Present survey was conducted in the hilly areas of Abbottabad district of North-west Frontier Province in order to inventorise the medicinal plants used in the folk medicine to treat various ailments by the local inhabitants A total of 54 plant species belonging to 51 genera and 40 families for their therapeutic used. The medicines were prepared from various plant parts of a single plant or multiple plants. the ethnomedicinal inventory is presented by plant name local name, family and uses.
The present ethnobotanical exploration depicts 48 medicinal plants for about 36 types of ailments practiced by Paliyar tribes of the Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India. The study was carried out through semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews in consultations with the herbal practitioners. The ethnic community still depends upon their indigenous knowledge to healing their ailments. The study thus emphasizes the need to pursue meticulous ethnobotanical research in finding solutions to major fatal diseases and ensure its application in improving human healthcare facilities.
Medicobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and native plants used for medicinal purpose were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. The genus Phyllanthus represented by 18 species in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, of which 13 species are used by the aboriginal Adivasi communities in the treatment of various human diseases/ailments. The tribal people especially the elders have authentic information on medicinal values of different plant parts like leaves, fruits, flowers, seeds, stem bark, stem galls and roots. They use the drugs of different plant parts in the form of paste, powder, juice, decoction, infusion, and also in crude form, with other additives like calcium, camphor, castor oil, cow milk, dry chilli, garlic, gingelly oil, ginger, goat milk, honey, ilachi, jaggery, mustard oil, pepper, turmeric, white of hen's egg, cow urine, etc. The hither to unknown therapeutic properties of test species were analysed and indicated with asterisk. The present study have been undertaken to document ethnomedicobotanical uses of plant of the region which may serve as a base knowledge for new drug development and for prevention of biopiracy.
Ayurveda 'the Science of life' is a system of traditional medicine, native to Indian subcontinent and practiced in other parts of the world as alternate system of medicine. Ayurveda is currently followed by millions of people in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka along with many of their counterparts in the western countries. While most of the drugs referred in Ayurveda are found to be safe, there are few which contain toxic constituents in them necessitating detoxification process of 'sodhana' prior to their use as a drug. The process of sodhana leads to detoxification of the drug without interfering in its therapeutic properties (gunas). The current paper deals with the sodhana prakriya for Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds. The study aims at evaluating the underlying principle and thereafter, to find out if any alternate process can be substituted for the conventional sodhana prakriya.
This work aims to investigate the antiproliferative properties of Salvia cryptantha on breast cancer. Salvia cryptantha (SC) extracts were studied for cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell lines. In-vitro apoptosis studies of breast cancer cells were performed by nnexin V staining in flow cytometry analyses. Immunohistochemistry studies for Ki-67 and p16 in the tumoral tissue sections of Dimethyl Benzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumor in rats were performed. In-vivo anticancer activity testing was carried out by inhibiting the growth of mammary tumor in rats. SC showed cytotoxicity to three cancer cell lines. Annexin-positive cells level in SC treated cell lines were higher than the untreated control cells. The expression of the Ki-67 decreased in treatment groups compared with the control group. The expression of p16 protein was much higher for the rats treated by SC, compared with the untreated control group. In vivo studies showed that mean tumor volume inhibition ratio in SC treated group was 38% compared with the untreated rats. These results indicate that Salvia cryptantha has antitumoral potential against breast cancer.
The study was aimed to establish ginger as a supplement in treatment of anemia along with iron supplements Sixty two patients aged between 18-55 yrs, suffering from anemia participated in the study. Blood sample was analyzed for hematological and iron related parameters before and after treatment. Hematological parameters and iron related parameters - plasma iron and plasma ferritin show increased and TIBC decreased by treatment in all the group patients. Per cent rise in hematological and iron related parameters, was calculated which indicates that the ginger and iron supplementation was found to be effective in correcting anemia and iron deficiency. It was concluded that ginger assist in iron absorption and found to be beneficial as a supplement in therapy of anemia.
The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock. Unlike other parts of India, where much of the spinning and weaving, is in the hands of men, in Nagaland it is exclusively the monopoly of women. They mainly weave shawls and mekhalas which range from a simple white cloth to elaborately designed ones. These textiles are mainly produced only for their own consumption and available in the local markets. These textile products require more visibility, which can be achieved through contemporary product design and value addition through design development which can lead to better and wider market acceptability and network. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the major objective of documenting the history, origin, weaving techniques, motifs and significance of the hand woven shawls of the three tribes of the state, i.e. Ao, Chakhesang and Lotha and then designing fashion accessories inspired from the hand woven textiles and ornaments of Nagaland. Inspired from these textiles fashion accessories, i.e. bags, belts and neckwear were designed and constructed and its market acceptability was studied. The study revealed that the products were highly appealing in the market and there was lot of scope to develop such products. The respondents and shopkeepers also acknowledged that the attempt was very innovative and creative to make people aware of the textiles of Nagaland and the study helped uplift, preserve and popularize the hand woven textiles of the state by product diversification.
