ISRN Nutrition

Published by Hindawi (International Scholarly Research Network)
Online ISSN: 2314-4068
Publications
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate how serum retinol and carotenoids (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene) are associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance. The BioCycle Study (2005-2007) is a prospective cohort of 259 healthy premenopausal women. Fasting serum samples were collected at up to sixteen clinic visits, from which retinol, carotenoids, insulin, glucose, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Linear mixed models were used to determine associations adjusting for age, race, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, physical activity, triglycerides, and energy intake. Retinol was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.32)) units per ug/mL increase in retinol; the relationship was driven by insulin (β = 0.20 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.31)). Retinol was inversely associated with SHBG (β = -0.22 (95% CI: -0.28, -0.16)). Although no significant associations were found between serum carotenoids and HOMA-IR, β-carotene was positively associated with SHBG and β-cryptoxanthin inversely with fasting plasma glucose. Results indicate a possible role for serum retinol in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, they do not support a strong association between individual or total serum carotenoids and insulin resistance.
 
Pathobiochemical mechanisms of animal protein-induced nephrolithiasis.
Article
Background. While high-protein consumption—above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)—is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutritional supplements in humans. Design. Review. Subjects. Healthy adult male and female subjects. Method. In order to identify relevant studies, the electronic databases, Medline and Google Scholar, were searched using the terms:“high protein diet,” “protein overconsumption,” “protein overuse,” and “high meat diet.” Papers not in English were excluded. Further studies were identified by citations in retrieved papers. Results. 32 studies (21 experimental human studies and 11 reviews) were identified. The adverse effects associated with long-term high protein/high meat intake in humans were (a) disorders of bone and calcium homeostasis, (b) disorders of renal function, (c) increased cancer risk, (d) disorders of liver function, and (e) precipitated progression of coronary artery disease. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that there is currently no reasonable scientific basis in the literature to recommend protein consumption above the current RDA (high protein diet) for healthy adults due to its potential disease risks. Further research needs to be carried out in this area, including large randomized controlled trials.
 
Facial hedonic scale used in the present study [19].
Distributing patients according to the hedonic values to accept the aroma, flavour, and viscosity, provided to the supplement. Hedonic values* 1 = terrible, 5 = maybe good or maybe bad, and 9 = great.
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of an alimentary supplement of bovine whey-protein concentrate (WPC) and TGF-β, unavailable commercially, by patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and determine the chemical composition, solubility, and total amino acids content. The supplement was diluted in water, and an acceptance test was done to evaluate the aroma, flavour, and viscosity of the product using facial hedonic scale (nine-point scale), applied on 54 CD patients. The supplement composition indicated 73.3% protein, 10.5% fat, 2.2% ash, 6.3% water, and 7.7% carbohydrate. The supplement is presented as a good protein source and high content of essential amino acids. The average acceptance for all the attributes was between 5.0 and 6.0, and the flavour was mainly associated with soybean/grain, sour milk, and sweet/vanilla flavour. The results indicated that the supplement provided important nutritional properties for CD patients; however, for a large number of individuals to be encouraged to perform supplementation, it is essential to improve the sensory quality of the product. In order to do so, additional research is necessary to prevent the formation of volatiles which cause off-flavours or to mask undesirable aromas/flavours found in it.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake.
 
Article
A copious amount of scientific scrutiny has been dedicated to documenting typical and atypical human ageing, with a substantial body of work focusing upon the impact of lifestyle choices. One such lifestyle choice is that of diet and, in particular, micronutrient ingestion. Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between B vitamin status and cognitive function, including negative associations between biological markers (i.e., homocysteine) of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism and cognitive function. This has led to a surge of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigations into B vitamin therapy. However, results have continuingly failed to show beneficial behavioural effects. Despite this, results reliably show treatment-related increases in B vitamin level and decreases in homocysteine level—both of which have been identified as risk factors for atypical ageing. In this paper we argue that it would be premature to conclude that B vitamin therapy has no potential and that more research is needed to systematically investigate the optimal dose, the therapeutic “window,” and individual differences in therapy responders and nonresponders. We start with a brief look at one-carbon metabolism and then consider the evidence from epidemiological studies and RCTs in relation to three specific B vitamins: folic acid (B9), pyridoxine (B6), and cobamides (B12).
 
