Infrastructure development is a priority on policy agendas in the EU and worldwide, because of the very high investment needs in basic infrastructure, especially in lagging behind regions and countries. The paper provides a descriptive analysis of the infrastructural gaps in EU transition economies at national and, as far as possible, regional level for some infrastructure sectors: transport, telecommunication, environment and energy. The analysis suggests that, on average, internal divergences in the infrastructuresâ€™ endowment are present between the urbanised capital cities regions and the peripheral and rural areas, in all the Member States; yet, the density and quality of such endowment is significantly higher in the Western countries and limited in the Eastern ones.
Under which conditions can ICT4D initiatives empower poor communities of developing countries? In this paper we evaluate the promise of development associated with the introduction of an ICT initiative in Nigeria. We employ the basic concepts of Sen’s capability approach to understand how the introduction of a prepaid electricity billing system has empowered people to participate in accessing electricity supply. Our analysis illustrates that various activities resulting from the introduction of the system allow for the participation of both consumers and electricity workers, and that in order for them to be empowered to participate in each of the activities, different resources are required. We conclude with some implications for policy makers advancing an agenda for ICTs for development.
Reviews the economic, social and psychological impact of information technology, which has brought about the Information Age. Information is now being treated as a scientific concept and should also be regarded as an economic commodity. It has also created a new paradigm of thinking. Information technology has an enabling effect at five levels: cost reduction; quality improvement; generation of new products and services; strategic management; and the creation of new ways of thinking. Public policy, particularly educational policy, should take full account of information technology.
The fourth in a series of articles on library buildings completed in the 1980s describes and evaluates new and remodeled buildings in Australia and New Zealand. The types of library buildings evaluated include state, public, academic, parliamentary, national, and special libraries. (30 notes/references) (Author/CLB)
A brief account of the Zimbabwe International Book Fair, 1995, including a two-day pre-Fair meeting on 'Freedom of Expression' attended by Nobel laureates Wole Soyinka and Nadine Gordimer. Includes information on the African Publishers' Network and the African Periodicals Exhibit.
Provides an overview of the proceedings of the Information Management Working Group at the 1999 Annual Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), which took place on 22–25 September in Paris. The sessions covered: the information cycle, the Southern dimension and reaching the South, and the information revolution. The Group also organized a successful Semi-Plenary on ‘Knowledge, information and new technologies: the impact of information on the development process’, which aimed to convince researchers of the importance of knowledge to the development process.
This paper reports a bibliometric study of the development of computer science research in the People’s Republic of China in the 21st century, using data from the Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports and CORE databases. Focusing on the areas of data mining, operating systems and web design, it is shown that whilst the productivity of Chinese research has risen dramatically over the period under review, its impact is still low when compared with established scientific nations such as the USA, the UK and Japan. The publication and citation data for China are compared with corresponding data for the other three BRIC nations (Brazil, Russian and India). It is shown that China dominates the BRIC nations in terms of both publications and citations, but that Indian publications often have a greater individual impact.
Livestock are a key asset for the global poor. However, access to relevant information is a critical issue for both livestock development practitioners and the poor themselves. Therefore, the authors describe the development of the 3D Animal Health Resource Room (AHRR), a web-based environment to disseminate educational materials on key animal health and production constraints faced by the poor in Bolivia and India. The aim of the analysis was to explore the applicability and demand for a 3D resource as a ‘lead technology' or if the technology suited ‘lead users' only. The authors tested the 3D AHRR across seven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India and Bolivia. The results found that users prioritized the level of interaction or the social experience in the 3D space over content and immersion
ABCD is a free and open integrated library management software based on the CDS/ISIS technology. Its first version, launched in December 2009, provided a MARC 21 format database. The second version, released mid-2012, provided the second international MARC format database, namely UNIMARC. But the MARC format is only designed for computer processing; for human beings, other formats like ISBD, AACR, MARC tags or subject/content are more indicated. This paper presents two display formats incorporated into the UNIMARC database that allow records to be displayed and printed according to ISBD specifications or dumped according to the MARC tags pattern.
