Published by Elsevier BV

Online ISSN: 0020-1383


Growth factors
  • Article

January 2005


14 Reads

S Krikler

Head injury outcome prediction: A role for protein S-100B?

December 2006


99 Reads

Prediction of the likely outcome of head injury from the outset would allow early rehabilitation to be targeted at those with most to gain. Clinical evaluation of a head injured patient may be confounded by intoxicants such as alcohol. Imaging modalities are insensitive (CT) or impractical (MR) for screening populations of such patients. A peripheral marker that reflected the extent of brain injury might offer an objective indication of likely adverse sequelae. This review evaluates the evidence for Protein S-100B as such a marker. A search of published literature revealed 18 studies designed to evaluate the relation between serum S-100B and measures of outcome after head injury. A cut-off point of 2.5microg/L is related to dependent disability in those presenting with low conscious level, and may be a specific test for this. There appears to be a relation between initial serum S-100B concentration and measures of disability as well as post-concussion symptoms for those with seemingly mild injuries. There does not appear to be a relation between S-100B and measures of neuropsychological performance. Patients with high levels of S-100B at initial assessment (>2.5microg/L) may represent a high risk group for disability after head trauma.

Vertical deceleration injuries: A comparative study of the injury patterns of 101 patients after accidental and intentional high falls

December 1996


80 Reads






We analysed the pattern of injury of 101 adult patients who were treated in our Trauma Center after a fall from an average height of 7.2 m between 1987 and 1990. In 62 patients the fall was accidental, and 39 jumped with suicidal intent. The most common injuries were fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine (83.0 per cent) especially of the thoracolumbar junction. The pattern of limb injuries is towards a significant preference of the metaphyseal and epiphyseal parts of the bones of the distal joints (wrist, elbow, ankle, subtalar). Fractures of the diaphyseal areas and the proximal joints (shoulder, humerus, hip, femur) were rare. The incidence of thoracic (20.8 per cent) and pelvic injuries (30.0 per cent) was relatively lower. Blunt abdominal injury (5.9 per cent) was rare after a fall from a great height. Head injuries occurred in only 27 per cent of our patients who all survived their transport to hospital. There is no significant difference in injury patterns between deliberate and accidental falls, but there is a higher number of isolated injuries in all patients after unsuccessful suicidal jumps.

Reverse obliquity and transverse fractures of the trochanteric region of the femur; A review of 101 cases

August 2005


118 Reads

Reverse obliquity and transverse fractures of the proximal femur represent a distinct fracture pattern in which the mechanical forces displace the femur medially thus increasing the risk of fixation failure. There is a paucity of published literature in this area of trauma. This study constitutes the largest series of such fractures. Using a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a single institution, 101 reverse obliquity and transverse fracture patterns were identified from 3336 consecutive hip fractures. All surviving patients were followed up for 1 year. Of 100 patients treated operatively, 59 were treated with 135 degrees sliding hip screws (SHS), 19 with a Medoff plates modification of the SHS, three with a sliding hip screw and trochanteric stabilising plate and 19 with intramedullary sliding hip screw devices. Nine fracture fixation-healing complications occurred, with cut-out being the commonest complication (seven cases). Cut-out of the implant was associated with femoral medialisation and a larger tip to apex distance. This fracture pattern is a challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon with a high risk of fracture healing complications. The 135 degrees SHS and the intramedullary devices had similar failure rates.

Results of 1018 digital replantations in 552 patients

February 2000


63 Reads

To find out the influencing factors of the immediate and late outcome of replantation and revascularization of the digits the study was carried out as a prospective survey research during 1983 to 1995 with at least 2 year follow up. Traumatic total or subtotal amputation with inadequate circulation of the digits distal to the metacarpal head were included in the study. There were 552 patients with 366 males (675 digits) and 186 females (343 digits). Successful operation was found in 508 patients (92%) with 946 digits (92.9%). Type of injury was the most important factor influencing immediate and late outcome. Regular cigarette smoking resulted in poor immediate survival rate. Prolonged ischaemia had a significant influence in final functional outcome. Using composite skin and subcutaneous vein graft gave good survival rate. Injury at the no man's land area resulted in poor range of movement of the digit. Connecting the profundus tendon stump of the proximal part to the superficialis tendon of the amputated part gave a better result than 2 tendon repair and repairing only the profundus tendon. Replantation should be carried out even if only one digit is involved. At the 2 year follow up 195 patients (38%) were classified in grade I of Chen et al., functional outcome, while 153 (31%) were in grade II, 124 (24%) were in grade III and 36 (7%) were in grade IV.

