Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

Published by Springer Verlag
Online ISSN: 0976-6952
Publications
Incision for TRAM flap. a Classical incision at the level of umbilicus, b Modified incision below the level of umbilicus  
Age distribution of patients undergoing mastectomy
a Modified technique of raising TRAM flap, b Technique of raising latissimus dorsi flap  
a Final donor site scar of classical TRAM flap, b Final donor site of modified TRAM flap  
Article
Early diagnosis and multi-modality treatment has resulted in prolonged survival of many patients with carcinoma of breast. It is important that the surgeons who handle breast malignancies look at the psychological and cosmetic aspects without compromising the oncologic principles of surgery in carcinoma of the breast. Post mastectomy immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) addresses the psychological and cosmetic problems that follow mastectomy. There are various techniques available for post mastectomy primary breast reconstruction. The technique should be affordable to the large number of economically poor patients and should be less time consuming. During the period of 13 years from January 1996 to December 2008, we have operated 2932 cases of carcinoma breast, of which 546 patients had IBR using various procedures. In our centre, TRAM flap was found to be the best procedure for post mastectomy immediate breast reconstruction. Immediate reconstruction whenever possible is the best option. Presence of the tissue used for reconstruction was not found to affect any form of local adjuvant treatment like radiotherapy, or delay the detection of local recurrent disease.
 
Over view of robot-assisted oncological procedures 
Results of robotic radical hysterectomy 
Article
Minimal access surgery is an accepted modality for benign surgery. Despite the advantages of laparoscopy, its acceptance in oncology is slow. Robotic surgery is an emerging field with rapid acceptance because of the 3-dimensional image, dexterity of instruments and autonomy of camera control. We report here our experience of using the Da Vinci robot for various oncological procedures. We performed 164 oncological surgeries from November 2009 to June 2011. The surgeries performed included thoracic, colorectal, hepatobiliary, gynaecological and urological system. We could complete 163 cases robotically. We share our initial experience of robotic surgery in oncology with comparison with other series.
 
Article
Sir, the recent report on “18 FDG PET-CT in Evaluation of Unknown Primary Tumours (UPT)” is very interesting. Saidha et al. concluded that “whole body FDG-PET/CT has to be considered a useful tool in evaluating metastases from an UPT [1].” In fact, the previous report by Karapolat et al. also confirmed the usefulness of whole body FDG-PET/CT in this application [2]. However, it should be noted that the accuracy of this technique is about 88.3 % [3]. According to a recent report, Moller et al. concluded that “FDG PET/CT does not represent a clear diagnostic advantage over CT alone regarding the ability to detect the primary tumor site [4].”
 
Article
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive tumor with a dismal prognosis, biomarkers that can detect tumor in its early stages when it may be amenable to curative resection may improve prognosis. At present, serum CA 19-9 is the only validated tumor marker in widespread clinical use, but precise knowledge of its role in pancreatic cancer diagnosis, staging, determining resectability, response to chemotherapy and prognosis remains limited. A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed with keywords "pancreatic cancer" "tumor markers" "CA 19-9" "diagnosis" "screening" "prognosis" "resectability" and "recurrence". All English language articles pertaining to the role of CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer were critically analyzed to determine its utility as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Serum CA 19-9 is the most extensively studied and clinically useful biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Unfortunately, CA 19-9 serum level evaluation in pancreatic cancer patients is limited by poor sensitivity, false negative results in Lewis negative phenotype (5-10%) and increased false positivity in the presence of obstructive jaundice (10-60%). Serum CA 19-9 level has no role in screening asymptomatic populations, and has a sensitivity and specificity of 79-81% and 82-90% respectively for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in symptomatic patients. Pre-operative CA 19-9 serum level provide useful prognostic information as patients with normal CA 19-9 serum levels (<37 U/ml) have a prolonged median survival (32-36 months) compared to patients with elevated CA 19-9 serum levels (>37 U/ml) (12-15 months). A CA 19-9 serum level of <100 U/ml implies likely resectable disease whereas levels >100 U/ml may suggest unresectablity or metastatic disease. Normalization or a decrease in post-operative CA 19-9 serum levels by ≥20-50% from baseline following surgical resection or chemotherapy is associated with prolonged survival compared to failure of CA 19-9 serum levels to normalize or an increase. Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) is the most extensively studied and validated serum biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in symptomatic patients. The CA 19-9 serum level can provide important information with regards to prognosis, overall survival, and response to chemotherapy as well as predict post-operative recurrence. Non-specific expression in several benign and malignant diseases, false negative results in Lewis negative genotype and an increased false positive results in the presence of obstructive jaundice severely limit the universal applicability of serum CA 19-9 levels in pancreatic cancer management.
 
