Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development

Online ISSN: 0976-5506
Print ISSN: 0976-0245
Publications
Introduction. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of progressive hair loss with an incidence that increases with age. The role of dihydrotestosterone in AGA pathogenesis has been well-established. However, an incidental eyelash and eyebrow growth in patients treated with prostaglandin analogues, bimatoprost and latanoprost, has led to a hypothesis of their possible roles in inducing scalp hair growth. Methods This randomized-controlled trial included 6 male subjects, randomized into 2 groups, each consisting of 8 subjects which were given either topical bimatoprost 0.03% or topical minoxidil 5%. Hairs on the affected areas were shaved and both the terminal hair (hairs with diameter of >1 mm) diameter and terminal hair count were measured using a dermoscope on week 0, 4, 8, and 12. A hair sample from the target area was taken and the prostaglandin D2 level was examined before and after 12 weeks of therapy by using ELISA. Independent T-test and paired T-test were used to compare the result. Results When both groups were compared, no significant difference in terminal hair count and diameter was observed (p> 0.05). Both the bimatoprost and minoxidil group showed a mean increase of terminal hair diameter and hair count after 12 weeks (p<0.05). There was a decrease PGD2 concentration in bimatoprost 0.03% group, but an increase in the minoxidil 5% group (P>0.05). No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion; A 12-week topical application of bimatoprost 0.03% results in a significant increase in terminal hair diameter and count. Further studies with longer follow-up duration are needed to establish the effectiveness of bimatoprost in AGA treatment. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Background: One of the most prevalent periodontal diseases is plaqueinduced gingivitis. Hyaluronic acid is linear polysaccharide found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, synovial fluid and other tissues. Hyaluronic acid was used as adjunct to the mechanical plaque control because of its anti-inflammatory and bacteriostatic properties. Gengigel (0.2% Ricerfarma-Italy) is a gel form of Hyaluronic acid used in dentistry for treatment of gingivitis and acceleration of wound healing as in treatment of mouth ulcers. Interleukin 1 beta is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which has an important function in immunity and inflammation. Current study was aimed to evaluate the clinical and biochemical outcome of 0.2% of Hyaluronic acid gel and its effects on IL-1β in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patient with plaque-induced gingivitis and to compare, clinically, between the effects of scaling and the gel in treatment of gingivitis. Methods: Sample population consisted of (25) subjects; 11 females and 14 males who had plaque-induced gingivitis. A split-mouth procedure was used in this study so that the mouth was subdivided into two division, left and right sides of maxillary arch only. The right side received scaling and then collection of GCF to determine the concentration of IL-1β in the first visit. In the same manner, the scaling was done on the left side and GCF was picked and then the patient was informed to put a Gengigel on the upper right side only three times daily for 1 week. The second visit presented with only collection of GCF from both sides to provide the calculation of the volume of GCF and the concentration of IL-1β. Results: Intra-group comparison of IL-1β concentration showed non-significant difference in both sides but there was a decrease in the IL-1β concentration in the gel side other than the scaling side. Inter-group comparison at second visits of IL-1β concentration showed no significant difference between scaling and gel sides. Conclusion: The split-mouth procedure used in this research had the advantage of allowing paired comparisons to be made. There was a slight positive decrease in the interleukin 1β after topical application of HA after one week but the duration of application must be continued more than 1 week to reach a good decrease of IL-1β in GCF which is a sign of less periodontal destruction because HA inhibits the expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β). © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Aims: To compare the efficacy of Ropivacaine 0.75% with Bupivacaine 0.5% for subclavian perivascular Brachial plexus block. Settings and Design: After informed consent, 60 ASA I/II patients aged between 18-75 years, posted for elective upper limb orthopaedic surgeries were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double blind study, to receive 0.4ml/kg of either Ropivacaine 0.75% (R group n=30) or 0.4ml/kg of Bupivacaine 0.5% (B group n=30). Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was done in all patients with one of the study drug employing subclavian perivascular approach described by Winnie’. Onset of sensory and motor block, quality of motor block, overall quality of block and duration of sensory and motor block were evaluated in the C5 to T1 dermatomes. The values obtained were statistically analyzed and the results with P value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Onset times and duration of sensory and motor block were similar between both groups with no statistical difference. The mean onset time of sensory block was 3.65 ±2.91 min and 4.23±1.59 min in Ropivacaine group and Bupivacaine group respectively (P= 0.132). Onset time of motor blockade was 4.63±3.64 min in R group and4.4±2.02 min in B group (P= 0.76). Quality of motor block was comparable between both groups being complete paralysis in majority of the patients except for 2 cases in R group and 3 cases in B group (P=0.64). Overall quality of block was satisfactory in 93.33% patients in Ropivacaine group and 90% in Bupivacaine group (P=0.64). Duration of sensory block was 555.14±162.26 min in R group and 594.33±158.73 min in B group (P=0.369). Duration of motor blockade was 596.04±154.14 min in R group and 598.52±141.13 min in B group (P=0.95). There were no adverse events noted in either group Conclusions: 0.4ml/kg Ropivacaine 0.75% produced effective and well tolerated brachial plexus block of long duration by the subclavian perivascular route which is similar to that of 0.4ml/kg of 0.5% Bupivacaine. Because Ropivacaine has a potentially improved safety profile compared with Bupivacaine, it may offer an advantage. © 2015 Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. All rights reserved.
