Information Systems Journal

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1365-2575
Discipline: Information Science
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Aims and scope

The Information Systems Journal (ISJ) is an international journal promoting the study of, and interest in, information systems. Articles are welcome on research, practice, experience, current issues and debates. The ISJ encourages submissions that reflect the wide and interdisciplinary nature of the subject and articles that integrate technological disciplines with social, contextual and management issues, based on research using appropriate research methods. The ISJ has particularly built its reputation by publishing qualitative research and it continues to welcome such papers. Quantitative research papers are also welcome but they need to emphasise the context of the research and the theoretical and practical implications of their findings. The ISJ does not publish purely technical papers.



Recent publications
Online shops have become increasingly interactive, using different technologies to create virtual experiences that attempt to simulate a realistic product experience. We explore the impact of high sensory enabling (HSE) virtual product presentation modes using state-of-the-art virtual reality (VR) technology that allows consumers to imitate natural movement and interactions via head-mounted displays (HMD) and dual hand VR controllers. This will compare the HSE virtual product presentation mode with a typical low sensory enabling (LSE) virtual product presentation mode that utilises conventional computer screens, along with mouse and keyboard inputs, on a desktop computer. For the HSE virtual product presentation mode, the results show significantly higher values for the studied variables, including presence, perceived diagnosticity, attitude towards product, and purchase intention. Shopping frequency has a moderating effect on the significant differences of presence between presentation modes. Our research contributes to theory by building on attitude theory, cue summation theory, as well as repetitive learning and memory to explore and explain the effects of HSE virtual product presentation modes on the constructs considered. For managers and industry leaders, this study identifies the importance of using state-of-the-art technology when creating HSE virtual experiences for their products.
Traditional perspective on affordance perception (inspired by Pozzi et al., 2014 and Lanamäki et al., 2016)
Digital twin screenshots [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
DigitalGrid project evolution through three phases
Nuanced perspective on relational aspect of affordance perception
The concept of affordances has become central in information systems literature. However, existing perspectives fall short in providing details on the relational aspect of affordances, which can influence actors' perception of them. To increase granularity and specificity in this regard, researchers have suggested that it be supplemented with other concepts or theories. In this article, we argue that the Heideggerian concepts of ‘familiarity’ and ‘referential totality’ are well suited for increasing our understanding of the relational aspects of affordances in information systems research. To explore this idea, we conducted a case study of a project concerning the development of a digital twin (i.e., digital representation of a physical asset) in the Norwegian grid sector. We found that users' familiarity with the digital twin totality enabled them to perceive digital twin affordances, and that without this familiarity, affordances remained latent for the users. Through our study, we offer a nuanced perspective on the relational aspect of affordance perception, contributing to affordance theory in that regard. Further, we contribute to practice and information systems research by providing valuable insights into how digital twins are understood and applied in practice.
The process of digital attrition
One of the key competitive advantages of sharing economy platforms stems from their superior IT capabilities, which enable operations that are more efficient and/or effective than the incumbent firms. However, given that many of the incumbents tend to be established market leaders or resource‐rich multi‐nationals, their general inability to acquire the appropriate digital options (ie, the IT capabilities that enable the launch of, and response to, competitive actions) to meet the challenge of the sharing economy platforms is puzzling. This study explores this phenomenon by posing the research question: How do the “forces at work” associated with the sharing economy paradigm impact the digital options of incumbent firms? Based on the case of Qiangsheng Taxi and how its IT capabilities have been affected by the emergence of ridesharing platforms, the evidence uncovered suggests that the sharing economy can influence the digital options of incumbent firms through a process of digital attrition, which may be induced by a blend of unfavorable contextual influences (ie, an unbalanced regulatory regime, evolving market preferences and the resourcing advantages of sharing economy platforms). A framework is inductively derived from the data collected that depicts digital attrition as a process of three phases: (a) deinstitutionalization, (b) technological incapacitation, and (c) competitive erosion. In doing so, our study suggests that digital attrition may culminate in IT‐induced competitive disadvantages for incumbent firms, which in turn, could exacerbate the unfavorable contextual influences to complete a vicious cycle that reinforces the negative influence of the sharing economy even further.
Existing IS research on platform work has narrowly focused on the managerial operations of algorithmic management or its business implications. Limited research has paid attention to the scalar effects and societal implications of platform work. In this study, we address the phenomenon of ‘speed’ in the on‐demand economy through a qualitative study of Chinese food delivery workers. We construct a performative view of spatiotemporality to illustrate the reconfiguration of multiple spatiotemporal orders. The paper thus broadens the theorization of time and space in IS research and provides a more nuanced and critical understanding of platform work against the backdrop of structural inequality in platform capitalism.
Conceptual model (top model is adapted from Henderson (1999); the bottom model is the focus of the study)
Research model
Interaction plots [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
A centralised open innovation search approach refers to setting up a dedicated and specialised sourcing unit to search external sources for knowledge, while a decentralised open innovation search approach refers to empowering employees in various functional units to search external sources for knowledge during their routine research and development work. This research examines the operational alignment of the open innovation search approach with information technology (IT) use given that open innovation search can be significantly enhanced by IT. We theorise that organisations that have a high extent of employing a centralised (decentralised) open innovation approach and a high IT use intensity for external (internal) information flows are likely to have a high extent of exploratory (exploitative) innovation. We further posit that harnessing exploratory and exploitative innovation can lead to organisational innovation performance. This theory was validated through a field survey involving 186 organisations. The findings from this study advance the IT and open innovation literature by gaining an understanding of the interplay among different open innovation search approaches and IT use, and the resulting variances in innovation performance in terms of new product sales and patents.