Article
Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for bladder cancer is increasingly becoming popular in specialist centres around the world. RARC has the advantage of being minimally invasive and also the dexterity of the instruments allow reconstruction such as ileal conduit urinary diversion or neobladder formation. Starting from the initial series demonstrating the feasibility of RARC and extended pelvic lymph node dissection, we now have mature series demonstrating equal oncological and functional outcomes in the medium term follow-up. In addition, literature suggests decreased hospital stay, less blood loss equating to less blood transfusion and a trend towards decreased complications as well. In the near future we would anticipate further refinement and reduced operating times with increased benefits for the patient undergoing RARC.
 
Mammographic presurgical localization for a mass that was histologically proven to be a Fibroadenoma a Craniocaudal view showing the mass b Mediolateral view showing the mass c Mediolateral view with breast under compression in a fenestrated paddle 
Mammographic abnormalities in patients with breast cancer
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze cases undergoing imaging guided localization prior to surgical excisional biopsy of abnormalities in the breast and to describe the methodology utilized to perform such presurgical localization procedures. Presurgical localization of non palpable breast abnormalities is a simple, safe and effective procedure; it is now used more selectively for this indication due to availability of minimally invasive percutaneous biopsy procedures that can be performed under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance.
 
Article
Thyroid swellings are a significant clinical problem in the general population but majority of them are nonneoplastic and do not require surgery. The initial screening procedures include ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and radionucleotide scan. An initial screening test which will diagnose thyroid lesions accurately will help to avoid surgery in nonneoplastic conditions. The aim of the present study is to correlate the cytology findings with final histopathology. Two hundred and forty-eight cases of thyroid nodules which underwent FNAC followed by surgery were included in this study. The cytology diagnoses were classified into nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory, benign, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy and malignant. The fine needle aspiration diagnosis was compared with the histopathology diagnosis. In majority of cases the FNA diagnosis was in concordance with final histopathology. A high incidence of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma thyroid was detected in this study. The awareness of this entity and the search for fine nuclear details of papillary carcinoma can lead to proper identification of this category of tumors and thus help to avoid false negative and equivocal results. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, cost effective, rapid to perform procedure with high degree of accuracy and is recommended as the first line investigation for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
 
Article
Retrospective review of presentation, treatment and outcome of male breast cancer in a tertiary cancer centre in eastern India. Data of 42 male breast cancer (MBC) patients, who presented between April, 2001 and March, 2008 were collected from institute records with respect to epidemiological characteristics, clinical and pathological parameters, treatment pattern and outcome. This series includes 42 patients with mean age of 56 years (range 31-78 years). MBC represented 1.1 % of all breast cancer. History of lump in the breast with duration ranging from 1 month to 4 years was the most common clinical presentation (80.95 %). Histopathology found infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 35 (83.33 %), followed by papillary carcinoma in 3 (7.14 %), undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 (4.76 %), mucinous carcinoma in 1 (2.38 %) and myxofibrosarcoma in 1 (2.38 %) patient. Hormone receptor (HR) study was performed on 29 patients. Twenty six (89.7 %) patients were hormone receptor positive in that 8 (27.6 %) were ER positive and 18 (62.1 %) were ER and PR positive. 3 (10.3 %) were hormone receptor negative.Axillary lymph node dissection was performed on 30 patients. Of those, 60 % were found to be positive (pN+) and 40 % were negative (pN-). Of the patients with invasive carcinoma 2.86 % were pathologic stage I, 37.14 % stage II, 42.86 % stage III and 17.14 % stage IV. Of the 35 treated patients, total 30 (85.71 %) patients underwent surgery. The surgery consisted of a modified radical mastectomy (MRM) 24 (80 %), radical mastectomy according to Halsted (RM) 6 (20 %). Adjuvant therapy i.e. Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy was administered to the patient based upon their stage. The standard treatment for all HR positive patients was administration of tamoxifen. Based upon the follow-up information (ranging from 17 month to 136 months), 4 (14.28 %) patients developed local recurrence over 4 to 26 months (mean17.5 months) and 5 patients developed distant metastasis over 24 to132 months (mean 78 months). Disease specific survival varied from 4 months to 132 months, with a mean of 56.75 months. Thirteen out of 28 evaluable patients (46.43 %) were disease free at 5 years. Male Breast cancer is a rare disease often ignored in the community, because of which it is seeks medical attention at advanced stage. Majority of MBC are found to be HR positive, hence hormonal therapy should to be strongly considered and multicentric prospective studies are needed to improve outcome.
 
Article
Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively uncommon. It is associated with a poor prognosis and behaves more aggressively. We report a case of metastatic growth in the ascending flexure of the colon that had eroded into the anterior abdominal wall muscles and resulted in a large parietal abscess. She had undergone radical hysterectomy followed by radiation therapy for stage II carcinoma of the uterine cervix 14 months back. Ultrasound guided drainage of the abscess was done as an emergency procedure to control the sepsis. After 3 days an extended Right Hemicolectomy with stapled ileo colic anastomosis was done with resection of a part of abdominal wall adherent to the growth with a grossly normal margin. Histopathological examination confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. She is disease free 2 months after surgery. Surgical management of the metastatic tumour was palliative but necessary to prevent intestinal obstruction in future.
 
