Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Online ISSN: 0972-5938
Publications
Article
Aryavaidya Mayaram Sundarji (1856-1928) was a visionary who took early initiatives for Ayurvidya- integrative approaches to incorporate modern scientific advances in Ayurveda. He shared his profound scholarship, astute clinical experience and leads for research through books, reviews, articles and letters in Ayurvedic journals like Vaidya Kalpataru, a century back. His experiential data on antimalarial, anti-rabies and hepatoprotective remedies offer a vast potential for discovery of new natural drugs through the paths of Ayurvedic Pharmacoepidemiology, Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. for malaria, Calatropis procera Alton for rabies-prevention and Picrorhiza kurroa Royale ex Benth. for hepatitis have been followed up as leads by research. But organized new drug development with state-of-the art transdisciplinary research is awaited.His vision and views for scientific research and documentation in Ayurveda was much before his time. The recommendations he published in Ayurvedic journals for the advancement of Ayurveda are relevant even now. The emphasis he laid, in early twentieth century, on clinical studies of safety and efficacy and statistical considerations vis-à-vis the natural history of a disease were prophetic for evidence-based Ayurveda. There is a need to study and review the documented experience of eminent vaidyas of the past to identify innovative trails left unattended. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
In the present study, the crude polyssaccharides from Solanum nigrum L. was fractioned by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and was further purified by Sephadex-100 column chromatography. We investigated the anti-cervical cancer activity and anti-metastasis effects of the sub-fraction 1a of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum L. (SNL-P1a) in tumor-bearing mice models, and explored the probable mechanism underlying the pharmacological activity of the polysaccharide. Mice were grouped into the model control, positive control and SNL-P1a of low and high dose treatment groups. After experiment ended, the tumor growth and the lung metastasis inhibition rates were calculated respectively. Furthermore, the serum antioxidant enzyme activities in mice were measured by spectrophotometer method. Results showed that SNL-P1a inhibited the growth and the metastasis of cervical cancer significantly. Moreover, SNL-P1a treatment increased serum antioxidant enzyme activity and LDH activity. These results suggested that the antioxidant activity of SNL-P1a might be beneficial to the cervical cancer therapy. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Baseline Characteristics of different groups
Article
Hyperuricemia is a common metabolic disorder and several homeopathic ultra-high dilutions are being used in the treatment of hyperuricemia and its related diseases. Conventional treatment for the hyperuricemia is allopurinol but it gives many side effects like allergic reactions, gestrohepatic ailment, hepatic and renal complaints. It is the need of the hour to introduce an alternative system of medicine with minimal side effects. The study aimed to find hypouricemic effects of Ledum palustre 30c and 1M in potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemia rat model. The study comprised of 11 groups of rats (E = 33). All the groups except normal control were treated with potassium oxonate. Normal control group received distilled water, hyperurecemic control group succussed alcohol mixed in distilled water. Allopurinol, Ledum palustre 30c and 1M were administered for one day, 3 day and 7 days (single dose/day) in different study groups (3×3 = 9 groups). Blood samples were collected by rat tail vein bleeding. Serum uric acid and serum creatinine levels were checked by using standard kits. Student's t-test for independent means was used for statistical analysis of difference between the groups. p ≤ 0.05 (two tailed value) was considered significant. Oral administration of Ledum palustre 30c and 1M decreased serum uric acid levels of hyperurecemic rats in time dependent manner. 3 day and 7 day administration of Ledum palustre 30c and 1M reduced serum uric acid level more significantly as compared to one day administration. However, allopurinol normalized serum uric acid levels in all study groups. The present study indicated marked hypouricemic effects of Ledum palustre 30c and 1M in hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxonate in rats. However, clear conclusion of hypouricemic potential of Ledum palustre required replication of experiment. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Evidence based Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) in the management of diabetes and hypertension is essential for its general acceptance in the scientific community.The aim of this study was to find clinical relevance and use of TCAM in the management of diabetes and hypertension on the African continent. To achieve our aim Google scholar, web of science, Pub-med and Cochrane library electronic databases were searched for the period 2000-2017 using specific keywords related to the study. Based on our search criteria regarding the use of TCAM in the management of these chronic conditions (diabetes and hypertension) 24 papers were finally selected and analyzed in this study. The results suggest a prevalence rate of 17-84 % TCAM use among the studied population with the use of mainly herbs and medicinal plants in the management of diabetes and hypertension. Our findings have shown that there is ample evidence of TCAM use in the management of diabetes and hypertension on the African continent. There is an urgent need to conduct research into the potency of medicinal plants as well as find the effect of concurrent use of TCAM and conventional drugs in human beings suggested by WHO in its health policy document released in 2002. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Plai cream (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) has been used as a remedy for release pain and inflammation of musculoskeletal problems. The enhancement of the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai cream by phonoporesis or ultrasound therapy is questionable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Plai cream combined with ultrasound in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Seventy-five volunteers were randomly allocated into 3 groups; 14 % Plai cream (5 cm long strip), ultrasound treatment (1MHz, 1watt.cm⁻²) for 5 min, and combined 14 % Plai cream and ultrasound for 5 min. The participants performed eccentric exercise (4 sets of 25 repetitions at a speed of 60°.s⁻¹) of dominant quadriceps using isokinetic dynamometry to induce DOMS. All participants received their allocated treatment once per day for the next 7 days. We found pain score, thigh circumference and serum creatine kinase were increased, while pressure pain threshold and muscle strength were decreased, but small changes of joint motion after intensive exercise (post-exercise day 1, 2, 3 & 7). However, there was no significant difference changes of all outcomes among three groups. In conclusion, combined 14 % Plai cream with ultrasound had no additional benefit at reducing DOMS compared to either14 % Plai cream alone or ultrasound alone. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Present survey was conducted in the hilly areas of Abbottabad district of North-west Frontier Province in order to inventorise the medicinal plants used in the folk medicine to treat various ailments by the local inhabitants A total of 54 plant species belonging to 51 genera and 40 families for their therapeutic used. The medicines were prepared from various plant parts of a single plant or multiple plants. the ethnomedicinal inventory is presented by plant name local name, family and uses.
 
