literature has focused predominantly on how firms can benefit from collaborations with academic institutions such as universities and research institutions, this study explores whether the proportion of (formal) collaborations with different types of firm partners in strategic R&D alliances is associated with publications originating in academic institutions. The empirical analysis is based on a unique dataset of publications in pharmaceutical cancer research. The results suggest that the share of collaborations with industry partners has an inverted u-shaped relationship with the reputation of the journal in which an article originating in an academic institution is published. The share of alliances with pharmaceutical firms shows a similar inverted u-shaped pattern, suggesting that research originating in academic institutions can only benefit from alliances with pharmaceutical firms through resource inflows up to a threshold.
Top-cited authors
Peter Gloor
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Jason Potts
  • RMIT University
Marcel Bogers
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
Joel West
  • Keck Graduate Institute
Tim Kastelle
  • The University of Queensland