Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Medium of communication in world biopesticide research
Top 22 title-words in biopesticide research appearing more than 100 times
Trend in collaborative biopesticide research publication during 1996-2008
A combined realization of the negative effects of chemical pesticides and the positive attributes of biopesticide have led to an intensive research programs by both public and private institutions across nations. This has generated a knowledge pool and accumulated vast scientific literature. This paper tries to capture the nature of basic research in biopesticide and growth of the discipline during the last 4 decades. Research publications made during 1971 to 2008 was retrieved from the Scopus database using a structured query. Bibliometric methods such as analysis of title-word and author keywords have been used to identify the emergence of sub-disciplines. The paper also identifies the leading institutes, countries, and the nature of inter-country as well as inter-institutional collaboration. The growth of biopesticide research output has been encouraging particularly since 1996. Microbial pesticides, particularly Bacillus thuringiensis-related research has dominated the discipline so far. As in most other disciplines of science, United States had an upper hand in biopesticide research followed distantly by India. Two aspects that need immediate attention are the decline in participation of industry and international collaboration in biopesticide research, both of which are critical for developing cost-effective and environment-friendly pesticides having world-wide application.
A study was carried out during kharif 2006-07 with twenty five Gossypium barbadense L genotypes to obtain information ongenetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for seed cotton yield and its yield attributes. Significant differences wereobserved for characters among genotypes. High genetic differences were recorded for nodes/plant, sympodia, bolls as well asfruiting points per plant, seed cotton yield, lint index indicating ample scope for genetic improvement of these charactersthrough selection. Results also revealed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance for yield and most of the yieldcomponents as well as fibre quality traits. Sympodia/plant, fruiting point /plant, number of nodes/plant, number of bolls perplant, and lint index were positively correlated with seed cotton yield per plant and appeared to be interrelated with eachother. It is suggested that these characters could be considered as selection criteria in improving the seed cotton yield of G.barbadense, L genotypes.
Influence of sowing dates and varieties of groundnut on yield attributes, pod yield and oil content.
Mean monthly data of important weather parameters for groundnut crop growing period.
A field study was conducted during 2005-06 at Ludhiana to evaluate the performance of one semi-spreading '(M 522)' and 2 bunch type '(SG 84' and 'SG 99)' varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaca L.) under 5 sowing dates (May 10, 20, 30 and June 10, 20). The results revealed that 10 and 20 May sowings registered similar number of branches and pods/plant and 100-kernel weight which decreased with each 10-day delay in sowing from 20 May to 20 June. The 20 May (2 779 kg/ha) and 10 May (2 712 kg/ha) sowings significantly outyielded later sowing dates. Similar trend was observed for oil content and oil yield. Semi-spreading variety 'M 522' gave significantly more number of branches and pods /plant and 100-kernel weight but conspicuously lower shelling out turn than bunch type varieties. Mean pod yield, oil content and oil yield of 'SG 99' was significantly higher than 'SG 84' which proved its marked superiority over 'M 522'. The highest mean pod yield and oil yield were obtained in 'SG 99' sown on 20 May (3 145 and 1 100 kg/ha) closely, followed by its sowing on 10 May (3 115 and 1 093 kg/ha).
Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05) 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.
Improvement of sustainable yield index (SYI) in fruit crop is the most important aspect of orchard sustainability and economic enhancement of fruit growers for which an investigation was laid out to improve SYI in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv Shewta under different integrated nutrient management systems. Higher SYI was obtained using organic + inorganic systems (0.66) followed by NPK fertilization in soil (0.67) or foliar application of micronutrients (0.71) as compared to control (0.45) or adoption of sole organic sources of nutrition (0.45). A range of variation in SYI from 0.44 to 0.77 was recorded across treatments and seasons. The Reference ET0 and pan evaporation was varied between 0.82 to 5.33 mm/day and 1.30 to 7.0 mm/day respectively during reproductive stages of guava. Changes in soil physical properties were recorded across three depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm); water holding capacity and porosity varied across the depths and treatments; 19.53 to 24.48% and 39.92 to 50.20 % respectively. Improvement in these two parameters might have contributed towards better SYI in guava. The co-efficient of variation (CV%) of guava productivity based on yield stability indicated lower the variation (1.2 to 4.9) higher is the stability. The dynamic variations in total fruit yield 31.4 to 72.5 kg/tree indicated immediate need for precise soil management to enhance yield potentiality. Conclusively for better SYI in guava, the nutrient requirement through organic (FYM, Azotobacter, PSM, organic mulching Trichoderma etc.) and inorganic (NPK, micronutrients) sources are essentially required in soils of inherently low or poor fertility status.
The present study was conducted during kharif 2013, kharif 2014 and kharif 2015 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate four American cotton genotypes and to determine which have the greatest relative values of favourable alleles for the improvement of number of bolls/plant, boll weight (g), 2.5% span length (mm), bundle strength (g/tex), seed cotton yield/plant (g) and lint yield/plant (g) in the elite single cross cotton hybrid (NA 1325 × L 604). Based on the estimates of μG’ values the genotype Surabhi was noted with positive high μG’ value and may be used as source of favourable alleles for improving elite hybrid with respect to quality traits like bundle strength (μG’=1.830*) and 2.5% span length (μG’=1.325*). This improvement may be possible by transferring favourable alleles from Surabhi to NA 1325 through back crossing as it had high genetic affinity with NA 1325. For number of bolls/plant RAH 1004 (μG’=3.230*) and HYPS 152 (μG’=0.302*) for boll weight and both the donors for seed cotton yield/plant (μG’RAH 1004=13.915*and μG’HYPS 152=23.972*) may be used as donors as they recorded significant and positive μG’ estimates. © 2018 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.
Among six possible cropping sequences of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), the sequence 'cabbage-tomato-okra' was the most N efficient showing 17.925 kg/plot (1 m × 1.8 m) of fertilizer N uptake and 39.6% recovery of N applied to the first crop, followed by that of 'cabbage-okra-tomato' (35.9). Cabbage as the second crop showed the highest recovery of residual fertilizer N of 2.27-4.61% compared to other crops. The ability of the crops in the uptake of fertilizer N and therefore the associated fertilizer recovery efficiency was in the order: cabbage< tomato>okra when grown as first and second crops. The recovery of residue by the third crop was meager (0.12-0.33%). Therefore, the inherent capacity of the component vegetable crop in a cropping sequence to utilize the direct and residual N decides the overall N-use efficiency of the cropping sequence.