Article
The present ethnobotanical exploration depicts 48 medicinal plants for about 36 types of ailments practiced by Paliyar tribes of the Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India. The study was carried out through semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews in consultations with the herbal practitioners. The ethnic community still depends upon their indigenous knowledge to healing their ailments. The study thus emphasizes the need to pursue meticulous ethnobotanical research in finding solutions to major fatal diseases and ensure its application in improving human healthcare facilities.
 
Article
Medicobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and native plants used for medicinal purpose were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. The genus Phyllanthus represented by 18 species in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, of which 13 species are used by the aboriginal Adivasi communities in the treatment of various human diseases/ailments. The tribal people especially the elders have authentic information on medicinal values of different plant parts like leaves, fruits, flowers, seeds, stem bark, stem galls and roots. They use the drugs of different plant parts in the form of paste, powder, juice, decoction, infusion, and also in crude form, with other additives like calcium, camphor, castor oil, cow milk, dry chilli, garlic, gingelly oil, ginger, goat milk, honey, ilachi, jaggery, mustard oil, pepper, turmeric, white of hen's egg, cow urine, etc. The hither to unknown therapeutic properties of test species were analysed and indicated with asterisk. The present study have been undertaken to document ethnomedicobotanical uses of plant of the region which may serve as a base knowledge for new drug development and for prevention of biopiracy.
 
Article
Ayurveda 'the Science of life' is a system of traditional medicine, native to Indian subcontinent and practiced in other parts of the world as alternate system of medicine. Ayurveda is currently followed by millions of people in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka along with many of their counterparts in the western countries. While most of the drugs referred in Ayurveda are found to be safe, there are few which contain toxic constituents in them necessitating detoxification process of 'sodhana' prior to their use as a drug. The process of sodhana leads to detoxification of the drug without interfering in its therapeutic properties (gunas). The current paper deals with the sodhana prakriya for Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds. The study aims at evaluating the underlying principle and thereafter, to find out if any alternate process can be substituted for the conventional sodhana prakriya.
 
Cytotoxicity of Salvia cryptantha against MCF-7, (circles), MDA-MB-468 ( triangles), MDA-MB-231 (squares) cells.
Article
This work aims to investigate the antiproliferative properties of Salvia cryptantha on breast cancer. Salvia cryptantha (SC) extracts were studied for cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell lines. In-vitro apoptosis studies of breast cancer cells were performed by nnexin V staining in flow cytometry analyses. Immunohistochemistry studies for Ki-67 and p16 in the tumoral tissue sections of Dimethyl Benzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumor in rats were performed. In-vivo anticancer activity testing was carried out by inhibiting the growth of mammary tumor in rats. SC showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines. Annexin-positive cells level in SC treated cell lines were higher than the untreated control cells. The expression of the Ki-67 decreased in treatment groups compared with the control group. The expression of p16 protein was much higher for the rats treated by SC, compared with the untreated control group. In vivo studies showed that mean tumor volume inhibition ratio in SC treated group was 38% compared with the untreated rats. These results indicate that Salvia cryptantha has antitumoral potential against breast cancer.
 
Article
Artemisia absinthium L., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. and Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. have been used in Asian countries for thousands of years to treat diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in type II hyperlipidemic diabetic patients. Study is blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials over 40 days. Individuals were divided randomly into 4 groups 1, 2, 3 & 4. Ten individuals were in each group. Group 1 was allocated for G. sylvestre, 2 for A. absinthium, 3 for C. colocynthis and 4 for placebo. Medication (1.0 g/day) was administered for 40 days. From each individual of each group on day 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 blood samples were collected in fasting condition. Serum glucose values in group 1 dropped most considerably (p < 0.05). Diabetic individuals of all 3 groups as compared to control and placebo group, showed significantly lowered fasting serum glucose level (p < 0.05). Fasting serum triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of all 3 groups were not reduced significantly at (p < 0.05) as compared to control and placebo groups. So it may be suggested that a type II diabetic patient can safely be switched from costly conventional antidiabetic medicine to cheap natural products. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The study was aimed to establish ginger as a supplement in treatment of anemia along with iron supplements Sixty two patients aged between 18-55 yrs, suffering from anemia participated in the study. Blood sample was analyzed for hematological and iron related parameters before and after treatment. Hematological parameters and iron related parameters - plasma iron and plasma ferritin show increased and TIBC decreased by treatment in all the group patients. Per cent rise in hematological and iron related parameters, was calculated which indicates that the ginger and iron supplementation was found to be effective in correcting anemia and iron deficiency. It was concluded that ginger assist in iron absorption and found to be beneficial as a supplement in therapy of anemia.
 