Characteristics of the study population. 
Serum lipid levels of the participants on egg study. 
Article
Thai food is one of the healthiest foods. In fact, several Thai dishes, such as Tom Yum soup, are currently under scientific study for their incredible health benefits. Limited data are available on the effects of egg consumption with Thai food in hyperlipidemic patients. To assess the effects of daily egg consumption with Thai food, which is known as low fat diet, on serum lipids profiles in hyperlipidemic subjects without medication treatment, the randomized crossover trial of 71 hyperlipidemic adults (8 men, 63 women) were randomly to one of the two sequences of one and three eggs/day for 4 weeks. Each treatment was separated by a four-week washout period (egg-free). Our data indicated that one or three eggs/day consumption were significantly increases total serum cholesterol ( and versus mg/dL) and LDL-C levels ( and versus mg/dL) as compared to egg-free period. No significant change of serum TG, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C levels was observed after 1 or 3 eggs consumption daily in this study.
 
Hunger sensation for men (a) and women (b) during the mental work and the control conditions. All data are not statistically significant. T0 = immediately after the buffet-type meal.
Hunger sensation for men (a) and women (b) during the mental work and the control conditions. All data are not statistically significant. T0 = immediately after the buffet-type meal.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli.
 
Article
Objective. The expedited 10 g protein counter (EP-10) is a quick and valid clinical tool for dietary protein quantification. This study aims to assess the clinical effectiveness of the EP-10 in improving serum albumin and transferrin in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Forty-five patients with low serum albumin (<38 g/L) were enrolled in this study. Parameters measured included dry weight, height, dietary intake, and levels of serum albumin, transferrin, potassium, phosphate, and kinetic modeling (Kt/V). The nutritional intervention incorporated the EP-10 in two ways (1) to quantify protein intake of patients and (2) to educate patients to meet their protein requirements. Mean values of the nutritional parameters before and after intervention were compared using paired t-test. Results. Three months after nutritional intervention, mean albumin levels increased significantly from 32.2 ± 4.8 g/L to 37.0 ± 3.2 g/L . Thirty-eight (84%) patients showed an increase in albumin levels, while two (4%) maintained their levels. Of the thirty-six (80%) patients with low transferrin levels (<200 mg/dL), 28 (78%) had an increase and two maintained their levels after intervention. Mean transferrin levels increased significantly from 169.4 ± 39.9 mg/dL to 180.9 ± 38.1 mg/dL . Conclusion. Nutritional intervention incorporating the EP-10 method is able to make significant improvements to albumin and transferrin levels of chronic hemodialysis patients.
 
Article
Dietary guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes advocate the regular consumption of nuts and seeds. Key lipid abnormalities associated with diabetes include raised LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TAG concentrations and decreased concentrations of HDL-C. The fatty acid profiles of nuts and seeds differ and may potentially influence lipid outcomes in people with diabetes differently. To examine the effects of nut or seed consumption on lipid and lipoprotein markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), we added almonds (AD) or sunflower kernels (SKD) to a recommended diet in a randomised crossover feeding study. Twenty-two postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes consumed personalised diets, with the addition of 30 g/d of either almonds or sunflower kernels. All food was supplied for two periods of three weeks, separated by a four-week washout. There was a significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and apolipoprotein (apo) A1 and B100 on the SKD compared to the AD. Total (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly on both diets from baseline, with no difference between diets. A diet with the addition of either almonds or sunflower kernels has clinically beneficial effects on lipid- and lipoprotein-mediated CVD risk.
 
Exclusive breastfeeding rate (%) trends through 12 weeks. P values for comparisons between groups: at 2 weeks, P = 0.02 , and at 4 weeks P = 0.03 , at 12 weeks P < 0.001 .
Article
The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP ( 𝑛 = 1 3 8 , 8 . 2 8 ± 4 . 8 6 ) and BF-INFO ( 𝑛 = 1 2 1 , 7 . 8 7 ± 4 . 6 3 ) were significantly longer ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 ) than COMMERCIAL ( 𝑛 = 1 2 7 , 6 . 1 2 ± 4 . 4 9 ). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 ).
 