Avascular necrosis after internal fixation of intracapsular hip fractures; a study of the outcome for 1023 patients

April 2009


153 Reads

We prospectively studied 1023 patients who sustained an intracapsular hip fracture that was treated with internal fixation using contemporary methods. The overall incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) was 6.6%. AVN was less common for undisplaced (4.0%) than for displaced fractures (9.5%) and in men (4.9%) than women (11.4%) who had a displaced fracture. The incidence of AVN for those aged less than 60 years and who sustained a displaced fracture was 20.6%, compared to 12.5% for those aged 60-80 years and 2.5% for those aged more than 80 years. Our study showed an increased risk of AVN with younger age and in females with a displaced fracture. We found no association between the incidence of AVN and the interval between injury to surgery.

Sliding hip screw fixation of trochanteric hip fractures: Outcome of 1024 procedures

July 2005


94 Reads

The results for a consecutive series of 1024 trochanteric hip fractures surgically treated by internal fixation with a sliding hip screw in a single centre are presented. The mean age of patients was 81.7 years and 78% were female. Seventy-five percent of fractures were classified as unstable. At 1 year from injury, 69% of patients were surviving. Of these, 95% had minimal or no pain, 85% had at least returned to their pre-fracture level of accommodation and 50% to their pre-fracture level of mobility. Complications related to surgical fixation were encountered in 3.6% of cases. Overall, 2.6% of patients required further surgery as a result of these. While significant mortality remains an issue, the overall fixation failure rate and re-operation rate for trochanteric fractures fixed with a sliding hip screw is low. The final outcome of surgery for the survivors is good, with most patients returning to their pre-fracture level of accommodation and mobility, with minimal pain 1-year post-fracture.

Deaths from blunt trauma: A review of 105 cases

April 1984


13 Reads

This paper reviews 105 fatal cases of blunt trauma, in which death occurred after arrival at hospital. Data are presented with reference to age, sex, nature of injuries and length of stay. An assessment was made as to whether any major lesions remained undiagnosed or were undertreated; 16 per cent of these deaths were found to be due, at least in part, to such lesions.

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 for treatment of long bone non-union: An observational, retrospective, non-randomized study of 105 patients

September 2006


15 Reads

Autogenous bone-grafting is frequently used in the treatment of fracture non-union. The donor-site morbidity and potentially limited supply of suitable autogenous bone are commonly recognized drawbacks. Recent studies advocated the benefit and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) in several anatomical sites. An observational, retrospective, non-randomized study on the use of BMP-7 in treating non-union in various sites has been carried out by the BMP-7 Italian Observational Study (BIOS) Group. The clinical series included 105 patients. Additional grafts were used based on the surgeon's decision. Radiographic and clinical assessments were carried out at progressive time intervals on two groups: BMP-7+autograft (A) or BMP-7 (B). The mean follow-up was 29.2 months. The last assessment showed an 88.8% success rate with an average healing time of 7.9 months. At >/=9 months there was overlapping between the unions recorded in the two groups (PA-PB=1.5%; CI 95%: -0.149; 0.119). This is an observational study that illustrates the efficacy of BMP-7 with and without bone grafting for the treatment of long bone non-unions.

1086 Consecutive injuries caused by glass

April 1982


8 Reads

A prospective study of 1086 consecutive injuries caused by glass showed that the mean age of the patients was 15 years and there was a 7 : 3 male to female ratio. The home (35 per cent), public places (31.3 per cent) and places of work (21.1 per cent) were the main locations where these accidents occurred. Although most of the injuries were mild, 3 case histories illustrate that some of them were extremely serious. 4.6 per cent of patients requiring immediate admission to hospital. Extrapolation of the figures indicates that approximately 210,000 people attend hospital each year in England and Wales for treatment of an injury caused by glass. The annual cost to the National Health Service is about 7,500,000 pounds but the full financial implications of these injuries in terms of compensation and insurance payments must be much greater. Suggestions are made of ways to reduce the incidence of these injuries from road traffic accidents and accidents with plate glass and glass containers.