A field experiment was conducted during 1997-99 to study the effect of growth regulators to increase pedicel thickness and shelf-life in 'Tas-A-Ganesh' grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) grafted on '1613 C' rootstock. Treatments with growth regulators like 4-CPA, 6-BA and CPPU increased the pedicel thickness by 19.4% and enhanced the shelf-life (PLW) by 2 days compared with the 2 applications of GA3 alone. Berry drop and berry rot were reduced to 32.25% and 35.96%, respectively, with the delay in pedicel browning by 32.5% at day 5 in shelf after removal of samples from the cold storage at day 30. Among the growth regulators, CPPU along with GA3 was more effective in increasing the shelf-life when the clusters were applied twice in 2 ppm aqueous solution, once at 6 mm berry size stage and again at veraison stage with 25 ppm GA3at 3 mm berry size and 6 mm berry size stage. Among the different treatments, dipping bunches first with GA3 @ 25 ppm at 3 mm berry size, followed by combination of GA3 @ 25 ppm and CPPU @ 2 ppm at 6 mm berry size and final dipping of bunches with CPPU @ 2 ppm during veraison was found effective compared with other treatments like GA3 in combination either with 4 - CPA or 6 BA.
A field experiment was conducted during 2007-10 at the Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore (West Bengal), under irrigated Gangetic alluvial soil conditions, to study the effect of various organic nutrient management packages on soil health, growth attributes, leaf yield, leaf quality and economic gain in newly evolved, triploid, high yielding, recommended and popular S 1635 mulberry (Morus alba L.). Analysis of NPK status of soil was found to be improved in recommended practice, while available N was found marginally lower and available P and K were found higher in all the organic nutrient management packages over initial status. Analyzed data of three years (15 crops) with 7 treatments and 3 replication revealed that the effect of the treatments was found significant on plant height, branches/plant, leaves/plant, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf- shoot (%), leaf yield, leaf moisture, total chlorophyll and total soluble protein content in leaves. Maximum branches/plant was found in organic package (30 mt vermicompost/ha/year), while it was next best in leaves/plant, leaf yield (almost similar with integrated nutrient management package), total soluble protein and total soluble sugar content in leaves. During 3rd year, the overall leaf yield in organic packages with vermicompost, vermicompost plus vermiwash and integrated nutrient management package was found at par with recommended practice and obtained marginally higher (6.4%) leaf yield in vermicompost package. It was further noticed that the increase level in leaf yield with vermicompost package was reached at the tune of 32.57% in 2nd year over 1st year and 39.95% in 3rd year over 2nd year which was maximum among other treatments. Moreover, about 10.5% leaf yield was increased in vermicompost package during winter crops (November and February) of 3 rd year. The economic gain on 3rd year leaf yield revealed that the organic package performed better in respect of about 6.4% more quality leaf yield (45.3 tonnes/ha/year), maximum net profit (Rs 22 697/ha/year) and return/ rupee investment (1.33) with marginally higher expenditure (Rs 67 931.13/ha/year) over recommended package.
A new promising 'CRIDA 18R' horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc] variety was developed by mutation breeding (γ rays irradiation) and released for south India in 2009. It matures in 85-87 days and yields in the range of 750 to 1 150 kg/ha, has high pod number and has synchronized brisk podding behaviour. The normal sowing period is from August second fortnight to September end. However, with north east monsoon rains it can be sown even in October. This variety responds to fertilizer up to 20 N+40 P2O 5 and has 29.6% protein content. The variety is brown seeded and pods do not shatter, an important parameter which saves/conserves seed yield, when harvesting is delayed. It is tolerant to yellow mosaic virus, powdery mildew and mites. It recorded maen grain yield of 912.0 kg/ha in farmers' fields in various districts of Andhra Pradesh, which is 40% higher over the local varieties.
The better response of horsegram germination percentage to elevated CO 2 is a positive indication as this particular crop being thermo and photo-sensitive in nature at ambient field level. The higher concentration of CO2 may play ameliorating role to offset the negative effects of variable temperature and relative humidity under climatic change scenario.
Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cv Master to different doses and methods of application of water soluble fertilizer Sujala, 19:19:19 NPK (Data are the pooled means of three flowering flushes) 
The present investigation was conducted at the Research Farm of The Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh during the year 2010 and 2011 to ascertain the response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv Master to different doses and methods of application of water soluble fertilizer Sujala (19:19:19 NPK). The plants receiving treatment of 250 ppm N and K fertigation through urea and MOP + 250 ppm NPK foliar spray through Sujala once a week (T13) showed significant increase in the vegetative growth characteristics (plant height and stem length) as well as stimulated flowering parameters, viz. reduced the number of days to bud formation, first flowering, enhanced both the number of flowers per plant and flower size, reduced the number of days to harvesting stage, increasing the duration of flowering, weight of cut flower stem per plant and vase life in comparison to the recommended practices.
Pairwise sequence alignment of Cf-4 and Cf-19 gene
Structural alignment results obtained by DALI server
Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a model fruit crop, are largely affected by leaf mould disease, caused by an Ascomycete (Cladosporium fulvum) leading to significant economic loss across the globe. Though many R genes corresponding to this disease, viz. Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5, Cf-6, Cf-9 and Cf-19 are reported but such studies are confined to genomic level rather than proteomic level. Since host parasite interaction occurs at protein level thus in the present study, attempt has been made to carry out the studies of these R genes at proteomic level. Protein sequences of Cf-4 and Cf-19 genes were used for sequence analysis by Conserved Domain Database followed by construction of their three-dimensional models using Modeller. The obtained models were further validated and finalized protein models of both the genes were compared with the help of DALI Server. The present study revealed that there was 89% sequence identity between these proteins whereas they were confined to 78% only at structural level. Model generated from the present study can be used in interaction studies between Cf-4 and Cf-19 and their corresponding avirulence (Avr) protein. Such study would lead to better understanding of genetic basis of susceptibility of the tomato plants to the invading pathogen. This can also help in establishing them as putative candidate gene, which are desirable in development of disease resistant tomato varieties, combating pathogen attack in endeavour of tomato improvement program.