Article
The concept of surgical invasiveness cannot be limited to the length or to the site of the skin incision. It must be extended to all structures dissected during the procedure. Therefore, MIT or MIP should properly be defined as operations through a short and discrete incision that permits direct access to the thyroid or parathyroid gland, resulting in a focused dissection. Parathyroid glands are particularly suitable for minimally invasive surgery as most parathyroid tumors are small and benign. MIP are performed through a limited or discrete incision when compared to classic open transverse cervical incision and are targeted on one specific parathyroid gland. The concept of these limited explorations is based on the fact that 85% of patients will have single-gland disease. MIP must be proposed only for patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism in whom a single adenoma has been clearly localized by preoperative imaging studies. The minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland may be broadly classified into three groups: the mini-open lateral approach via a small incision, minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy via the midline and various endoscopic techniques. Endoscopic extracervical approaches have the main advantage of leaving no scar in the neck but cannot reasonably be described as minimally invasive as they require more dissection than conventional open surgery. Initially the indications for MIT were a solitary thyroid nodule of less than 3 cm in diameter in an otherwise normal gland. Today, MIT are also proposed in patients with small nodular goiters, Graves’s diseases and low risk papillary thyroid cancers. Some concern remains about the radicality of MIT in this latter group but preliminary results are comparable to those of conventional surgery both in terms of I-131 uptake and serum thyroglobuline levels. Demonstrating the advantages of MIT and MIP over conventional surgery is not easy. Main complications, such as nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, or hemorrhage, are the same as in conventional surgery. Several studies comparing conventional surgery with minimally invasive techniques using a cervical access have shown a diminution of postoperative pain, and better cosmetic results with minimally invasive techniques. MIP and MIT seem overall to be an advance but only randomized studies will demonstrate the real benefit.
 
Article
Clinical examination is a simple method to detect breast lumps and their nature as it is inexpensive and non-invasive and if found to be accurate, might be of great value as a diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of clinical examination and its contribution towards the diagnosis of a palpable breast lump. The study was record based and conducted at a University Medical College Hospital and a tertiary referral centre of South India. Patient files of those women who presented with a breast lump between January to December 2011 were studied. A total of 120 patients were obtained following necessary exclusions. The accuracy of clinical assessment at an outpatient facility was determined by comparing the physician's diagnosis with the final histopathological diagnosis. The inter-observer agreement (kappa) for diagnosing a breast lump was 81 % (95 % Confidence Interval = 71 % to 92 %) indicating a good agreement between clinical and pathological diagnoses. McNemar test also indicated a high degree of concordance between the two diagnoses (4.17 % discordance). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical breast examination in comparison to histopathology were 95, 88, 87, and 95 % respectively, with an overall accuracy of 90.8 %. 11 lumps were wrongly diagnosed at the time of clinical examination. Clinical examination of breast lumps was found to have a high sensitivity (94.5 %) and specificity (87.7 %) and can be used as the diagnostic tool to identify the nature of the lump, however, its value in diagnosing breast malignancy remains contributory due to the possibility that malignant lumps could be overlooked and present as advanced cancer at a later stage. Histopathology is recommended in all cases unless clinical examination is supported with strong evidence of benignity based on repeated breast imaging via ultrasound or mammogram (>35 yrs).
 
Article
Adamantinoma is a rare primary tumor of the bone of unknown origin [1]. They are low grade malignant tumors which are capable of distant metastases especially to the lung [2]. Distant metastases have been described to occur many years after the presentation of the primary [4]. We describe our experience with a patient of adamantinoma of the tibia who presented with metastases 6 years after management of the primary.
 
Article
Pancreatic cancer is a relatively common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract for which complete surgical excision remains the only curative option. Being infiltrative in nature and bearing a complex anatomical relationship with various organs, peritoneal ligaments and vascular structures, accurate anatomical staging is key in treatment of these patients. In this article, we will discuss and provide a brief overview of anatomy and use of imaging in staging pancreatic cancer.
 
Article
Axillary lymph node metastasis from primary ovarian cancer is rare. Here, we reporting a unique case of 45 years old who presented with axillary lymph node metastasis which was thought from breast carcinoma but it turned out to be due to ovarian serous adenocarcinoma confirmed by histopathology & immunohistochemistry. Staging laparotomy (IIIc) with hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Post-operatively, the patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy. No local or systemic recurrence was noted during 1 year follow up period.
 
Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of case 1 showing dilated doudenum and proximal jejunum with arrow pointing on stricture in proximal jejunum 
Cut section of gross specimen of jejunal stricture of case 1 showing growth and dilated proximal portion of jejunum 
Per-operative image of case 2 showing tight jejunal stricture about one foot distal to doudenojejunal junction
Article
Tubercular stricture of small bowel is a common cause of subacute intestinal obstruction in India. In a small subset of patients the cause of the intestinal obstruction could be adenocarcinoma of jejunum. It is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The point of concern is compared to tubercular stricture, the treatment of jejunal adenocarcinoma is always surgical in the form of cancer directed surgery. The operating surgeon needs to have a very high suspicion for jejunal adenocarcinoma because the timely treatment offers the best survival in otherwise an aggressive disease with bleak prognosis.
 
Bone marrow biopsy showing metastatic adenocarcinoma (X100, H&E) 
Bone marrow biopsy showing metastatic adenocarcinoma (X400, H&E)
CT Thorax (contrast) showing spiculated growth in the right hilar region with lymphangitis carcinomatosa changes
Article
Adenocarcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed histological subtype of bronchogenic carcinoma in women and nonsmokers [1]. Extrathoracic metastasis is found at autopsy in over 80% of patients with adenocarcinoma. Metastasis to bones is common occurrence in patients with advanced carcinomas, particularly in those with lung, breast or prostate [2]. Metastasis to bone marrow from prostate, breast, pancreas, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma lung have been frequently reported. Bone marrow involvement in pulmonary adenocarcinoma is rare [1]. Here we are reporting a case of adenocarcinoma lung with bone marrow involvement as its first manifestation.
 
Article
Adequacy of surgical resection decided by the margin status is important in attaining a good local control and better survival in Head and neck Cancers. Conventionally, a measured distance between the tumor edge and the cut edge of the specimen is taken as the margin. A margin more than 5 millimeter (mm) is considered clear, less than 5 mm is close and less than one mm is denoted as involved. The concept of this adequacy varies between the different sites and subsites in head and neck. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence that describes the adequacy of surgical margin status and their variability among the sites and sub-sites in the head and neck.
 
NRI (Neo-adjuvant response index) comparison with different variables using statistical tests
Article
Response evaluation following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer is usually done without taking in to account the axillary response and the available tools like 'response evaluation criteria in solid tumors' (RECIST) have this limitation. These criteria rely solely on the response observed in the primary tumour. Neoadjuvant response index is one such attempt to have a comprehensive assessment of response both in the primary tumour and the axilla. 30 cases of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were assessed for response using 'Neo-adjuvant Response Index'. The index always gives score between '0' (no response or progressive disease) and '1' (pathological complete response i.e. no invasive tumor in breast as well as axilla). This index includes axillary response as well and provides a spectrum of response rather than dividing patients into simply responders and non-responders . Mean reading of index was found to be 0.2925 in this study. Three patients achieved an index of 1. This index correlates significantly with the existing scales for assessing response. Hormone negative tumors were found to be more chemo responsive with higher rates of pathological complete response (pCR) while ER/PR + Her2- tumors showed a very poor response to NACT. Based on the observations of the present study it may be submitted that Neoadjuvant Response Index (NRI) is a reliable and simple tool that can serve as a comprehensive and accurate method of assessing response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy as it takes in to consideration both the tumor and axillary response unlike the existing RECIST, binary system (responders are those with greater than 50 % reduction), RCB method and the available biomarkers. This study being first of it's kind in Indian population, in spite of it's limitations, could prove to be a launching ground for further reasearch and contribute substantially to the evidence base.
 
Targeted Molecules used in mRCC: the details of the phase III trials 
The response of the renal tumour to the targeted molecular treatments 
Article
Target molecule Treatment (TMT) have emerged as the primary treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Majority of the patients in pivot trials were post nephrectomy cases. The benefit of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the era of TMT is debated. The role of these molecules in the adjuvant settings and in neo adjuvant/pre surgical role has evoked interest. In this review the different molecules used in the treatment of metastatic renal cancer and its effect on the primary renal tumour is discussed. Information available in the public domain about the presurgical/neoadjuvant targeted molecular treatment (TMT) is reviewed to understand the benefits and adverse effects of this modality of treatment. Sunitinib and sorafenib are the most commonly used and effective molecules in the neo adjuvant/re surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma . Bevacizumab is less effective and has more chance of surgical complications in these settings mainly due to poor wound healing secondary to prolonged wash off period . The patent and the surgeon should be aware of the unpredictability and possible adverse effects before advising these molecule pre operatively. The response of the primary renal tumour to the target molecule is different from that of the metastatic tumour. The side effects of the molecules and its effect on the peri operative morbidity and mortality should also be considered when we advise these molecules as pre surgical/neo adjuvant treatment.
 
