Indian Journal of Applied Research

Background: Myopia is a signicant public health problem, affecting 20% to 50% of the population, especially in children older than 12 years of age. Aim: This study aimed to assess role of 0.01% atropine in 5-16 years of age group children in preventing myopic progression by comparing changes in cycloplegic refraction and axial length of two groups: 0.01% atropine treated and other given placebo eye drops, over 1-year period. Design: Double-blinded randomized control interventional study. Methods: 60 patients with progressive myopia were recruited for study and randomised into 2 groups after obtaining parental consent. One group was prescribed atropine 0.01% concentration (b.d)and second group was given placebo eye drops (0.5% CMC). Each group was followed up, on 3 monthly visits, for a total duration of one year. Subjects included had to undergo baseline evaluation followed by visual acuity assessment on the Snellen's, cycloplegic refraction, axial length and pupil size. Results: Sixty participants with a mean age of 9.87±3.06 years and 10.33±2.94 years in placebo group and atropine group respectively completed the study.Statistically signicant changes were noted in Spherical equivalent of 1.02±0.17 D and 0.32±0.43 D,(p value<0.001) and Axial length of 0.56±0.45 mm and 0.41±0.18 mm ((p value-0.017) in the placebo and 0.01% atropine groups respectively over 1 year. Change in axial length was signicantly correlated with change in spherical equivalent (Spearman's rho: 0.651, P<0.001). Conclusion: 0.01% atropine drops instilled twice daily, was efcacious in controlling Spherical equivalent progression and retarded increase in Axial length over one year
Purpose: A study to compare the effectiveness of Timolol 0.5% eye drops versus Brimonidine 0.2 % eye drops for control of rise in intraocular pressure after Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy. Study design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: The study was done on 80 patients (one eye of each patient) of age group 45 to 70 year with posterior capsular opacification planned for Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy in the Department of Ophthalmology Mathuradas Mathur Hospital (Dr S. N. M. C.) Jodhpur. Patients were divided into two groups X and Y of 40 each. The baseline intraocular pressure of all patients was measured by applanation tonometer before instillation of eye drops. Group X instilled one drop of Timolol 0.5% and group Y instilled 1drop of Brimonidine 0.2% one hour before capsulotomy. Intraocular pressure was noted 1 and 4 hour after the laser procedure. Results: There were 40 patients in each group. The baseline IOP was 16±2.16 for group X, and 15±2.56 for group Y. There was no statistically significant reduction between the two groups in the mean IOP changes at 1 hour after Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy but after 4 hours, the mean reduction in IOP was -1.54 mmHg for group X and -1.85 for group Y (p<0.5). Conclusion: Our study revealed that both Timolol 0.5% eye drops and Brimonidine 0.2% eye drops are comparatively equally effective in controlling raised intraocular pressure after Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy.
Background: Total knee replacement (TKR) and other knee surgeries are amongst the most painful orthopedic procedure, mandating effective postoperative pain management. Ropivacaine is a New Local anesthetic Agent With Minimal CVS Toxicity. The primary aim of is to study effect of 3 in 1 femoral Aims: nerve block for providing pain relief with Ropivacaine (0.25%). Secondary aim is to compare the effect of Ropivacaine 0.25% with Bupivacaine( 0.25%) in providing 3 in 1 femoral nerve block. Material and Methods: A prospective randomised study was carried out in 36 ASA I & II patients undergoing knee surgery surgeries were divided into two groups of 18. Group (R) received Ropivacaine (0.25%) 40 ml. Group (B) received Bupivacaine (0.25%) 40 ml. Results: Demographic and hemodynamic parameters were statistically not signicant. The duration of analgesia is longer with Group R (7.83±0.98) than Group B (6.33±0.76) (p<0.001) which is statistically very signicant. Observing VAS score Group R shows signicantly (p<0.05) lower values th th th than Group B for at 4 to 8 hours & than at 24 hour. Ropivacaine is signicantly more effective in postoperative duration of pain. No Adverse events noted in the both groups. Conclusion: Postoperative 3 in 1 femoral nerve block with 0.25% ropivacaine is effective in providing pain relief and duration of analgesia is more in comparison to 0.25% bupivacaine.