The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, at its headquarters at New Delhi receives around 60 000 samples each year for quarantine clearance. All samples are first subjected to visual examination and then incubation test (blotter-method) for detection of seed-borne pathogens. In this research note information on 12 species of genus Fusarium intercepted from various countries on different hosts during the years 1976-99 is given.
The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station, Hyderabad has facilitated safe introduction of 356 521 (1986-2010) germplasm accessions of various crops into India. About 60 seed-borne pathogens of quarantine importance were intercepted on crop germplasm during seed examination in the laboratory and post-entry quarantine observations in the field. Of these, the quarantine pathogens, viz. Ralstonia solanacearum and peanut stripe virus in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), Peronospora manshurica (Naum.) Syd. and peanut stripe virus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Men.], tobacco streak virus in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Xanthomonas campestris pv holcicola (Elliot) Dye, Burkholderia andropogonis (Smith) Gillis et al. on sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], Drechslera maydis (Nisik.) Subram. & Jain on maize (Zea mays L.) and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Okabe) Young et al. on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were intercepted from different countries. Yield losses that could have occurred were estimated had these pathogens of groundnut, soybean, sunflower, maize, sorghum and tomato not been intercepted.
Chemically treated seeds of wheat (Triticum spp), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and triticale received from Algeria, Belgium the CIMMYT, Mexico; the ICARDA, Syria; Thailand and USA were grown in Post-Entry Quarantine Nursery for detection of seed-borne pathogens. Seed-borne fungi detected were: loose smut of wheat [Ustilago segetum (Pers.) Roussel var tritici Jensen] in 70 entries, loose smut of barley [U. segetum (Pers.) Roussel var. hordei Rostrup & Jensen] in 20 entries, covered smut of barley [U. hordei (Pers.) Lagerh.] in 15 entries and stripe disease of barley (Drechslera graminea (Rabench. ex Schlecht.) Shoemaker in 1 entry.
In Xinjiang, an arid region located in the north-western China, water use for irrigation of predominantly jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is high whereas water use efficiency is low. Due to that, how to increase irrigation efficiency is highly concerned by the local agricultural authorities. To quantify the irrigation water deep leakage and soil water balance, water application, crop growth, and soil water dynamics were studied on a sandy loam, sandy, and clay field in the years 2010 and 2011. Research shows that the soil water model HYDRUS-1D can be used as a tool to simulate and quantify improved management strategies and update irrigation standards in this region. The parameters sensitivity analysis result showed that soil water bottom flux was sensitive to θs and Ks in soil layers. The simulation results indicated that soil water leakage was influenced by soil texture, irrigation quota and irrigation frequency, and so on. In addition, soil water leakage was very serious under the traditional surface irrigation during jujube growth period. Soil water leakage mainly occurred in growth from mid-June to mid-August, which is the key period for jujube tree demand water, resulting in severe soil water leakage. Therefore, for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use and reducing the deep soil water leakage, it is not suitable to adopt surface irrigation in the study areas. Several different scenarios have been generated to better understand the effect of irrigation management on soil water leakage by HYDRUS-1D model in the study areas. The drip irrigation can reduce soil water leakage. Consequently, it should be recommend adopting drip irrigation technology, which would not only save water but also improve the efficiency of water use in the study areas.
Effect of different N concentrations in Hoagland so- lution on nodule number (per cm root length) under hydroponical conditions at 35 days after sowing
The induction of nodule like structure/para nodules in cereals is an exciting field and many workers in different corners of the world are engaged in inducing nodules in cereals, viz wheat, maize, rice, etc. Though nif genes have been tried to be transferred through genetic engineering, little or no success have been achieved in this direction. The usefulness of associative diazotrophs like Azospirilluin has been reported through enhanced root biomass or its nitrogen fixing capacity or both (Panwar et ai. 1990). Certain phytohormones particularly the auxins and cytokinins have been reported to increase cell division and inducing nodule like structures. Nodule like structures have been induced on large number of non -legume crops (Elanchezhian and Panwar 1997) by treatment with various substances in the presence or absence of rhizobia using different plant hormones like 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (naphthalene acetic acid), benzyl amino purine and zeatin (Ridge et al. 1992). Among different plant hormones 2,4-D a synthetic auxin was found to be the best in inducing nodular outgrowth in cereals (Ridge et al. 1992, Christiansen Weniger and Vanderleyden 1994). In the present study nodules were induced by treating the roots with 2,4-D under hydroponical conditions and the nodulation and nitrogen fixation characteristics were studied in the nodulated plants. Growth conditions: 'HD 2428' wheat (Triticum aestivllm L. emend. Fiori & Pao!.) were surface sterilized using HgCl2 (0.5%) for 2.5 min and rinsed thoroughly with distilled water. The seeds were germinated on sterile acid washed gravel at 25±1° C for 2-3 days in darkness in the growth room. Uncontaminated seedlings were transferred to 200 x 20 mm test tubes containing sterile N free hoagland solution with different treatments. The root portions were avoided the contact with the light. The seedlings were grown under controlled environmental conditions, ie in growth room with a photon ±lux density of 200 µmol m2/sec and a 14-hour day length at 25±I°C (day and night) temperatures. After 7 to 8 days after sowing 0.1 ml of Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7) culture grown at room temperature for 24 hr, containing 107 to 108 cells/ ml and 2,4-D solution were added to a final concentration 01'0.5 ppm of 2,4-D. Nodule formed (magnified 200x) in the roots were examined after 1 () days after treatment with 2,4-D. Observations were recorded for nodulation frequency; root and shoot growth with varying N and 2,4-D concentrations at weekly intervals starting from 14 to 40 days after sowing with proper controls. Cytological studies: Cytological studies were carried out on the nodulated roots. The root segments were fixed in formalin acetic acid-alcohol for at least 48 hr, washed with deionised water. Transverse sections were stained with tetrazolium chloride and eosin 2% and observed under light microscope (Nukon Microphot, Japan) using 200x magnifications. Nitrogen fixation: Nitrogenase activity was estimated in actively growing intact nodulated roots at 30 and 60 days after sowing following the acetylene reduction method (Hardy et al. 1968) with slight modifications. 