Experimental design. S1: supplement one (randomly assigned and counterbalanced); S2: supplement two (supplement not provided in S1); LB: lower body resistance exercise; UB: upper body resistance exercise.
Resistance exercise volume (kg lifted · sets · repetitions) in AA-RT and CHO-RT. LB: lower body resistance exercise; UB: upper body resistance exercise. No differences were detected between AA-RT and CHO-RT for each LB and UB resistance exercise sessions. Data are mean ± SE; P>0.05.
REE condition effect. #Average REE during each 7-day trial was significantly greater in AA-RT versus CHO-RT. Data are mean ± SE; P<0.05.
REE time effect. *REEs on days 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 in both AA-RT and CHO-RT were significantly greater than baseline (average of days 1 and 2). Data are mean ± SE; P<0.05.
RER time effect. *RERs on days 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are significantly less in both AA-RT and CHO-RT than baseline (average of days 1 and 2). Data are mean ± SE; P<0.05.
Article
Increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis is an energy consuming process that explains the acute elevations in resting energy expenditure (REE) observed 12 to 72 hours after a resistance exercise session. We hypothesized that multiple sessions of resistance exercise combined with the intake of amino acids would increase REE and alter the nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Ten male participants completed two separate seven-day trials where REE and RER were measured on each morning via indirect calorimetry. On four consecutive days within each seven-day trial, acute resistance exercise was performed, and nutritional intake was manipulated by providing (1) amino acids and carbohydrate (AA-RT) or (2) nonnitrogenous, isoenergetic carbohydrate (CHO-RT) before and during each resistance exercise session. Average REE within the training period was 3.61% greater in AA-RT (7897 ± 252 kJ) compared to CHO-RT (7622 ± 289 kJ; ). RER declined () from baseline after each resistance exercise was initiated in both AA-RT (0.82 ± 0.01 to 0.77 ± 0.01) and CHO-RT (0.82 ± 0.02 to 0.77 ± 0.02). We conclude the provision of amino acids with multiple bouts of resistance exercise enhances energy expenditure at rest without altering the utilization of lipid.
 
Delayed onset muscle soreness scores according to gender in subjects receiving a branched-chain amino acid supplement versus placebo. Effect of BCAA supplementation on DOMS in females ( n = 11 ) and males ( n = 9 ) before (pre) and after (post) squat exercise, measured at 24-hour intervals. Values are means ± SEM. *Significant difference between BCAA and placebo ( P = 0.018 ).
Delayed onset muscle soreness scores according to gender in subjects receiving a branched-chain amino acid supplement versus placebo. Effect of BCAA supplementation on DOMS in females ( n = 11 ) and males ( n = 9 ) before (pre) and after (post) squat exercise, measured at 24-hour intervals. Values are means ± SEM. *Significant difference between BCAA and placebo ( P = 0.018 ).
Delayed onset muscle soreness scores in subjects receiving a branched-chain amino acid supplement versus placebo. Effect of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) before (pre) and immediately following (post) squat exercise, measured in 24-hour intervals. Values are means ± SEM for all participants ( n = 20 ). There was no significant difference between overall mean scores (area under the curve) for BCAA versus placebo ( P = 0.106 ). No significant difference between BCAA and placebo ( P = 0.142 ) 24 hours following squat exercise.
Article
Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA ( 𝑛 = 1 0 ) or placebo ( 𝑛 = 1 0 ) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise ( 𝑃 = 0 . 0 1 8 ). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects.
 
Article
Excess consumption of egg especially its yolk has been implicated in hyperlipidaemia (high level of cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood). Conversely, soluble dietary fibers, probably due to their ability to bind free lipid molecules, appear to play an important role in protecting against hyperlipidaemia. This study sought to evaluate the comparative effects of selected sources of fibers: apple, oats, and wheat bran, on serum lipid profile in physiologically normal Wistar rats. Twenty rats were used for the study and were randomized into four groups, with each containing five animals (). A group which serves as control was fed with egg yolk while the other three groups were fed with apple, oats, and wheat bran, respectively. After two weeks of feeding, the animals were fasted overnight and blood samples from the retro-orbital sinus of the eye were collected for analyses of lipid profile. The results obtained showed that the group fed with oats had the lowest level of total cholesterol ( mg), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ( mg), and triglycerides (TG) ( mg), as well as the highest level of HDL cholesterol ( mg). On the contrary, the group fed with egg yolk showed the highest level of total cholesterol ( mg), LDL cholesterol ( mg), and triacylglyceride ( mg), as well as the lowest level of HDL cholesterol ( mg). There was no significant difference () between oats and apple in their effects on blood lipid profile of Wistar rats. Wheat bran, being an insoluble dietary fibre, had less significant () effect on the blood lipid profile when compared to oats and apple. Findings from this study may assist physicians and dieticians in recommending appropriate diet for individuals desiring to normalize their blood lipids levels.
 
Article
Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and clinical implications of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Eagle Biosciences, Immundiagnostik, and MicroVue) with a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of serum 25(OH)D concentration. Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 225 healthy individuals who were recruited as subjects from Loughborough University, UK. Plasma samples were measured for 25(OH)D concentration by means of LC-MS/MS and ELISA kits from Eagle Biosciences, Immundiagnostik, and MicroVue. Results. The 25(OH)D concentration measured by the Eagle Biosciences, Immundiagnostik, and MicroVue ELISAs biased −50.9 ± 79.1 nmol/L, −14.2 ± 91.0 nmol/L, and −7.2 ± 18.9 nmol/L (bias ± SD) from the LC-MS/MS method, respectively. We found that 52% (Eagle Biosciences), 48% (Immundiagnostik), and 38% (MicroVue) of participants were misclassified, and the results showed the poor agreement (Kappa: −0.201~0.251) in classification of participants defined as vitamin D sufficiency and insufficiency between each method and LC-MS/MS. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that there were negative biases and considerable misclassification of participants using the cut-off point (50 nmol/L) for vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency using the Eagle Biosciences, Immundiagnostik, and MicroVue ELISAs compared with the LC-MS/MS assay.
 