Background: Epidural anesthesia is commonly used for perioperative as well as postoperative analgesia in lower limb surgeries. Adjuvant in spinal anesthesia prolongs the duration of anesthesia as well as postoperative analgesia. In this study we evaluate the effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate as an adjuvant to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine in lower limb surgeries. Methods: Total 60 patients belonging to ASA I or II aged 24 to 57 years of either sex were included in this study and randomly distributed into two groups. Group (B+M) received intrathecal 100mg magnesium sulfate and Group (B+D) received intrathecal 5.0 mcg dexmedetomidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine 15mg (3ml of 0.5%). Onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic changes and complications were recorded. Results: The mean Onset time of sensory block at T10 (min.), Time to maximum sensory block level (min.), Time in minutes for complete motor block (min.), Time for Motor Emergence from Bromage 3 (min.), Time for Sensory Emergence and Time for first analgesia (min) were significantly different between groups. Conclusion: The dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant with hyperbaric bupivacaine leads to earlier onset and prolonged duration of both sensory and motor block as compared to magnesium sulfate.
BACKGROUND: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a complication commonly related to neuraxial anesthesia and dural puncture, with an incidence proportional to the diameter of the needle, ranging from 2% with a 29G to 10% with a 27G and 25% with a 25G. The development of ne gauge spinal needles and needle tip modication, has enabled a signicant reduction in the incidence of postdural puncture headache. PDPH presents as a dull throbbing pain with a frontal-occipital distribution. PDPH is thought to be due to a cerebrospinal uid leak that exceeds the production rate, causing downward traction of the meninges and parasympathetic mediated reex vasodilatation of the meningeal vessels. The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an extracranial neural structure located in the pterygopalatine fossa that has both sympathetic and parasympathetic components as well as somatic sensory roots. Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) has been used for the treatment of migraine, cluster headache and trigeminal neuralgia and can be performed through transcutaneous, transoral or transnasal approaches. Obstetric patients are considered at increased risk for this condition because of their sex, young age, and the widespread use of neuraxial blocks. SPGB is minimally invasive, carried out at the bedside without using imaging and has apparently rapid onset than EBP with better safety prole. The most common side effects of SPGB are all temporary, including numbness in the throat, low blood pressure and nausea. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efcacy and safety of lidocaine 2%, lidocaine 5% and bupivacaine 0.5% in transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block for the treatment of post dural puncture headache on 30 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized and controlled clinical study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital after its approval by the Ethics and Research Committee of Sohag Faculty of Medicine. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient before participation. RESULTS: Our study showed that there were non signicant differences between the three studied groups regarding age, gender, body mass index, type of operation, onset, site of headache, associated symptoms, relieving factors and exaggerated follow up. There was a nonsignicant difference between the three studied groups regarding changes in visual analogue score for severity of headache. There were nonsignicant differences between the three studied groups regarding presence of bleeding and results of treatment of postdural puncture headache. CONCLUSION: SPGB is an effective initial modality for managing severe headache in patients with PDPH.
1.1 AIMS: The aim of the study is to identify the benets of adding Dexmedetomidine 0.6mcg/kg to Ropivacaine 0.75% for epidural analgesia for surgeries involving lower abdomen and lower limb, and to observe the onset of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia, and sedation score. 1.2 BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that regional anesthesia has numerous advantages for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries when compares to general anesthesia. Hence distinct varieties of regional anesthetics are being used for epidural anesthesia. When looking into regional anesthesia it was learned that ropivacaine was the preferred regional anesthesia for its long-acting effect and lower the cardiotoxic action in comparison to Dexmedetomidine. Whereas in comparison to ropivacaine, Dexmedetomidine has an additional effect, along with prolonging the action and sedative effect its neuroprotective effect is mediated by activation of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor subtype [2]. After looking at the individual benets of Ropivacaine, and Dexmedetomidine, this study aims to see the potential benets of the combined effects of these two drugs. 1.3 OBJECTIVE: To study the onset of action, duration of sensory and motor blockade, and any hemodynamic variations, level of sensory and motor blockade. 1.4 METHODS: The Patients were randomly allocated to two groups and each group consisted of 50 patients 1) Group R -15ml of 0.75% Ropivacaine 2) Group RD- 15ml of 0.75% Ropivacaine + 0.6µg/kg of dexmedetomidine. 1.5 RESULTS:The study concluded that adding dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to Ropivacaine for epidural anesthesia reduced the time to onset of action, and increased the duration of sensory blockade. Patients were calm, with sedation scores of 3 and 4 in RD Group, and did not require extra sedation. Patients were hemodynamically stable in both groups.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are considered as the most critical events during administration of general anaesthesia as they provoke transient but marked sympathoadrenal response manifesting as hypertension and tachycardia. In this study, we compared the effect of nebulized dexmedetomidine and nebulized normal saline (0.9%) in blunting haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. This was a Prospective, double blindedMATERIALS & METHOD: randomized controlled study on 60 patients of 18 to 60 years of age and either sex with American society of Anaesthesiologists class I,II & III, who were posted for elective surgery requiring general Anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Patients are equally divided into two groups, Group D and Group S (30 patients each). Control group S (n = 30) received nebulisation with 5 ml of normal saline and group D (n = 30) received 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine 5 ml 15 min before induction in sitting position. After intubation, the patient was undisturbed for a period of 10 minutes and cardiovascular parameters were recorded at different time. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired 't' test. P value of <0.05 is considered statistically Signicant. Demographics were comparable. Following laryngoscopy and intubation, heart rateRESULTS: (HR) systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were markedly increased in the control group whereas in group D there was a fall in Heart rate (P<0.001 at 0, 1 & 5 mins and P<0.05 at 10 min), SBP (P<0.001 at 0, 1, 5 & 10 mins interval), DBP (P<0.001 at 0, 1, 5 & 10 mins interval), MAP (P<0.001 at 0, 1, 5 & 10 mins interval). Nebulization of dexmedetomidine in a dose of 1 microgramg/kg isCONCLUSION: effective in blunting hemodynamic stress response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as compared to normal saline.
Background : Intussusception in adults is a rare condition that is difcult to diagnose due to its clinical polymorphism. Its diagnosis has become easier thanks to advances in medical imaging. The treatment of intussusceptions in adults is surgical because of the high incidence of causative organic lesions. Our work is a prospective study which aims to determine theObjective : clinical and etiological peculiarities of acute intussusceptions in adults, to specify the diagnostic and therapeutic difculties and to draw practical conclusions regarding the optimal therapeutic management of this rare condition. Our work is a retrospective study,Materials and methods: covering a series of 06 cases of acute intussusception operated on in the visceral surgery department of the Avicenne Military Hospital in Marrakech, over a period of 6 years, from January 2014 to May 2020. Data relating to clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and histological reports were collected and analyzed. Six cases of acute intussusceptions in adults were collected over a period of six years, amountingResults: one case per year. The average age was 52 with a female predominance of 66%. Four out of 6 patients had been seen urgently. The diagnosis was made preoperatively in all cases, ie 100% by using ultrasonography and CT. The ultrasound showed a "target" image in one case and a "pseudo- kidney" image in another. CT made it possible to make the diagnosis in all cases, and objectied an etiological diagnosis in 4 patients, ie 66.6% of cases. The pure enteric form was the most frequent (3 out of 6 cases), ie 50% of cases. There was one case of intestinal necrosis. Bowel resection was performed in 6 cases, or 100%. The cause of intussusception was found in all patients, including a benign tumor cause in 66.6% of cases. The immediate postoperative follow-up was straightforward in all patients We can conclude that the acute intussusception in adults is aConclusion: rare entity that should be considered in any patient with subacute abdominal pain. And we propose that oncological resection should be carried out in all cases of intestinal intussusception without attempting reduction regardless the site of the invagination, In view of the high rate of malignancy.
Background and objectives: Anaemia is a common and significant complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). When present it may cause symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath. It is associated with reduced quality of life and increased cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations, cognitive impairment and mortality. As kidney disease progresses, anaemia increases in prevalence affecting nearly all patients with stage V CKD. In patients with CKD, anaemia is defined as the situation in which the concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) in the blood is below 2 times the SD of the mean Hb of the general population. As the pathogenesis of anaemia in CKD is mutlifactorial, this study is intended to know various etiological factors responsible for anaemia in CKD patients. Methods: 50 patients who met with inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria are subjected to detail clinical examination and investigations. Depending upon data obtained, results are evaluated and the percentage of various types of anaemia in CKD was calculated. Results: At the end of study, anaemia of chronic disease (60%) constitutes the commonest cause of anaemia in CKD, followed by iron deficiency anaemia (30%) and megaloblastic anaemia (10%) due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Among 50 cases of anaemia in CKD, anaemia of chronic disease due to erythropoietin deficiency was the most common cause followed by iron deficiency anaemia. Usually clinical examination and routine simple investigations will clinch the diagnosis in most of the cases.
In this paper synthesis of some new mono azo disperse dyes based on 2-amino 5-(4'-nitro phenyl) 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety has been reported. Preparation of mono azo disperse dyes via condensation and nally diazotization of substituted primary amine and condensed with N-(4-(4'-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-2-((5-(4'-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)amino)acetamide (RR) to 1 give a series of mono azo dyes (RR -RR ). All the dyes were characterized by IR, H NMR, UV-Visible and elemental analysis and their dyeing 1 15 performance evaluated using High Temperature High Pressure method (HTHP) at 130°C on polyester fabric. All dyes gave good to excellent fastness properties.
A prompt diagnosis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a clinical challenge. This study aimed at exploring the potential of Serum protein S100B as a biomarker for evaluating neonatal HIE in newborns with moderateto-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Blood samples were collected from neonates with mild, moderate, or severe HIE who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Madras Medical College (MMC), Chennai between September 2016 to March 2017. The plasma levels of S100 B protein were measured at different time points. Additionally, Neurodevelopmental outcomes were also studied using MRI in surviving infants (> 2 weeks). Eighty-four neonates enrolled in the study had moderate (n = 37), severe (n = 13) and mild HIE (n= 36). At birth, serum protein S100 B increased with the severity of HIE (P < .001), and remained elevated in neonates with moderate to severe HIE. Serum protein S100 B was greater up to 72 hours in moderate to severe vs mild HIE. The Elevated levels of S100B were associated with increased brain injury as studied by MRI. The study suggests S S100 B may serve as a potential biomarker for neonatal mild HIE (n=36), moderate (n=37) and severe (n=13) could be used for stratication at birth as elevated levels are correlated with the severity of HIE.
This article discuss about the different types of evacuation systems and their suitability to the different class of buildings. Modern day terrorism has made evacuation systems to be integral part of high rise buildings. Scientific and proper evacuation system design has evolved in the recent times after the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre (WTC) in September 11th 2001.
Introduction: Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract, are the most common cystic mediastinal lesion in children.Case: We report a case of 11-month old child who presented with repeated lower respiratory tract infections for last 3-4 months. She underwent CT chest which revealed a cystic lesion measuring 2.2 x 1.8 x 2.5cm in the posterior mediastinum. Patient was posted for Right postero-lateral thoracotomy with excision of cyst. Thorough Pre-anaesthetic evaluation was done and antibiotics and bronchodilators were continued. General anaesthesia with one lung ventilation was planned. Patient was intubated with Inj.propofol 10mg, Inj.succinylcholine 10mg and uncuffed no.4 endotracheal tube using no.0 Macintosh blade and Inj.vecuronium 0.4 mg given. Patient was maintained on sevourane+O2+ air. Patient was placed in left lateral position. Right T4 intercostal space postero-lateral incision was taken, right lung collapsed and cyst was tried to excised – suddenly we noticed fall in ETco2, followed by severe bradycardia and hypoxia (Spo2 not recordable) Accidental rent in trachea was noticed. Cardiac massage/Inj.Adrenaline/ventilation with 100% oxygen started. Tracheal rent was sutured. Patient was revived successfully. Surgery later was completed uneventfully. Patient was extubated on table and shifted to Paediatric ICU. CONCLUSION: Airway management in paediatric age group is very challenging to anaesthetist. In our scenario resuscitation from asystole and airway management becomes a vital role.
Background: Preterm labour is defined as the onset of labour before 37 weeks of gestation, in pregnancy beyond 20 weeks of gestation, and is responsible for nearly 75% of all neonatal mortality and neurological morbidity. Cervical length (CL) is one of the major determinants of preterm delivery. Several studies have been able to conclude that transvaginal CL assessment may be a useful tool for the prediction of preterm delivery. The risk of preterm birth varies inversely with CL measured by ultrasound in low-risk women. Objective: To evaluate and compare the predictive value of transvaginal cervical length between 11-14 weeks and 20- 22 weeks of gestation in preterm labour. Material and Methods: A total of 264 pregnant women who were primigravida, singleton pregnancy, and women at gestational age 11-14 weeks and 20-22 weeks were included in the study. They were subjected for CL measurement at 11-14 and 20-22 weeks of gestation using transvaginal ultrasonography with the standard longitudinal view of the cervix while the patient’s bladder was empty. GEL VOLUSON 730 PRO Trans Vaginal Ultrasound (TVS) probe IC 5-9 H instrument with 5-9 MHz was used to measure CL. Results: The variables analyzed were the mean cervical length at 11-14 weeks and 20-22 weeks, the rate of shortening of cervical length in those who deliver at term and preterm and the cervical length at 11-14 weeks 20-22 weeks was correlated with gestational age at delivery and the predictive value of the same was determined. Cut-off of cervical length at 11-14 and 20-22 weeks of gestation was 3.73 cm and 2.89 and was statistically significant for the prediction of pre-term labour. Reduction in cervical length from 11-14 weeks to 20-22 weeks of gestation of more than 0.7 cm is predictive of preterm labour with statistical significance (p<0.001). Conclusion: Routine mid-pregnancy cervical length assessment in low-risk women can be a cost-effective method of preterm birth reduction but the implementation of such a policy is highly dependent upon local factors. If it is to be undertaken, cervical length assessment should be performed according to a standardized technique.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of four puried compounds (compounds 1,2,3 and 4) from medicinal plant Chrysopogon zizanioides L were investigated. Successive solvent extraction of Chrysopogon zizanioides in chloroform was done. The extract were tested against the normal cell lines (Vero) human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116) using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The chloroform fractions of Chrysopogon zizanioides had shown the signicant results against Vero and HCT-116 tumor cell lines. The IC50concentration of the selected puried compounds C1, C2, C3, and C4 against HCT 116 were 79.06 µg/ml, 84.13 µg/ml, 94.36 µg/ml and 68.47µg/ml, respectively. Whereas the IC50concentration of the selected puried compounds C1, C2, C3, and C4 against Vero were 130.30µg/ml, 157.36µg/ml, 160.48µg/ml and 255.28µg/ml, respectively. Among all the tested compounds, compound four can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Additional studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations.
Objective: The objective of this retrospective study is to identify the elimination half life of CA 125 biomarker in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer at our centre and develop it as a surrogate marker of response to chemotherapy. Methods: Medical records of women who were newly diagnosed with inoperable advanced ovarian cancer stages III and IV at our centre were selected. Only people with completely documented records in the years 2017 & 2018 were selected. Clinical information on age, menopausal status, BMI, radiological PCI, stage, histology, chemotherapy drugs used, CA 125 levels before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were noted and information analysed. Only 40 patients were identified meeting all required criteria. The patients were divided into 3 sets based on CA 125 elimination half life group 1(t ½ < 10 days), group 2 (t ½ 10- 20 days) and group 3 (t ½ > 20 days). The base line characters and outcomes of surgery and pathological responses were compared between these groups. Results: Optimal cytoredcution was possible in 19/21(90.4%) patients in group 1, 6/10(60%) in group 2 & 2/9(22.2%) in group 3. Clinical complete response was found in 12/21 (57.1%), 2/10(20%) & 0/9(0%) respectively. Progressive disease was noted in 4/9(44%) of group 3 patients. There was striking differences between the groups with respect to clinical and pathological response. Conclusion: In summary, CA 125 elimination half life measurement is a reproducible tool that can be used to assess chemotherapy sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The CA 125 half life value is a helpful measurement that allows the clinicians to measure the degree of chemosensitivity prior to cytoreductive surgery.
Radioiodine therapy is an established mode of treatment for thyrotoxicosis of large range of etiologies. Differ- ent therapeutic regimes have been attempted to institute appropriate dose of radio iodine in different clinical scenario. However the indications, patient selection criteria and dose regime choice remain highly controversial varying greatly from institution to institution. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of three different ranges of variable doses of 131 radio Iodine therapy in patients with hyperthyroidism and to evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism following radio iodine therapy at different doses. In this retrospective study, 127 patients treated with I-131 for hyperthyroidism between Jan 2006 - Jan 2007 was included who had regular follow up till one year. The patients were categorized in three groups and treated with different dosage This study shows that there is no definitive evidence of prolonging hypothyroidism in patients treated with small dose as compared to other two groups but often necessitating requirement of second dose of I 131. Our study indicates that the optimal dose of 5mCi of radioiodine should be given for the complete cure of hyperthyroidism to minimize the necessity of multiple doses.
This work presents an experimental study on the application of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace R134a in a domestic refrigerator. The hydrocarbons investigated are propane (R290), butane (R600) and isobutene (R600a). A refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used as an investigation unit to assess the prospect of using mixed refrigerants.Even the ozone depletion potentials of R134a relative to CFC-11 are very low; the global warming potentials are extremely high and also expensive. For this reason, the production and use of R134a will be terminated in the near future. Hydrocarbons are free from ozone depletion potential and have negligible global warming potential. The permanent run- ning and cycling results showed that, mixed refrigerant with charge of 80 g satisfy the required freezer air temperature of −21 °C when R134a with a charge of 110 g is used as refrigerant. The actual COP of mixed refrigerant refrigerator was higher than that of R134a by about 8.1%. The COP and other result obtain in this experiment shows a positive indication of using mixed refrigerant as refrigerants in household refrigerator. The COP started increasing with the increasing percentage R134a and reach a maximum value at 15% of R134a (Mixture-2) and then started decreasing with a further increase in R134a mass fraction. Also the Back propagation algorithm was implemented for training ANN to find out the optimum mixture of ob- taining higher COP.The RMS error values are smaller than 0.002 and R2 values are about 0.99999, which can be considered to be excellent.The field of neural networks is vast and interdisciplinary. Speed of calculation, capability of learning from examples and simplicity are the advantages of the ANNs. These features enable the ANNs to be used in thermal systems. Reducing the time and effort spent for the numerical studies using our approach for other mixture ratios, the COP values can be achieved.
Top-cited authors
Yoga .P
  • Alagappa University
Alaguraja K.
  • National Institute of Technology Nagaland
Selvakumar K.
  • Virudhunagar Hindu Nadars' Senthikumara Nadar College
Kavita atitikumar Trivedi
  • Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University
Ruma Pal
  • University of Calcutta