Ataxia Telangiectasia is a primary immunodeficiency disease which affects a number of different organs in the body. It is characterized by ataxia, telangiectasia of the eyes and skin, a variable immunodeficiency involving both cellular and humoral immune responses and a predisposition to cancer. Here we present a case of ataxia telangiectasia in an 11 yearr child who presented with progressive ataxia.
Introduction: One-minute situps is one of the most popular standardized test which is used to measure the muscular strength endurance of the abdominal muscles.
Objective: To develop the norms for 1-minute Situptest for Indian youth aged 11-15 years.
Methodology: For the purpose of the study a sample of 5000 male (13.14 ± 1.316 years) and 4000 female (13.31 ± 1.163 years) school going students were selected for the study. One-minute situps was
used for measuring abdominal muscular endurance. Various statistical method were opted for analysing the relationship between the variables, normalization and visualization of data and the development of norms.
Results and Discussions: The results of the study indicated significant differences (p value < 0.05)in male category across all the age groups. Whereas, in female category there were only 3 significant differences
(out of 10) found between age 14 – 15, 14 – 13 and 14 – 11. It shows that the muscular strength endurance for male students changed significantly across these 5 years as compared to female students, which were found to be more consistent. Urban students (Male and Female) were also found to be significantly higher in muscular strength endurance than rural students.
Applications: Norms are necessary to test, compare, analyze and evaluate one’s strengths and weaknesses.The norms will guide and direct the Indian youth about their muscular endurance status. It will also help coaches and trainers to design a training plan accordingly.
Conclusion: Urban students are better than rural students in one minute situps. Due to the physiological differences, the muscular strength endurance for male students was greater in all terms than the female students. Norms were developed for the Indian youth aged 11 – 15 years.
Keywords: Norms, 1 minute Situp, Gender, Rural and Urban.
Objective: To identify the maternal, socio-demographic fetal and medical care factors involved in fetal death. And to determine possible preventive action for reducing rate of fetal death in our country. Material and method: A retrospective study of hospital records and death summaries of all intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) over the period from August 2011 to July 2012 was carried out. Results: There were a total of 115 IUFD out of 920 deliveries giving fetal death rate of 125 per 1000 births. Low socio-economic profile 76%, illiteracy 66.09% and lack of prenatal care 65.22% are important epidemiological risk factors. The commonest feto-maternal risk factor was placental hemorrhage 20% followed by hypertensive disease of pregnancy 19.13% and prematurity 9.56%. Conclusion: Placental hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases, lack of antenatal care, illiteracy and lack of health awareness emerged out as important risk factor for IUFD most of which are amenable to intervention.
ABSTRAcT Oral health of preschool children can be deteriorating by dental caries and periodontal disease. Early childhood caries is highly prevalence dental public health problem that affect the primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. Salivary soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and salivary toll like receptor 2 are proteins that have the ability to recognize different bacterial component and play role in prevention of infection. This study was conducted to determine the salivary levels of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and soluble toll like receptor 2 in children with active dental caries and caries-free controls and found the correlation with gingival parameter. Sixty children with an age range between (4-5) years were participated in this study; they categorized into two groups, 30 children with severe stage of early childhood caries as the study group and 30 caries free children as the control group. Oral examination done by recording decay, missing, filled surfaces, measuring dental caries severity, gingival health status was assessed by using gingival index, in addition to plaque index. Saliva samples were collected from both groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to estimate the salivary level of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and soluble toll like receptor 2. The present study found significant elevation in the mean level of soluble cluster of differentiation among early childhood caries group, moreover there are no differences in mean level of soluble cluster of differentiation between caries severity groups. On the other hand, a positive nonsignificant correlation was found between the concentration of soluble cluster of differentiation in both groups and each of plaque index and gingival index. Regarding the soluble tool like receptor 2 a higher level in caries active group than caries free group was revealed without significant difference between them. Significant differences in soluble tool like receptor 2 mean levels was found between caries severity group. Furthermore, positive significant correlation was observed between salivary level of soluble tool like receptor 2 and gingival index in both groups, on the other hand, positive non-significant correlation was found between the levels of soluble tool like receptor 2 and plaque index. It can be conclude that the levels of salivary soluble cluster of differnatation 14 and tool like receptor 2 increased as the oral disease progress and they may have a suspected protective role against microbial burden. Salivary soluble cluster of differnatation 14 could be an important biomarker of caries activity. Keyword: CD14, TLR2, ECC
Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidities in children between 5 to 14 years in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and method: It is a community based cross-sectional study in Kalyanpuri, an urban resettlement colony and the urban field practice area of department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and filled by the principal investigator himself. A stratified random sample of 650 children using the proportionate allocation method was taken for the study. This was about 10% of the estimated children's population of the colony. Data was tabulated & analyzed using SPSS for windows software version 10.5. Results: 25% of the study subjects were found to be suffering from some kind of ocular morbidity with 10.46% suffering from infectious & 15.69% from non-infectious disease.