Article
This study investigated the gustatory threshold for salt and its relationship with dietary salt intake among hypertensive () and normotensive () subjects. Salt intake was evaluated through 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and self-reported measures (discretionary salt, Sodium- Food Frequence Questionnaire (Na-FFQ), and 24-hour recall). Detection and recognition thresholds were higher among hypertensive subjects, as well as the total sodium intake. Detection and recognition thresholds were positively related to discretionary salt and total intake of the group as whole. Hypertensive and normotensive subjects presented positive correlations between taste sensitivity and the different measures of salt intake. To conclude, a positive correlation exists between taste threshold and salt intake and both seem to be higher among hypertensive subjects. The combined use of methods of self-report and assessment of taste thresholds can be useful in health promotion and rehabilitation programs, by screening subjects at higher risk of elevated salt intake and the critical dietary behaviors to be targeted as well to evaluate the result of targeted interventions.
 
Sample available for the FPM data analysis. ¹Represents children who reported opportunities to purchase food or drink.
Article
Many children eat a diet which supplies a higher than recommended amount of nonmilk extrinsic sugars and saturated fatty acids. The school setting is often targeted for nutrition intervention as many children consume food at school. In Scotland, attempts have been made to improve the nutritional content of food in schools and attention has now turned to food and drink available “beyond the school gate.” This paper describes the development of a module on food and drink purchasing behaviour. The Food Purchasing Module was designed to collect data, for the first time, from a representative sample of children aged 8–16 years about food and drinks purchased on the way to/from school, during break time/free periods, and at lunchtime, from outlets around schools. Cognitive testing of the module highlighted that younger children find self-completion questionnaires problematic. Older children have fewer problems with self-completion questionnaires but many do not follow question routing, which has implications for the delivery of future surveys. Development of this survey module adds much needed evidence about effectively involving children in surveys. Further research exploring food and drinks purchased beyond the school gate is needed to continue to improve the nutritional quality of children’s diets.
 
Article
Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. As a result they have been applied as various products with the food industry having been very active in studying and promoting them. Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. In light of this ongoing trend and despite the strong scientific evidence associating these microorganisms to various health benefits, further research is needed in order to establish them and evaluate their safety as well as their nutritional aspects. The purpose of this paper is to review the current documentation on the concept and the possible beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria in the literature, focusing on those available in food.
 
HPLC chromatogram of retinyl palmitate and retinol from the liver sample with retinyl acetate as internal standard: the retention times for retinyl palmitate, retinyl acetate, and retinol are 2.00, 2.88, and 7.75 min, respectively.
Serum retinol at 6 wk deficiency and 8 wk (2 wk repletion) and 10 wk (4 wk repletion). AIN-93G regular group is shown in the figure as reference information. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of completely randomized multiple samples was used to compare 2 wk or 4 wk repletion between different gavage-fed treatments (not including the deficiency group). Mean values not sharing a letter are significantly different ( P < 0.05 ). n = 6 rats/group.
Linear regression of retinyl palmitate content of liver after 2-week or 4-week repletion with average vitamin A intake during Experiment 2. Points represent treatment groups ± standard deviation.
Article
β-Lactoglobulin is capable of binding fat-soluble compounds including vitamin A palmitate and is suggested to specifically enhance intestinal uptake of retinol. In this study, bioavailability of a vitamin-A-retinyl palmitate complex in skim milk and in water-based liquids was investigated in vitamin-A-depleted rats. First, rats were fed a vitamin-A-free pellet diet for 6 wk and were thereafter gavage-fed with vitamin A in oil, vitamin-A-β-lactoglobulin complex, vitamin A in oil + skim milk, and vitamin-A-β-lactoglobulin + skim milk for 2 wk and 42 wk. Vitamin A repletion, as judged by vitamin A accumulation in serum and liver, occurred in all the treatments. Vitamin-A-β-lactoglobulin complex treatments had statistical equivalence with oil-based vitamin A treatments. In a second experiment, vitamin-A-depleted rats were fed UHT-processed skim milk fortified with either oil-based or freeze-dried β-lactoglobulin-complexed retinyl palmitate. Liver and serum vitamin A were analyzed by HPLC to indicate vitamin A status in the rats. Results showed no significant difference in bioavailability of retinyl palmitate from milk made with either regular oil-based or β-lactoglobulin-complexed fortifiers. The vitamin-A-β-lactoglobulin complex, being water soluble, may be useful for fortification of nonfat products.
 