Aromatase inhibitors: Upfront adjuvant trials 
Aromatase inhibitors: Sequential adjuvant trials 
Aromatase inhibitors: summary of adverse events Adverse events with AI class effect 22,23,25 
Proposed management of bone side-effects with aromatase inhibitors 
Article
Tamoxifen has been considered for several decades as the standard upfront hormonal therapy for patients with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer. The efficacy and favorable toxicity profiles of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, in advanced disease led to their development in early breast cancer. Recent trial results consistently showed the superiority of AIs over tamoxifen in using the two following therapeutic approaches: either the upfront strategy (randomization of newly diagnosed patients: tamoxifen for 5 years vu AI for 5 years) or the sequencial strategy (randomization of newly diagnosed patients: tamoxifen (2–3 years) followed by AI or the inverse for a total of 5 years vs upfront AI for 5 years). Despite some common characteristics, a body of evidence on AIs suggests some specific differences between the three agents in terms of efficacy as well as toxicity profiles. Thus, these hormonal agents may not be considered interchangeable in clinical practice. This review will explore available results from AIs trials and will try to define their present role in the upfront adjuvant management of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.
 
Large heterogeneous signal intensity lesion in the right suprarenal region with mature and immature fatty component 
Article
Adrenal Myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non functioning neoplasm arising from the adrenal cortex. They are composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of normal haemopoietic elements. Most lesions are small and asymptomatic, diagnosed incidentally, however some may present with nonspecific complaints. Pathogenesis of adrenal myelolipoma remains doubtful. With the advent of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, pre-operative diagnosis has improved remarkably and explains the recent increase in rate of detection, however, in doubtful cases; FNAC offers a reliable and simple method for the diagnosis. The management should be individualized ranging from observation for small, asymptomatic lesions to surgical excision for large or symptomatic or functional lesions or where diagnosis is in doubt or malignancy cannot be ruled out. Prognosis is excellent. Less than 300 cases have been reported in literature; however awareness regarding this entity is necessary to avoid extensive surgery [1].
 
CECT scan of abdomen — non contrast axial section showing large right adrenal lesion with fat density areas( − 91HU) and soft tissue density areas (10HU) 
CECT Abdomen-Contrast enhanced axial section showing heterogenous enhance ment of the Right Adrenal lesion
Intra operative picture showing Right adrenal lesion behind hepatic flexure of colon
Gross appearance of resected specimen showing well encapsulated tumor
Cut surface of specimen (in formalin) showing dark areas (myeloid) interspersed with yellowish areas(lipomatous)
Article
Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, mostly non functional tumor of adrenal gland, picked up incidentally on investigations for an unrelated pathology. Radiological features are diagnostic for this condition. While observation is recommended for smaller lesions, opinion is divided regarding management of larger lesions. In this article we present a case report of a middle aged male with an incidentally detected adrenal myelolipoma.
 
Article
The term inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor more commonly referred to as "pseudostumor ", denotes a pseudosarcomatous inflammatory lesion that contains spindle cells, myofibroblasts, plasma cells, lymphocytes and histiocytes. It exhibits a variable biological behavior that ranges from frequently benign lesions to more aggressive variants. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the stomach is extremely rare and its prognosis is unpredictable. We present a 45-year-old diabetic man with a gastric Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis was the key to reach diagnosis.
 
Article
Sebaceous carcinoma is a highly aggressive, potentially lethal tumour arising from the sebaceous glands in the skin. It accounts for 3.2 % of all malignant skin tumours. An advanced case of sebaceous carcinoma with distant metastasis is very rare as most of them present in the periocular area and are easily visible. We present an elderly woman who presented with two large fungating exophytic masses over the right parotid/orbital region and right side of neck. FNAC showed cytological features suggestive of poorly differentiated carcinoma which on histopathological exam confirmed it to be sebaceous carcinoma. Unfortunately the patient succumbed to cardiac arrest before initiation of treatment. This is the largest case of sebaceous gland carcinoma of eyelid reported in the medical literature, confirming the local aggressive behavior of the tumor and highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.
 
Article
Pelvic exenteration is a technically demanding surgical procedure performed for locally advanced cancers in the pelvis. Aim of the present study was to analyze morbidity, failure pattern and survival after pelvic exenteration during a period of 15 years in a dedicated cancer centre in South India. Retrospective analysis of case records of 50 patients who underwent pelvic exenteration from 1996 to 2011 in the Department of Surgical Oncology, Government Royapettah Hospital Chennai. Forty-six patients were females and 4 were males with a mean age of 48.3 years (range 21-72). Twenty six patients had cervical cancer,14 had rectal cancer, 3 had bladder cancer,2 had endometrial cancer, 2 had vaginal cancer, 1 had uterine sarcoma, 1 had anal cancer and 1 had ovarian cancer. The postoperative morbidity was 50%. 7 patients (14%) developed recurrence of which 5 had local and 2 had distant recurrence. The estimated 5 year overall survival for all patients in our series was 53.5% and for the patients with Ca rectum and Ca cervix was 60.6% and 40.1% respectively. Adjacent organ invasion had a significant impact over survival. Pelvic exenteration provides a curative form of treatment for carefully selected locally advanced cancer in the pelvis and it can be done safely with acceptable complications in centers experienced in multivisceral resections.
 