 
Background: Dry eye disease is a common disorder provoking changes in tear film and ocular surface. Untreated dry eye could cause ocular infections, corneal ulcer and blindness. Only a few drugs are authorized so far for the treatment of dry eye disease and the possibilities of evolution in this sector are immense. Objectives: Compare efficacy of carboxy methyl cellulose.5% eye drops with combination of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose eye drops and.05% cyclosporin ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of dry eyes. Material and Method: 40 patient presenting with dry were selected randomly. They were divided into 2 groups. Group I received CMC.5% eye drops four times a day and group II received.05% Cyclosporin ophthalmic emulsion two times daily and.5% CMC eye drops 4times a day. All patients were evaluated on day 0, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 month and 6 month for relief in ocular symptoms and diagnostic dry eye tests. Results: The mean age in group I was 39.72 ± 6.85 years and in group II was 40.2 ± 5.28 years. Ocular discomfort, dryness and tearing were seen in all the cases. Comparison of different parameters after six months of treatment between group I and II showed that the comparision of net score in two groups is statistically significant(p < 0.05). Conclusions: There was statistically significant difference between the outcome of two groups.Group 2 patients who used combination of cyclosporin 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion two times daily along with CMC 0.5% eye drops 4 times a day were better relieved as compared to patients in group 1 who used 0.5% CMC eye drops four times daily for treatment of dry eyes. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
The present article retrospectively elaborates the indication and the final visual acuity at 1 year in a cohort of 28 patients administered with 1 or more doses of 0.7 mg intravitrealozurdex over a period of 1 year.Data of 28 eyes of 28 patients was retrived from the medical record division. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 50 -60 years. The most common indication was vascular occlusion (n=15) followed by post cataract extraction (n=7), diabetic macular edema (n=6). 5 patients had raised IOP one –two months following injection. 19 pts had prior intravitrealantiVEGF injection. 2 patients repeatedozurdex injection at 6 months.There was a difference of 173 +/-90.5 (p<0.0001)in the 1 year CRT value. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
The level food safety of school (PJAS) and the low level of clean and healthy life style (PHBS) implementation in schools is a serious problem that needs more attention. Elementary school students are the largest group at risk of exposure to food and water contamination diseases. This study aims to determine the effect of health education on PJAS and PHBS on the knowledge and attitude of students of grade V in SDN 001 Sungai Kunjang. The research method used Pre Experimental with the design of One Group Pre-Post Test and interventions are provided through health education. The population in the study were all students of grade V with a total sample of 121 people taken use the purposive sampling method, with kriterian inclusions are students who are will be to follow the researched and present the researched conducted. Technique of collecting data using interview method and using research instrument in the form of questionnaire and data taken within one day. The results showed that respondents who are knowledgeable before the health education 12% and after was 56%. Respondents who had good attitude before the health education 92% and after was 95%. The result of statistical analysis with wilcoxon signed rank test showed significant influence with p-value = 0,000. Provision of health education was proved to significantly influence the knowledge and attitude about PJAS and PHBS on students of grade V SDN 001 Sungai Kunjang, Samarinda. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Based on Data of Food and Drug Administration Southeast Sulawesi 2012, there are 49 students SMPN 1 Bondoala Konawe food poisoning. Data 2016 later show about 17 children poisoned food. The type of research uses quantitative design, with cross sectional approach. The sample in this study amounted to 56 people. Sampling with total sampling technique. The study was conducted from October to November 2017. Based on the result of research indicate there is correlation between knowledge and attitude toward practice of food snack which contain dangerous chemicals at SDN 01 Poasia Kendari with p value = 0,000. Suggestions for the school to provide education for canteen and vendor managers and to the learners about the safety of snack foods consumed. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Life expectancy at birth (e00) is considered as an important indicator of the mortality level and quality of life in a population. In India, direct estimation of e00 through construction of life tables is not possible due to incomplete death registration. The Sample Registration System of India provides information on e00 only for 16 states. The estimates of e00 for the districts are not available. Most of the indirect methods for estimating e00 are inapplicable due to the unavailability of the required data and/or failure to satisfy the associated assumptions at the sub state level. An effort is made in this paper to estimate the e00 at the district level of India for the period 2001-05 by developing a regression model. We have found that, of the major states, Pathanamthitta district of Kerala has the maximum and Katni district of Madhya Pradesh has the minimum e00. © 2014, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Background: Retention of skilled health workforce in rural and remote areas is a global problem. While global literature is expanding towards rural retention, however, in the developing countries like India, there is little information available on relevant strategies for implementation of universal healthcare policies and provision of equitable health care distribution. In this review article, the current strategies to retain healthcare professionals are generally be grouped into educational, financial, regulatory and supportive strategies. After that, we document and debate two cadres (i.e. physicians and nurses) involved in primary health care in India and the strategies adopted for improved rural retention in these cadres. We also provide ample evidence to support these strategies and analyze their rationale in augmenting health workforce distribution in India. Lastly, we propose pragmatic ways to deal with future human resource for health reforms. Method: Literature search was conducted in various electronic databases such as Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PUBMED and EMBASE with relevant key words such as doctors, nurses, health workers, health care professionals, human resources for health, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: We found that, in educational strategy, reservation for post-graduation seats for medical graduates and in-service physicians (doctors currently working in primary health centres) have been employed in various states of India for rural service. The financial incentive strategy includes incentivizing rural service for both medical doctors and nurses. Under regulatory strategies, better workforce management such as transparent posting mechanisms, shorter recruitment procedures and rotational postings in difficult areas have been employed. Apart from this, other types of health workers such rural medical assistants (RMAs) and alternative medicine (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy) – collectively known as AYUSH have also been trained and recruited for rural health care practice. Conclusion: In India, rural retention strategies are predominately focused towards physicians. However, state-based evidence and international literature suggest that by providing appropriate financial incentives for rural service to nurses and other cadres such as AYUSH and RMAs is cost-effective and less challenging than the allopathic cadre. Hence, there is an advantage on strengthening rural incentive strategies in these cadres. Further, for these cadres, along with salary, other non-monetary incentives (such as better working conditions, children's education, good rural living conditions and safety) are needed that can increase rural retention. © 2017, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing with aging and increasing rates of obesity. Currently, conventional methods of imaging provide accurate means to detect morphological deterioration of cartilage in the later stages of osteoarthritis, however these methods are not sensitive to the subtle changes during early disease stages. In osteoarthritis, assessment of degenerative cartilage disease is important for recommending adequate treatment. Using a representative sample of 10 patients, this case series investigated whether there is a correlation between MRI cartilage assessment and arthroscopy findings in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. Method: In a cross-sectional study as a part of the retrospective case-control study, 10 patients (mean age 53.1) with clinically suspected osteoarthritis underwent standardized MRI (Sag and Axial PD fatsat, Cor STIR, Cor T2* GRE, Sag T2 and T1, Cor and Axial T2 map) on a 1.5 T unit (GE Signa HDxt). The patients also underwent a diagnostic arthroscopy within 2 months of the MRI study to assess the grading of the articular cartilage. Results: The sensitivity and specificity in the detection of 23 cartilage lesions of all arthroscopic grades were 86.9% (20of 23 lesions) and 91.3% (21 of 23 lesions) for the MR imaging protocol with T2 maps. The addition of the T2 maps to the routine MR imaging protocol improved the sensitivity of detection among all grades of lesions. The MR imaging protocol with T2 maps had significantly higher sensitivity for detecting arthroscopic grade 1A (P <.001), arthroscopic grade 1B (P <.001), arthroscopic grade 2A (P =.004), arthroscopic grade 2B (P =.023), and all arthroscopic grades of cartilage lesions (P <.001) and significantly lower specificity for detecting all arthroscopic grades of cartilage lesions (P <.001). A tendency to underestimate the cartilage disorders on MRI images was not noticed. Conclusions: According to our results there is a good correlation between MRI grading of articular cartilage and arthroscopic grading. However a diagnostic arthroscopy is of utmost importance when a crucial decision needs to be taken regarding therapeutic options in patients with osteoarthritis. © 2017, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