Circuits of power (adapted from Clegg, 1989)
Data structure
Digital ecosystem governance entails the management of complex, dynamic power relationships. As entrant platform providers seek to cultivate an ecosystem, they must carefully navigate these power relationships when dealing with governance tensions. Providers generally seek to leverage the ecosystem's generative potential by facilitating a variety of interactions and distributing design rights. Simultaneously, they need to ensure stability and order by imposing rules that resolve contentious matters and restrict ecosystem participants' degrees of freedom. This study explores how and why providers can induce ecosystem actors to engage in collaborative negotiation regarding such governance tensions through a case study of the introduction of an open data platform in the Swedish public transport sector. Our analysis offers three main contributions. First, it provides an empirical demonstration that entrepreneurial threats, as well as opportunities, can trigger platform launches and drive collaborative negotiation of digital ecosystem governance. Second, it extends conceptualizations of boundary resources beyond the current focus on transactional elements by demonstrating the role of interactive boundary resources in the negotiation of governance grounded in both social and systemic power relationships. Third, it shows how positive reinforcement can complement punitive measures to increase acceptance of design rules.
Typology of competitive strategies for various Fintech platforms
The emergence of Fintech platforms has revolutionized the way financial services are provided. And yet, in spite of their growing prominence in the global financial sector, there remains a lack of understanding of the competitive strategies that are appropriate for these platform‐based businesses, and the implications of those strategies for their performance. Examining four case studies of some of the most successful Fintech platforms in China from the theoretical perspective of the core logics of strategy, we develop a theoretical framework that suggests that the nature of the competitive strategies deployed by a Fintech platform should be contingent on (1) the extent to which their services can be differentiated, as well as (2) the tangibility and physical presence of the platform’s service offerings. More specifically, our framework presents four different combinations of competitive strategies that Fintech platforms can adopt contingent on the nature of their services along these two dimensions. In addition, beyond the two dimensions, our framework suggests that all Fintech platforms should be underpinned by a common strategic core consisting of strategies that align the platform with social pressures. These pressures include those exerted by the government, the market, and society in general. With its findings, it is hoped that our study will provide specific guidance for Fintech practitioners on the appropriate competitive strategies to adopt in order to set their platforms on the path of commercial success.
Schematic diagram of iLeam system structure
With its unique characteristics of full immersion and interactivity, virtual reality technology llrovides llOwerful sumlOrt for the creation of teaching situations and greatly changes the way students learn. The article uses design and development research methods to build a dee1l learning field model based on virtual reality technology. The author designs an immersive English learning system based on Kinect somatosensory equipment, introduces somatosensory recognition and s1leech recognition technology into English teaching, and SUilllOrts virtual scenes with machine dialogue, llronunciation correction, real-time translation, reading training, English games and other functions. It has the advantages of humanized design, easy 01leration, customizable and strong scalability, and llrovides com1irehensive hel1l for English learners.
Conceptualization of physiological measurement instrument intrusiveness (from Riedl et al., 2014)
Causal chain of Deng et al. (2016)
Testing habituation theory at different points of the causal chain
NeuroIS—the methods and knowledge of neuroscience applied to the information systems (IS) domain—has become an established research field within the IS discipline. A key advantage of NeuroIS is its ability to provide insights into human cognition beyond those obtained using behavioural techniques alone. Nevertheless, in neuroscience, there is renewed interest in examining behaviour together with neurophysiological methods to better inform our understanding of neural processes. In this research opinion article, we argue that in the field of NeuroIS, there is an opportunity for hybrid programs of study that combine neurophysiological and behavioural methods in a complementary manner. We outline four strategies for designing complementary neurophysiological and behavioural experiments in a research program: (1) observe the relationship between neural processes and behavioural change; (2) combine neurophysiological and behavioural methods to enhance internal, external, and ecological validity; (3) extend, rather than replicate, experiments based on theory; and (4) use neurophysiological and behavioural experiments together to evaluate IT artefact design. By applying these strategies, researchers can more effectively design programs using complementary neurophysiological and behavioural methods, which, in turn, can help to provide richer insights into the phenomena under study as well as accelerate the advancement of IS knowledge.
The Ghanaian FinTech ecosystem. MNOs, mobile network operators
Illustrative coding process and data structure
Timeline of major milestones in Ghana's FinTech ecosystem
Model of mobile money‐driven economic empowerment. MNOs, mobile network operators
While there have been increasing studies on the impact of financial technology (FinTech), limited research has explored how FinTech supports economic empowerment for informal businesses. Drawing on institutional logics and a case study of mobile money—a FinTech innovation—this study develops a model of mobile money-driven economic empowerment. We argue that this model is important to explain how those at the bottom of the economic pyramid, who are often neglected, use FinTech innovations to create and run informal businesses. Our findings and model explain the dynamics between logics, actors, and mobile money at three levels: regulatory, payments infrastructure, and informal economy. We identify three corresponding effects as outcomes of economic empowerment for informal businesses: greater access to start-up capital, new employment opportunities, and improved financial management. By illustrating these effects, our study contributes to a better understanding of how FinTech innovations offer a possible pathway to economic empowerment for informal businesses.
Pathway 1: Developing basic digital capability through the core social network
Pathway 2: Developing intermediate digital capability through extended social networks
Pathway 3: Developing advanced digital capability through wide public networks
Process model of digital capability development
Healthcare information technologies (HIT) have shown great potential for improving the effectiveness and quality of healthcare services. However, the inequal ability of older adults to use HIT may limit their exploitation of these benefits. To narrow the age‐based “digital divide”, this research further develops the concept of digital capability and emphasises the link between older adults and their social context. Based on a qualitative inductive study of 33 participants, who included Chinese patients and their family members, we generate a novel theoretical model for understanding the process by which social activities may shape older adults' digital capabilities. Based on the model, we suggest two strategies that might encourage older adults to engage with HIT. This research contributes to the information systems (IS) literature by strengthening digital capability as a conceptual lens to investigate individuals' engagement with information communication technologies (ICTs). It also extends research on the social context for ICT use by revealing how social processes at multiple levels influence digital capability development. Finally, this study offers practical implications for governments and private sectors to encourage and promote ICT use by older adults.