Article
This research analyses the longitudinal relationships between household food insecurity (very low and low food security) experiences and children’s consumption (servings/week) of fruit, green salad, carrots, potatoes, and other types of vegetables. Using a panel of 5,670 children aged 10–13 years who were first observed in spring 2004 and then again in spring 2007 at age 13–16 years, the main findings are as follows: first, children experiencing low food security consume significantly () more fruit per week. In contrast, children experiencing very low food security consume significantly more carrots and potatoes per week, and estimates based on gender-stratified models indicate that the association is strongest among girls. Second, activity patterns are significantly related to children’s dietary patterns; physical exercise is positively associated with fruit, green salad, carrot, and other vegetables consumption, while television watching is positively associated with potato consumption. Overall, the findings suggest that children living in food insecure home environments consume a greater number of servings of fruits and vegetables per week, relative to children living in food secure home environments.
 
Article
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements.
 
Recruitment process.
Article
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is associated with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and more than half of the world’s population is chronically infected. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether an irregular meal pattern is associated with increased risk of gastritis and HP infection. The study involved 323 subjects, divided into three groups as follows: subjects with HP infection and gastritis, subjects with gastritis, and a control group. Subjects were interviewed on eating habits and meal timing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare groups. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were derived controlling for gender, age, stress, and probiotic consumption. Subjects who deviated from their regular meals by 2 hours or more had a significantly higher incidence of HP infection with gastritis (adjusted OR = 13.3; 95% CI 5.3–33.3; ) and gastritis (adjusted OR = 6.1; 95% CI 2.5–15.0; ). Subjects who deviated their meals by 2 hours or more, twice or more per week, had an adjusted OR of 6.3 and 3.5 of acquiring HP infection with gastritis (95% CI 2.6–15.2; ) and gastritis (95% CI 1.5–8.5; ), respectively. Frequent deviation in meal timing over a prolonged period appears associated with increased risk of developing HP infection and gastritis.
 
Flow chart displaying the stages used to select the references considered. EndNote X1 (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY, USA).
Article
Liver is the organ primarily responding to diet, and it is crucial in determining plasma carbohydrate, protein, and lipid levels. In addition, it is mainly responsible for transformation of xenobiotics. For these reasons, it has been a target of transcriptomic analyses. In this review, we have covered the works dealing with the response of mammalian liver to different nutritional stimuli such as fasting/feeding, caloric restriction, dietary carbohydrate, cholesterol, fat, protein, bile acid, salt, vitamin, and oligoelement contents. Quality of fats or proteins has been equally addressed, and has the influence of minor dietary components. Other compounds, not purely nutritional as those represented by alcohol and food additives, have been included due to their relevance in processed food. The influence has been studied not only on mRNA but also on miRNA. The wide scope of the technology clearly reflects that any simple intervention has profound changes in many metabolic parameters and that there is a synergy in response when more compounds are included in the intervention. Standardized arrays to systematically test the same genes in all studies and analyzing data to establish patterns of response are required, particularly for RNA sequencing. Moreover, RNA is a valuable, easy-screening ally but always requires further confirmation.
 
Weight control practices based on BMI. 
Article
Background. Weight-loss behaviours are highly prevalent among adolescents, and body weight perception motivates weight control practices. However, little is known about the association of body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers in Mauritius. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between actual body weight, body weight perception, and weight control practices among teenagers. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data on anthropometric measurements, weight perception and weight control practices from a sample of 180 male and female students (90 boys and 90 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years old. Results. Based on BMI, 11.7% of students were overweight. Overall, 43.3% of respondents reported trying to lose weight (61.1% girls and 25.6% boys). Weight-loss behaviours were more prevalent among girls. Among the weight-loss teens, 88.5% students perceived themselves as overweight even though only 19.2% were overweight. Reducing fat intake (84.6%), exercising (80.8%), and increasing intake of fruits and vegetables (73.1%) and decreasing intake of sugar (66.7%) were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion. Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception.
 