This study aims to analyse in depth the healthy lifestyle of pregnant women related to the movement of the first 1000 days of life In Gowa Regency of South Sulawesi Province.The method used in this work is qualitative method with phenomenology design. Determination of informants was done using purposive sampling method and 17 informants were obtained. Data were collected through in-depth interview and observation. Data analysis was done using content analysis and presented in narrative form. The results showed that the frequency of feeding that the mother applied during pregnancy varies, ranging from 5 times to only 1 time per day. Several types of dietary restrictions according to informants are pineapple, mango, squid, shrimp, crab, and moringa leaves. Physical activity carried out such as washing, sweeping and other household chores. Meanwhile, the form of personal hygiene during pregnancy is showering, shampooing, and brushing teeth. Informants stated that they had health information from books and maternity class. Informants stated that they have used ANC services supported by the role of health workers in providing service fulfilment strategies. In addition, the informant was assisted by midwives and doctors during labor period. There some informants continued to have neonatal and low baby weight (LBW) neonatal deaths despite receiving the ANC services. Therefore, one of the obstacles to the movement’s first 1000 days of life is the practise of healthy lifestyle of mother during pregnancy. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.
 
Characteristics of Health Workers
The Health Workers Who Knew the Exclusive Breastfeeding Regulations
The Health Workers Who Knew the IYCF Regulations
Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice are strategies to solve and prevent stunting. However, in fact, this effort does not yet achieve the expected target. Regulations on exclusive breastfeeding and IYCF have been provided and widely socialized so far. This study aims to analyze the correlation between regulation understanding (focusing on exclusive breastfeeding and IYCF) by inter-professional health workers collaboration and the implementation of stunting prevention in urban areas. Observation based study with mixed method using cross sectional design was performed in Surabaya city (33 primary health care centers) and Sidoarjo district (13 primary health care centers), during September-December 2017. The subjects of 199 health workers were selected purposively. The data were collected through interview using structured questionnaire combined with Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Then, the data were evaluated using descriptive and contingency coefficient analysis. The understanding of regulation by inter-professional health workers on the exclusive breastfeeding and IYCF varied with average of 76.4% and 63.6%, respectively. The implementation of this regulations by the inter-professional health cares did not yet in line with the condition of stunting program prevention. However, the performance synergism of multisector institutions and the cross profession to acheive the exclusive breastfeeding target was stronger than that of IYCF. According to contingency coefficient analysis (p<0.05), good understanding, well-organized documents availability, and the regulation conformity by health workers significantly correlated with the implementation of exclusive breastfeeding regulation. Good understanding of health workers on exclusive breastfeeding and IYCF regulations is a key factor in the practical collaboration of inter-professional health workers to educate people to achieve the target and to implement the cross sectional programs to prevent toddler stunting. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Read stability and read speed are the most likely problems encountered in the cells of the SRAM. The access transistors used to access the basic latch takes extra time to read the cell data during the read operation, and more over there exists a possibility of external noise corrupting the cell data. The problem of consumption of extra read time and possibility of noise corrupting the cell data can be circumvented by making use of 10T SRAM cell, modified with single ended decoupled read bit line, providing advantage of speed and noise margin. The conventional 6T SRAM cell is equipped with word line for both read and write processes, but the proposed 10T SRAM cell uses a different read enable line to read the stored bit. This allows the memory element to remain isolated from the external disturbance, additionally the extra time required to activate the access transistors is not required as the read operation in this cell does not require it. The design of read behaviour is analyzed using tanner tool 180nm technology and compared with the reported basic 6T structure. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Ataxia Telangiectasia is a primary immunodeficiency disease which affects a number of different organs in the body. It is characterized by ataxia, telangiectasia of the eyes and skin, a variable immunodeficiency involving both cellular and humoral immune responses and a predisposition to cancer. Here we present a case of ataxia telangiectasia in an 11 yearr child who presented with progressive ataxia.