Civilian parachute injuries; 10years on and no lessons learned

November 1998


16 Reads

The Maidstone Hospital provides trauma services to one of the largest parachute clubs in the United Kingdom. We studied injuries sustained at the club in 1994 and compared results with equivalent data from 1984. The injury rate for first time jumpers in the current study was 1.2%; half of these cases required admission for an average of 10 d. Individual morbidity and loss of productivity lasted far longer. No lessons had been learned from the first study. We question parachuting as a fund-raising venture and suggest re-evaluating the training of novice parachutists, perhaps with mandatory use of the safer rectangular parachute. At a time when healthcare rationing is an issue, individuals engaging in activities such as these might be required to indemnify themselves against the medical costs of injury currently met by the state.

Interprosthetic dislocations of the Charnley/Hastings hemiarthroplasty Report of 11 cases in 350 consecutive patients

March 2006


51 Reads

We report 11 cases of interprosthetic dislocation of the Charnley/Hastings hemiarthroplasty in a retrospective study of 350 consecutive patients treated for an acute femoral neck fracture. We found a total of 14 dislocations (4.0%), 11 were interprosthetic. The median age of the 350 patients was 79 (36-99) years and the median age of the 11 patients with an interprosthetic dislocation was 85 years (82-94). The median time from surgery to radiologically acknowledged dislocation was 18 (4-64) days. These interprosthetic dislocations may be caused by either an assembly mistake perioperatively, by maximum angulation and impingement between the components, or by trauma.

Significance of levels of IL-6 and IL-8 after trauma: A study of 11 cytokines post-mortem using multiplex immunoassay

October 2007


49 Reads

To identify cytokines useful for diagnosis of traumatic death. Post-mortem serum levels of 11 cytokines were assayed for 43 people who died of traumatic injury or from non-traumatic causes. Levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, gamma interferon, interleukin IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were measured using multiplex immunoassay. Levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (p<0.01), IL-6 (p<0.001), and IL-8 (p<0.01) among the traumatic group were significantly higher than those among the non-traumatic group. Anatomical trauma severity was also estimated using the total abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score, revealing significant positive correlations between the former and IL-6 (rs=0.6523, p<0.01) and IL-8 levels (rs=0.6584, p<0.01). Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 assist differentiation between traumatic and non-traumatic death, are useful objective indices of trauma severity and can support a diagnosis of traumatic death.

A case of osteomyelitis following flexible nailing of a femoral shaft fracture in an 11 years old

January 2005


14 Reads

Flexible intramedullary nailing is a relatively safe method of treating femoral fractures in the child, with excellent functional results and a low complication rate. However, this case documents development of osteomyelitis subsequent to nail insertion. This report highlights the need to carefully evaluate the benefits of surgical over conservative management in every case of paediatric femoral fracture.

Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients with whiplash injury: A prospective 11-year follow-up study

December 2012


256 Reads

Introduction: There are few studies on Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients suffering from whiplash. This study compared Modic changes seen in whiplash patients 10 years after the injury with those observed in asymptomatic volunteers. Methods: This is a follow-up study of 133 patients who suffered whiplash injuries in 1994-1996 and underwent MRI with a superconductive imager (63 men, 70 women, mean age 49.6±15.3 years, mean follow-up 11.4 years). In addition, 223 healthy volunteers who underwent MRI during the same period were included as controls (123 men, 100 women, mean age 50.5±15.0 years, mean follow-up 11.6 years). All participants underwent follow-up MRI. We examined all participants for Modic changes, and investigated relationships between Modic changes and clinical symptoms or potentially related factors. Results: Modic changes were observed in 4 patients (3%) and at 7 intervertebral levels in the initial study, and in 17 patients (12.8%) and at 30 intervertebral levels at the follow-up. Modic Type 2 changes were the most prevalent in the whiplash patients in both the initial and follow-up studies. There was no significant difference in the percentage of whiplash patients versus control subjects with positive Modic changes, either at the initial study or at follow-up. Modic changes were not related to clinical symptoms present at follow-up, but were associated with preexisting disc degeneration. There was no association between Modic changes and the details of the car accident that caused the injury. Conclusions: While Modic changes became more common in whiplash patients in the 10-year period after the accident, they occurred with a similar frequency in control subjects. We did not find any association between Modic changes and the nature of the car accident in which the whiplash occurred. Modic changes found in whiplash patients may be a result of the physiological ageing process rather than pathological findings relating to the whiplash injury.