Article
Absence of breast cancer screening in India, lack of awareness in rural population, social inhibitions and poor socioeconomic status leads to a situation where a large proportion of women in India are still presenting with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) at the time of initial diagnosis, although, there are relatively more of early stage cases detected in the metros and urban areas than maybe a decade ago. With advances in care and introduction of newer chemotherapeutic agents, it has now become feasible to offer neoadjuvant therapy with effective tumor downsizing, thus making it possible to even consider breast conservation surgery in select patients with locally advanced and unresectable disease at presentation. With reports suggesting apparent safety of the procedure, breast conservation treatment after chemotherapy is now being offered as routine care in most major centers for selective women with LABC. Multimodality therapy is the standard of care with neoadjuvant systemic therapy for all women with LABC.
 
Article
Treatment strategy for locally advanced primary breast cancer(LAPC) remains mainly multimodal involving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery followed by radiotherapy and endocrine therapy, all given upfront. There have been few studies comparing this with a sequential treatment approach, for instance, using endocrine therapy as initial treatment. Based on small randomised clinical trials and local experience in Nottingham, primary endocrine therapy has been shown to produce very good early (response) and late (survival) outcome when used in ER positive, noninflammatory LAPC. This could be considered as a viable therapeutic option in appropriately selected patients.
 
Cross-sectional CT of the abdomen showing dense ascitis and scalloping of liver surface 
a Large mucinous tumor and tumor granulations filling the entire abdominal cavity b Tumor free abdominal cavity at the end of debulking and before the start of HIPEC. A plastic sheat is being stitched to abdominal wall for instilling chemotherapy by open technique
Article
Pseudomyxoma peritonei following dissemination of appendicealmucinous neoplasms is slowly progressive but inevitably a lethal condition. It is locally invasive and does not lead to lymph node or distant metastasis making it amenable for more radical procedures. We present a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei treated by Cytoreductive surgery(CRS)and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC) with Mitomycin C (12.5mg/m2 ) at 41.50 C. This was followed by five cycles of early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) with 5FU (650 mg/m2) over 5 days. Patient underwent standard Peritonectomy procedure combined with resection of gallbladder, Spleen, subtotal colectomy and resection of part of small bowel. Blood loss during theprocedure was 4000ml. Histopathology revealed Pseudomyxoma peritonei (hybrid type). The patient recuperated well and was discharged and now is living a productive life. Peritonectomy with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment for appendiceal tumors with peritoneal dissemination which offers a hope of disease free long survival in such patients.
 
Article
Auto-penectomy is a rare consequence of penile carcinoma (PC). Two men, 65 and 74 years of age, presented with total penile loss secondary to PC. Due to poor hygiene and negligence, the ulcer was infected with maggots. The management was by local debridement and suprapubic cystostomy. No further treatment was done as the patients did not come for follow-up.
 
Symptomatology
Nodal harvest and adjuvant treatment
Article
Hypopharyngeal cancers are uncommon. The management of advanced hypopharyngeal carcinomas has been a difficult problem. Surgical resection has been more successful. While many surgical methods have been used and reported pharyngolaryngo esophagectomy with gastric pull up remains the best option. This study documents our experience with patients who underwent total pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with immediate gastric pull-up for advanced carcinoma hypopharynx. The clinical data of 17 patients treated with pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy for advanced carcinoma of the hypopharynx between 2001 and 2004 was analyzed. All patients had advanced disease and required a gastric pull-up for reconstruction. Data obtained included age, sex, site, stage, post op complication, duration of follow up, recurrence & survival. Average age was 37.7 years and ranged from 27 to 56 years. There were 13 female patients and 4 male patients .13 patients presented with postcricoid tumours and 4 with posterior pharyngeal wall tumors, 13 patients presented with stage 3 tumors and 4 patients presented with stage 4 tumors. Wound infection was present in 2 patients (11.7%), anastomotic leak in 1(5.8%), hypocalcemia in 1(5.8%) and malignant pleural effusion in 1 patient (5.8%). Local recurrence occurred in 1(5.8%) while nodal recurrence occurred in 5(29.4%) patient. The average over all survival in our study was 19.5 months and ranged from 2 to 101 months. The gastric pull-up operation is a useful and effective method for the immediate reconstruction of the advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy.
 