Article
Aims. To evaluate the possible additive effects of beetroot juice plus caffeine on exercise performance. Methods. In a randomized, double-blinded study design, fourteen healthy well-trained men aged 22 ± 3 years performed four trials on different occasions following preexercise ingestion of placebo (PLA), PLA plus 5 mg/kg caffeine (PLA+C), beetroot juice providing 8 mmol of nitrate (BR), and beetroot juice plus caffeine (BR+C). Participants cycled at 60% maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]max) for 30 min followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) trial at 80% [Formula: see text]max. Saliva was collected before supplement ingestion, before exercise, and after the TTE trial for salivary nitrate, nitrite, and cortisol analysis. Results. In beetroot trials, saliva nitrate and nitrite increased >10-fold before exercise compared with preingestion (P ≤ 0.002). TTE in BR+C was 46% higher than in PLA (P = 0.096) and 18% and 27% nonsignificant TTE improvements were observed on BR+C compared with BR and PLA+C alone, respectively. Lower ratings of perceived exertion during TTE were found during 80% [Formula: see text]max on BR+C compared with PLA and PLA+C (P < 0.05 for both). Conclusions. Acute preexercise beetroot juice coingestion with caffeine likely has additive effects on exercise performance compared with either beetroot or caffeine alone.
 
Summary of prevalence estimates of AD and PDD across the world regions since the year 2000 * . 
Continued. 
Article
The frequency of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnoses has been increasing for decades, but researchers cannot agree on whether the trend is a result of increased awareness, improved detection, expanding definition, or an actual increase in incidence or a combination of these factors. Though both genetic and multiple environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, many potentially modifiable risk factors including nutritional and immune function related risk factors such as vitamin D, folic acid, and metabolic syndrome have not received sufficient attention. Several recent studies have put forward hypotheses to explain the mechanism of association between both folic acid and vitamin D and autism. A continuous rise in the prevalence of autism in the USA has coincided with a significant enhancement of maternal folate status with FDA mandated folic acid fortification of certain foods starting in 1998. There is also a growing body of research that suggests that vitamin D status either in utero or early in life may be a risk for autism. In this communication, controversies regarding increase in estimate of prevalence, implications of changes in definition, and possible association between some modifiable nutritional risk factors such as folic acid and vitamin D and ASD will be discussed.
 
of proposed mechanisms of common ingredients in thermogenic products. adenylate cyclase (AC), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), 3,5-cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5′adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), cAMP-related element binding protein (CREB), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), G-coupled protein receptor (G-CPR), prostaglandin (PG), protein kinase A (PKA), norepinephrine (NE), and phosphodiesterase (PDE).
Article
Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.
 
Article
There is increasing evidence that Shc proteins play a role in energy metabolism, and we have previously reported that knockdown of Shc proteins influences the energetic response to acute (3 days) calorie restriction (CR) in 18-month-old mice. Whether Shc proteins play a role in the metabolic response to CR in younger mice has yet to be elucidated. Hence, we sought to determine the impact of 3 days and longer term (2 months) CR on energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in 3 month-old Shc knockout (ShcKO) and wild-type (WT) mice. ShcKO mice decreased (P < 0.001) EE normalized for body weight (EEBW) by 3 days of CR, while no such change was observed in WT animals. However, both ShcKO and WT mice decreased (P < 0.001) EEBW at 2 months of CR and there were no differences in body weight between the ShcKO and WT mice at either 3 days or 2 months of CR. Consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation, only ShcKO mice maintained decreased (P < 0.001) 24 h RQ through 2 months of CR, suggesting that they were able to maintain increased fatty acid oxidation for a longer period of time than WT mice. These results indicate that Shc proteins may contribute to some of the acute energetic responses to CR.
 
Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) for generation, sex, age, and interaction between factors.
Average growth curves of weight and length in males and females. Generation P: black line; generation F1: gray line; generation F2: dark gray line.
Percent differences between means (PDM) of F1 and F2 in weight, total body length, and body mass index in males (black bars) and females (gray). Positive PDMs indicate that F2 < F1. *Significant differences (P < 0.05).
Article
The aim of this paper was to analyze if intergenerational undernutrition causes growth retardation in weight and body length in two generations of rats and, if so, to assess whether the delay is cumulative. Male and female rats were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) control: they were fed ad libitum and constituted the parental generation (P), and (2) undernourished generations (F1 and F2): they were fed on 75% of the control diet. Animals were weighed and X-rayed every ten days from 20 to 100 days old in order to measure total body length. Also, body mass index was calculated. Data were processed by ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. Impairment in weight, body length, and body mass index was found in both generations; nevertheless growth retardation was greater in F2, indicating a cumulative effect of nutritional stress. Sex differences were found, since the cumulative effect of generational undernutrition was greater and earlier in males than in females. It is concluded that when the undernutrition acts with constant intensity during several generations, the growth retardation is cumulative, indicating a negative secular trend.
 