Management of pubic symphysis diastasis with locking plates: A report of 11 cases

February 2013


68 Reads

Introduction: The optimal method of fixation of symphyseal disruptions in pelvic ring injuries and post-operative rehabilitation is still debated. Options include two-hole, multi-hole and multiplanar plates. Post-operative rehabilitation can range from non-weight bearing bilaterally to full weight-bearing with crutches. Locking symphyseal plates have recently been introduced. There is a paucity of literature evaluating their use in such injuries. We present the first clinical case series of symphyseal diastasis managed with locking plates. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a single centre case series between August 2008 and December 2011 was conducted. A total of 11 patients; 2 females and 9 males with a mean age of 42 years were included. The mean radiological follow up was 27 weeks. Radiological failure and need for revision were evaluated. Results: 4 patients sustained their injury as a result of a motorcycle accident, 3 patients following a car accident, 2 fell from a height and 2 had crush injuries. 9 patients had other concomitant injuries. The mechanism of injury was classified as anterior-posterior compression injury in 6 patients, vertical shear in 4 patients and combined mechanism in 1 patient. 6 patients required posterior pelvic fixation. Patients were mobilised fully or partially weight bearing. One patient had a significant radiological failure. All patients were asymptomatic at last follow-up and none required revision surgery. Conclusion: Our series represents the first published clinical series of patients with symphyseal diastasis managed with locking plates. We have found the use of locking plates across the pubic symphysis to be safe with low complication rates despite early weight bearing.

The management of acute craniocerebral injuries caused by missiles: analysis of 110 consecutive penetrating wounds of the brain from Basrah

October 1984


10 Reads

Penetrating missile injuries of the head comprised 3·4 per cent of the missile injuries admitted to our hospital directly or transferred from nearby hospitals. Those who died accounted for approximately 70 per cent of the total deaths in hospital from missiles. The immediate treatment is presented and the results are evaluated in 110 consecutive cases. The points emphasized are, first, that less than rapid evacuation selects those patients who are probably going to survive anyway; second, that bullet wounds of the head are nearly always fatal, especially if inflicted by high-velocity weapons; and, third, that the operation should include wide exposure of the injured site with thorough excision of the wound track and watertight closure of the dura.

Missed injuries during the initial assessment in a cohort of 1124 level-1 trauma patients

August 2011


155 Reads

Despite the presence of diagnostic guidelines for the initial evaluation in trauma, the reported incidence of missed injuries is considerable. The aim of this study was to assess the missed injuries in a large cohort of trauma patients originating from two European Level-1 trauma centres. We analysed the 1124 patients included in the randomised REACT trial. Missed injuries were defined as injuries not diagnosed or suspected during initial clinical and radiological evaluation in the trauma room. We assessed the frequency, type, consequences and the phase in which the missed injuries were diagnosed and used univariate analysis to identify potential contributing factors. Eight hundred and three patients were male, median age was 38 years and 1079 patients sustained blunt trauma. Overall, 122 injuries were missed in 92 patients (8.2%). Most injuries concerned the extremities. Sixteen injuries had an AIS grade of ≥ 3. Patients with missed injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores (ISSs) (median of 15 versus 5, p<0.001). Factors associated with missed injuries were severe traumatic brain injury (GCS ≤ 8) and multitrauma (ISS ≥ 16). Seventy-two missed injuries remained undetected during tertiary survey (59%). In total, 31 operations were required for 26 initially missed injuries. Despite guidelines to avoid missed injuries, this problem is hard to prevent, especially in the severely injured. The present study showed that the rate of missed injuries was comparable with the literature and their consequences not severe. A high index of suspicion remains warranted, especially in multitrauma patients.

Timofeev I, Hutchinson PJ: Outcome after surgical decompression of severe traumatic brain injury. Injury 37: 1125-32

January 2007


70 Reads

One of the factors that affects outcome following severe traumatic brain injury is development and progression of cerebral oedema with associated increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Uncontrolled elevations of ICP may compromise energy metabolism of the injured brain and lead to secondary injury, affecting neurological outcome of the patient. Decompressive craniectomy has been used for over a century as a treatment of refractory brain swelling in a variety of neurological conditions. However, conclusive evidence of whether it has a beneficial or adverse affect on outcome is lacking. This article reviews the existing evidence on the role of decompressive craniectomy in management of patients with traumatic brain injury and stresses the need for randomised controlled trials.