Means and medians for survival time
Article
Although rare over most of the world, Gallbladder cancer is very common in northern india. A delayed presentation, aggressive nature,lack of randomised trials and a poor prognosis have all contributed to the nihilistic halo encircling gallbladder cancer. None of the advances in oncology have been exploited enough to shatter the nihilistic halo. In this background we sought to analyze if the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy had any impact on the resectability, overall and disease free survival in patients with advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma of the gall bladder from 2004 to 2010 at our institute retrospectively. Twenty-one patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently taken up for surgery. Outcome analysis of these 21 patients were done by Kaplan meier method and graphs plotted. Out of the 21 patients who were taken up for surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, fourteen patients underwent R0 resection (Group 1). Seven patients had been rendered inoperable on exploration (Group 2). Thus about 66.67 % of patients deemed resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy on imaging underwent R0 resection. The mean overall survival of the group 1 was 42.8 months versus 6.6 months of group 2(Hazard Ratio: 3.42). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves resectability in some patients with unresectable gall bladder cancer. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and may improve survival in a select group of patients. However randomized studies are required to establish its definitive role.
 
Article
Maintaining quality of life (QOL) is one of the important aims of cancer treatment. Quality of life of a cancer patient is affected by various factors, which may be disease related, patient related, or treatment related. To study changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) brought about by treatment of rectal cancer and factors affecting the changes using Malayalam translation of FACT-C (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal) Questionnaire. Also to detect the minimally important clinical changes (MICC) in health-related quality of life of patients with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone surgery. Forty-five patients diagnosed with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone curative surgery, were studied. HRQOL was assessed at baseline 2 weeks after surgery and 3 months after surgery. The changes in scores were correlated with various demographic factors like age, sex, marital status, number of children, number of married children, and education and occupation of the patient and spouse. Also the treatment-related factors like presence of stoma, presence of morbidity, previous treatment, stage of disease, and administration of chemotherapy before and after surgery were correlated. All the subscales of FACT-C tool, except emotional well-being, were significantly reduced 2 weeks after surgery and increased slightly above pre-treatment level 3 months after surgery. The Chronbach α values were 0.88, 0.89 and 0.86 on three occasions, respectively, establishing internal validity of the test. Baseline HRQOL scores were better in males compared to females. Among the various subscales, the drops in SWB, FWB, FACT-G, total Score and TOI were significant (P < .05).There were no significant differences in scores between patients who have undergone open surgery and minimally invasive surgery or patients who had permanent colostomy versus no colostomy. The HRQOL scores after surgery reduced 2 weeks after surgery and improved above pre-surgical levels 3 months after surgery. The approach of surgery (minimally invasive versus open) or presence or absence of permanent colostomy didn't make any significant change in HRQOL. But since the sample size of the study was small, we need further larger studies to arrive at definite conclusions.
 
Article
Internal jugular vein is one of the major contributors to the venous drainage from the intracranial structures. Neck dissections which necessitates ligation of internal jugular vein leads to significant alteration of cerebrospinal fluid pressures in the range of three times for unilateral ligation to five times in cases of bilateral ligation. Agenesis of internal jugular vein merits concern prior to central venous cannulation and ligation during radical neck dissection for metastatic nodes in head and neck cancers.
 
Article
Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare neoplasm arising from musculoaponeurotic structures. Our aim is to share our experience with this rare tumor in our institute and to discuss the more perplexing recurrence patterns and the management options. This is a retrospective study of the disease, treated in our institute for the past fourteen years. A total of 36 patients were analyzed. The demographic pattern of the disease, various treatment modalities offered and their outcome along with patterns of recurrence were studied. Our study showed a demographic pattern mostly similar to the rest of the world. But the pattern of recurrence and the multicentric and the non-random pattern of presentation observed in our study showed some difference from the other studies. We suggest surgery as the primary modality with radiation reserved for select patients with margin positivity, inoperable tumors, and multiple tumors. Since the disease has a long natural history a wait and watch policy can be observed for giving adjuvant RT. There is need for prospective multi-institutional RCTs to shed light on the unknown facts about this disease.
 
General Patient Characteristics
Article
Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) biopsy using a combination of radioisotopes and blue dyes have a good accuracy rate in predicting subclinical neck nodal metastases in head and neck cancers. However, the limited availability of lymphoscintigraphy facilities in India requires exploration of alternative methods of SLN detection. We evaluated the feasibility of using methylene blue dye alone in detecting SLN in cN0 early oral cancers. 32 patients with cN0 early (T1, T2) oral squamous cell cancers underwent SLN biopsy using peri tumoural methylene blue dye injection. Blue dye stained (SLN) nodes were sent for frozen section analyses. Patients who had microscopic metastases in SLN underwent modified radical neck dissections and the rest underwent selective neck dissections. Paraffin sections and IHC studies were done on all nodes. SLN was identified in 29 patients (Identification rate = 90.6 %) of which SLN was positive for metastases on frozen section in 5 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and NPV of SLN with frozen section were 80 %, 95.8 % and 95.8 % respectively. IHC with cytokeratins increased the sensitivity (100 %) and NPV (100 %) at the loss of specificity (87.5 %). Methylene blue dye alone can be successfully used for SLN identification in early oral cancers with a good accuracy and sensitivity. This method will be of use especially in resource limited countries and centres where nuclear medicine facilities are not widely available. However, it has to be validated by larger randomised multi institutional trials for wider applicability. Immunohistochemistry increases the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SLN but its applicability in real time decision making is limited.
 