In spite of the library website being a very good medium and platform to communicate details of various print and electronic resources of the library to its users, still many libraries, especially in the South, fail to share their resources due to a lack of technical or computer skills. Yet many interactive tools to share library contents are available as Content Management System solutions, e.g. Joomla, Drupal, etc. These facilitate the use of Web 2.0 techniques such as blogs, RSS, instant messaging, social networking services, wikis, and social tagging applications. In this context we present the ABCD-Site module, one of the easiest tools for libraries to use in developing their interactive library website, as part of the ABCD integrated library automation suite. With a minimum of time and effort, libraries can easily become active members of the digital age in publishing and sharing their information to a wide audience.
A little over a decade ago librarians at the University of Ghana, Legon agitated for, and were accorded academic status equivalent to those in the faculty. What used to be purely a technical and professional job has gradually shifted to academic. Pressure is now being put on all librarians at the University of Ghana to upgrade themselves to academic status. This paper examines the position of librarians in the university before and after the granting of academic status. The paper also looks at the implications of this academic status on research publication and job satisfaction of these librarians.
This paper reports on a survey carried out on academics in five Malaysian research-intensive universities, investigating their readiness to self archive in Open Access institutional repositories. The study revolves around the following issues: (a) academics’ awareness of self archiving in an institutional repository within their institution; (b) their perceptions about self archiving scientific information into institutional repositories; (c) their perceptions regarding obligations to self archive in institutional repositories; and (d) the possible reasons that inhibit them in contributing to institutional repositories. The answers were identified from 72 academics through a web-based survey. The study reveals that the majority of academics in this study have no or little knowledge of, or experience with, institutional repositories and are unfamiliar with self-archiving opportunities. However most of them endorse the principle of Open Access and are willing to contribute content to an institutional repository if an opportunity arises or if mandated by their funding institutions. Those who agree to self archiving see it to be beneficial in the author’s life as it enhances visibility and recognition of the author’s work, but the main problem encountered is the fact that researchers feel it is time consuming. The major barrier to self archiving is fear of plagiarism. In light of these results, there is a need to create more awareness and to educate authors on the importance of self archiving. Ensuring free electronic access to public-funded research lies with the funding institutions, especially universities, which should set up appropriate repository infrastructures, advocate the public good and ethical implications of open access and even mandate self-archiving of research they fund.
This study reports on the 2011 survey of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) digital repositories, employing web analysis to highlight the current state of the repositories and describing their characteristics in terms of types, contents, subject coverage and language. It also identifies the web performance of these repositories as reflected through global visibility. Data obtained from the Open Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) and the Ranking Web of World Repositories (RWWR) were used to analyse the availability and global visibility. Findings indicate that the total number of digital repositories in ASEAN is 51 with Indonesia as the biggest contributor (20, 39 percent), followed by Malaysia (17, 33 percent) and Thailand (7, 13 percent). Out of the 51 ASEAN digital repositories identified from OpenDOAR and ROAR, only 23 (45 percent) are listed in RWWR. RWWR’s data indicates that only about 3 percent (33 out of 1,184 repositories worldwide) in ASEAN are visible. There are another 10 digital repositories identified in RWWR which are not listed under OpenDOAR or registered under ROAR. As such this study has identified a total of 61 ASEAN repositories participating in Open Access publishing through the Green Road. Findings suggest that ASEAN repositories which wish to be listed in RWWR need to have some degree of visibility and incorporate good practices in their web publication to fulfill the requirement of RWWR quantitative webometrics indicators, namely visibility, size, rich files and `scholar'.
Brief report on a meeting on Facilitating Access to Agricultural and Natural Resource Information in the Developing World: what role for European cooperation? Held in Maastricht, The Netherlands, on 10–11 October 1996. Participants discussed the question: How can real collaboration among European actors be fostered so that assistance provided to developing countries is of a high quality? Threeactions to improve cooperation in respect of European support to information development were proposed: establishing a World Wide Web site, an electronic discussion list and a follow-up group, which decided to concentrate initially on the themes of training, connectivity, experiences from the field, and policy development.