The application of the limited contact dynamic compression plate in the upper extremity: An analysis of 114 consecutive cases

January 1996


33 Reads

We sought to assess the clinical effectiveness of a new plate design which offers improved biological and biomechanical features, the limited contact dynamic compression (LCDC) plate. We analysed 114 LCDC plates applied consecutively for upper extremity fractures or reconstruction in 94 patients. Three patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 111 plates in 91 patients followed to definitive fracture/osteotomy outcome. Thirty-seven plates were applied for reconstruction in 35 patients, including 11 where standard implants had failed. Fifty-six patients had 74 plates applied for acute fractures including 12 open fractures, 23 multiply injured patients, 26 patients with concomitant fractures and seven associated neurovascular injuries. All patients were followed to definitive outcome. Union was achieved at an average of 10.7 weeks in 105 platings, while three delayed unions eventually united without further intervention, an overall union rate of 108/111, or 97.3 per cent. There were no mechanical failures of the plates or screws. In this large series a union rate of 97.3 per cent with no implant failures confirms its clinical application for traumatic and reconstructive problems in this area. Improved contouring, easier screw placement, decreased interference with cortical bone blood flow and excellent union rates are definite short-term advantages. Theoretical long-term benefits of decreased stress-shielding and lower refracture rates will require longer follow up.

Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: Incidence and risk factors

November 2007


183 Reads

The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data as well as data about trauma severity and hospital stay of these patients have been registered prospectively in a database (Danish National Head Injury database) at the Brain Injury Unit where the sub acute rehabilitation took place. The present study was based retrospectively on this database, combined with X-rays obtained for symptoms of HO and/or as fracture control. Clinically significant HO was found in 7.9% of the patients. Logistic regression showed an independent significant positive correlation between HO, the female gender and a high Injury Severity Score. The low incidence of HO might be explained by the application of early mobilisation and physiotherapy of the patients. The higher incidence of HO among women speaks for humoural and hormone factors initiating bone formation outside the bones.

Revision of 120 tibial infected non-unions with bone and soft tissue loss treated with epidermato-fascial osteoplasty according to Umiarov

September 2013


50 Reads

Treatment of tibial infected non-unions with bone and soft tissue loss has to solve three problems: infection, lack of bone continuity and lack of skin coverage. The aims of treatment are infection healing, bone consolidation with preservation of limb length and soft tissue reconstruction. The most important stage in the planning is an accurate débridement. Soft tissue reconstruction can be achieved using plastic surgery, and bone reconstruction is accomplished with bone grafts or induced membrane technique, but these methods may present disadvantages and risks.

Epidemiology and outcome of 121 cases of chemical burn in East Azarbaijan province, Iran

September 2008


42 Reads

To explore the epidemiology, mechanisms, complications, morbidity and mortality associated with chemical burns. Data from 121 cases of chemical burn treated in our department over a 5-year period were compared. Data were obtained by prospective proforma. A mean 7.98% of total body surface area was burned. This series had a male:female ratio of 10:1, with a mean age 35.3 years. Young men experiencing work-related accidents were the most frequent victims. The majority of chemical burns occurred away from home (98.3%), particularly in the working environment (78.5%); 111 (91.7%) burns were accidental and 10 (8.3%) constituted criminal assault. Tar was the most frequent agent involved, followed by acid, and the hands were the most frequent site of injury. Most burns were small and of second degree; 10.7% of cases involved serious ocular damage. The mean hospital stay was 10 days, and the mortality rate was 1.7%. Constant safety education for the public and professional training for workers would reduce the incidence of chemical burns. Prevention strategies must be coordinated on a national level.

Total hip replacement for acetabular fractures. Results in 121 patients operated between 1983 and 2003.