Article
This study aims to determine the impact of pretreatment of rice flour on the quality characteristics and oil absorption of the deep fried South Indian festive snack item namely, “Seedai”. Products were prepared using untreated rice flour (control) and dry heat treated rice flour. The experimental product had higher sensory scores over the control product. Fat absorbed by the control was 29%, but pretreating the rice flour (dry heat treated) decreased it to 22%. Similar results were seen in case of “oiling off” values. Free Fatty Acid, water, and crude fat were lower in the experimental product when compared to that of the control product. Therefore, the study revealed that dry heat as a method of pretreatment for rice flour was found to improve the quality of Seedai, a traditional South Indian festive snack. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock. Unlike other parts of India, where much of the spinning and weaving, is in the hands of men, in Nagaland it is exclusively the monopoly of women. They mainly weave shawls and mekhalas which range from a simple white cloth to elaborately designed ones. These textiles are mainly produced only for their own consumption and available in the local markets. These textile products require more visibility, which can be achieved through contemporary product design and value addition through design development which can lead to better and wider market acceptability and network. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the major objective of documenting the history, origin, weaving techniques, motifs and significance of the hand woven shawls of the three tribes of the state, i.e. Ao, Chakhesang and Lotha and then designing fashion accessories inspired from the hand woven textiles and ornaments of Nagaland. Inspired from these textiles fashion accessories, i.e. bags, belts and neckwear were designed and constructed and its market acceptability was studied. The study revealed that the products were highly appealing in the market and there was lot of scope to develop such products. The respondents and shopkeepers also acknowledged that the attempt was very innovative and creative to make people aware of the textiles of Nagaland and the study helped uplift, preserve and popularize the hand woven textiles of the state by product diversification.
 
Article
The major extensively recommended treatments for anxiety and insomnia disorders are the benzodiazepines; yet, they have protuberant side effects. Consequently, the progress of new pharmacological agents is well acknowledged and so it is now contemporary to search some safe and effective alternative medicine. The current study is aimed to investigate the CNS effect of the stem bark of Dodonaea viscosa in experimental animal models. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Dodonaea viscosa (EAEDV) were performed. Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines. The CNS effects were evaluated using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and phenobarbitone induced sleeping time using Diazepam (2 mg/kg) as the standard. Phyto-chemical analysis reflects the presence of flavanoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and tannins. The TLC studies confirmed that the isolated compound was found to be quercetin. Mortality and sign of any toxicity were not observed up to the dose orally with 2000 mg/kg. For all the statistical tests performed, p<0.05 is considered to be significant. In EPM, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg of EAEDV produced significant p< 0.0005, p<0.0001 anti-anxiety effect respectively compared to control group and the activity was similar to that of diazepam. In addition, the extract significantly potentiated the phenobarbitone induced sleeping time. © 2019, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Ethyl acetate, methanol, dichloromethane, petroleum ether and water extracts of nine selected plant species, which are commonly used as herbal medicines for anticancer and anti-inflammatory purposes in Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant potency with a thiobarbituric acid assay using the lipid peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes, DPPH• and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assays. Inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase (COX) was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts. As thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) has emerged as a new target for anticancer drug development, the extracts were investigated for their inhibitory activities on TrxR. The ability of the extracts to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a target for cholinesterase inhibitors, used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, was also examined. The results showed that the extracts of C. coggygria and M. officinalis subsp. officinalis are the most effective hydrogen and electron donors and contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds; thus, they can be considered the best antioxidants among the nine plants selected for the study. All the plants showed inhibitory effects against AChE, COX-1 and COX-2, therefore may be of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. It was found that M. officinalis subsp. officinalis, C. coggyria, S. aucuparia and P. major subsp. major have a strong inhibitory effect on TrxR by up to 99 %, highlighting their potential as preventive therapeutics for cancer. This study confirmed the use of these plants in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The paper enumerates the traditional uses of 27 plants used by Malapandaram tribes of Achenkovil forest of Kollam district, Kerala Information on the medicinal uses gathered from the tribals together with their botanical identity is presented.
 
Article
Several medicinal plants are known to possess anticoagulant activity. This study proposed to evaluate the in vitro anticoagulant effect of methanol extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (fruits), Achillea fragrantissima (aerial parts) and Artemisia herba-alba (aerial parts) on normal human plasma. A total of 100 blood samples used in this study were taken from healthy volunteers at the Hematology laboratory of King Khalid Hospital, Al-Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2018 to March 2019, using 3.2% sodium citrate tubes with a collection ratio of 9:1 blood to anticoagulant. PT, INR and PTT were used to assess the anticoagulant activity of these plants. The highest PT results were observed for 1000 µg/mL methanol extract of C. colocynthis (33.7±3.4 s) followed by 1000 µg/mL methanol extract of A. fragrantissima (28.2±2.6 s) and 1000 µg/mL methanol extract of A. herba-alba (26.4±0.2 s). Moreover, the highest PTT values were observed for 250, 500 and 1000 µg/mL A. fragrantissima (87.9±1.0, 97.9±5.1 and 112.5±1.1 s, respectively), 500 µg/mL and 1000 µg/mL C. colocynthis (65.1±1.0 and 106.4±0.4 s, respectively) and 1000 µg/mL A. herba-alba (157.0±3.0 s). The anticoagulant effect of methanol extracts of A. herba-alba, A. fragrantissima, and C. colocynthis were evaluated using coagulation assays, in which prolonged clotting time of their methanol extracts was observed. These findings potentially justify the use of these plants in managing arterial and venous thrombotic disorders. © 2021, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources. All rights reserved.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time total phenolic content, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of heptane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Achillea multifida (DC.) Boiss. (Compositae) aerial parts followed by identification of phenolic compounds in the methanol extract, which showed the highest total amount of phenolics, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The phenolic compounds in methanol extract were identified for the first time by ESI-Q-TOF LC/MS. The phenolic compounds were identified as: chlorogenic acid; quercetin hexoside; luteolin-7-O glucoside; dicaffeoyl quinic acid; luteolin. The chloroform extract showed strong activity and selectivity against HeLa, HT-29 and MCF-7 cell lines. The results indicated that low concentrations (100 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL) of chloroform and methanol extracts had no toxic effects on the NIH/3T3 cells. Therefore, the methanol extract from A. multifida aerial parts may be a natural source of antioxidants and antibacterial and seems to have potential application in both medicine and the food industry. In additon, the chloroform extract might be a potential anti-cancer agent. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All Rights Reserved.
 
-Composition of Unani herbomineral cream used for the study
-Assumption test (Acne vulgaris -test group)
-Severity of acne vulgaris at baseline phase (Paired t-test -summary of data)
-Severity of acne vulgaris at 45 th day of treatment phase (Paired t-test -summary of data)
Article
A controlled, randomized single blind clinical trial was conducted as per GCP guidelines for the duration of 2 months on the human individuals suffering from acne vulgaris. The patients were divided into 2 groups, control group treated topically with only cream base and the test group treated topically with the UHC. The effects of the Unani herbomineral cream (UHC) were scientifically evaluated in human beings in acne vulgaris. The assessment of the severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made by the Investigators Global Acne Severity Score. The statistical analysis of the results of severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made for the total duration of treatment. Group comparisons (within and inter group) were made using ANOVA and paired t- test respectively. The effect of only cream base did not show any significant improvement in the acne vulgaris of the patients of control group. On the other hand, the within group and inter group comparisons in the test group showed significant differences at each stage of the treatment. The test drug, UHC has been proved effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris in the test group in comparison to the control group.
 
Article
In Ayurveda, Vaca (Acorus calamus, Family: Araceae), is reputed for its beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of 70% hydro-ethanolic extract of Vaca or Acorus calamus (ACE) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in human. Hamilton's Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and thorough clinical investigations were used to screen the subjects. Thirty-three participants (20 male and 13 female; average age 36.2 yrs) were medicated with ACE in a fixed dose regime (500 mg/capsule, twice daily, p.o. after meal). They were thoroughly investigated clinically and using standard questionnaires based on different psychological rating scale at baseline (day 0), mid-term (day 30) and final (day 60). The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress. Moreover, the questions are of a general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. The observations exhibited that, ACE not only significantly (p<0.001) attenuated anxiety related disorders but it also significantly (p<0.001) reduced stress phenomenon and its correlated depression. ACE further significantly (p<0.001) improved the willingness to adjustment. Therefore, it may be concluded that Vaca may be useful in the treatment of GAD in human and may be a promising anxiolytic agent in near future.
 
Bean production systems in Juruá Valley: (A) Stuffy system implantation, selective deforestation step (B) Bean climbing on the branches, stuffy farming system in the RESEX Alto Juruá (Pictures by Antônio Silva de Jesus, donated for research) (C) Beans being cultivated on the Juruá river beach (D) Beans cultivated under the slash and burn system on the PAD Santa Luzia.
Article
The Juruá valley Mesoregion is recognized for its diversity of cultivars of common beans and cowpea and is an important center for on farm bean conservation in Brazil. However, there is little information about production systems of Creoles cultivars and, in this approach, the study aimed to identify the production centers and to gather information about beans production systems. Thirty eight farmers and five merchants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Juruá valley farmers use three beans production systems: “beach farming”, “slash burn system” and “stuffy farming”. The systems use family labor with low dependence on external inputs, two classified as itinerant. The study identified two beans production centers: Alto Juruá extractive reserve and Santa Luzia directed settlement project. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All Rights Reserved.
 
Article
Many factors such as oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines cause β-cell dysfunction and death. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (A. fraxinifolius) on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and liver/kidney dysfunctions against alloxan induced Type 1 diabetes in rats. Thirty six male white albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Control group, diabetic group and two prophylactic group with two different doses and two therapeutic group with two different doses (250 or 500 mg/kg b.w; for 28 consecutive days). Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of 75 mg/kg b.walloxan monohydrate for 5 consecutive days. In this study showed that A. fraxinifolius extract [especially prophylactic treatment] significantly suppressed diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetes in rat model by alleviating body weight loss, hyperglycemia, hypo-insulinemia and dyslipidemia through activating the antioxidant defense system, decreasing of oxidative/nitrosative stress as well as lipid peroxidation, and increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. The percentage of disease recovery was 15.00 ± 5.472 % in high dose A. fraxinifolius of prophylactic treatment compared with alloxan only group 73.70 ± 22.09 % (p < 0.05).The data confirmed property of A. fraxinifolius as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that ameliorates oxidative/nitrosative stress and revealed that it is efficiently improves diabetic complication in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
-Hit list of the ligands with the target protein P-Gp 
GC/MS profile extricating phytocompounds from Aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea
docking pose of the phytocompounds a. hexanoic acid, 4hexadecyl ester b. Pseudohypericin c. Hypericin d. 9,12,15Octadecatrien-1-ol, (Z,Z,Z)-e. 2(4H)-Benzofuranone, 5,6,7,7atetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-f. 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5dihydroxy-6-methyl into the active sites
Article
The vital phytochemicals from the leaves of Clitoria ternatea L. were extricated using GC/MS assay is pursued by a molecular docking study, considering the phytocompounds as ligands against the efflux protein (P-Glycoprotein) which determines the active compound that surpasses the blood brain barrier. Five potential compounds were considered competent to the optimized phytocompounds of Hypericum perforatum L. among which Hexanoic acid, 4-hexadecyl ester furnished a minimum binding affinity energy value of -8.734kcal/mol and interacted with the amino acid residues GLN721 of the active site. Whereas, Pseudohypericin is the foremost phytocompound of Hypericum perforatum L. exhibited a docking interaction of -8.096 kcal/mol with a distinct amino acid residue MET982. This work endorses Clitoria ternatea L. as a competent brain drug across the blood brain barrier on par with an established European folk medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum L. (St.John’s Wort). © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The study was conducted to explore the specific attributes of few selected dairy based innovations developed at grassroots across India. For this particular study, the 'case study' method was adopted. A total of nine dairy based innovations developed at grassroots, across different parts of India were selected, purposively. The uniqueness of these innovations lie in the fact that they are based on the particular culture from which they emanate and are based on the local wisdom. This study revealed that all dairy based innovations developed by farmers were having greater utility than other available options; because these innovations were developed, keeping in view the needs of farmers. Further, these were also found to be and found sustainable, because these innovations were developed, using local materials and wisdom. The costs of all nine innovations were found to be less than other available technologies in the market. Majority of selected innovations were found to be profitable except that of "Mixed Forestry", wherein farmers get profit after long time and after involving hard work and investments. All selected innovations were found to be compatible to needs of the local farmers. Six out of nine innovations as developed by the respondents were not commercialized, because of the inability of farmers in converting the innovations into marketable products, coupled with less demonstrability of these innovations.
 
Article
Metals are processed through various steps like Shodhana, Marana, Amritikarana, etc. to convert them into Bhasmas, which are then used as a medicine in Ayurveda for internal consumption. These processes are said to increase the bio-acceptability of the metallic preparations mentioned in Ayurveda. In the classical texts, Marana of metals is categorized according to various media used during the process of Marana, such as Kajjali, Mullika, Gandhakadi (mercurial compounds, herbs and sulphur containing compounds) and Ariloha (enemy metals), which are claimed to be superior, medium, inferior and unwarranted, respectively. Tamra (copper) Bhasma has been advocated for its therapeutic use in Hrid Rogas. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the relative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Tamra Bhasmas made by adopting different Marana procedures. The results indicate that lipid lowering capacity of Tamra Bhasma prepared using Mullika (herb) is best; whereas Bhasma prepared using Kajjali (mercurial compound) is of second grade. Bhasma prepared using Gandhaka (sulphur) is not effective for the antihyperlipidaemic activity. Tamra Bhasma with Ariloha was not tried as it has been referred not fit for human use.
 
Article
To elucidate the mechanism of anti-arthritic action of the Arthosansar, a polyherbal formulation has proven anti-arthritic activity. The mechanism is elucidated by emphasizing on immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory and analgesic action. The study is carried out using CFA induced arthritis in rats, carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inflammation induced by various phlogistic agents in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and tail-immersion test in mice. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes in CFA induced arthritic rats. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited neutrophil infiltration in carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators (PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin) and pain mediated through these mediators in acetic acid induced writhing test. Arthosansar also showed significant (P<0.001) increase in latency period in tail immersion test in mice. Arthosansar exhibits anti-arthritic activity by. (a) Inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation (b) Inhibiting production of IF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 (c) Inhibiting release of inflammatory mediators PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin (d) Exhibits antinociceptive action through opioid receptors and by promoting release of endogenous peptides.
 
Article
Indigenous Technical Knowledge has been the key rescuer of the fishers and common people of Dhemaji district of Assam, India from frequent floods in the region every year. They utilize the existing resources with a sustainable eco-friendly approach towards disaster management and exploration of fisheries resources and co-exist with the usual floods in the region. This study was conducted in the region through PRA after interviewing 110 fishers of three most flood-prone development blocks of the district with the help of an interview questionnaire. ITKs associated with the early warning of flood, construction of flood-safe fish ponds for flooded regions and post flood situation, modified fishing methods, fishing gear and fish preservation methods best suited to the flood situation developed by the people of the district are compiled and documented. People of the region traditionally use different meteorological signs, weather status along with animal behavior as early signal of flood and heavy rain. In order to face devastating floods which occur 2-3 times a year, the farmers constructed smaller ponds (<0.2 ha) for facilitating easy maintenance against flood inundation with tall and wide dykes and strengthening them with turfing and plantation. Fish harvesting techniques were modified in several occasions and preservation of bulk catch was done with innovative techniques for future consumption including combination of drying and smoking in household oven and development of products in combination with vegetables. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
DPPH scavenging activity of S. pharaonis extract at different concentration Data is presented in Mean ±SD (n=3). Inhibition per cent of DPPH radicals in 515 nm.
The absorbance of different concentration of pepsini extract of S. pharaonis in FARP assay. Data is presented in Mean ±SD (n=3). Absorption wavelength is 593 nm.
Article
Cuttlefish belong to the class Cephalopoda and their muscle tissue, skin, cuttlebone, and ink showed different therapeutic effects such as significant antioxidative ones. Given that free radicals are the cause of several degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Alzheimer, etc., use of different cuttlefish’s tissues for their antioxidative properties has seriously attracted the attention and can be helpful in improving the disease therapy process. This study was aimed at measuring antioxidative effects of Sepia pharaonis using ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging methods. The IC50s of pepsin hydrolysate of S. pharaonis in DPPH were 3.07, 1.68, 3.67, and 129.38 (mg/ml), in DPPH, non-site Hydroxyl radical scavenging, site Hydroxyl radical scavenging and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging assays, respectively. EC1 in FRAP assay was 21.75 (mg/ml).Results indicated that pepsin extract of S. pharaonis has antioxidant effects. This effect can be a result of the protien exsisted in cuttlfish tissue, mechanism of direct radical scavenging activity, or absorbtion of heavy metals. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All Rights Reserved.
 
Locality of the plant samples.
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in µg/mL of two endemic plants belong to Lamiaceae family.
Article
Salvia and Ballota species of Lamiaceae have been used in the traditional medicine. Salvia heldreichiana Boiss. Ex Bentham, Ballota saxatilis subsp. brachyodonta Boiss. P. H. Davis & Doroszenko. are endemics, found in Mersin-Hatay-Adana region and to our knowledge their antimicrobial activities never been researched before. Antimicrobial activities of the aqueous extracts (herbal extract) (AE) and essential oils (EO) of two endemic plants were screened again nine human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Aqueous extracts (AE) and essential oils (EO) of these plants were investigated against four Gram-positive bacteria, three Gram-negative bacteria and two yeast species. Antimicrobial activity were determined by using macrodilution method. The aqueous extracts of the plants showed rather low antimicrobial activity against the studied microorganisms than their essential oils. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been changed in the range of 0.78-50 μg/ml. The aqueous extracts and essential oils of Ballota saxatilis subsp. brachyodonta and Salvia heldreichiana possess compounds with antimicrobial effect against pathogen microorganisms. Further studies should be carried out in order to reveal their potential.
 
Article
Degenerative diseases have been considered as a major public health problem in many countries, thus, findingmedicines to treat these diseases without undesirable side effects is required. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, anti-oxidation and cytotoxicity activities of the ethanolic extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves (ACE) and its active metabolite; mangiferin. The yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was performed, and the IC50 of ACE and mangiferin were found to be 0.1840±0.0032 and 0.5714±0.0044 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, these samples were analyzedin term of the in vitro antioxidant activities using standard antioxidant assays. The results showed that ACE and mangiferin do possess anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of ACE and mangiferin was also evaluated against three human cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The ACE could inhibit cell viability of MDA-MB-231; breast cancer cells (IC50 = 33.89±0.50 μg/mL) greater than HT-29; colorectal cancer cells (IC50 =51.74±1.42 μg/mL) and HepG2; hepatic cancer cells (IC50 = 53.63±1.54 μg/mL) Mangiferin could also reduce the viability of these three cell lines, but the IC50 was greater than 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, our findings may provide some evidence for understanding the indigenous use of A. crassna leaves. © 2019, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Methanolic extracts from 4 medicinal plants representing 4 families, used traditionally for malaria treatment in South east Nigeria were screened for their in vivo antimalarial activity in mice against a chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65, alone and in combination as polyherbal remedy. The methanolic extracts of individual plants in single and in combination (100-400 mg kg⁻¹) were administered orally to P. berghei-infected mice in both early and established models of antiplasmodial studies. Survival time was determined. When used alone, extracts from the 4 plants, Fadogia cienkowskii (FC), Lophira lanceolata (LL), Vernonia conferta (VC) and Protea madiensis (PM) had statistically significant parasitaemia suppression (62.06 – 93.44 %) and curative (48.93 – 72.47 %) effects. Lower doses of the 4 individual plants constituted FLVP at a combination ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1. Polyherbal formulation (FLVP) gave statistically significant suppression and curative which ranged from 45.5 – 85.1 % and 45.5 – 74.00 %, respectively. A more general improved antimalarial recovery effect, controlled weight lost and enhanced survival rate of the test mice compared to the individual plant therapeutic effect was observed. The standard drug, CQ gave stronger curative effect 100 % parasitaemia clearance. Our study findings suggest that the 4 plants used both as monotherapy and combined polyherbal remedy showed antiplasmodial in vivo activities and FLVP showed a more stable recovery status. FLVP is safe up to tested dose of 4000 mg kg⁻¹. Further studies using varying fixed ratios for FLVP could result in better and improved antimalarial formulation. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
-The effects of acute acupuncture on HRV parameters 
Article
In a recent study, the possible effect of acupuncture in modulating heart rate variability (HRV) in both healthy and non healthy subjects were reported, while previous review reported that acupuncture did not have any convincing effect on HRV in healthy subjects. We aimed to reinvestigate the possible helpful effect of acupuncture on HRV parameters and to test the possible differences between acute and long term (20 minutes) acupuncture applications. Twenty nine female subjects were participated in this study. For the acupuncture therapy, HT 7 acupuncture point (shen men) was selected. Acupuncture needle was placed for 1 minute in acute acupuncture application and 20 minutes in long term acupuncture. The recording ECG (HRV) was applied before and after acute and long term acupuncture therapies. Almost all HRV parameters increased after the acute acupuncture and some HRV parameters after the long term acupuncture compared to before therapy in healthy persons. There were no differences between acute and long term applications. These results indicate that acupuncture might be cardio protective and might restore sym pathovagal imbalances by stimulating the peripheral nervous system. Also, the long term acupuncture application is not essential for the cardio protective effect. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The presence of immunostimulant compounds in higher plants has been extensively reviewed but only a limited number of immunomodulatory products of plant origin have been reported. The present investigation was designed to get an in depth understanding of the efficacy of crude extracts of leaf of Barringtonia acutangula as immunomodulatory agent on experimental rats. The oral administration of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts (LWBA and LMBA) of B. acutangula for 14 days was found to stimulate the non specific arm of immunity. Haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre test was performed to know humoral antibody response of LWBA and LMBA extracts at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses. Results obtained showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in antibody production in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) at both doses when compared with Cyclophosphamide treated control group. Cyclophosphamide induced suppression of humoral immune response was significantly attenuated by daily oral treatment of LWBA and LMBA extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg. LWBA extract showed slightly more HA titre than LMBA extract. The results justify that the LWBA and LMBA extracts of B. acutangula have a strong potential to be explored further as an immune-based herbal therapy. © 2017, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
There is an imperative pre-requisite to look for newer and safer drugs derived from natural resources, which will help in fighting stress. Gnetum gnemon L. (Bago), a versatile medicinal plant with a wide range of ethnobotanical utilizations, has been broadly used therapeutically and is becoming increasingly popular as nutraceutic agent. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antistress or adaptogenic activity of Gnetum gnemon. Male Wistar rats were grouped as acute stress (AS) group, chronic stress (CS) group, vehicle control group and standard drug (Zeetress) treated group. The rats exposed to acute stress (AS) for 3 days and chronic stress (CS) for 7 days were treated with ethanolic extract of Gnetum gnemon (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) daily for (AS and CS), respectively. Water immersion stress was used in stress models. Ethanolic extract of Gnetum gnemon (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) reverted the elevated levels of ALT, AST, plasma glucose, cholesterol and creatine kinase and triglyceride level. In the extract treated groups, the size of the spleen was normalized than the stress control group. The size of the hypertrophied adrenal glands was reduced due to its putative adaptogenic property. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
Habbe Shifa (HS) is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation which is widely used in Unani system of medicine. HS contains Tukhme dhatura (Datura stramonium L.) as a major constituent. The present study investigated the acute toxicity of HS in Swiss albino mice. In the present study, hydro alcoholic extract of HS was administered to six groups of mice orally in the doses ranges from 8-42 gm/kg B wt and the animals were observed continuously for gross behavior and mortality at 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min and 24 hrs. The numbers of animals found dead within 24 hrs in each group were recorded. The LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) for the oral dose extract was found to be 8 gm/kg B wt. The estimated oral LD-50 of hydro alcoholic extract of HS was found to be 30 gm/kg B wt in mice. From the results, it is concluded that HS is safe at normal therapeutic dose as well as at higher doses.
 
Article
Acute oral toxicity studies on the suspension of some Unani drugs Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) and Sammulfar (Arsenious oxide) were carried out on mice and compared to detoxified form. The effect of detoxifying process was assessed on the maximum tolerance dose of the test drugs gets affected during the treatment process. From the experimental studies it was evident that the LD-50 in detoxified form of both the test drugs found greater than crude materials.
 
Article
Neti is among one of the 6 purificatory measures of yoga, which are practiced by yoga sadhaka for inner purification. Jalaneti (saline nasal lavage) is a simplified version of Neti, which utilizes saline water instead of cotton thread to clean the nasal passage. Nasya of Ayurvedic therapy is a generic term for all nasal applications having therapeutic activities. Jalaneti is of common practice to most yoga and nature cure units, however its scientific validation has not been attempted through controlled studies and case reports. Saline nasal irrigation has been promoted as an adjunct to the conventional therapy for common cold and sinusitis in many western countries. The indigenous technique used in Jalaneti seems to be more appropriate and cost effective for the patients of sinusitis as is seen in the case study, where Jalaneti was utilized as the sole therapy to treat the acute sinusitis. A remarkable recovery was observed within a 10-day period of twice a day Jalaneti therapy and the results were consistent till a follow up after 6 month.
 
Article
Cancer and its treatment are generally considered to be stressful. One of the important approaches used to reduce the anxiety is therapeutic music. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of therapeutic music on anxiety in children with ALL. This study was conducted as single-grouped pre-test, post-test quasi-experimental design at the paediatric oncology unit of a university hospital in Turkey between February 2010 and June 2010. 28 children were selected by using convenience sampling. In order to obtain the study data, the VAS was used. The duration of the therapeutic music sessions ranged from 15 to 30 minutes during the chemotherapy procedure in the child’s room. At the beginning and end of therapeutic music session, the child completed 0-10 point VAS. In this study, it was determined that anxiety of post-test measures decreased to pre-test measures for all age groups and the difference between them was found as statistically very significant (p<0.05). P<0.05 is a standard level of significance. The findings of this study, which are consistent with previous reports, support the opinion that therapeutic music may have a positive effect on hospitalised paediatric oncology patients. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to identify the traditional medical practices about general health in mountain, plain, and seaside regions of Adana, find out the differences resulting from geographical features, and collect information regarding this issue to hand down the knowledge gathered to next generations. Target population of the study was designed as a qualitative one. The study was conducted with 23 participants who were born and have been living in mountain, plain, and seaside regions of Adana. Data obtained from the study show that people living in mountain, plain, and seaside regions make use of various traditional health practices. As a result of the interviews conducted, health practices were collected under the following subtitles: wound-burn injury, skin diseases, pain, fracture-dislocation, ear-nose-throat diseases, and respiratory system disorders. It was found that there were fewer traditional health practices and more mystical beliefs in plain and seaside regions than in the mountains. It is important for health professionals to know individuals and families for whom they provide care in terms of their attitudes, behaviours and applications regarding the traditional practices, which can help an improvement in the effectiveness of the service provided to them.
 