Analyzes past, present and new technologies in use (or with the potential of being used) in networks and cooperative systems of access to primary documents, and their impact in the information industry. Considers the concordance between old and new technologies in traditional libraries and in intelligent or virtual libraries. Discusses resulting paradoxes: more people accessing relatively smaller collections; greater accessibility and less availability of documents; more resources for less users versus less resources for more users, because of the impact of scientific and technological information services.
Identifies some of the problems the foreign language barrier creates in the handling of scientific and technical texts in Brazil and suggests the creation of some automated tools to overcome these problems. It is suggested that international efforts to maximize access to technical and scientific information will improve multilingual communication worldwide. (four references) (CLB)
The study examines the views of architect experts and physically disabled users on the accessibility status of 14 public and university library buildings in Iran. The respondents rated on the availability of items listed in a checklist grouped under five categories: parking, ramps, interior layout, exclusive space and public space for the disabled. The checklist was based on the American Disability Act and International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions checklist for libraries for the disabled. The results indicate that the point of view of both disabled users and architects on all criteria is similar except for the ratings on the ramp and the interior layout for the disabled in library buildings. Based on the architects’ responses, 53.8 percent of libraries did not provide ramps and 63.0 percent had no exclusive space for the disabled. Disabled users who rated higher on library accessibility were frequent visitors to the library. The provision of access and equipment met minimum compliant standards on the standard checklist, but there is room for improvements.
The agricultural and food industries are excited by and looking forward to employing Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) as they see it as a viable means of promoting their markets. Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework, this study investigates how the technological and ambient environments of media characteristics influence viewer cognitive and emotional states, and how experiences subsequently affect their responses. This study examines whether the effects of media attributes and motivations affect viewer cognitive necessity and usefulness with respect to adopting specific media. The results of our survey of 254 observations collected indicate that interactivity has a significant positive impact on flow, relaxation, and enjoyment. Ease of use is significantly associated with flow, relaxation, and enjoyment. Senses of both professionalism and familiarity are found to significantly influence viewer cognitive and emotional states. This study finds that the gathering of agricultural information moderates the relationship between the three factors of cognitive and emotional states and behavioral intention to adopt IPTV such that the relationships are stronger for those factors that are related to a stronger sense of information gathering. The results should enable agricultural and food related business owners to obtain insight into using interactivity effectively to propel their businesses forward.
In this article, we developed and tested an integrated model to predict intention to use e-government services by combining the concepts of technology adoption, the digital divide, and conflict literature through surveys of 360 citizens of Afghanistan. Using a partial least squares approach, we found that components of the access divide and the social divide have significant effects on intentions to use e-government services, and that the perceived intensity of civil conflict and perceived behavioral conflict moderate certain predictors of intention to use e-government services. Implications for e-government service adoption and delivery in digitally divided conflict zones in the contexts of research, policy and practice are also discussed.
The main purpose of this study is to determine whether the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) could be extended to include external variables including computer self-efficacy, prior experience, computer anxiety, management support and compatibility, to further understand the learners’ perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of an e-learning system. The study also aims to clarify which factors are more influential in affecting the decision to use e-learning. Five factors were examined together with the TAM construct using the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) technique. The study reveals that management support, prior experience, computer anxiety and compatibility have predictive power towards behavioral intention to use e-learning systems. The results gained from this study, which took place in the banking workplace in Indonesia, provide a conceptual framework for individuals and organizations to better understand the critical factors which influence e-learning acceptance in developing countries.
Stresses the need for library and information professionals to adopt a pro-active approach in marketing their services in the context of basic marketing principles, in order to achieve the ultimate aim of serving both actual and potential users of such services, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Information Management Working Group of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), 6–9 September 2000, Bergen, Norway. Provides a list of Internet tools, maintained by specialist librarians, which provide access to information about Africa, and particularly to information relating to African studies.