August 2008


45 Reads

Total hip replacement has an important role in the treatment of acetabular fractures. Immediate total hip arthroplasty is only indicated for some rare cases but late reconstruction is performed more frequently and may follow failed non-operative or operative treatment of the original acetabular fracture. The purpose of this study is to determine the results of the use of total hip replacement for the treatment of acetabular fractures and to compare the results of the early and late reconstruction group. 121 acetabular fractures treated with total hip arthroplasty between 1983 and 2003 at the University Hospitals Gasthuisberg in Leuven, Belgium were retrospectively studied. The patients were divided into two groups. In the "early reconstruction group" total hip arthroplasty was performed as primary treatment of the acetabular fracture. In the "late reconstruction group": total hip arthroplasty was performed following failed operative or non-operative treatment of the acetabular fracture. The indications for total hip arthroplasty and the surgical technique in both the early and late reconstruction group were compared. Secondly, complications were reviewed in both groups and a functional scoring system was applied for each patient. Primarily there was a significant difference in the age of the patient population of each group with a predominance for older patients in the early reconstruction group. Secondly, less revisions were performed in the early reconstruction group: 8% compared to 22% in the late reconstruction group. The results obtained in our patient groups were compared to the results found in literature by a Medline search. In general, our results were comparable to the results found in literature but a remarkable difference was found between different authors. Total hip replacement for acetabular fractures is rarely indicated in the acute phase. After failed treatment of an acetabular fracture, total hip replacement has to be considered as a salvage procedure. In both cases, one may not forget total hip arthroplasty is a severe intervention associated with a high number of complications.

Non-operative or operative treatment for undisplaced femoral neck fractures: A comparative study of 122 non-operative and 125 operatively treated cases

November 1996


43 Reads

We present a series of 247 undisplaced femoral neck fractures, of which 122 were primarily treated non-operatively, and 125 with primary operative stabilization. The background parameters did not differ significantly in the two groups. The length of hospitalization was 1 week shorter in the operatively treated group. They started to walk bearing full weight at an average of 11 days earlier. Two-thirds of the operatively treated but only one-quarter of the non-operatively treated patients were able to walk alone when they left hospital. General complications were recorded in 19 of the non-operatively and in four of the operatively treated patients during their hospitalization. Early displacement (within 6 weeks) was noted in 20 per cent of the non-operatively treated patients who required late operation. However, there was no early displacement in the operatively treated group. We therefore recommend primary operative stabilization of undisplaced femoral neck fractures.

Post-traumatic empyema: Aetiology, surgery and outcome in 125 consecutive patients

April 2012


17 Reads

Introduction: Empyema remains a potentially serious condition with multiple etiologies including post-pneumonic, post-resection, and post-traumatic. There are few studies describing the latter. We reviewed our experience at a high volume trauma centre in injured patients with empyema, examining pre-operative status, surgical procedures, pathogens and outcome. Methods: Retrospective trauma registry review, from 9/01 to 4/10. Empyema was defined as culture positive pleural fluid or purulence at operation. Data collected included demographics, injury mechanism, thoracic injuries, organ dysfunction, pathogens isolated, surgical procedures, outcomes and follow up. Results: One hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with empyema were identified. Average injury severity score and age were 27.3 and 37.2 years respectively; 89.6% were male, 63.2% sustained blunt chest trauma. Time from injury to diagnosis averaged 12.1 days. All underwent decortication; 80% by thoracotomy, the remainder thoracoscopically. At operation over half were mechanically ventilated and 13.6% required vasoactive infusions. Monomicrobial cultures with Gram positive cocci predominating were obtained in 44%, 48% had polymicrobial cultures and 18.4% had a ruptured lung abscess. There were five deaths (4%); two occurring after a ruptured lung abscess. Recurrent empyema occurred in 6.4%, all successfully treated by re-operation or catheter drainage. Intensive care and hospital stays were 18.1 and 30.6 days respectively. All survivors achieved resolution of empyema. Conclusions: Trauma patients with empyema represent a subset of severely injured critically ill patients with diverse pathogens and polymicrobial flora. Appropriate surgical management and specific antibiotic therapy yields excellent results with acceptable risk. A ruptured lung abscess may be the aetiology of the post-traumatic empyema in a subset of patients and may represent an increased operative risk.

Changes in the treatment of acetabular fractures over 15 years: Analysis of 1266 cases treated by the German Pelvic Multicentre Study Group (DAO/DGU)

May 2010


97 Reads

Epidemiological, clinical and radiological data of 1266 patients with a unilateral acetabular fracture of up to 29 hospitals was reviewed. Three time periods, 1991–1993 (Registry I; n = 359), 1998–2000 (Registry II; n = 503), and 2005–2006 (Registry III; n = 404) were compared with regard to injury pattern and severity, fracture type, and chosen nonoperative vs. operative treatment to elucidate changes over time in the treatment of acetabular fractures. In the operatively treated group, time to operation, surgical approach, fracture fixation implants and fracture reduction quality were examined.

Top-cited authors