5 ml of gas or air was removed and 5 ml of acetylene was injected into the vials containing one gram of nodulated roots and incubated for 12 hr at 30°C. One cc of gas mixture was fed to the gas chromatograph (Nukon Series 5500) and the acetylene reduced was measured quantitatively. The statistical analysis was done as per the standard procedure described by Panse and Sukhatme (1967). The nodulation frequency (number of nodules/cm of root length) was highest in a narrow concentration range of2,4-D (0.5 ppm). At higher concentration range of2,4-D (1 ppm) plant growth and nodulation frequency were found to be reduced significantly. However, root and shoot length were not retarded much at 0.1 ppm but the nodule number was lower than seedlings treated with 2,4-D (0.5 ppm). Among ditTerent N concentrations, N free hoagland solution was found to be the best for nodu lation. The inhibitory effect of2,4-D at higher concentrations may be responsible for the 4 retarded growth of the seedlings, With the inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense along with 2,4-D a well-developed nodule like structure emerged when compared with 2,4-D alone treated plants. More denser cortical and steIer portion were observed in roots inoculated with Azospiri/lum either alone or with 2,4-D The nodule like structure possessed a central cylinder originated from the pericycle, suggesting a modified lateral roots. It was observed that unlike pulses there was no root hair curling and the entry of the Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7) might have been through the loosening of the epidermal cells. Acetylene reduction rate was higher in plants inoculated with Azospirillum bras ilense inoculated plants along with 2,4-D treatment, whereas low activity was observed in plants treated with Azospirillum (alone) at 30 days after sowing and 60 days after sowing. Both uninoculated control and plant treated with 2,4-D (alone) showed negligible acetylene reduction. The induction of deformations on the roots to produce nodule like structure to house bacteria may constitute a considerable fraction of symbiotic systems to fix the nitrogen. The deformations of roots may also provide a 01. tree environment for the efficient functioning of the nitrogenase enzyme. The nitrogenase activity of Azospirillum brasilense has been reported with the presence of bacteria inside the root steIer portion (Tilak and Subba Rao 1987). The acetylene reduction rate was found to be sufficiently high in plant treated with Azospirillum along with 2,4-D indicating the capacity of the nodule for functional and physiologically active nitrogen fixing system. The 2,4-D induced nodule like structure serve as a niche for bacterial colonisation in wheat roots and thereby enhancing the nitrogen fixing capacity in the roots. On the basis of the results it has been concluded that 2,4-D induce nodules which acts as niche for the establishment ofthe bacteria, thereby increasing the nitrogen availability to the plant.
An experiment was conducted during 2003-04 to evaluate new formulation against seed and soil borne infection of leaf blight pathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.emend Fiori & Paol.). The seed treatment of a newly developed fungicidal formulation Vitavax 200 WS (carboxin + Thiram 1:1) @ 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg of seed along with Vitavax 75 WP @ 2.5 g/kg of seed and Thiram 75 WS @ 3 g/kg of seed was tested at Karnal and Coochbehar (West Bengal) centres against leaf blight pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana and Alternaria triticina in wheat. The seed treatment with Vitavax 200. WS @ 3 g/kg at both locations was quite effective, whereas at Coochbehar it was effective even at lower doses. The infection of both the pathogens as well as loose smut was eradicated at Karnal, whereas reduced incidence of leaf blight pathogens was recorded at Coochbehar centre. The seed treatment with Vitavax 200 WS also significantly increased the seed germination, seedling vigour and grain yield. It also reduced the seedling mortality, incidence of foliar diseases like leaf blight and powdery mildew in field.
Nine pathotypes of Puccinia graminis Pers. f sp tritici Erikiss & Henn. were observed in 187 samples of black rust of wheat analysed during 2002-04 from different parts of India. Pathotype 62G29 virulent on Sr2, Sr5, Sr6, Sr7b, Sr8, Sr9b, Sr9e, Sr11, Sr12 and Sr28 was the most common. Frequency of pathotype 62G29-1 which is restricted to Tamil Nadu and is virulent on Sr24 has reduced considerably. Virulence on Sr25, Sr26, Sr27, Sr31, Sr32, Sr35, Sr37, Sr39, Sr40 and Sr43 was not recorded. Change in virulence pattern was not observed.
Quarantine processing of 78 640 samples of exotic planting material (germplasm 14 242 and trial material 64 398) during the year 2004 resulted in the interception of a number of economically important fungal pathogens,viz Peronospora manshurica (Naumov) Syd. ex Gäum, the downy mildew of soybean, not known to occur in India ; Puccinia carthami Corda, rust of safflower which has physiological races; those having wide host range: Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove, C. gloeosporioides Penz., Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. & Jain; species of Alternaria-Alternaria brassicicola (Schw.) Wilts., A. sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty & Behera and A. padwickii (Ganguly) M. B. Ellis as well as a bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Pammel) Dowson, the black rot of crucifers. Economic significance of pathogens intercepted is discussed and the need to conduct a thorough and critical seed health testing during quarantine processing is emphasized.