The paper enumerates the traditional uses of 27 plants used by Malapandaram tribes of Achenkovil forest of Kollam district, Kerala Information on the medicinal uses gathered from the tribals together with their botanical identity is presented.
A controlled, randomized single blind clinical trial was conducted as per GCP guidelines for the duration of 2 months on the human individuals suffering from acne vulgaris. The patients were divided into 2 groups, control group treated topically with only cream base and the test group treated topically with the UHC. The effects of the Unani herbomineral cream (UHC) were scientifically evaluated in human beings in acne vulgaris. The assessment of the severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made by the Investigators Global Acne Severity Score. The statistical analysis of the results of severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made for the total duration of treatment. Group comparisons (within and inter group) were made using ANOVA and paired t- test respectively. The effect of only cream base did not show any significant improvement in the acne vulgaris of the patients of control group. On the other hand, the within group and inter group comparisons in the test group showed significant differences at each stage of the treatment. The test drug, UHC has been proved effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris in the test group in comparison to the control group.
In Ayurveda, Vaca (Acorus calamus, Family: Araceae), is reputed for its beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of 70% hydro-ethanolic extract of Vaca or Acorus calamus (ACE) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in human. Hamilton's Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and thorough clinical investigations were used to screen the subjects. Thirty-three participants (20 male and 13 female; average age 36.2 yrs) were medicated with ACE in a fixed dose regime (500 mg/capsule, twice daily, p.o. after meal). They were thoroughly investigated clinically and using standard questionnaires based on different psychological rating scale at baseline (day 0), mid-term (day 30) and final (day 60). The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress. Moreover, the questions are of a general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. The observations exhibited that, ACE not only significantly (p<0.001) attenuated anxiety related disorders but it also significantly (p<0.001) reduced stress phenomenon and its correlated depression. ACE further significantly (p<0.001) improved the willingness to adjustment. Therefore, it may be concluded that Vaca may be useful in the treatment of GAD in human and may be a promising anxiolytic agent in near future.
The study was conducted to explore the specific attributes of few selected dairy based innovations developed at grassroots across India. For this particular study, the 'case study' method was adopted. A total of nine dairy based innovations developed at grassroots, across different parts of India were selected, purposively. The uniqueness of these innovations lie in the fact that they are based on the particular culture from which they emanate and are based on the local wisdom. This study revealed that all dairy based innovations developed by farmers were having greater utility than other available options; because these innovations were developed, keeping in view the needs of farmers. Further, these were also found to be and found sustainable, because these innovations were developed, using local materials and wisdom. The costs of all nine innovations were found to be less than other available technologies in the market. Majority of selected innovations were found to be profitable except that of "Mixed Forestry", wherein farmers get profit after long time and after involving hard work and investments. All selected innovations were found to be compatible to needs of the local farmers. Six out of nine innovations as developed by the respondents were not commercialized, because of the inability of farmers in converting the innovations into marketable products, coupled with less demonstrability of these innovations.
Metals are processed through various steps like Shodhana, Marana, Amritikarana, etc. to convert them into Bhasmas, which are then used as a medicine in Ayurveda for internal consumption. These processes are said to increase the bio-acceptability of the metallic preparations mentioned in Ayurveda. In the classical texts, Marana of metals is categorized according to various media used during the process of Marana, such as Kajjali, Mullika, Gandhakadi (mercurial compounds, herbs and sulphur containing compounds) and Ariloha (enemy metals), which are claimed to be superior, medium, inferior and unwarranted, respectively. Tamra (copper) Bhasma has been advocated for its therapeutic use in Hrid Rogas. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the relative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Tamra Bhasmas made by adopting different Marana procedures. The results indicate that lipid lowering capacity of Tamra Bhasma prepared using Mullika (herb) is best; whereas Bhasma prepared using Kajjali (mercurial compound) is of second grade. Bhasma prepared using Gandhaka (sulphur) is not effective for the antihyperlipidaemic activity. Tamra Bhasma with Ariloha was not tried as it has been referred not fit for human use.
To elucidate the mechanism of anti-arthritic action of the Arthosansar, a polyherbal formulation has proven anti-arthritic activity. The mechanism is elucidated by emphasizing on immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory and analgesic action. The study is carried out using CFA induced arthritis in rats, carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inflammation induced by various phlogistic agents in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and tail-immersion test in mice. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited proliferation of lymphocytes in CFA induced arthritic rats. Arthosansar significantly (P<0.001) inhibited neutrophil infiltration in carrageenan induced peritonitis in mice, inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators (PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin) and pain mediated through these mediators in acetic acid induced writhing test. Arthosansar also showed significant (P<0.001) increase in latency period in tail immersion test in mice. Arthosansar exhibits anti-arthritic activity by. (a) Inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation (b) Inhibiting production of IF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 (c) Inhibiting release of inflammatory mediators PGs, histamine, 5-HT and bradykinin (d) Exhibits antinociceptive action through opioid receptors and by promoting release of endogenous peptides.
Salvia and Ballota species of Lamiaceae have been used in the traditional medicine. Salvia heldreichiana Boiss. Ex Bentham, Ballota saxatilis subsp. brachyodonta Boiss. P. H. Davis & Doroszenko. are endemics, found in Mersin-Hatay-Adana region and to our knowledge their antimicrobial activities never been researched before. Antimicrobial activities of the aqueous extracts (herbal extract) (AE) and essential oils (EO) of two endemic plants were screened again nine human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Aqueous extracts (AE) and essential oils (EO) of these plants were investigated against four Gram-positive bacteria, three Gram-negative bacteria and two yeast species. Antimicrobial activity were determined by using macrodilution method. The aqueous extracts of the plants showed rather low antimicrobial activity against the studied microorganisms than their essential oils. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been changed in the range of 0.78-50 μg/ml. The aqueous extracts and essential oils of Ballota saxatilis subsp. brachyodonta and Salvia heldreichiana possess compounds with antimicrobial effect against pathogen microorganisms. Further studies should be carried out in order to reveal their potential.
Habbe Shifa (HS) is an important pharmacopoeial Unani formulation which is widely used in Unani system of medicine. HS contains Tukhme dhatura (Datura stramonium L.) as a major constituent. The present study investigated the acute toxicity of HS in Swiss albino mice. In the present study, hydro alcoholic extract of HS was administered to six groups of mice orally in the doses ranges from 8-42 gm/kg B wt and the animals were observed continuously for gross behavior and mortality at 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min and 24 hrs. The numbers of animals found dead within 24 hrs in each group were recorded. The LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) for the oral dose extract was found to be 8 gm/kg B wt. The estimated oral LD-50 of hydro alcoholic extract of HS was found to be 30 gm/kg B wt in mice. From the results, it is concluded that HS is safe at normal therapeutic dose as well as at higher doses.
Acute oral toxicity studies on the suspension of some Unani drugs Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) and Sammulfar (Arsenious oxide) were carried out on mice and compared to detoxified form. The effect of detoxifying process was assessed on the maximum tolerance dose of the test drugs gets affected during the treatment process. From the experimental studies it was evident that the LD-50 in detoxified form of both the test drugs found greater than crude materials.
Neti is among one of the 6 purificatory measures of yoga, which are practiced by yoga sadhaka for inner purification. Jalaneti (saline nasal lavage) is a simplified version of Neti, which utilizes saline water instead of cotton thread to clean the nasal passage. Nasya of Ayurvedic therapy is a generic term for all nasal applications having therapeutic activities. Jalaneti is of common practice to most yoga and nature cure units, however its scientific validation has not been attempted through controlled studies and case reports. Saline nasal irrigation has been promoted as an adjunct to the conventional therapy for common cold and sinusitis in many western countries. The indigenous technique used in Jalaneti seems to be more appropriate and cost effective for the patients of sinusitis as is seen in the case study, where Jalaneti was utilized as the sole therapy to treat the acute sinusitis. A remarkable recovery was observed within a 10-day period of twice a day Jalaneti therapy and the results were consistent till a follow up after 6 month.
The purpose of this study is to identify the traditional medical practices about general health in mountain, plain, and seaside regions of Adana, find out the differences resulting from geographical features, and collect information regarding this issue to hand down the knowledge gathered to next generations. Target population of the study was designed as a qualitative one. The study was conducted with 23 participants who were born and have been living in mountain, plain, and seaside regions of Adana. Data obtained from the study show that people living in mountain, plain, and seaside regions make use of various traditional health practices. As a result of the interviews conducted, health practices were collected under the following subtitles: wound-burn injury, skin diseases, pain, fracture-dislocation, ear-nose-throat diseases, and respiratory system disorders. It was found that there were fewer traditional health practices and more mystical beliefs in plain and seaside regions than in the mountains. It is important for health professionals to know individuals and families for whom they provide care in terms of their attitudes, behaviours and applications regarding the traditional practices, which can help an improvement in the effectiveness of the service provided to them.
Resource-poor farmers, living in marginal environments and more directly dependent on local natural resources, have developed location specific agricultural knowledge systems that help them to adapt to climatic variability. In this research, we documented farmers' perceptions of climatic variability and related adaptive practices in three selected hamlets of Azamgarh district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected with 60 farmers using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools and personal interview methods. We found that the farmers are experiencing climatic variability as reflected by reduced frequency of rains and increased rainfall intensity, and that the farmers' observations were consistent with climate data of the past 100 years (from 1901 to 2000), where at several intervals variations in rainfall were very high. To combat climatic variability among resource-poor community and sodic agroecosystems, farmers have developed, through trial and error, a number of adaptive practices in their subsistence agriculture. These include crop diversification, agronomic manipulations and mixed cropping. Small-scale and marginal farmers practice biodynamic agriculture, where they maintain more than 10 crop species with minimal use of external inputs. Soil type, season, nutrient demand, soil fertility, cost of cultivation and local ecological knowledge are all considerations in these systems. These farmers also use indigenous practices to manage the insect pests in their crops. These adaptations help farmers to reduce environmental risks and minimize crop failures, and thus enhance the livelihoods. Farmers consider their location specific crop systems to be ecologically sustainable, economically viable and culturally acceptable.