Diagram of randomized crossover clinical trial.
Article
Background. Impaired endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Orange juice (OJ) is rich in dietary flavonoids and could inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the effects of commercial (COJ) and fresh orange juice (FOJ) on endothelial function and physiological characteristics in healthy humans. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two healthy volunteers years were enrolled in a single blind randomized crossover controlled trial. The two groups consumed either COJ for the first 4 weeks and then FOJ (CFOJ, 4 weeks), or FOJ for the first 4 weeks and then COJ (FCOJ, 4 weeks). We assessed endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation, serum concentrations of lipids, apolipoproteins A and B (apo A-1 and apo B), and inflammatory markers such as vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-6. Results. Consumption of both juices decreased VCAM, hs-CRP, and E-selectin but increased apo A-1. A decline in LDL occurred in the FOJ group. There were no differences between the characteristics of two groups, with the exception of apo A-1 levels that were increased with both forms of OJ. The largest variations occurred with hs-CRP, VCAM in both groups. Conclusion. Consumption of COJ and FOJ produced beneficial effects on the physiological characteristics of healthy volunteers. Although these results could encourage the consumption of OJ, intervention studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of these types of OJ on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints.
 
Pre- and postsupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (mL O2/kg * min). Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Walking and running economy (L O2/min) for 4 stages of the graded exercise test before and after supplementation.
Article
The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day−1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg*min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, , . Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (, ) was similar to postsupplementation values (, ). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals.
 
Article
This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity.
 
Chemical structure of caffeine.
Chemical structure of chlorogenic acid.
Chemical structure of the diterpene cafestol.
Chemical structure of trigonelline.
Article
Production of coffee beans is an important lifeline for the economy of several countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The brew from this well sought for cash crop is readily consumed due to its good sensory qualities owing to the presence of many micronutrients. Some of these chemical compounds possess biological activities, including antiproliferative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. Four representative groups of these micronutrients, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes, and trigonelline, play key roles in these bioactive effects of coffee. In order to guarantee the quality of coffee products and to protect consumer interest and safeguard their well-being, it is extremely important to employ sensitive and accurate analytical methods in the characterization and quantitative determination of these bioactive constituents. This review aims to present recent applications in this regard.
 
Article
Elevated antigen-stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokine production appears to be a risk factor for upper respiratory tract illness in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged exercise and hydration on antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Twelve healthy males cycled for 120 min at 60% on two occasions, either euhydrated or moderately hypohydrated (induced by fluid restriction for 24 h). Blood samples were collected before and after exercise and following 2 h recovery for determination of cell counts, plasma cortisol, and in vitro antigen-stimulated cytokine production by whole blood culture. Fluid restriction resulted in mean body mass loss of 1.3% and 3.9% before and after exercise, respectively. Exercise elicited a significant leukocytosis and elevated plasma cortisol, with no differences between trials. IL-6 production was significantly reduced 2 h postexercise (), while IL-10 production was elevated postexercise (). IFN-γ and IL-2 production tended to decrease postexercise. No significant effect of hydration status was observed for the measured variables. Prolonged exercise appears to result in augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine release in response to antigen challenge, possibly coupled with acute suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production, corresponding with studies using mitogen or endotoxin as stimulant. Moderate hypohydration does not appear to influence these changes.
 
Antinutrients composition of processed and unprocessed African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) based on dry mass of the seeds. 
Mineral composition of processed and unprocessed African Yam ean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) in mg/100 g dry mass of the ground seeds. 
Correlations for boiled African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) sample. 
Article
This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference ( P < 0.05 ) in the levels of moisture, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, gross energy, true protein, and crude fiber between the processed and unprocessed S. stenocarpa. Analyses of the antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150–400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2–45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria.
 
The antigen-stimulated production of the lymphocyte-derived cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN- γ (a)) and the monocyte-derived cytokines (IL-6, TNF- α , and IL-1 β (b)) by whole blood culture. * P < 0.05 versus 0 pmol/L. Ly: lymphocytes; Mo: monocytes.
The antigen-stimulated production of the lymphocyte-derived cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN- γ (a)) and the monocyte-derived cytokines (IL-6, TNF- α , and IL-1 β (b)) by PBMC culture. * P < 0.05 versus 0 pmol/L. Ly: lymphocytes; Mo: monocytes.
The antigen-stimulated production of the lymphocyte-derived cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN- γ (a)) and the monocyte-derived cytokines (IL-6, TNF- α , and IL-1 β (b)) by whole blood culture. * P < 0.05 versus 0 pmol/L. Ly: lymphocytes; Mo: monocytes.
The antigen-stimulated production of the lymphocyte-derived cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN- γ (a)) and the monocyte-derived cytokines (IL-6, TNF- α , and IL-1 β (b)) by PBMC culture. * P < 0.05 versus 0 pmol/L. Ly: lymphocytes; Mo: monocytes.
Article
Aim. Our aims were to determine the influence of plasma total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) status on the plasma cytokine concentrations in athletes and the in vitro effects of different doses of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25(OH)2D3) on multiantigen stimulated cytokine production by whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Methods. Plasma samples from 43 athletes with high and low levels of 25(OH)D were assayed for the concentrations of cytokines. The whole blood samples and PBMCs from healthy subjects were incubated in vitro with a multi-antigen vaccine and different doses of added 1, 25(OH)2D3. The circulating cytokines and stimulated whole blood and PBMC culture production of cytokines were determined using a biochip assay. Results. The circulating interleukin-(IL-)10 and interferon-(IFN-) γ concentrations were significantly higher in the vitamin D sufficient athletes. Furthermore, the production of tumour necrosis factor-(TNF-) α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 by whole blood culture was significantly inhibited by 1, 25(OH)2D3 concentrations of 1000 pmol/L or 10000 pmol/L. Conclusions. We found that the influence of vitamin D on circulating cytokines might be different in athletes compared with nonathletes and cytokines production by whole blood culture was not influenced by 1, 25(OH)2D3 in concentrations within the normal healthy range.
 