Article
This study identified not only the wild plants collected for food purposes by local people of Karaisalı County in the Mediterranean Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. Field study was carried out over a period of approximately 2 years (2008–2010). During this period, 76 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, vernacular plant names, edible parts and utilization methods of the plants were investigated and recorded. In the scope of the study, the plant species were collected; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the use-value of the species was determined and was calculated for the food plants included in the study. A total of 76 food plants belonging to 30 families were identified in the region. The most common families are: Asteraceae (12 plants), Lamiaceae (10 plants), Rosaceae (9 plants), Polygonaceae (5 plants), Apiaceae (4 plants). The study showed that the plants used are either eaten raw or ripe, cooked as vegetable dish, consumed as jam, consumed as coffee, as spice, frying in oil or baked to be served as dishes such as stew, pie made by roasting the leaves, prepared sour souce is added to food. During this ethnobotanical research, it was verified that wild edible plants play an important role in diet in Karaisalı. We examined whether the plants used had literature records or not. Varied usages of a number of plants have been recorded for the first time by us. Tree of those plant are endemic. The plant flora of Karaisalı is threatened by such factors as grazing, expansion of new agricultural lands, and unsustainable picking of plants to generate income. Steps should be taken immediately to ensure the inclusion of relevant flora within conservation designations. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Five-year mean rainfall, and maximum and minimum temperature of Azamgarh district of last 100 years (1901-2000). CV: Temp Max.= 0.6562; Temp Min. 1.058; Rainfall= 9.729. Std Err: Temp Max. = 0.0675; Temp Min.= 0.0650; Rainfall= 30.229 Source: IMD data through NICRA project 
Article
Resource-poor farmers, living in marginal environments and more directly dependent on local natural resources, have developed location specific agricultural knowledge systems that help them to adapt to climatic variability. In this research, we documented farmers' perceptions of climatic variability and related adaptive practices in three selected hamlets of Azamgarh district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected with 60 farmers using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal interview methods. We found that the farmers are experiencing climatic variability as reflected by reduced frequency of rains and increased rainfall intensity, and that the farmers' observations were consistent with climate data of the past 100 years (from 1901 to 2000), where at several intervals variations in rainfall were very high. To combat climatic variability among resource-poor community and sodic agroecosystems, farmers have developed, through trial and error, a number of adaptive practices in their subsistence agriculture. These include crop diversification, agronomic manipulations and mixed cropping. Small-scale and marginal farmers practice biodynamic agriculture, where they maintain more than 10 crop species with minimal use of external inputs. Soil type, season, nutrient demand, soil fertility, cost of cultivation and local ecological knowledge are all considerations in these systems. These farmers also use indigenous practices to manage the insect pests in their crops. These adaptations help farmers to reduce environmental risks and minimize crop failures, and thus enhance the livelihoods. Farmers consider their location specific crop systems to be ecologically sustainable, economically viable and culturally acceptable.
 
Diameter distribution class of the forest sites
Article
Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts in mountainous regions worldwide. Rural communities that depend on farming, livestock rearing and natural resources for their livelihoods are likely to be affected by its adverse impacts. This study was carried out to understand one community's perceptions and experiences of climate change and to assess the people's use of forest resources and possible implications for climate change adaptation. The study was conducted through semi-structured questionnaires. The entire population of 67 households was surveyed for the study. The household data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency and inferential statistical tests, namely, parametric t-test and chi- square. The study revealed that a majority of people in the community (79%) were aware of climate change. Over ninety per cent of the local people depend mainly on cultivation of potato and rearing livestock for their livelihood. The results indicated that climate change and variability have affected the lives of the local people who have developed adaptation strategies in their own way to cope with it. Local people cited impacts including reduced precipitation and an irregular rainfall pattern, which affects potato cultivation and winter fodder production. Production has also been affected by an increased in insect pests. Additionally, new invasive/weed species are reported to be colonizing the pasture land, preventing the regeneration of preferred grass species for grazing. Use of forest products such as fuel wood, flag post, fencing post and litter in particular, have decreased because of available alternatives. Over eighty per cent of those interviewed the need of government support. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Article
The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting and assessing the potential of indigenous knowledge towards adaptation to climate change covering a sample of 200 farmers, hundred each from Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan representing Himalayan and Arid ecosystems respectively. Documentation of ITK was done using both primary and secondary source of information. In-depth study was designed by combining survey and anthropological approach of participant study. The major documented indigenous knowledge was ‘mind’ cultivation, ‘chal’ to harvest water, ‘apple paste’ to control diseases and ‘siddu’ to protect from extreme cold in Himachal Pradesh. Similarly, the major documented indigenous knowledge of Rajasthan were–Khadin’ farming system to manage drought, ‘kanabandi’ to manage soil and wind storm, ‘tanka’ to harvest water, ‘jupka’ and ‘kothi’ for storing the grain and feed, etc. Beside these, the people of both the ecosystems observed the movement of insects and animals (butterfly, ant, and termite) to forecast the rainfall and other climatic parameter. As the indigenous practices hold high potential to address the issue of climate change, these may be promoted after establishing their scientific validity and rationality. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
-Farmers Perceptions on Barriers to Climate Adaptation
Characteristics of household in the selected districts
Adaptation strategies at the farm level
Article
Enhancing resilience of rural communities to climate change requires a clear understanding of micro-level perceptions and adaptation issues and their integration with the rural developmental framework. We collected household level data to understand grass-root perspectives on climate variability, impacts and barriers to adaptation in two different districts; Moga, Punjab and Mahbubnagar, Telangana. Further the study uses meteorological data to validate farmers perceptions. The results show that change in the quantum and distribution of rainfall, rising temperature, ground water depletion, lower farm income, higher unemployment and rural migration are some of the major impacts of climate change. Moreover, farmers perceptions on climate variability were consistent with the observed climate trend. Against climatic variations farmers were making shift to crop varieties of suitable duration, curtailing expenditure, borrowing and participating in employment guarantee schemes. However, farmers responses were constrained by barriers like lack of accessibility to weather information, limited knowledge on the cost-benefit of adaptation, inaccessibility to climate smart technologies, inadequate financial resources and unawareness on welfare schemes. The study concludes there is a need to reorient the developmental programmes at the macro-level considering micro-level needs and constraints for climate resilient agriculture. © 2019, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
 
Top-cited authors
Rainer W Bussmann
  • Ilia State University
Robbie Hart
  • Missouri Botanical Garden
Narel Paniagua Zambrana
  • Ilia State University
David Kikodze
  • Ilia State University
Zaal Kikvidze
  • Ilia State University