 
Gender wise descriptive statistics for 1 minutesitups performance
Percentile values for Male and Female participants
Sit-up norms for youth aged 11-15 years
Introduction: One-minute situps is one of the most popular standardized test which is used to measure the muscular strength endurance of the abdominal muscles. Objective: To develop the norms for 1-minute Situptest for Indian youth aged 11-15 years. Methodology: For the purpose of the study a sample of 5000 male (13.14 ± 1.316 years) and 4000 female (13.31 ± 1.163 years) school going students were selected for the study. One-minute situps was used for measuring abdominal muscular endurance. Various statistical method were opted for analysing the relationship between the variables, normalization and visualization of data and the development of norms. Results and Discussions: The results of the study indicated significant differences (p value < 0.05)in male category across all the age groups. Whereas, in female category there were only 3 significant differences (out of 10) found between age 14 – 15, 14 – 13 and 14 – 11. It shows that the muscular strength endurance for male students changed significantly across these 5 years as compared to female students, which were found to be more consistent. Urban students (Male and Female) were also found to be significantly higher in muscular strength endurance than rural students. Applications: Norms are necessary to test, compare, analyze and evaluate one’s strengths and weaknesses.The norms will guide and direct the Indian youth about their muscular endurance status. It will also help coaches and trainers to design a training plan accordingly. Conclusion: Urban students are better than rural students in one minute situps. Due to the physiological differences, the muscular strength endurance for male students was greater in all terms than the female students. Norms were developed for the Indian youth aged 11 – 15 years. Keywords: Norms, 1 minute Situp, Gender, Rural and Urban.
 
Local tuber flour as wheat flour alternative can be used to produce food with low sugar which good to protect people from Diabetes Mellitus. To know that flour carbohydrate degradation in order to produce tuber flour with low sugar, reduction sugar of tuber paste flour additional α-amylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides EN17-11 and Fructobacillus fructosus EN17-20 to protect people from Diabetes Mellitus were researched. Flour used were cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and yam taro (Colocasia esculenta) with wheat (Triticum) as comparison. The crude α-amylase was characterized. The detection of α-amylase activities and reduction sugar contents used 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid (DNS) methods. Data were analyzed with three replicates. The research results showed that optimum activity of Lc. mesenteroides EN17-11 α-amylase was reached at 30oC, pH: 4.5; while that Fr. fructosus EN17-20. was 60oC, pH 7.0. In 60 minutes incubation time, Lc. mesenteroides EN17-11 α-amylase stability was reached at 25-40oC, pH: 4.5-5.0; while that Fr. fructosus EN17-20 was at 40-70oC, pH 5.0-7.0. Reduction sugar contents increase of cassava, sweet potato and yam taro paste flour additional Lc. mesenteroides EN17-11 α-amylase were sequently 1.27%, 40.35% and 3.90%; while that Fr. fructosus EN17-20 were 34.44%, 52.22% and 55.27%; with that wheat additional Lc. mesenteroides EN17-11 was 17.40% and Fr. fructosus EN17-20 was 44.53%. Based on the result, it is concluded that the treatment may reduce sugar on cassava and yam taro flour. The low sugar flour might be an alternative diet for diabetic persons. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Introduction: Emergence of new organisms and changing antibiotic susceptibility pattern are challenges faced by all Intensive Care Units (ICUs). We have designed a study to identify the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of infections among the patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and method: This study was a cross sectional study where all patients admitted to the Intensive Care unit of a tertiary care hospital during a one year period were evaluated and clinical specimens collected from cases with suspected infections were processed as per standard microbiological tests as approved by CLSL Cases were subsequently classified based on the CDC case definitions. Results: A total of 107 samples were analysed in this study. Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant organisms identified, accounting for 73 % of the isolates. There was high incidence of MDR organisms in our study ranging from 17% in Pseudomonas to 57% among Acinetobacter isolates. The net rate of ESBL producers in the study was 83%.Meropenem resistance (41%-44%) was seen among isolates of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. 