There are numerous obstacles to sustainable development and poverty alleviation. Arising from the Millennium Development Goals is the need to sustain reliable information and communications technology infrastructure. Good information management practices and such infrastructure underpin libraries and information services. Many libraries and library consortia have converted to integrated library systems to better manage and make their collections available for national development. Despite small scale studies of particular types of libraries no comprehensive coverage was traced on such systems in South Africa. This article looks at which systems are being used, which criteria influenced the choice of systems and what challenges and successes were experienced. An analysis of the literature was undertaken to form the basis for a survey that investigated common problems and solutions. Key personnel in the institutions were interviewed by telephone. Certain factors emerged as important in the choice and sustainability of the systems. These are used to formulate guidelines for discussion.
Paper presented at the 9th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) Paris, France, 22–25 September 1999, in a session of the EADI Information Management Working Group. The growing integration of Africa into the worldwide information and communications system gives rise to hopes that the continent will achieve a technological leap which will help resolve the problems linked with development. In Africa, the networks that form a country’s basic structures are usually poorly maintained and controlled. There is a territorial divide between urban areas, connected to modern networks, and rural areas which are completely remote. This duality is a fundamental obstacle to development, but is rarely taken into account when projects are prepared. Presents a global view of basic communication services in Africa and the evolution of new networks based on new technologies. Concludes that, whatever technical solutions are adopted, African countries will be unable to control either technology or costs and risk being submerged by input from the North. The real challenge is therefore the appropriation of information content and control over technology.
Outlines a general overview of the information situation in Sub-Saharan Africa and argues that to survive and develop, Africa, must as a matter of necessity participate in all activities relating to the information age. Given the deficiency and ineffectiveness of existing information systems and services on the continent it becomes imperative to develop information policies at national level that could co-ordinate existing resources and systems and support development of an appropriate strong information infra-structure.
The main objective of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) is to achieve regional self-reliance through cooperation, but this cannot be achieved without proper information management. The SADCC countries are too dependent on ready-made solutions provided by foreign advisers. There is a considerable amount of information available in the SADCC region, but the absence of national documentation services, and of a national union catalogue, undermines the establishment of intra-regional resource-sharing facilities. Networking will facilitate both accessibility and availability of the region's resources to a wider community. Examines the advantages to the SADCC countries of the networking idea and progress in regional information networks such as SADIS (Southern African Documentation and Information System).
Rural information services on a less formal plan than conventional library service have been advocated in Africa since the early 1980s. Since then considerable experimentation with such services has taken place in many countries, for example Tanzania and Zimbabwe. So far, little formal assessment of such services has been attempted. Performance measurement, derived from marketing concepts, and project evaluation, with an emphasis on community participation, both offer lessons for such assessment. Significant practical literature from each of these approaches is briefly reviewed. Three examples of evaluations, from Tanzania, Botswana and Malawi, are then examined in the light of what the literature suggests. It is concluded that a blending of ideas and techniques from both approaches should be used in future evaluations.
The World Wide Web, together with other ICT enabling technologies, offers a platform for organizations to arrange their business processes, address their marketplaces, and partner with other enterprises. This paper reports on the diffusion and adoption of electronic commerce tools by small and medium enterprise (SME) tourism service providers in Pretoria, the capital of South Africa. In order to achieve the stated aim, the following research questions were addressed: What types of e-commerce tools have been adopted in the SMEs? What were the reasons for the adoption of e-commerce? What benefits do e-commerce tools provide to SMEs? What are the barriers that SMEs face with the adoption of e-commerce? What are the e-commerce training needs of SMEs service providers? Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations framework was found to be useful as the study sought to examine the diffusion and use of modern ICTs by SME tourism service providers. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design in which a systematic sampling technique is used. The data was analysed by using descriptive statistics. The results demonstrated that a variety of e-commerce tools have been adopted in the SMEs studied. E-commerce tools are also very effective in reaching new customers, increasing sales and improving marketing. It is therefore important that SMEs have access to relevant e-commerce tools in order to enjoy and reap the benefits of ICTs. SMEs should ensure that they offer their staff adequate varieties and levels of ICT competence.
Briefly describes the aims and achievements of a project for the development of an environmental information network in Ghana. The project was a joint effort by the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD), the Internet Society of Ghana (ISOG) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Government of Ghana. The project has had a positive impact; there has been an improvement in environmental management due to the better availability of environmental information. This has helped in decision-making and improved the system of delivery of environmental information to users.
The development of agricultural research in many developing countries has not been accompanied by the development of agricultural information services. The main problems in the dissemination of research results, the provision of library and documentation services, the development of person-to-person communication and the communication of information to decision-makers, farmers and other end-users are outlined and suggestions for improvements put forward. The international information systems, AGRIS and CARIS, are described and principles for the establishment of national agricultural information infrastructures are outlined.
We live in an information society, and, resultantly, significant attention is devoted to ensure “information-based rights” are protected among other essential human rights. Fostering and protecting information-based rights is essential to human well being, and the traditional strategies to support these rights focus on ensuring free and unfettered access to information, such as the right to education, the freedom to read, or providing for fair use of copyright-protected works. While ensuring informational goods and services are accessible is necessary for participation in our contemporary information society, we argue, however, that given the complexity of our information environment, additional factors must be considered within any information-based rights framework. Building on Amartya Sen’s capability approach, we suggest that individuals’ ability to access and use information is influenced by their relative capabilities. Those advocating for information-based rights – such as the free software, access to knowledge, and open access movements – must adjust their focus to include not only achieving access, but also the fostering of human capabilities.
Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains 10 references.) (LRW)
Policy documents of Saudi Arabia and Malaysia were reviewed to examine provisions for library and information services and the role of libraries in formulating and implementing national policies. In Saudi Arabia, scattered legislative provisions need to be integrated into a unified policy and the involvement of libraries needs to be institutionalized for the effective development of an information infrastructure. The Malaysian experience of establishing an integrated national policy by involving professionals from universities and other important sectors and implementing information programmes through the National Library has been very successful in developing an appropriate system. This approach may provide a model for other developing countries for an appropriate policy framework and the development of services for effective utilization of national information resources.
A vast amount of archives were created in the course of the political and constitutional upheavals which culminated in the independence of Zimbabwe in 1980. The National Archives of Zimbabwe Act of 1986 gives the Archives the opportunity to play an important part in national development, including education, the preservation of the country's cultural heritage and providing information for planning and decision-making. The value of colonial archives is notable in this respect.
Describes progress in the efforts to develop an international standard for the description of archives (ISAD(G)) under the auspices of the International Council on Archives (ICA). Reconciling national standards from various countries is discussed; and provenance, access points, authority files, and a hierarchy of levels of arrangement are considered. (five references) (LRW)
Paper presented at the 9th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) Paris, France, 22–25 September 1999, in a session of the EADI Information Management Working Group. Describes the objectives and activities of the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP), a cooperative network which aims to improve the flow of information within and between countries, especially those with less developed systems of publication and dissemination. Activities include: Advisory and Liaison Services; Programmes such as INASP-Health, the South-South Rural Development Network, Publishing Support Initiatives and Library Support Initiatives; and Publications, including the INASP Newsletter and website <http://www.oneworld.org/inasp/>. Describes the African Journals OnLine (AJOL) pilot project to promote African-published scholarly journals, and two examples of projects in Latin America: Latindex, which aims to collect information on, give access to and promote the quality of the serial scientific publications produced in Latin America and the Caribbean, Portugal and Spain; and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library OnLine), which aims to increase the visibility and accessibility of Latin American and Caribbean scientific journals on the Internet.