Changes in climatic variables may affect phenological phases of crops and affect plant growth and development, these changes also lead to emergence of new pests and diseases. Therefore, there is need to relate the trends of climatic parameters with rice productivity vis-á-vis the pest dynamics in the crop at different sites apart from projecting a future scenario for the crop in the country. For this long-term seasonal, monthly and weekly trends in climatic data, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity (morning and afternoon), rainfall and bright sunshine hours on seasonal (kharif or rainy season, rabi or post-rainy season and summer), monthly (January to December) and weekly (1-52 standard meteorological week or SMW) time scales for the period 1970–2010 at 14 different agroclimatic centers situated in rice growing regions of India were investigated. Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator, non-parametric test were used for studying the magnitute as well as statistical significance of trend in climatic data. Trend analyses of the climatic variables in rice growing regions of different locations (Palampur, Chiplima, Jagdalpur, Kaul, Cuttack, Kanpur, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Samastipur, Pantnagar, Parbhani, Varanasi, Pune and Coimbatore) in India were studied. Positive trend for maximum temperature [for kharif season varied from 0.006°C/yr (Pune) to 0.045°C/yr (Chiplima)] were observed at five locations, negative trends [maximum for Jagdalpur (0.047°C/yr) and minimum for Bengaluru (0.011°C / yr)] were observed at eight locations while one location showed no change in maximum temperature. Minimum temperature showed increasing trend at most of the locations in kharif seasons. Relative humidity in the morning and afternoon also showed increasing trend at most of the locations in kharif. Increase in rainfall for kharif season varied from 8.990 mm/yr (Chiplima) to 0.008 mm/yr (Parbhani); the decrease was highest for Jagdalpur (5.329 mm/yr) followed by Coimbatore (4.485 mm/yr) and least for Varanasi (0.213 mm/yr). Positive and negative trends for total rainfall were observed at seven locations each. In kharif season (23-39 SMW), weekly maximum temperature showed a rising trend except at Cuttack, Kaul, Bengaluru, Pantnagar, Parbhani and Coimbatore while minimum temperature showed the increasing trend except at Palampur, Kanpur and Parbhani. Rainfall pattern showed a falling trend except at Cuttack, Hyderabad, Chiplima, Pune and Coimbatore. Monthly analysis of maximum temperature indicates that the trends are increasing in months of February, March, April, July, August and November while the trends are decreasing in months of January, May, June, September, October and December at most of the locations. Mimimum temperature showed an increasing trend in all months except January. Rainfall showed negative trends in monthly total rainfall during June-September. In June, seven locations showed negative trends which varied from 0.246 mm/yr (Kanpur) to 3.703 mm/yr (Jagdalpur); in July, 10 locations indicated negative trends that varied from 0.231 mm/yr (Samastipur) to 2.144 mm/yr (Chiplima); in August and September eight locations had negative trends. Coimbatore showed negative trends in monthly rainfall from May to December, the decrease was highest for November (4.854 mm/yr) and least in June (0.246 mm/yr). Based on these trends in climatic variables, monthly projected mean and seasonal change till 2050 were also obtained. The changes in climatic variable can be utilised for identification of the hotspot zones of important pest of rice based on the physiological aspect of pest. These changes may lead to possible rise in blast disease of rice at Kaul, Hyderabad and Pune. There looks a possible trend in reduction of the yellow stem borer insect-pest on rice crop in Central and Peninsular India with rise in the Northern latitudes of the country. There is need to relate the trends of climatic parameters with rice productivity vis-á-vis the pest dynamics in the crop at different sites apart from projecting a future scenario for the crop in the country. © 2018 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.
An effort was made to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall and temperature in 13 districts of the Uttarakhand, India over the period of 102 years (1901–2002). The main focus was to examine the rainfall variability and its future response during wheat crop period (November-April). Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator test used to detect monotonic trend direction and magnitude of change over time on annual and seasonal basis. The Pettit-Mann–Whitney test applied to detect the change points over the century. Mean annual precipitation varied from 821 mm (in Haridwar) to 1244 mm (in Pithoragarh) whereas it was 75 mm (in Udham Singh Nagar) to 178 mm (in Pithoragarh) during wheat growing period. During the wheat crop period, annual precipitation decrease was noticed in Udham Singh Nagar (-37.1%) which was maximum. Maximum decrease in minimum and maximum temperature during wheat growing period and annual period was observed for Uttarkashi district which was -39.4%, -28% and -25.1%, -21.1%, respectively. Similarly, Champawat was second after Udham Singh Nagar having highest temperature in both the periods. The most affected year of change was 1978 and 1940 in annual precipitation and maximum, minimum temperature, but during wheat growing period it was observed in 1945 and 1978, respectively. Mann Kendal trend test shows decrease in precipitation for all the stations during wheat growing period and annual period. In case of annual minimum temperature, average change was 0.004⁰C, though during wheat crop period it was 0.009 ⁰C /year. © 2018 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All Rights Reserved.
Yellow Revolution that followed the Green Revolution has greatly supplemented the edible oil need of the ever-increasing population of the country. The production of oilseeds, which used to be just 5 million tonnes at the time of Independence, is more than 4 to 5 folds in past few years. The credit for this achievement goes to the concerted efforts made by the Government of India by launching research and development programmes under Technology Mission on Oilseeds in 1986 and ingenuity of farmers who responded to the need of time. Although the scope of this programme was further widened by bringing pulses in 1990 and maize (Zea mays L.) in 1995 under its umbrella to enhance yield of these basic crops to meet the nutritional requirement of the people. A revamped programme, Integrated Scheme on Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize with mission mode approach is now in place from 2004-05 to promote the research and development of these crops in the country. Of the oilseeds contributed to Yellow Revolution, significant role has been played by introduction of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.] and sunflower (Helianthusannuus L.) in late sixties for commercial cultivation. At present, soybean covers an area of nearly 7 million ha in the country and can be placed neck and neck to traditionally cultivated and established crops like groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and rapeseed-mustard group of crops.
Increasing population and limited arable lands has perpetuated the efforts to improve yield per unit area through various methods such as sophisticated agronomical operations, selection of productive and tolerant genotypes and improving germination components. In order to study genetic diversity of 22 rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces native to northern part of the country in terms of germination components and of some growth indices, an experiment was conducted at laboratory of agriculture faculty of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil branch, as randomized complete blocks design with three replications, in year 2011. Estimation of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients for various traits revealed that genotypes being studied were more genetically diverse in terms of FGP, GI, GRI, Rs, VI, seedling length, radicle length and total fresh weight of sample than in terms of other traits. Study genotypes were classified into four groups using cluster analysis. Mean squares between the groups were significant for all the traits except for ratio of radicle length to seedling length. Germination indices were more heritable than traits associated with growth indices. Results from cluster analysis showed that group 2 including genotypes numbered 2, 16, 5, 14, 22 and 6, had the highest values for all the traits and was in average status in terms of traits such as MGT, Rs, MDG and ratio of radicle length to seedling length and consequently was recognized as the best group.
Performance of almond genotypes for nut and kernel yield.