71 % of the staphylococcus isolates were methicillin resistant. Conclusion: The important resistant patterns identified in our study were ESBL producing Gram negative bacilli(GNB) and MRSA. Most of the GNB were multi drug resistant(MDR) with maximum MDRseen with Acinetobacter. Emerging meropenem resistance and high sensitivity only to beta lactuml betalactamase inhibitors and imipenem indicates urgent need for antibiotic stewardship in this ICU. © 2017, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Objective: To identify the maternal, socio-demographic fetal and medical care factors involved in fetal death. And to determine possible preventive action for reducing rate of fetal death in our country. Material and method: A retrospective study of hospital records and death summaries of all intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) over the period from August 2011 to July 2012 was carried out. Results: There were a total of 115 IUFD out of 920 deliveries giving fetal death rate of 125 per 1000 births. Low socio-economic profile 76%, illiteracy 66.09% and lack of prenatal care 65.22% are important epidemiological risk factors. The commonest feto-maternal risk factor was placental hemorrhage 20% followed by hypertensive disease of pregnancy 19.13% and prematurity 9.56%. Conclusion: Placental hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases, lack of antenatal care, illiteracy and lack of health awareness emerged out as important risk factor for IUFD most of which are amenable to intervention.
 
Introduction: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths world over, more so in developing countries. Tobacco use is a male dominant phenomenon among children and adolescent in India. Most of them in developing countries because of increasing level of use and dire public health implication, tobacco use among people have been referred to as both a pediatric disease and a pediatric epidemic. Aims & Objective: To find out the attitude of Tobacco users among 13-18 year school going children of urban Meerut. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among school going children between 13 -18 years of age in Urban Meerut Two government and two private schools CBSC affiliated were selected randomly by a list of all the schools made available by listing all the schools in Meerut. sample size was 800 and equally distributed 400 government & 400 private school. Results: In the study, 15 years (34.1%) was the most common age, male predominance ((59.6%) was observed as compared to female (40.4%) amongst study population. Hindu (76.9 %) was the most common religion, nuclear family was the most common type of family (78.5 %). 37.4 % of study population has a family size of 5 members followed by family size of 4 members (32.6%). 80.1% of study population belongs to urban area. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from falling prey to this addiction. In our study 62.3 % of the study population believes smoking cigarette looks less attractive. 51.5% of the study population had perception regarding tobacco user as stupid. In our study, 80.90 % of opinion of raise cost of tobacco product use by government will control it. 35.90% of study population decreased use was the most common impact of no tobacco advertisement by the print media and electronic media. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Introduction: Good oral health is essential for good nutrition and ultimately good general health. A set of healthy teeth is achieved by the practices, such as brushing, flossing, and periodic dental visit which should be developed early in the childhood. The study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of 13-15 years old school children towards oral hygiene. Materials and Method: School children (n=103) aged between 13 to 15 years in a private school were included into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate school children’s’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards oral health and dental treatment. Results: The results were tabulated and percentage was calculated. The individuals oral hygiene habits (such as tooth brushing, duration of brushing) were found to be irregular and parents were the source of knowledge in the oral hygiene habits of their children. The study population showed awareness of caries and periodontal conditions. The children in this study also recognized the importance of oral health. Conclusion: The children in this study recognized the importance of oral health. The results of this study indicate that Comprehensive oral health educational programs for children are required. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
The Relation of scD14,sTLR2 with caries severity
The Correlation coefficient of sCD14, sTLR2 and Caries Severity
The correlation coefficient of sCD14, sTLR with GI, PLI
ABSTRAcT Oral health of preschool children can be deteriorating by dental caries and periodontal disease. Early childhood caries is highly prevalence dental public health problem that affect the primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. Salivary soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and salivary toll like receptor 2 are proteins that have the ability to recognize different bacterial component and play role in prevention of infection. This study was conducted to determine the salivary levels of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and soluble toll like receptor 2 in children with active dental caries and caries-free controls and found the correlation with gingival parameter. Sixty children with an age range between (4-5) years were participated in this study; they categorized into two groups, 30 children with severe stage of early childhood caries as the study group and 30 caries free children as the control group. Oral examination done by recording decay, missing, filled surfaces, measuring dental caries severity, gingival health status was assessed by using gingival index, in addition to plaque index. Saliva samples were collected from both groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out to estimate the salivary level of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 and soluble toll like receptor 2. The present study found significant elevation in the mean level of soluble cluster of differentiation among early childhood caries group, moreover there are no differences in mean level of soluble cluster of differentiation between caries severity groups. On the other hand, a positive nonsignificant correlation was found between the concentration of soluble cluster of differentiation in both groups and each of plaque index and gingival index. Regarding the soluble tool like receptor 2 a higher level in caries active group than caries free group was revealed without significant difference between them. Significant differences in soluble tool like receptor 2 mean levels was found between caries severity group. Furthermore, positive significant correlation was observed between salivary level of soluble tool like receptor 2 and gingival index in both groups, on the other hand, positive non-significant correlation was found between the levels of soluble tool like receptor 2 and plaque index. It can be conclude that the levels of salivary soluble cluster of differnatation 14 and tool like receptor 2 increased as the oral disease progress and they may have a suspected protective role against microbial burden. Salivary soluble cluster of differnatation 14 could be an important biomarker of caries activity. Keyword: CD14, TLR2, ECC
 
Objective: To determine the oral health care and dental caries experience among 9-14 year old school going children in Mangalore Materials and method: The study was conducted among 532 school going children aged 9-14 years. A questionnaire regarding snacking and other oral habits of the children as well as oral health knowledge of parents, to be filled in by the parents, was given after the clinical oral examination of the children. Results: The mean number of permanent “decayed teeth (DT)” was 0.53 ± 1.08 and “filled teeth (FT) was 0.27 ± 0.78 whereas the mean number of deciduous “decayed teeth (dt)” was 0.71 ± 1.31 and “filled teeth (ft)” was 0.14 ± 0.54. The mean “DMFT” was 0.79 ± 1.27 and mean “dft” was 0.87 ± 1.47. Knowledge of parents regarding role of fluoride in toothpaste and the dental caries experience of their children was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Most of the parents had good knowledge regarding oral health as well as the oral health practice of their children. Although the relationship between the parents knowledge and their children's oral health was not statistically significant, dental caries experience was low. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All Rights Reserved.
 
Hypertension is known to be a direct or indirect cause of death globally.The prevalence is expected to increased to 1.56 Billion by 2025. The risk factors for hypertension include Obesity, Family history of Hypertension, and change in dietary habits, decreased physical activity and increase in stress. Early detection of hypertension and its precipitating factors is important if one is to evolve measures so that complications of hypertension can be prevented. Due to the paucity of studies the present study was undertaken with the fallowing objectives. 1. To study socio demographic profile of schoolchildren. 2. To study prevalence of hypertension among school children 3. To correlate Blood Pressure with anthropometric indices. Methodology: It is a School based cross - sectional study conducted in two private Schools to get a sample size of 225 study subjects in the age group of 10 to 14 years. A pre-designed Questionnaire was administered to collect information regarding socio demographic profile, personal food habits; exercises and general examination of the student were done. Blood Pressure, anthropometric measurements were recorded. Analysis was done by spss16.0, coefficient of correlation analysis was applied. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension among school children (10-14yrs) was 4.88%with systolic hypertension of 3.12%(n=7) and diastolic hypertension 1.78%(n=4). In each age group from percentiles 3th to 95th there is a raise in systolic blood pressure was observed. As the age increases there is raise in diastolic blood pressure was observed except at 12yrs age group. There was a positive correlation between height, weight, body mass index, age with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was more among girls than boys. Age, height, weight and BMI were positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It is therefore necessary to check the hypertension in children regularly. © 2014 Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
 
Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidities in children between 5 to 14 years in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. Materials and method: It is a community based cross-sectional study in Kalyanpuri, an urban resettlement colony and the urban field practice area of department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and filled by the principal investigator himself. A stratified random sample of 650 children using the proportionate allocation method was taken for the study. This was about 10% of the estimated children's population of the colony. Data was tabulated & analyzed using SPSS for windows software version 10.5. Results: 25% of the study subjects were found to be suffering from some kind of ocular morbidity with 10.46% suffering from infectious & 15.69% from non-infectious disease.
 
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M. Z.M. Nomani
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