Study profile of children receiving RUF-Nias biscuits in daily and weekly programs (see [11, 27]).
Example of feeding recommendation of RUF-Nias biscuits for non-breastfed children (aged ≥ 24 to < 36 months) based on average 24-hour dietary recall (consisted of rice, cassava leaves, and fish soup) (see [28]).
Selected macro- and micronutrients of mean habitual dietary intake and RUF-Nias biscuits of moderately wasted children in comparison to RNIs for MAM children (for suggested nutrient density that should be achieved in the diet when specially fortified supplementary foods are used in the program to treat moderately wasted children) [21].
Article
This study reports the outcomes of daily (semi-urban areas) and weekly (remote rural regions) programs for moderately wasted children supplemented with locally produced ready-to-use foods in the form of fortified cereal/nut/legume-based biscuits on Nias Island, Indonesia (RUF-Nias biscuit). Thirty-four children in daily and twenty children in weekly programs aged ≥6 to <60 months with weight-for-height íµí±-score (WHZ) ≥ −3 to < −2 SD were recruited (October 2007–June 2008) on Nias and admitted into existing nutrition centers in the Church World Service project area. Individual discharge criterion was WHZ ≥ −1.5 SD. Weight gain of the children in daily and weekly programs was 3.9 ± 3.8 and 2.0 ± 2.0 g/kg/day, respectively. A higher proportion of children in daily than weekly programs reached target WHZ (76% vs. 35%, íµí±ƒ = 0.004). Weight gain at program discharge/closure was highly predicted (íµí±… 2 = 0.228, íµí±ƒ < 0.001) by compliance to RUF biscuits: high vs. low compliance resulted in a 1.33 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.53) g/kg/day higher weight gain. Compliance and admission in daily programs were significant factors in reducing the risk of not reaching the discharge criterion. However, mothers complained more frequently about time constraints in the daily relative to weekly programs.
 
Pre- and postintervention malnutrition status (wasting) of study participants, Tando Jam, n=323 (%).
Pre- and postintervention malnutrition status (wasting) of study participants, Quetta, n=263 (%).
Article
Introduction. Undernutrition in children is a major public health concern in Pakistan. A number of interventions which focused only on providing nutrient supplementation have failed to change child undernutrition status during the last 2 decades. The present study aimed to assess the impact of nutrition education on the nutritional status of children living in resource-limited environments. Methods. Subjects were 586 children from Tando Jam and Quetta, Pakistan, aged from 6 months to 8 years. Children were characterized as mild, moderate, or severely wasted on Z-scores. Anthropometry and 24-hour dietary recall were used for nutritional assessment. Intervention strategy was nutrition counselling targeting mothers. Primary outcome was decrease in the severity of wasting and changes in the feeding practices. Results. Nearly 36% children in Tando Jam and 32% children in Quetta progressed to a normal nutritional status. There was a significant increase in the number of meals taken per day (Tando Jam— íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.000/Quetta—íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.025). In Tando Jam, significant increase was reported in the intake of high starch food items, vegetables, and fruits (íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.000). In Quetta, significant increase was noted in the intake of plant protein (íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.005), dairy foods (íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.041), and vegetables (íµí±ƒ ≤ 0.026). Conclusion. Nutrition education was successful in reducing undernutrition in food insecure households.
 
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Dimitra Dimitriadi
Maria Kechagia
Nikoletta Skarmoutsou
  • Sismanogleio General Hospital
Dimitrios Basoulis
  • Laiko Hospital
Abdulmumin Abdulkadir Nuhu
  • Ahmadu Bello University