Theories used in the Information Systems (IS) field come in large majority from authors based in Western countries, a bias that holds for critical theories as well. Such a bias is made more problematic by the mandate of critical theory, which is meant exactly to illuminate the oppressive conditions of the status quo. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the subalternity theory approach – developed by the Subaltern Studies collective from the early 1980s – as an indigenous theory that, proposing a socially and geographically connotated narration of ‘history from below’, can play a major role in the effort to decolonise critical IS research. By positioning subaltern theory in the IS field, the paper offers an alternative to the Western hegemony of critical theories, exploring the potential of such an alternative to voice systematically silenced and marginalised perspectives.
Providers/kitchens nearby
Dishes offered by a provider/kitchen
Provider/kitchen information
Predictive margins of ODR_DC
Model‐free plot of average declined sales orders, accepted sales orders, order value, product variety, product quality and product promotion over time
The sharing economy, enabled by digital platforms, which connect providers and consumers for peer‐to‐peer exchanges, experienced rapid growth in recent years. Although researchers attempted to explore the societal or business impact of the sharing economy market, little is known about how individual providers operate their businesses, given that providers are capacity‐constrained, self‐scheduled and unprofessional. In this study, we are interested in the relationship between experience and providers' order selection behaviours. Leveraging a rich and proprietary dataset from a large sharing economy platform—which facilitates the exchanges of home‐cooked meals in China—and employing multiple identification strategies and estimation methods, we find that the number of orders declined by a provider first increases with their experience, but later decreases. However, their sales revenue keeps increasing with experience. Our investigation further reveals that this happens because providers adjust their order selection strategies at different experience levels to achieve higher revenue in the sharing economy. Our study is among the pioneering studies to empirically understand providers' market behaviours in the sharing economy and offers important practical implications.
NICE framework (Brecht, 2020)
Proposed research model
Experiment flow
Hypotheses testing results
Individual interest as a moderator
With government and industry experiencing a critical shortage of trained cybersecurity professionals, organisations are spearheading various training programs to cultivate cybersecurity skills. With more people working from home and the existing cybersecurity staff shortages, cybercriminals are increasingly exploiting new and existing vulnerabilities by launching ubiquitous cyberattacks. This study focuses on how to close the gap in cybersecurity skills through interest cultivation and self-determined motivation. Our study shows that situational interest (SI) in cybersecurity along with situational motivational determinants (i.e., perceived learning autonomy and perceived relatedness) engendered self-determined motivation toward cybersecurity training. Consequently, self-determined motivation facilitated actual learning behaviour. Meanwhile, individual interest in cybersecurity created positive moderating effects in the relationships between self-determination and its key antecedents (i.e., perceived relatedness and situational interest). Based on these findings, we provide research implications accordingly.
Search and review process. *Appendix A lists the IS journals included in the search
The relevance and impact of the immediate IS research. Adapted from Pan and Pee (2020)
Interaction between IS phenomena and COVID‐19
The COVID-19 pandemic demanded an immediate response from the research community, including adjustment to how researchers undertake research. As in many fields, information systems scholars attempted ‘rapid response’ research that addresses the immediate crisis. This paper reviews the state of the immediate research and scholarly discussion in the information systems field. Seventy-one journal papers are reviewed. The review categorises nine thematic areas and one broad area of discussion. The methods by which information systems scholars address immediate research questions are identified. The contributions are discussed, future research directions are outlined and a model is proposed that traces the pathway from initiation of research/generation of new knowledge to practice impact. A further model is proposed to help information systems scholars clearly establish the link between the study of information systems phenomena and COVID-19.
Algorithmic fairness at the group level defines mathematical notions using the above confusion matrix [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
Example of a feedback loop visualized through a systems theory diagram. A system for recidivism risk assessment is shown here. The system grants an early prison release by using ML, with a higher salary (or income) predicting a lower recidivism risk, leading to an early release (shown by +; bottom). An early prison release also increases chances for social advancement and thus a higher salary (shown by +; top). This leads to a reinforcing behaviour (indicated by R)
Algorithmic fairness (AF) has been framed as a newly emerging technology that mitigates systemic discrimination in automated decision‐making, providing opportunities to improve fairness in information systems (IS). However, based on a state‐of‐the‐art literature review, we argue that fairness is an inherently social concept and that technologies for AF should therefore be approached through a sociotechnical lens. We advance the discourse on AF as a sociotechnical phenomenon. Our research objective is to embed AF in the sociotechnical view of IS. Specifically, we elaborate on why outcomes of a system that uses algorithmic means to assure fairness depend on mutual influences between technical and social structures. This perspective can generate new insights that integrate knowledge from both technical fields and social studies. Further, it spurs new directions for IS debates. We contribute as follows: First, we problematize fundamental assumptions in the current discourse on AF based on a systematic analysis of 310 articles. Second, we respond to these assumptions by theorizing AF as a sociotechnical construct. Third, we propose directions for IS researchers to enhance their impacts by pursuing a unique understanding of sociotechnical AF. We call for and undertake a holistic approach to AF. A sociotechnical perspective on AF can yield holistic solutions to systemic biases and discrimination.
Key IT modernization events at Ghana customs (1984–2020)
TRADENET single window was to centralize data flows between customs declarants and government agencies
Despite significant information technology (IT) implementations in public administrations of developing countries to change their dysfunctional traditional practices towards modern forms, the outcomes are typically disappointing relative to the potential of IT for organizational change. With a case study of the customs clearance process when importing goods through Ghana’s main port, the Tema Harbour, we explore why IT struggles to modernize traditional practices of public administration in a developing country context. We focus on explaining the persistence of paper use at Ghana customs despite more than a decade of digitalization and automation to establish paperless processes that eliminate malpractices of traditional clearance. We view modernization as a process of long-term institutional change and therefore draw from the literature on IT and institutional change to focus our investigation on the dynamics of incongruent institutional logics of IT and public administration. We show that in the administration context of a developing country like Ghana, the endurance of patrimonial logics in the state and broader society, coupled with high levels of administrative discretion and ambivalent or weak compliance pressure limit the realization of IT for modernization and allows hybrid practices to emerge. Keywords: Public administration, institutionalized practice, ICT for Development (ICT4D), IT modernization, institutional logics
Rovio's product development process
Organisations across many industries are increasing the use of evidence‐based approaches to decision‐making through adoption of business analytics. Creative processes and decisions are an area of organisational decision‐making which has traditionally been highly intuition‐based, and where professional culture and practices are often very different from the engineering disciplines from which data‐driven decision approaches originate. Through the case study of the analytics‐oriented transformation of creative decisions at Rovio, a leading game development company, this study seeks to understand how organisations can make their creative decision processes more evidence‐based, while retaining the best features of artistic intuition and human creativity. The case study highlights several issues that need to be delicately managed and balanced to effectively combine analytics and human creativity, and offers five principles for such “creative analytics”: (1) build shared analytics values but provide tailored BA support; (2) build hybrid teams; (3) balance commercial and creative goals; (4) encourage creative experimentation and learning; and (5) make data‐inspired, not data‐driven, creative decisions.