Evaluation of genotypes for growth, flowering, fruit set and productivity efficiency in almond
Evaluation of genotypes for nut quality contributing characters in almond
A field experiment was carried out at the ICAR-Central Institute for Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar during 2013-2015 to evaluate twenty three almond genotypes for important horticultural traits to detect similarities among morphological, nut yield and quality parameters. Genotypes differed significantly for observed traits. The 18 variables were scored and subject to multivariate analysis. Results showed a considerable phenotypic diversity among almond genotypes. The cluster analysis classified genotypes into two major groups according to their potential characteristics. The biometric parameters indicated that maximum Trunk Cross Sectional Area (290.45 cm²) and plant height (5.10m) were recorded in CITH-Almond-19. Highest canopy volume (14.24m³) was recorded in CITH-Almond-22. Maximum flowers number (9315/tree), nut number (4656/tree) and kernel yield (2.75 kg/tree) were recorded in CITH-Almond-23. Highest productivity efficiency (65.91 g/cm² TCSA) was calculated in CITH-Almond-06. The nut weight (3.95g) was maximum in CITH-Almond-02. Kernel recovery above 40% was recorded in CITH-Almond-04, CITH-Almond-08, CITH-Almond-09, CITH-Almond-21, CITH-Almond-22 and CITH-Almond-33. The softness of shell were also observed in these genotypes and found to be semi hard to soft shell. The correlation coefficient among different characters was worked out in all possible combination. The positive correlation between nut yield and TCSA, plant height, canopy spread, canopy volume, flower numbers and fruit set in almond genotypes. The current results will be very useful for conservation of indigenous almond genotypes and formulating future breeding strategies in almond. Based on overall performance, it may be concluded that there was significant genetic diversity among selected almond genotypes for the selected horticultural traits. The genotype, viz. CITH-Almond-23, CITH-Almond-22, CITH-Almond-09, CITH-Almond-01, CITH-Almond-15, CITH-Almond-02 and CITH-Almond-19 and CITH-Almond-06 found to be superior in respect to nut quality under north western Himalayan region of India. These genotypes could be multiplied and distributed for performance evaluation under different temperate growing region of India for productivity enhancement besides utilization as parents for almond breeding programme for desirable traits. © 2018 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.
The effect of vermicompost and microbial inoculants on soil health and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend Fiori & Paol.) (cv HD 2687) yield were studied for three field trials during 2006-08. The microbial inoculants used were Azospirillum, Azotobacter, PSB and AM fungi. Treatments included vermicompost ( Vc) @ 6 tonnes/ha; Vc + Azotobacter + Azospirillum; Vc + PSB + AM fungi ; Vc + Azotobacter + PSB + AM and Vc +Azospirillum+PSB+AM fungi. The soil organic carbon content improved from 0.25% to 0.68% in three years in treatment amended with vermicompost alone. Inoculation of biofertilisers further improved the organic carbon content during the period of three years. Maximum carbon content was recorded in treatment inoculated with Azotobacter+PSB+AM fungi along with vermicompost. The N% also increased in the soil due to inoculation of Azotobacter and Azospirillum. Maximum grain yield of 3.11 q/ha was obtained in plots amended with vermicompost and co-inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter.
Transgene inheritance is an important consideration for the development of commercially viable transgenic crops. The F 1, F 2 and BC 3F 1 to BC 3F 2 populations of the cross 'Taipei 309' x 'Swarna' were used to analyze the inheritance of carotenogenic transgene(s) psy+crtl. Segregation distortion was observed for the transgene in F 2 population. However, in BC 1F 1 and subsequent backcrosses and their selfed generations, the segregation of transgene positive and transgene negative plants occurred in an expected 1:1 and 3:1 ratio, respectively. In introgression breeding one can often encounter linkage drag due to linkage of some undesirable genetic loci to the gene under transfer thereby affecting the phenotype of the final converted lines. Therefore, mapping and identification of flanking molecular marker linked to the target gene is necessary for elimination of linkage drag. The F 2 population from the 'Taipei 309' x 'Swarna' cross was used for tagging and mapping of the carotenogenic genes in transgenic 'Taipei 309' with 48 polymorphic STMS markers spanning over 12 rice chromosomes for Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA). The transgene was mapped to the chromosome 4 in the vicinity of the markers RM252, RM3785 and RM7563 at a distance of 10.65 cM, 8.19 cM and 5.73 cM, respectively. The information generated will be useful in integrating transgenic lines into breeding programme.
A study was conducted during 2002-06, to assess the changes in soil properties and micronutrient uptake by maize-wheat system after 31 years of fertilizer use, at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The soil pH, electrical conductivity and CaCO 3 content of the soil varied from 8.28 to 8.53, 0.40 to 0.43 dS/m and 0.92 to 1.05% respectively. DTPA extractable Fe, Mn and Cu in soil did not differ significantly among the treatments but DTPA-Zn was highest under Zn-treated plots. Organic carbon content ranged from 0.38 under control to 0.67% under 100% NPK+farmyard manure. Build-up of Olsen's available P was observed under all the treatments except control. Neutral ammonium acetate extractable K content in soil varied from 219 to 326 kg/ha under the various treatments. The highest grain (2.43 tonnes/ha) and stover (2.48 tonnes/ha) yield of maize was obtained under integrated use optimal NPK and farmyard manure (100% NPK+ FYM), followed by 100% NPK+Zn. But in case of wheat, grain and straw yields under 100% NPK+FYM and 100 NPK+Zn were at par and higher as compared to other treatments. Total uptake of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu ranged from 119.5 to 268.6, 278.3 to 504.6, 51.6 to 108.3 and 17.0 to 37.5 g/ha respectively by maize and from 134.0 to 324.7, 1030.8 to 2540.2, 219.4 to 466.3 and 60.8 to 149.3 g/ha by wheat under different treatments.
Nitrogen-use efficiency of all the crop combinations: capsicum (main crop), onion (intercrop); watermelon (main crop), radish (intercrop); okra (main crop), Frenchbean (intercrop) was drastically reduced from 10.85-37.16% to 6.44-19.12% compared to the either of the sole (main) crops. In the case of P also similar trend was seen but the utilization of P by crop combination was intermediate (6.18-9.31%) between those of the respective sole crops (in the rate of 4.89% for watermelon and 11.90% for capsicum). The reduction of fertilizer-use efficiency of N under different crop-combinations was appreciably higher than that of P fertilizer under crop combinations.