Article
Oral cancer is one of the most common types of cancer seen in India with buccal and alveolo buccal regions being the most frequent subsites. A retrospective analysis of buccal and alveolo buccal cancer patients undergoing neck dissection from 1995 to 2009 was performed to analyze the profile of neck dissections and patterns of nodal involvement in these patients. Total 310 neck dissections were done for buccal and alveolo-buccal cancer including 41 (13.2 %) RND, 231(74.5 %) MND and 38 (12.2 %) Supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND). Clinically palpable nodes were present in 75.9 % patients but only 117 (38 %) were pathologically node positive. 20 % had occult positive nodes in N0 group. Level I was most commonly involved with 35 % having positive nodes in more than one level. There were no patients with isolated involvement of level IV or V with only 3.9 % patients with involvement of level III. Current guidelines recommend neck dissection in all clinically node positive patients. However, our experience shows that neck is over treated in majority of patients and there is a need to optimize surgical management of neck in these patients.
 
Clinical image showing large friable, grey white growth in the anterior and lateral wall of vagina extending into the vulva 
Microscopy with pleomorphic spindle to epitheloid tumour cells arranged in trabaculae and sheets with areas of necrosis (H&E, X100)
Microscpopy showing pleomorphic spindle to epitheloid tumour cells arranged in sheets (H&E, X100)
Article
Primary amelanotic melanoma of the vulva is extremely rare and it is a unique variant which is difficult to differentiate from other epithelial and nonepithelial malignancies due to absence of melanin pigmentation. It can be easily mistaken for other malignancies both clinically and pathologically. The difficulties in diagnosis and treatment aggravate the poor prognosis. This case highlights the rare case of vulval amelanotic melanoma occurring in a young lactating female.
 
Picture showing the lesion on the maxillary gingiva posterior to molar teeth 
Post of photograph 
H& E staining showing islands of odontogenic epithelial cells, with central stellate reticulum and peripheral palisading 
Article
Amelobasltoma is a benign neoplasm of the jaw bones that originate from the odontogenic epithelium. They are more common on the mandible than the maxilla. Rarely such tumours arise outside these bones, when they are termed extraosseous or peripheral ameloblastoma. We report a case of extraosseous ameloblastoma in a 30 year old woman, who presented with a painless lesion on the upper gingiva. The lesion was excised completely and the histopathology was suggestive of extraosseous ameloblastoma.
 
Shows the lower border of mandible (M) and the dissected facial artery (FA) with the marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) crossing the facial artery below the lower border of mandible 
Diagram showing the point where the marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) crossed the facial artery (FA), and the measurement ( a – b ) which is the distance at which MMN was identified crossing the facial artery from the lower border of mandible 
Article
Marginal Mandibular Nerve (MMN) is a branch of the facial nerve. Muscles supplied by this nerve are responsible for facial symmetry, facial expressions and phonation. Aim was to study the branching pattern and variations in the position of marginal mandibular nerve. 202 patients who underwent neck dissection from June 2005 to October 2006 at Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India were included in the study. During the course of neck dissection, the marginal mandibular nerve was first identified around the point where the facial artery crossed the lower border of the mandible. Once the nerve was identified, it was traced both backwards and forward till the whole nerve was exposed. Position of the nerve and its relation to lower border of mandible at the point where the facial artery crossed the lower border of the mandible was noted and number and position of each branches were recorded. In 161of the 202 patients (79.7%) the MMN had a single division. Two branches were noted in 26 patients (12.9%). Three branches for MMN are not uncommon, it was noted in 14 patients (6.9%) and in one patient there were four branches. Every effort should be made to preserve all the branches of MMN to ensure cosmesis and decrease morbidity. The mean distance from the lower border of the mandible to the point where the marginal mandibular nerve crossed the facial artery for all the branches taken together was 1.73 mm below the mandible. In 49 patients there was communication between MMN and the cervical branch of facial nerve. The point where the facial artery crosses the lower border of the mandible is a reliable landmark to locate the MMN. Variation in the branching pattern of marginal mandibular nerve is very common.
 
Top-cited authors
Ronald Chamberlain
  • Hospital Corporation of America
Ragini Singh
  • Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences
umesh c parashari
  • Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital
Pallavi Aga
  • King George's Medical University
Anit Parihar
  • King George's Medical University