Contextually decomposing network structure
Contextually decomposing technology complementarity
Contextually decomposing institutional mechanism
Research model
Moderation plots for significant interaction effects
Most information systems (IS) research takes for granted that consumers' adoption and the use of mobile payment (MP) applications are motivated by generic factors such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Challenging this assumption, we argue that the salient contextual characteristics of MP applications compel a reconsideration and problematization of research on MP adoption and use. Drawing on network effect theory, we examined how contextual network effects and contextual network types determine MP consumer loyalty. Using a mixed methods design, we find that direct network effects (i.e., network size, network centrality, network capability), indirect network effects (i.e., platform–application complementarity, application–service complementarity, service–strategy complementarity) and negative network effects (i.e., general institutional structure, general structural assurance, local institutional structure and local structural assurance) are key determinants of perceived benefits, which further promote MP consumer loyalty. Furthermore, except for general institutional structure and general structural assurance, all of the network effects are important predictors of switching costs, which influence MP consumer loyalty. Finally, the impacts of network effects on MP consumer loyalty differ between consumer‐ and service‐oriented networks. Our study enriches the IS literature by problematizing the core assumption underlying the MP adoption and use research and offering a contextual explanation of MP consumer loyalty. Our work also provides practitioners with insights into how to better leverage network effects on MP consumer loyalty.
Prior literature suggests that computer science education (CSE) was less affected by the pandemic than other disciplines. However, it is unclear how the pandemic affected the quality and quantity of students' studying in CSE. We measure the impact of the pandemic on the amount and spacing of students' studying in a large introductory computer science course. Spacing is defined as the distribution of studying over multiple sessions, which is shown to improve long-term learning. Using multiple regression models, we analyzed the total number of students' interactions with the eBook and the number of days they used it, as a proxy for studying amount and spacing, respectively. We compared two sequential winter semesters of the course, one during (Winter 2021) and one prior to the pandemic (Winter 2020). After controlling for possible confounders, the results show that students had 1, 345.87 fewer eBook interactions and distributed their studying on 2.36 fewer days during the pandemic when compared to the previous semester prior to the pandemic. We also compared four semesters prior to the pandemic (Fall and Winter of 2018 and 2019) to two semesters during the pandemic (Fall 2020 and Winter 2021). We found, on average, students had 3, 376.30 fewer interactions with the eBook and studied the eBook on 16.35 fewer days during the pandemic. Contrary to prior studies, our results indicate that the pandemic negatively affected the amount and spacing of studying in an introductory computer science course, which may have a negative impact on their education.
Crowdsourcing platform owners and operators constantly search for ways to improve contestant performance. One novel proposal for improving performance is the introduction of an online community to the crowdsourcing contest platform. However, research regarding the potential benefits of an online community on such platforms is unclear. Furthermore, prior research often assumes the single dimensionality of prior experience, whose impacts on crowdsourcing performance are also inconclusive. Building on knowledge collaboration and cognitive diversity research, we model the direct effects of introducing an online community on contestant performance and the moderating effects of the amount of experience and experience diversity. Leveraging a natural quasi‐experiment in a large crowdsourcing contest platform, we collected 24 months of contestant data to test our hypotheses. Our propensity score matching and difference in differences analysis demonstrated that contestants' performance (winning contests and crowdsourcing income) increases significantly with the presence of an online community. Additionally, the positive effect of an online community on performance is more pronounced for contestants with less experience and those with more diverse experience. Our findings provide insights into the causality of incorporating an online community and inform community investment decisions for crowdsourcing contest platforms.
Illustration of data structure for tensions and underlying paradoxes
Illustration of data structure for management practices addressing tensions and underlying paradoxes
Emergent model of interrelationships between paradoxes, tensions, and management practices in bi‐modal IT
Leveraging digital technologies is a major concern for companies and has significant implications for their information technology (IT) functions. In many cases, a bi‐modal IT function is established: a ‘traditional IT’ mode focusing on the stability and exploitation of existing IT resources and an ‘agile IT’ mode focusing on exploring new technologies. Whereas previous research has predominantly taken an organisational‐level view of bi‐modal IT by treating it as a single, aggregated entity, we provide a micro‐foundations perspective on the intricate and paradoxical interrelationships between the two IT modes. Based on a multi‐case study with companies from different industries and of varying sizes, we uncover nine core tensions between traditional IT and agile IT as manifestations of five underlying paradoxes. We also identify corresponding management practices to address these tensions and paradoxes. Our study contributes to Information Systems research by disaggregating bi‐modal IT and capturing the tensions and their underlying paradoxes at the organisational and individual levels that bi‐modal IT entails. By highlighting the intricate interdependencies between the traditional and agile IT modes, we show that bi‐modal IT can be messier and more contested than previously anticipated. For practitioners, our study offers an overview of paradoxes and tensions that may arise in bi‐modal IT settings and provides suggestions on how to manage them.
This study aims to achieve the goal of cultivating and reserving emerging professional talents in social security law, improve the curriculum and mechanism of entrepreneurship education, and improve students' entrepreneurial willingness and entrepreneurial ability. Deep learning technology is used to study the psychological effects of entrepreneurship education for college students majoring in social security law. Firstly, the concept of entrepreneurial psychology is elaborated and summarized. A related model is designed using the theory of proactive personality and planned behavior through questionnaire survey and regression analysis to explore the relationship between students' entrepreneurial psychology and entrepreneurial intention. Secondly, an entrepreneurship education method based on deep learning is proposed, and a teaching model of multi-dimensional collaborative entrepreneurship education practice is constructed. On this basis, the deep learning algorithm combines the characteristics of the personalized recommendation algorithm to construct an efficient Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning resource recommendation algorithm. Finally, the proposed method is tested. The results show that the Significant (Sig.) value of students who have participated in PBL deep learning courses is less than 0.05, indicating that PBL significantly improves students' learning ability and the ability to deal with entrepreneurial environments. The results verify the impact of entrepreneurial learning on entrepreneurial intentions. The research on PBL online learning recommendation system shows that the proposed recommendation algorithm is superior to the traditional recommendation algorithm in both roots mean square error value and mean absolute error value on both datasets. The proposed method provides a new idea of reform and innovation to cultivate social security law professionals and the cultivation of the reserve model.
Theorising role interactions in algorithmic work
Problematic issues in human-algorithm interactions
Interviewee Characteristics
In algorithmic work, algorithms execute operational and management tasks such as work allocation, task tracking and performance evaluation. Humans and algorithms interact with one another to accomplish work so that the algorithm takes on the role of a co‐worker. Human–algorithm interactions are characterised by problematic issues such as absence of mutually co‐constructed dialogue, lack of transparency regarding how algorithmic outputs are generated, and difficulty of over‐riding algorithmic directive – conditions that create lack of clarity for the human worker. This article examines human–algorithm role interactions in algorithmic work. Drawing on the theoretical framing of organisational roles, we theorise on the algorithm as role sender and the human as the role taker. We explain how the algorithm is a multi‐role sender with entangled roles, while the human as role taker experiences algorithm‐driven role conflict and role ambiguity. Further, while the algorithm records all of the human's task actions, it is ignorant of the human's cognitive reactions – it undergoes what we conceptualise as ‘broken loop learning’. The empirical context of our study is algorithm‐driven taxi driving (in the United States) exemplified by companies such as Uber. We draw from data that include interviews with 15 Uber drivers, a netnographic study of 1700 discussion threads among Uber drivers from two popular online forums, and analysis of Uber's web pages. Implications for IS scholarship, practice and policy are discussed.
Examples of live streaming in China and Western context
Research model
PLS results of structural model
China is one of the largest and fastest‐growing markets for live streaming, and the purchase of virtual gifts in live streaming is the core for streamers and live streaming platforms in China to survive and thrive. Compared to western countries, live streaming in China highlights the lively social atmosphere and heated social interactions among streamers and viewers. This study develops a cultural context‐sensitive model that contextualises the purchase of virtual gifts in live streaming in China. Specifically, we focus on the viewer's social experience and the social atmosphere in live streaming which have received limited attention yet. We introduce viewers' social perceptions with regard to the streamer and other viewers (ie, perceived proximity to the streamer and sense of belonging to the viewer crowd) and show how such social perceptions contribute to the development of flow experience, which subsequently leads to purchase intention. This study also reveals how such social perceptions can be shaped by the contextual setting consisting of the IT‐related factors of live streaming (ie, responsiveness, two‐way communication, social presence, and self‐presentation) and the cultural characteristics of China (ie, social orientation and harmony). Our research offers both theoretical guidance for practitioners into cultivating viewers' purchase of virtual gifts in China's live streaming.
Action research (AR) involves one or more researchers and a client organisation. Many guidelines for and reports of the research method have been published. However, the ethical issues associated with AR have been largely neglected. Our review of the AR literature found that ethical dilemmas and their resolution are rarely and inconsistently reported. Stimulated by this neglect and our personal experiences, we aim to raise awareness and understanding about the ethics of planning, conducting and reporting AR. We identify and discuss four issues of concern that merit specific ethical attention when conducting AR: collaboration, competence, persistence and consent. We draw on these four issues in an analysis that augments the principles and criteria for canonical AR (CAR), recently reified as Integrated Action Research (IAR). Our guidance includes an additional principle of AR and 10 associated criteria to address the ethics of AR participation.
A conceptual model for knowledge coordination via digital Artefacts in highly dispersed teams
Virtual teams face the unique challenge of coordinating their knowledge work across time, space, and people. Information technologies, and digital artefacts in particular, are essential to supporting coordination in highly dispersed teams, yet the extant literature is limited in explaining how such teams produce and reproduce digital artefacts for coordination. This paper describes a qualitative case study that examined the day-to-day practices of two highly dispersed virtual teams, with the initial conceptual lens informed by Carlile's (2004) knowledge management framework. Our observations suggest that knowledge coordination in these highly dispersed virtual teams involves the continuous production and reproduction of digital artefacts (which we refer to as technology practices) through three paired modes: ‘presenting-accessing’ (related to knowledge transfer); ‘representing-adding’ (related to knowledge translation); and ‘moulding-challenging’ (related to knowledge transformation). We also observed an unexpected fourth pair of technology practices, ‘withholding-ignoring,’ that had the effect of delaying certain knowledge coordination processes. Our findings contribute to both the knowledge coordination literature and the practical use of digital artefacts in virtual teams. Future research directions are discussed.
Research model
A, Interaction diagram (H3a). B, Interaction diagram (H3b). **P < .01, *P < .05, one‐tailed test for directional paths. Unstandardized path coefficients are reported
Digital creativity (DC) stands for employee's generation of useful and fresh ideas through the use of digital technologies, which is one of the prominent consequences of effective digital technology use. Drawing insights from the tripartite view of technology use (ie, technology, individual and task elements) and the social role lens, our study proposes and tests an integrative theoretical framework to understand how female and male employees progress from ambidextrous learning in digital technology use to DC. We first interviewed five frontline employees and then surveyed 221 employees that were different from the interview sample from eight organisations. All participants utilised a similar version of internet‐of‐things (IoT) in their daily work. We find that (a) exploitative use has a stronger influence on DC for women than for men, while explorative use displays a higher impact on DC for men than for women, and (b) technology digital affordance (TDA), digital knowledge (DK), and task variety (TV) exhibit significant influences on both exploitative and explorative uses to varying extents. The post‐hoc analysis reveals that exploitative use mediates the influences of TDA and DK on DC only for women; explorative use mediates the impacts of TDA and TV on DC only for men. Our study advances the understandings of the downstream impact of technology use in the digital context.