A field experiment was conducted to standardize the method of application and to determine the uptake of the fertilizer nutrient during different split doses of fertilizer application to 'Surya' papaya (Carica papaya L.) by the use of isotopic technique. Six trials were taken up a bimonthly interval corresponding to 6 split doses of fertilizers commencing 2 months after transplanting. The pre-bearing stage received the first 2 splits while remaining 4 splits were applied during the fruit-bearing stage. During the pre-bearing stage the absorption of 32P as reflected in 32P activity, specific activity of 32P and phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) were substantially higher than those recorded at later stages. The results showed that fertilizers may be placed in 15-20 cm bands between 10 and 60 cm radial distance during pre-bearing stage for optimum absorption. During fruit-bearing stage, 20 cm bands may be placed between 20 and 80 cm distance to achieve high absorption of P from superphosphate.
Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] cv. 'Pusa 33' was processed on colour sorting machine to remove unwanted discoloured seed and recover maximum desired coloured (good) seed. Manual separation and electronic colour sorter were analysed. In case of machine sorting, colour separation was done on a multi-pass basis to get the desired degree of seed quality. The machine performance was analysed at various colour purity levels. The desired quality parameters, eg colour purity, germination (%), vigour index, and true density improved significantly. However, undesired quality parameter, eg electrical conductivity, reduced significantly. Colour separation process was found effective at the colour purity level of around 70%. The machine sorting proved superior to hand sorting in terms of efficiency, consistency of quality of product and timeliness in operation.
A field experiment was carried out during 2002-05 in a sandy loam soil to study the response of 'PBW 343' wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) to irrigation waters having 4 levels of residual sodium carbonate (0, 3, 6.5, 10 me/litre). Increase in residual sodium carbonate of irrigation water significantly increased pH, sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage of the soil up to 60 cm depth and decreased the grain yield of 'PBW 343' in all the 3 years. The response was influenced by the number of irrigations and amount of rainfall in a year. Relative to good quality canal water, irrigation with waters having residual sodium carbonate values of 3, 6.5 and 10 me/litre decreased the grain yield by 0.16 and 0.18 tonnes/ha, 0.50 and 0.48 tonnes/haand 1.22 and 1.31 tonnes/haduring 2002-03 and 2004-05, respectively. In 2003-04 relatively higher corresponding decline in grain yield (0.64, 0.85 and 1.95 tonnes/ha) was observed. This can be attributed to low rainfall (73 mm) in 2003-04 compared to 200 mm and 154 mm rainfall received during 2002-03 and 2004-05 respectively. The results show that PBW 343 can be grown with irrigation waters having residual sodium carbonate up to 6.5 me/litre without any substantial loss in grain yield.
The field studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Unnat PBW 343 through marker-assisted backcross breeding under different sowing environments. The experiment was conducted at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during rabi 2014–15 to 2016–17 in splitplot design replicated thrice with two main plot treatments [timely sown conditions–1st week of November and late sown conditions–1st week of December] and five wheat genotypes (Unnat PBW 343, PBW 343, HD 2967, PBW 621 and WH 1105) including one developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. Based on the pooled analysis, timely sown crop recorded significantly higher grain yield (23.8%) than late sown crop. Lowest yellow rust score was recorded in Unnat PBW 343 over all the check varieties. Among wheat varieties, mean grain yield of Unnat PBW 343 was the highest and statistically at par with PBW 621 and WH 1105 in different years and showed ignificant improvement over check varieties PBW 343 and HD 2967. So, Unnat PBW 343 found to be resistant to yellow rust and can be sown under timely sown conditions in northwestern Indian conditions.
A pot experiment was conducted by treating 36 genotypes of triple test cross (TTC) families of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Coss] with three levels of sulphur, viz 0, 30 and 60 kg/ha to study the effect of sulphur on oil content and fatty acids profile. Sulphur application significantly increased the oil content. Fatty acids composition showed sharp change with sulphur treatment. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in control as compared to treatments in majority of TTC families. The linolenic and eicosenoic acids were higher in 30S as compared to 0S, whereas at 60S it decreased but the level was higher than the 0S. The erucic acid, which is the characteristics fatty acid of mustard, was found to increase with the increasing doses of sulphur, recording higher values at 30S and 60S than the control.
A new barley variety Pusa Losar (BHS 380), developed at Regional Station, Shimla, is released and notified by the Central Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties for Agricultural Crops for commercial cultivation under rainfed condition of northern hills zone. The variety has average forage yield of 5.94 tonnes/ha along with average grain yield of 2.1tonnes/ha from the regenerated crop after cutting for forage. It has shown forage yield superiority over the checks and also grain yield superiority over HBL 276 in regenerated crop. This variety combines resistance against leaf and stripe rusts. Cultivation of newly released variety Pusa Losar (BHS 380) in north- western Himalaya would prove boon for meeting the forage and food requirements of the hilly people for sustaining their livelihood and stabilizing productivity of barley in the Himalayan region.
A field experiment conducted at Karnal during 2000 and 2001 to study the influence of nitrogen level and spacing on transplanted rice 'Pusa 44' (Oryza sativa L.) showed that nitrogen had significant effect on yield attributes like plant height, panicles/plant and 1 000-seed weight. Cumulative effect of yield-attributing characters resulted in significant increase in seed yield at 120 kg N/ha over 60 kg N/ha and the control. Seed yield remained unaffected due to different spacings. The relationship between seed yield and nitrogen was quadratic. The maximum response was observed at 60 kg N/ha and thereafter it decreased with increase in N. The optimum dose worked out to be 141.9 kg/ha with an additional profit of Rs 18 607 over the control. Seed quality in terms of germination was not affected due to nitrogen and row spacing; however, nitrogen improved the vigour potential of seeds compared with the control.
Evaluation of about 1 800 rice germplasm, land races and breeding lines, against 3 biotypes of the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) under controlled greenhouse conditions in replicated tests identified 17 land races and 18 breeding lines with high level of resistance against all the 3 biotypes. The new sources of resistance reported here against the most virulent biotype 4M will be useful in breeding gall midge- resistant rice varieties.
Cry1Jb gene was cloned from a native Bacillus thuringiensis isolate EG5092. A sequence of 3512 bp was deduced when the gene was completely sequenced which encodes a protein with a molecular mass of ~130 kDa. The Cry1Jb protein possessed all the five conserved blocks, present in most of Cry toxins. The toxicity of the protoxin was tested against three lepidopteran larvae. The LC50 was found to be 6039 ng/ml for Helicoverpa armigera, whereas, Cry1Jb was not effective against Spodoptera litura and Earias vittella even at a higher concentration of 100 μ/ml. Ligand blotting showed that Cry1Jb toxins binds to 110 kDa APN receptor in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera. The characterization of cry1Jb provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity.
Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is primarily grown for its pod but nowadays it is gaining demands for leaf production. Moringa leaves have immense medicinal and dietary value to supplement nutrients for good health. Therefore, identification and selection of leafy type genotype(s) is imperative. Fifty-two genotypes collected from diversified areas of India were evaluated at Division of Vegetable crops, ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru from 2018–2020. Analysis of variance for growth and leaf yield traits indicated existence of considerable genetic variability in the gene pool. Magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than its genotypic level for all the traits, indicating the environmental influence on their expression. Higher genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed for all the leaf yield traits indicating that higher variability and simple selection would be effective. High heritability was recorded for all growth and leaf yield related traits (60.74–99.89%) except number of primary rachis per leaf (35.66%), suggesting selection based on phenotypic expression is effective for improvement. The estimate of genetic advance as per cent mean value was high for all growth and leaf yield related traits except edible leaf per cent and number of primary rachis per leaf, revealing that additive gene action and selection approach is most helpful for improvement of these characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for stem length, whole leaf weight/shoot and edible leaf weight/shoot which revealed that these characters are under additive gene action and showed higher responses of these trait towards selection.
SSR markers found to be polymorphic on different linkage group with respect to each of the five parental combinations 
Lipoxygenase-2 is the prime contributor to the off-flavour associated with the soy products. With the aim to introgress null allele of lipoxygenase-2 into popular soybean variety JS 97-52 through marker assisted backcross selection (MABC), parental polymorphism was surveyed for JS 97-52 (recipient parent) and PI 596540 (the donor of null allele of lipoxygenase-2). A total of 264 SSR markers dispersed across 20 linkage groups were screened. Of these, 130 SSR markers showed polymorphism. SSR markers Satt522 and Satt656 reported to be in the vicinity of Lox2 locus were found to be polymorphic for JS 97-52 and PI 596540 and were used for confirming true F1 and BC1F1 plants. The polymorphic SSR markers identified in the study would be utilized for retrieving the genetic background of JS 97-52 in the backcross generations.
An experiment was conducted during winter (rabi) season 2017–18, at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, to assess the genetic divergence for yield and yield component among 60 spontaneous mutant lines of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus ssp. culinaris). Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped maximum numbers of genotypes in cluster II. Maximum intra cluster distance was exhibited by cluster II followed by cluster IV and cluster III whereas, maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster III and cluster VI followed by cluster V and cluster VI and cluster I and VI. Based on the high yield and yield contributing traits and their presence in distant clusters, the genotypes, viz. RKL 61F-2-15, RKL 58F-3715, RKL 1003-68G, Garima, RKL 1003-69G-A, RKL 23C-2741A and RKL 26C-345 can be effectively used in hybridization programme for lentil improvement to obtain desirable segregants. The first six principal component (PC) explain more than 65% of the total variability. Based on Principal factor (PF) scores, genotypes RKL 3-94, RKL 26C-340, RKL 50E-273, RKL 73GIII-13, RKL 51E, RKL 23C-2741 and RKL 26C-345 can be regarded as early maturing and high yielding. Genotypes, viz. RKL 61F-2-15, RKL 58F-3715, RKL 1003-68G, Garima, RKL 1003-69G-A, RKL 23C-2741A and RKL 26C-345 belongs to diverse clusters can be considered as better parents to be used in hybridization programme.
The evapotranspiration rates of 'HHB 67' pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R.Br. emend. Stuntz) were measured using gravimetric lysimeters at Jodhpur during rainy (kharif) season of 2003-2005 maintaining the crop at 3 moisture levels, viz 100% potential evapotranspiration, 50% of potential evapotranspiration and rainfed condition. The evapotranspiration rates of pearl millet (100% evapotranspiration) were 2.6-3.0 mm/day during emergence to end of juvenile period, 3.9-7.2 mm/day at tillering to end of leaf growth, 5.4-6.1 mm/day at ear emergence to anthesis stage and 1.9-3.4 mm/day at maturity stage. The crop coefficient (ratio of evapotranspiration to pan evaporation) was 0.34-0.47 during emergence to end of juvenile period, 0.66-1.35 at tillering to end of leaf growth, 0.76-1.12 at ear emergence to anthesis stage and 0.35-0.60 at maturity stage. Grain yield of pearl millet crop enhanced by 140 and 76% due to irrigation at 100% and 50% potential evapotranspiration rate of water application respectively from that of rainfed crop. Water = use efficiency for 100% potential evapotranspiration crop was 5.66 kg/ha/mm in comparison to 5.17 kg/ha/mm for 50% potential evapotranspiration and 3.82 kg/ha/mm for rainfed pearl millet. The leaf-tip appearance on mainstem as well as on all tillers had a linear relationship with the thermal time. Heat-use efficiency was higher for 100% potential evapotranspiration crop (1.50 kg/ha/°C/day) compared to 50% potential evapotranspiration (1.14 kg/ha/°C/day) and rainfed crops (0.68 kg/ha/°C/day).
A field experiment was conducted 'DPP 68' vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L. var arvense Poir) during summer 1995 and 1996 in the cold desert soils, dry temperate zone of Himachal Pradesh to study the effect of NPK fertilization with and without farmyard manure on the productivity, yield attributes, uptake of nutrients, organic carbon content of the soil and available nutrients (N,P and K). Fertilization with NPK alone increased all these characters. The superimposition of farmyard manure in combination with chemical sources had a very significant effect. The treatment receiving 75% of the recommended dose of NPK (N15P45K22.5) both in the presence and absence of farmyard manure were found to be the most suitable treatment combinations, giving higher green pod yield besides saving 25% of NPK fertilizers.
Top-cited authors
Anoop Kumar Srivastava
  • ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute ( Formerly National Research Centre for Citrus)
Suresh K Malhotra
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
P.K. Aggarwal
  • Borlaug Institute for South Asia. International Centre for Maize and Wheat Reserach (CIMMYT)
Yashbir Singh Shivay
  • ICAR Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Anil K. Choudhary
  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute