Infants & Young Children

Published by American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Print ISSN: 0896-3746


Early Intervention Approaches to Enhance the Peer-Related Social Competence of Young Children With Developmental Delays A Historical Perspective
  • Article

April 2010


135 Reads

Michael J Guralnick
This article presents a framework for future research and program development designed to support children's peer-related social competence. Intervention research is examined within a historical perspective culminating with a discussion of contemporary translational approaches capable of integrating models of normative development, developmental models of risk and disability, and intervention science.

Extending the Reach of Early Intervention Training for Practitioners A Preliminary Investigation of an Online Curriculum for Teaching Behavioral Intervention Knowledge in Autism to Families and Service Providers

July 2010


219 Reads

Early behavioral intervention, based on the methods of applied behavior analysis, has the strongest and most consistent scientific support as a means of teaching skills to young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and reducing their restricted and maladaptive behavior. Though individual ABA-based treatment plans are usually developed, designed and supervised by a senior-level clinician, they are most often implemented by a practitioner, such as a parent, direct service provider, aide, or an early childhood professional from a related discipline. Unfortunately, few practitioner-orientated training programs are available to geographically disparate persons. Online distance-learning education offers a potential solution to this problem. Fifty-one individuals participated in an initial study of a short, three-module online course. The results showed a highly statistically significant difference between the mean pre-test and post-test score. The outcomes suggest the feasibility and user satisfaction of teaching BI knowledge acquisition online, and thus bolster confidence that future, larger-scale curricula aimed at teaching BI in a distance-learning format is warranted.

Parent and Multidisciplinary Provider Perspectives on Earliest Intervention for Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

October 2011


124 Reads


Lauren Brookman-Frazee





Sarah Reed
Early identification and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children younger than age 3 years is becoming an increasingly common area of concern and study. Research suggests that systematic, early intervention can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the cost of caring for children with ASD through the lifespan. Therefore, it is imperative that evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this young age group are translated effectively into community settings. One method of promoting EBPs and developing capacity for implementation is active collaboration between researchers and community stakeholders. This requires a precise understanding of the perspectives of stakeholders regarding the benefits and barriers of specific practices and early intervention in general. In the current study, we gathered feedback from families and a multidisciplinary group of community providers regarding early intervention values for infants/toddlers at risk for ASD and their families through focus groups. The opinions and values of the community sample were examined using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate efforts to build long-term capacity for implementing efficacious ASD intervention for children younger than 3 years. Results indicated that, the values of community providers and parents were highly similar and were aligned with EBP strategies. Recommendations for translating EBPs for this population into community settings are discussed.

Do not resuscitate orders in early intervention settings: Who should make the decision?

February 1995


12 Reads

As a result of increasing numbers of young children with special health care needs being served under Part H programs, early Intervention professionals are being confronted with requests to implement Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders. This article reviews the legal Issues raised when parents or guardians request that their child's order be implemented by program staff. Because there is no definitive legal guidance on implementing DNR orders in community settings, the authors call for open discussion of the issue and the development of clear policy. Divergent viewpoints are explored, and recommendations for administrative procedures are provided. (C)1995Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Why Early Intervention Works A Systems Perspective

January 2011


1,183 Reads

A systems perspective is put forward designed to place the many diverse conceptual and practice approaches and accomplishments in the early intervention field within a common framework. Complex reciprocal patterns of influence are described emphasizing risk and protective factors operating at 3 levels: child social and cognitive competence, family patterns of interaction, and family resources. It is argued that this framework can provide an understanding with respect to why early intervention works when it does as well as establish a new assessment and intervention approach firmly grounded in developmental science.

Fostering Resiliency in Infants and Young Children through Parent-Infant Interaction

January 1997


18 Reads

High-quality parent-infant interaction has been linked to resilient outcomes characterized by secure infant attachments and infant and child cognitive and social-emotional development. The purpose of this article is to show that high-quality parent-infant interaction is important in the promotion of child resiliency, and ought to be promoted in family-centered early intervention. Research is reviewed that shows the relationship between high-quality parent-infant interaction and resilient outcomes. Potent risk factors that threaten the quality of parent-infant interaction and thus resiliency in infants and young children are also reviewed. Finally, clinical guidelines for assessing and intervening to promote parent-infant interaction are suggested.

Parent Satisfaction With Early Intervention Services for Children With Physical Disabilities

July 2010


307 Reads

Measuring parent satisfaction with services is essential in the evaluation of early intervention programs. However, there is a paucity of satisfaction measures specifically developed for this purpose, and the psychometric properties of existing measures have not been widely examined. The aim of this study was to further investigate the internal consistency of 1 such measure, the European Parent Satisfaction Scale about Early Intervention (EPASSEI). A slightly modified version of the EPASSEI was completed by 112 carers (mainly mothers) of children with physical disabilities receiving early intervention services in Queensland, Australia. Internal consistency of the measure was examined using the Cronbach α. Internal consistency among items was very high (the Cronbach α = .98), with little evidence of item redundancy. Individual subscales were also shown to have a high degree of internal consistency and internal consistency was similar across the 3 service provider organizations participating in this study. The present study examined the internal consistency of an instrument measuring parent satisfaction with early intervention services. While additional examination of the validity of the measure is required, this study lends further support to the use of this measure in evaluating early intervention services for children with physical disabilities.

Establishment of an Interdisciplinary Pediatric Oral-Motor-Sensory Feeding Clinic Team

October 2007


51 Reads

This article presents a description of a university-based Pediatric Oral-Motor Feeding Clinic established in response to concerns from parents in the local community regarding accessibility of resources and expertise in the area of pediatric feeding disorders. We outline how one group of professionals in a rural area, with limited resources, organized the interdisciplinary feeding clinic and discussed the process of creating the clinic, the administrative and personnel considerations, and training issues. The feeding clinic follows a model of interdisciplinary assessment, and culturally competent, family-centered, community-based practice and training. The development of this Clinic-facilitated care to community families who otherwise would have to travel more than 80 miles for an evaluation. The clinic team includes a developmental pediatrician, a nurse, an occupational therapist, a psychologist, a registered dietitian, and a speech-language pathologist. Families are the center of the evaluation. In addition to the formation of a clinic, changes in university curriculum in the departments Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education and Psychology have ensued. Involvement in the USU Feeding Clinic prepares students from a variety of disciplines to work with children who have oral-motor/sensory feeding difficulties.

Parent to Parent Programs: A Unique Form of Mutual Support

October 1995


40 Reads

Parents of young children with special needs are thrust into the world of disability-a life experience with many strong emotional responses and challenges. Parent to Parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching a trained veteran parent in a one-to-one relationship with a parent newly referred to the program. This article reports the results of a national survey of veteran and referred parents participating in Parent to Parent programs and discusses how Parent to Parent support is an important part of comprehensive family-centered services for parents and providers. (C)1995Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Parent to Parent Programs: Parent Preferences for Supports

July 1996


47 Reads

Parent to Parent programs facilitate connections between parents who have young children with special needs by carefully matching an experienced parent in a one-to-one relationship with a parent newly referred to the program. Using national survey results, this article examines the preferences referred parents have for various kinds of emotional and informational supports provided through Parent to Parent programs and the impact of the child's age and severity of disability on parental preferences. Parents preferred a wide range of supports, with the child's age and severity of disability contributing to differences in their preferences. Supports to families must, therefore, be individualized and responsive to child and family characteristics (C)1996Aspen Publishers, Inc.

The Natural Environment II

October 2002


27 Reads

Providing a transdisciplinary early intervention program in natural environments through relationship-based services traverses a fluid and dynamic course. During the first phase of this process, programs integrate natural environment principles into service delivery. As this is accomplished, new responsibilities emerge through recognition that relationships exist beyond daily interactions with infants, toddlers, and their families. Identifying and exploring these relationships enables providers to support the new level of service delivery required in everyday routines, relationships, activities, places, and partnerships. From living room floors to over-crowded bedrooms to parks and play groups, early intervention professionals do an “improvisational dance” with families and with each other to form meaningful learning interactions. Occupational, speech and physical therapists, early educators, mental health providers, and other specialists depend on their mutual relationships to bring coordination and creativity to the dance. They look beyond barriers and find possibilities for intervention in everyday routines, relationships, activities, places, and partnerships. Eventually they discover the deeper implications of teamwork in natural environments and the new challenges to overcome. This transition is part of the ongoing process of relationship-based, family-centered early intervention.

The Natural Environment

April 2001


39 Reads

: This article addresses the usefulness of the term natural environment. An analysis of the literature suggests that it is a code word for inclusion and that placement in inclusive settings supersedes other considerations. An alternative is offered in which the delivery of specialized and individualized services consistent with family needs and values is of first-order importance. Further, it is argued that the use of authentic intervention activities will produce better outcomes for children and families than focusing on placements that must include chronologically aged peers. (C)2001Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Distance Learning in an Inclusive Preschool Focused on Autism During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Multiple Case Study of Four Children
  • New
  • Article

July 2023


7 Reads

Scabies and head lice: Update for the 1990s

January 1992


7 Reads

Scabies and lice cause bothersome symptoms among millions of children each year. This article outlines the epidemiology of these infestations, the biology of the parasites, and the clinical clues for suspecting these diseases. Early diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment will cure these infestations and prevent spread to others. (C)1992Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Fostering Wisdom-Based Action Through Web 2.0 Communities of Practice

January 2009


13 Reads

This article discusses a new approach to knowledge translation using Web 2.0 technologies in an online Community of Practice (CoP). The purpose of the CoP is to promote wisdom-based action, a process that encourages people to engage with knowledge, match it to their own values, vision, and contexts, make a well-informed decision, and act on that decision. We use our own Early Childhood Family Support CoP as a case study.

Practitioner Research in Early Childhood Education and Care: A 21-Year Review of the Literature

September 2016


161 Reads

Practitioner research has the potential to facilitate the ongoing knowledge and skill development of preservice and in-service early childhood education and care teachers. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to describe the landscape of practitioner research conducted in the United States. This study synthesizes more than 20 years of practitioner research conducted by practitioners in the "birth to five" context. Critical components that help understand (a) who engages in practitioner research, (b) under what structural conditions practitioner research occurs, and (c) how practitioner researchers actively query their context and collect and analyze data are described. Following the review of the literature, a summary of what is known and implications for expanded understanding are discussed.

Validity and Internal Consistency of the Indonesian-Translated Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile to Screen Language Delay in Children Aged 6–24 Months

October 2023


8 Reads

The Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS DP) is a valid and reliable screening tool for detecting language delay in children. However, it has not been translated into the Indonesian language. This study aimed to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Indonesian-translated CSBS DP as a screening tool for language delay in children aged 6–24 months. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Growth and Development Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, in 3 stages: (1) transcultural translation and adaptation of the measure into the Indonesian language; (2) determination of the internal consistency of the measure; and (3) determination of the concurrent validity of the measure by comparing CSBS DP with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (BSID-III) language scale on 149 caregivers–children dyads. We found good concurrent validity ( r > .3) and good internal consistency with Cronbach's α values of 0.876–0.896. The concurrent validity of the Indonesian-translated questionnaire showed a sensitivity of 71.43% and a specificity of 81.48%. CSBS DP Indonesian-translated questionnaire is a valid and reliable screening test for language delay in children aged 6–24 months.

Internal Consistency and Factor Structure of the 3M Preschool Routines Functioning Scale

July 2018


173 Reads

This article presents a pilot study of the 3M Preschool Routines Functioning Scale (3M) with Spanish children. Twenty teachers and 285 children, from 6 early childhood education centers in Valencia, Spain, participated. The teachers completed one 3M scale on each child in their classrooms. We studied the internal consistency of the scores of the scale items, the factor structure, and the sensitivity of the scale to identify differences on children's functioning level in relationship to their age. The 3M produced scores with strong internal consistency and an exploratory factor analysis resulted in 4 factors: Sophisticated Engagement, Personal-Social, Average Engagement, and Independence. The 3M total score had strong internal consistency, and the strong correlations among the factors and with the 3M total score suggested that the scale measured 1 dimension of child functioning, which we identified as participation.

Marketing early intervention: Public awareness and Public Law 99-457

October 1990


7 Reads

Marketing research provides important ideas for those involved in planning and carrying out public awareness promotion efforts to early intervention. However, successful efforts depend on an understanding of the complexity of social marketing and on finding ways to approximate scientific methodology in the planning and evaluation of promotion efforts with often-limited resources. (C)1990Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Information and referral for people with special needs: Implications for the Central Directory of Public Law 99457

January 1990


6 Reads

This article provides a brief background on information and referral (I & R); and describes a model information and referral system for people with special needs and its application under Public Law 99-457, Part H. In addition, the paper offers a brief discussion of the issues related to implementing the central directory requirement of this legislation. The multitude of services available and the complexities of these services make it very difficult for an individual or service provider to be aware of all the specialized community services. The system described provides a model that blends features such as toll-free access, trained information specialists, and a computer database offering benefits to families, professionals, and planners (C)1990Aspen Publishers, Inc.

The Outcomes of Professional Development on AAC Use in Preschool Classrooms: A Qualitative Investigation

July 2018


178 Reads

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe early childhood special education service providers' perceptions of the use of alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) in their preschool classrooms as a result of participation in MELD (Multimodal Early Language Development) AAC professional development. MELD is a multicounty project that provides professional development to support service providers to meet the needs of preschool children with complex communication needs. Results indicate, in general, that the service providers felt the professional development met their individual needs to be successful in embedding the use of AAC in each of their preschool special education classrooms. The study extends past research about the components needed in effective early childhood professional development that results in teacher implementation of new instructional strategies to include the use of AAC strategies and adds new information about the context that may be needed. That context includes a positive and supportive relationship between coaches and service providers and a recognition of positive changes in the behavior of children by service providers. Implications for providing professional development and for future research are discussed.

Use of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adaptation in the early intervention process

January 1992


38 Reads

The policy innovations of Public Law 99-457 call for dramatic changes in early intervention services for the families of handicapped and "at-risk" infants and toddlers throughout this country within the next several years. A conceptual framework that can integrate the positive aspects of the child-centered approach with the new family-centered approach is needed. The Double ABCX Model of Family Adaptation is presented as a mulcidisciplinary, integrated approach for use in PL 99-457 service provision. (C)1992Aspen Publishers, Inc.

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