Analysis framework
Time map illustrating the use lifecycle of discontinuing users
Stage model of volitional IS discontinuance
The discontinuance of volitional IS (i.e., information systems adopted, used and discontinued at will) has recently attracted remarkable attention from academics and practitioners alike. However, most research to date has been ahistorical. Ignoring the temporal progression can be problematic when the phenomenon under investigation is dynamic and evolving. To balance this, we adopt a stage modelling approach to understand the process ending with the technology use being discontinued by users of a popular crowdsourcing platform. Two questions guided our investigation: (1) Why do users discontinue using an IS they have volitionally adopted and used? (2) How does IS discontinuance occur over time in such context? We develop a stage model demonstrating that five stages are critical in understanding IS discontinuance: IS framing, goal pursuit, frame disruption, dormancy and quitting, after which possible switching denotes a new cycle. Furthermore, we identify two frames that help us understand why different users interpret and evaluate the technology differently – namely, the gain frame and the hedonic frame. On one hand, a gain frame is linked to the goal of improving one's resources and thus directs the user's attention to the technology's instrumental value. On the other hand, a hedonic frame is linked to the goal of having fun and thus directs the user's attention to the technology's enjoyment value. But, most importantly, we show that the technology's use lifecycle as a whole from initial use to discontinuance is shaped and guided by the user's dominant frame. Our insights elicit a number of important theoretical and practical implications.
Theoretical framework
Structural model results of Study 2
China is widely considered a world leader in e‐commerce. In recent years, e‐commerce in China has made significant progress and gone through rounds after rounds of innovations. Technological advancements have enabled the integration of online and offline channels, allowing consumers to choose their preferred shopping channel. Thus, competition and cooperation between online and offline channels have become important issues. Drawing on confirmation bias theory and the unique cultural lens (low uncertainty avoidance and a high level of cynicism) that exists in China, we conceptualize online prejudice and propose a model to analyse how it affects channel selection. A scenario‐based survey, along with an explorative pre‐study, was conducted to test our hypotheses. The results showed that prejudice toward the online channel does exist in China. Further, this online prejudice mediates the relationship between perceived uncertainty and channel selection. That is, uncertainty can induce consumers' online prejudice, which in turn predicts their channel selection behaviour. Furthermore, the mediating effect of online prejudice is contingent upon product type (i.e., experience products vs. search products).
Stages and activities of literature review
The six core logics in existing fintech studies
The failure rate of fintech platforms is disproportionately high, which may be because (1) there is a lack of published knowledge on the appropriate strategies to adopt and/or (2) the traditional prescriptions for strategy may be less relevant in the context of fintech platforms. To ascertain either or both of these possibilities, we conducted a comprehensive review of the fintech literature and found that not only is there a relative paucity of research on Fintech Strategies, but there are also important limitations associated with the existing works. To address these limitations, we first identified the unique characteristics of fintech platforms and the strategic implications of those characteristics. Next, we adapted a framework made up of six conventional core logics of strategy and juxtaposed the prescriptions of those logics with the unique characteristics identified. Finally, we constructed a research agenda consisting of a number of open questions based on our analysis to provide directions for future research in this area. The agenda suggests that fintech platform strategies have to account for competing institutional logics stemming from the platforms' dual identity and the tensions between conforming for legitimacy and differentiating for competitive advantage. There is also a need to account for an exceptionally dynamic and unpredictable regulatory landscape, as well as the responses and competitive actions of influential market incumbents.
The replication of existing research studies and theories is considered a foundational pillar of knowledge accumulation and an important instrument of discourse across research disciplines. Although replication has a long tradition in natural and behavioral science research, the design science research (DSR) community has yet to adopt it, especially the replication of design theories (DTs). However, it is unclear how the DSR community could (or even would) benefit from the replication of DTs. Similarly, the goal of DTs to obtain utility instead of truth raises questions regarding the transferability of replication into the domain of DSR. Against this background, in this work, we reflect on the function, outcome, and impact of replications to understand whether the replication of DTs is possible and necessary. We propose that replication can be an important catalyst for reuse and knowledge accumulation in DSR because it provides evidence on the boundaries of a DT. Specifically, replication can increase or decrease the level of confidence and projectability associated with a DT.
While today consumers benefit from personalised service offerings, they are also understandably concerned about the privacy risks generated by disclosing their personal information online. We know that such perceived risks in general shape behaviour, but we know little about what specific privacy risks obstruct the use of digital services, making it difficult to implement technologies that could mitigate these risks. Based on qualitative and quantitative studies involving over 1000 participants, we conceptualise and quantify a multidimensional perspective on privacy risks consisting of physical, social, resource‐related, psychological, prosecution‐related, career‐related and freedom‐related privacy risks. Our results explicate the prospects of distinguishing privacy risk dimensions by demonstrating how they are differently pronounced across contexts and how technology designs can be tailored to assuage them. Thus, our findings improve the understanding of context and service‐specific privacy risks, helping managers to adjust their digital offerings to mitigate users' privacy risk perceptions.
The overall research model
Results of the two‐wave longitudinal survey. †p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Two‐tailed test for variable coefficients; all independent variables are standardised. The coefficients of the control variables are omitted
Robust checks using purchase amount as a dependent variable
Results for the play‐to‐win group (the coefficients of the control variables are omitted) (N1 = 56)
Results for the play‐for‐fun group (N2 = 87)
Despite extensive research on user behaviours in free‐to‐play games, what motivates users to purchase in‐game items is still not well understood. We classify game affordances, gamer orientations, and in‐game items into two dimensions according to the instrumental–hedonic dichotomy. Utilising the affordance theory, we propose that the fit between game affordances and gamer orientation determines game identification, whereas the fit between game identification and gamer orientations determines in‐game purchases. We test the proposed model using a two‐wave longitudinal survey. The results suggest that instrumental gamer orientation strengthens the relationship between instrumental game affordances and game identification as well as the relationship between game identification and instrumental in‐game purchase. A hedonic gamer orientation strengthens the relationship between hedonic game affordances and game identification as well as the relationship between game identification and hedonic in‐game purchases. This paper identifies different types of game affordances and gamer orientations and examines the interactions between the two, advancing the theoretical understanding of proactive behaviours in free‐to‐play games.
eGarbage platform and participants
HealthNorth platform and participants
Research framework
Marginalized communities globally encounter grand challenges such as lack of access to education, healthcare, and sustained livelihoods. Several initiatives to address these complex, global problems have resulted in fragmented solutions. Recognizing this, there have been several calls for the study of responsible innovation (RI) to address grand challenges. Digital platforms such as AirBnB, Uber and so forth have now become commonplace and are known to generate economic value but also face criticism for being exploitative and exclusive. Only a handful of studies show how similar platforms can innovate responsibly to serve marginalized communities by generating simultaneous economic and social value. To address this gap, our study examines the cases of two platforms that orchestrated ecosystems consisting of individuals from marginalized communities, government agencies, and other entities to provide physical, digital and societal solutions based on principles of RI. We contribute to the RI and IS literatures to show how RI solutions can be fostered through digital platforms to address grand challenges. The article provides empirical evidence of all four dimensions of the RI framework—anticipation, reflexivity, inclusion, and responsiveness ‐ and their operationalization through digital platforms. This research lays the foundation for future studies at the intersection of RI and digital platforms literature. The study also provides practice insights on developing digital platform solutions for marginalized communities to address grand challenges and is useful to policymakers to formulate appropriate interventions. It pushes the theoretical and practice boundaries of our understanding of RI and digital platforms.
Various actors and their activities at IHP
Interaction between Doctor's capital structure, power and D‐P‐I practice
Differences between traditional and EMR integrated D‐P‐I practice (A representative image, developed during shadowing)
This research examines the socially significant issue of doctors' resistance to healthcare information technology (HIT) from the radical power perspective. It adopts Bourdieu's social practice theory to examine the interaction of HIT with the reproduction of doctors' historically rooted social standing through the doctor-patient-interaction (D-P-I) practice. Findings from our ethnographic enquiry at a large corporate healthcare organisation in India link doctors' historically rooted social standing to the symbolic recognition of their embodied emotional capital existing in tandem with their habitus. The symbolic recognition of emotional capital provided a better valorisation of clinical capital and allowed the accumulation of other forms of capital—institutionalised capital, social capital and economic capital—that formed doctors' capital structure and contributed to their social status. Doctors produced emotional capital by putting their habitus into practice and, in the process, reproduced its symbolic status and their social status linked to it. HIT challenged doctors to put their habitus into practice, thereby creating a perception of threat to emotional capital. Doctors' HIT resistance was a conservation strategy to reproduce their historically rooted higher social status. Findings from this study contribute to the literature on Power and IT resistance.
In software platform ecosystems, the technological and structural peculiarities vest the platform owner with an extremely powerful position that puts any complementor at the mercy of the platform owner's actions. Paradoxically, it is the self-determination and proactivity of the complementors that determine the ecosystem's success through their surprising outside innovations. This study addresses this power paradox by unpacking the power dynamics between platform owners and complementors. Based on an exploratory multiple-case study of six platform partnerships, we find that power in platform ecosystems unfolds as a reciprocal process of three interlocking cycles, in which both the platform owner and the complementors take an active role. The modus operandi of power in platform ecosystems is a “central power cycle” in which the complementors repeatedly evaluate whether to accept or reject the platform owner's domination power. Thriving partnerships sustain this central power cycle over time, which requires that the platform owner and the complementors dynamically adapt their wielding of power to the changing needs of the partnership (partnership adaptation cycle) or the ecosystem (ecosystem redefinition cycle). For the platform owner, this entails the occasional use of manipulation to favour a particular partnership or redefining the ecosystem's framework and sporadically wielding coercion in favour of the broader ecosystem. For the complementor, this entails over-subjectification to entice the platform owner to wield its power in favour of their partnership. Our findings have important implications for platform ecosystem and power theory, as well as managerial practice.
Inductive emergence of ‘resourcing as power’ concepts
A process model of resourcing as power
Visual mapping illustration
Resourcing as power in each case
E‐participation platforms create spaces and opportunities for participation and collaboration between governments and citizens. This paper aims to investigate the role of power on formal e‐participation platforms and digital spaces that are controlled by the governments. Although those types of platforms have been increasing in numerous countries, they have been criticised as often leading to a lack of or decrease in citizen engagement. We propose a relational view that examines how power is related to the use of resources in practice, that is, to resourcing. To explore this issue, we examine citizens' participation on three urban mobility platforms in three major Brazilian cities. Our study makes two main contributions. First, we contribute to the literature on e‐participation by explaining how a relational view of power helps to understand the nature and consequences of citizen participation in public policy‐making. Second, we integrate the concept of resourcing as both a source and constitutive element of relational power. We propose a process‐based model of resourcing as power that opens the black box of resourcing through the identification of three distinct phases in time: resourcing IN, resourcing WITHIN and resourcing OUT.
Fieldwork and analysis
Data structure
The globally distributed finance function
Framing of task migration actions
In globally distributed environments, gaps exist between an organisational‐level decision to migrate IT‐enabled tasks and the actual execution of strategy since a high‐level consensus does not always specify the precise sequencing and pacing of task migration in detail. This absence of operational‐level detailing can trigger status‐led enactments of power. Drawing on a qualitative case study of a distributed finance function in a global logistics firm, this paper explores how high‐status business units (BU) frame their task migration actions and contrasts it with how a low‐status support unit frames and accounts for the actions of high‐status BUs. The findings show how high‐status BUs frame their own actions as protecting, supporting and monitoring the migrated tasks while the low‐status support unit frames the same set of actions as resisting, interfering and hypercriticizing. Theoretically, the paper suggests that during the implementation of task migration strategies, frames deployed by a low‐status unit considers its weaker position of power and serves to neutralise conflict with the more powerful, higher‐status unit.
The bureaucratic, social and technical setup of the IOIS project as a foundational system
Stages of a conflict episode (adapted from Pondy, 1967, p. 306)
Overview of key events in the project
Overview of key theoretical implications of the power and conflict dynamics in IOIS development
The need for inter‐organisational information systems projects, which are complex undertakings often riddled with poorly understood power struggles and conflicts that hinder project success, has increased in previous decades. Through the lenses of systemic and episodic power, together with an organisational conflict model, this longitudinal, qualitative case study explores the dynamics of power and conflict and their effects in an inter‐organisational information systems development project. This study highlights that the bureaucratic, social and technical setup of the project forms a foundational system from which specific power practices emerge, in this case, the practices of hiding, storytelling and bargaining. The power practices have both restrictive and productive effects on conflict, but the practices cannot easily escape the confines of the foundational system and continue to cause the resurfacing of different manifestations of latent conflict inherent in the system. As a result, both ‘power to’ (systemic power) and ‘power over’ (episodic power) can escalate project conflict, and rational conflict management for gaining ‘win‐win’ resolutions may not be in the stakeholders' interests. Thus, strategies for openly managing political conflicts should be considered.
Denmark's MitID circuits of power
GOV.UK Verify circuits of power
Establishing IT governance arrangements is a deeply political process, where relationships of power play a crucial role. While the importance of power relationships is widely acknowledged in IS literature, specific mechanisms whereby the consequences of power relationships affect IT governance arrangements are still under‐researched. This study investigates the way power relationships are inscribed in the governance of digital identity systems in Denmark and the United Kingdom, where public and private actors are involved. Drawing on the theoretical lens of circuits of power, we contribute to research on the role of power in IT governance by identifying two distinct mechanisms of power inscription into IT governance: power cultivation and power limitation.
The CoP framework (adapted from Backhouse et al., 2006, originally from Clegg, 1989)
Circuits of power in The Bank
Issues of power are often neglected in information systems (IS) studies and under‐theorised in IS research. Systems development methods (SDMs) are commonly used in the IT industry to coordinate the activities between developers and clients. The role of power in the relationship between clients and systems developers remains an important topic of research in information systems development (ISD). Yet, despite the importance of understanding this relationship better, there has only been a limited number of studies exploring the role that an SDM can play in influencing this relationship. What is not widely acknowledged or researched is how different forms of power are inscribed in and enacted through an SDM. The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of different forms of power—here, obtrusive and unobtrusive power—to show how ISD concepts provide structures during the enactment of an SDM and thereby influence relationships between developers and clients. We present qualitative results from an exploratory case study within an IT division of a large international bank and interpret the results using Clegg's (1989) circuits of power (CoP). Our analysis shows that developers feel disempowered in relation to the client, with developers playing a cooperative but submissive role. Prior SDM enactment studies have either not encountered or not recognised cases where obtrusive and unobtrusive forms of power inscribed within the SDM directly determine the relationship between developers and the client. Our results are presented as a set of propositions explaining how obtrusive and unobtrusive power is inscribed in the SDM and the effect such inscription has on the enactment of the SDM.
Information and communication technology‐enabled national development as a multi‐level social process (adapted from Coleman, 1990)
Information and communication technology‐enabled national development in Indonesia
Are centralised or decentralised strategies more suitable to address a developing nation's socio‐economic challenges through information and communication technology (ICT)? We respond to this long‐standing question by conceptualising ICT‐enabled national development as a multi‐level social process and by drawing on empirical findings from a natural experiment set in the context of health information system projects in Indonesia. Our study demonstrates that successful ICT‐enabled national development is not contingent on pursuing one strategy or the other but on how micro‐level actors interpret, and subsequently respond to, these strategies and the local changes they trigger. Our findings indicate that centralisation and decentralisation are complementary rather than competing strategies to ICT‐enabled national development because, if integrated into a hybrid strategy, decentralisation enables local communities to achieve national development outcomes commonly attributed to centralisation. As such, our work provides empirical evidence, explanations and new theoretical insight into the wider ‘centralisation versus decentralisation’ debate, while also outlining avenues for future research and guidelines for policymakers.
There are emerging concerns about the Fairness, Accountability, Transparency, and Ethics (FATE) of educational interventions supported by the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. One of the emerging methods for increasing trust in AI systems is to use eXplainable AI (XAI), which promotes the use of methods that produce transparent explanations and reasons for decisions AI systems make. Considering the existing literature on XAI, this paper argues that XAI in education has commonalities with the broader use of AI but also has distinctive needs. Accordingly, we first present a framework, referred to as XAI-ED, that considers six key aspects in relation to explainability for studying, designing and developing educational AI tools. These key aspects focus on the stakeholders, benefits, approaches for presenting explanations, widely used classes of AI models, human-centred designs of the AI interfaces and potential pitfalls of providing explanations within education. We then present four comprehensive case studies that illustrate the application of XAI-ED in four different educational AI tools. The paper concludes by discussing opportunities, challenges and future research needs for the effective incorporation of XAI in education.
Journal metrics
20 days
Submission to first decision
Acceptance rate
$4,500 / £3,000 / €3,800
7.767 (2021)
Journal Impact Factor™
16 (2021)
Top-cited authors
Yair Wand
  • University of British Columbia - Okanagan
Kalle Lyytinen
  • Case Western Reserve University
Eric T. G. Wang
  • National Central University
Yu-Hui Fang
  • Tamkang University
Chao-Min Chiu
  • National Sun Yat-sen University