Community Development Library (CDL), a development information and communication network in Bangladesh, has been serving the community with up-to-date information with the help of its Rural Information Resource Centres (RIRCs). CDL has opened up a new horizon in expanding education, poverty alleviation, gender, environment, health awareness for the country people. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of the Community Development Library as a source of development information in Bangladesh and explores its impacts on the people of Bangladesh.
The study investigated the information seeking behaviour of physicians at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania. Questionnaires were personally distributed to all physicians (n = 259) at MNH. The rate of response was 83 percent (n = 215). Based on the literature review, a Wilson (1996) model was used to systematically guide the assessment of the physicians’ information seeking behaviour at MNH. The study found that physicians needed specific medical information to enhance their knowledge on a daily basis, particularly they needed information on patient care, rather than information for research and further education purposes. In order to fulfil their information needs, physicians preferred to seek information from formal sources, which included printed textbooks, electronic resources and printed journals. However, there was low use of the Internet for prescribing various drugs and diagnosis. Factors such as poor ICT infrastructure, lack of access to a computer, frequent power cuts and lack of time were the major barriers that inhibited physicians to seek information. It is thus important for the MNH management to promote information literacy (IL) issues, improve ICT infrastructure, establish a resource centre, and integrate use of the Internet and e-resources for patient care within clinicians working hours; and for the government to improve the supply of reliable electricity at MNH for effective medical practices.
The eradication of illiteracy and the promotion of reading received low priority in Madagascar during the colonial and, neo-colonial periods. In 1973, a Libraries Department was created within the Ministry of Revolutionary Culture and Art. Since 1978, fifty-five public libraries have been created in provincial prefectures. Others have been set up in sub-prefectures and cantons. The National Library moved into a new building in 1982 and also serves as the public library for the capital, Antananarivo. (In French)
The export of hazardous products and technologies, particularly to developing countries, is a profitable business for many transnational corporations. Consumers in developing countries often lack information about such exports. Consumer Interpol was established in 1981 by the International Organization of Consumers Unions to facilitate the exchange of information on hazardous exports and help public interest groups to combat corporate dumping. An early warning system of Consumer Alerts operates through a network of sixty-two Correspondents in forty-three countries. Information is also disseminated through a quarterly periodical and a newsletter. The United Nations has issued a list of 440 hazardous products which helps to alert countries to the dangers.
This paper provides an overview of activities and initiatives under way in Botswana that aim to improve the provision and management of information in the health sector. Many of these initiatives are based on the use of ICTs. The paper considers the role that ICT plays in ensuring that health information is provided to health workers and consumers in support of the three health related Millennium Development Goals (reducing child mortality; improving maternal health; and combating HIV/AIDS and malaria). The paper outlines these initiatives and considers whether there is more that needs to be done to ensure that health information is well managed and reaches those it should reach, at the right time and in the right form.
The paper reviews some of the challenges faced by researchers whose principal language is not English in accessing appropriate literature. Taking the experience of the Latin American countries as an example, it discusses the challenges implicit in the international ranking of scholarly journals, as well as the barriers imposed by print publishing and by existing indexing services. It considers critically the implications of the emergence of electronic journals, open access publishing, and the development of institutional repositories. Finally, it discusses the issues for researchers that are raised by the new media, including access, sustainability, quality control and the underpinning pedagogic culture. This paper draws on research undertaken in 2004 and 2005 by an international team supported by the European Commission's ALFA Programme. The research project, REVISTAS, investigated the feasibility of digitizing professional journals published in Spanish and Portuguese, particularly those published in Latin America, as a means of raising the quality of teaching and research.
The Global Cataloguing Service of the British Council was initiated in 1980 with the aim of reducing duplication of effort in cataloguing the same titles in different Council libraries around the world. Cataloguing of all books acquired by Council libraries abroad is done centrally at British Council headquarters in London. Records for titles not already in the Global Cataloguing Service database are downloaded from the UKMARC database or catalogued as Extra-MARC material. Each of the fifty-six Council libraries participating in the system receives lists of new accessions and an updated microfiche catalogue of its holdings at regular intervals. In a country like Portugal, the system provides a model to be studied by local librarians.
This paper examines the utility of the attributes associated with information transfer events for classifying business clusters and understanding their workings. A field survey collected data from diverse actors in six business clusters located in Brazil, including: companies responsible for the development or final assembly of a product or service (central actors); the entity that represents the companies in each business cluster (the administrative body); and the entities seeking to transfer information to the central actors of localities (knowledge agents). We found that differences in the degree of productive complementarity on the part of central actors of business clusters were associated with variance in perceptions of information transfer events that took place in localities. To our knowledge this is the first research which analyzes and classifies business clusters based on dimensions of information transfer which are relevant to the practice of knowledge management.
A detailed account of recent changes in the organization, products and services of CAB International (CABI). Describes the background to the changes and the origins of CABI. Assesses the impact of the changes on its biological control and biosystematic services, development activities and information services. Describes changes in the production system for the bibliographic database, CAB ABSTRACTS and related information products and services, including the new CAB HEALTH database, databases on CD-ROM and a new document delivery service, CAB ACCESS. Focuses on attention to customer needs, quality enhancement, diversification of information products and services, collaboration with other organizations, efforts to achieve greater efficiency and the exploitation of new technology. Outlines a phased implementation plan for the introduction of the changes, and discusses the lessons learned from its implementation.
The paper examines the need for effective records and information management as a cornerstone ingredient in fighting corruption. By use of a literature review, it makes a contextual analysis of corruption and the significant roles records and information management can play in fighting it. In particular it gives good records and information management specifics for fighting corruption and concludes that corruption is a “disease” that needs a “vaccine” called effective records and information management (RIM). As a way forward, the paper recommends key parameters to consider so that RIM can significantly aid the fight against corruption.
Social media can test how firmly entrenched Internet freedom is in established democracies through a comparison with countries with an authoritarian track record. The method is to evaluate the use of social media in recent protests in a sample of established democracies and authoritarian regimes, and to compare differences and similarities in government responses.
Managing knowledge in general and indigenous knowledge in particular has become an important and valuable input in the management of sustainable development programmes. Historically, indigenous knowledge has been downplayed in the management of information. The tendency among library and information professionals has been to emphasize recorded knowledge at the expense of unrecorded indigenous knowledge. However, the growing realization that indigenous knowledge has a role to play in national development as well as the knowledge management environment has led to the growth of interest in preserving and managing it. The major challenges to the management and preservation of indigenous knowledge are issues relating to collection development, intellectual property rights, access and the preservation media.
Using data from a national survey with 1,288 respondents, this study investigates the socio-demographic determinants of the first-order digital divide (access to the Internet) and the second-order digital divide (e-commerce use) in China. The survey employed spatial probability sampling technology so it would encompass migrants as well as registered residents. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to model the associations between access to the Internet/e-commerce use and demographic characteristics, socio-economic attributes, and migration and residency status. The results demonstrate the significant effects of rural-urban inequality and socio-economic divisions in Internet access. Age, gender, education, and residency were identified as significant predictors for individual e-commerce use. The findings provide helpful information for enterprises wishing to broaden their business horizons. The research can also be used in designing effective policies to reduce China’s digital inequality.
The use of the Internet in government operations has been growing in popularity around the world. Nevertheless, governmental agencies have been slow to establish and develop an electronic presence. Although previous studies have discussed the reasons for the comparably slow development of e-government services, most of the research efforts are based on supply-side indicators and often assess websites alone; as yet, little information is available on the demand aspect of e-government. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and trustworthiness as a theoretical framework, this paper aims to investigate the factors that influence citizens’ intent to use government websites. Through the survey data in Taiwan and the application of structural equation modeling method, the results show that trust in the government, facilitating conditions, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitudes toward the use of government websites have significant positive effects on intent to use government websites. Finally, the academic and practical implications of the findings are also discussed.