OpenStreetMap (OSM) constitutes an unprecedented, free, geographic information source contributed by millions of individuals, resulting in a database of great volume and heterogeneity. In this study, we characterize the heterogeneity of the entire OSM database and historical archive in the context of big data. We consider all users, geographic elements, and user contributions from an eight-year data archive, at a size of 692 GB. We rely on some nonlinear methods such as power-law statistics and head/tail breaks to uncover and illustrate the underlying scaling properties. All three aspects (users, elements, and contributions) demonstrate striking power laws or heavy-tailed distributions. The heavy-tailed distributions imply that there are far more small elements than large ones, far more inactive users than active ones, and far more lightly edited elements than heavily edited ones. Furthermore, about 500 users in the core group of the OSM are highly networked in terms of collaboration.
Keywords: OpenStreetMap, big data, power laws, head/tail breaks, ht-index
The modelling, analysis, and visualisation of dynamic geospatial phenomena
has been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation
Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged
paradigmatic extensions to contemporary foundational GIS technology raises
fundamental questions concerning the ontological, formal representational, and
(analytical) computational methods that would underlie their spatial
information theoretic underpinnings.
We present the conceptual overview and architecture for the development of
high-level semantic and qualitative analytical capabilities for dynamic
geospatial domains. Building on formal methods in the areas of commonsense
reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representation and
reasoning, reasoning about actions and change, and computational models of
narrative, we identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that
accrue in the context of formal reasoning about `space, events, actions, and
change'. With this as a basis, and within the backdrop of an illustrated
scenario involving the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban narratives, we address
specific problems and solutions techniques chiefly involving `qualitative
abstraction', `data integration and spatial consistency', and `practical
geospatial abduction'. From a broad topical viewpoint, we propose that
next-generation dynamic GIS technology demands a transdisciplinary scientific
perspective that brings together Geography, Artificial Intelligence, and
Keywords: artificial intelligence; cognitive systems; human-computer
interaction; geographic information systems; spatio-temporal dynamics;
computational models of narrative; geospatial analysis; geospatial modelling;
ontology; qualitative spatial modelling and reasoning; spatial assistance
This study analyses the 60 years land cover and land use changes and the
implications on environmental change of the Koga catchment located in
North Western Ethiopia. The data used include 1:50,000 scale aerial
photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM images, and ASTER images together
with ground truth data collected through fieldwork survey and community
elders' interview. Historical aerial photographs are an important source
of data for long term land cover change analysis and have high spatial
resolution for detailed land use and land cover classification, though
do not provide such good spectral resolution as satellite images. Many
land use land cover change studies are based on comparing the changes
generated from data with different spatial scales and resolutions which
makes the comparison difficult. This study applied image fusion
techniques to bring the data sources in to a relatively similar scale
for better land use and land cover classification. This bridged the gap
of the different spatial scales of the different data sources and also
produced images with relatively better spectral resolution than the
aerial photographs and better spatial resolution for some of the
satellite images for improved land use and land cover change detection.
It has been discussed by different researchers that land use and land
cover change is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of
environmental change in all spatial and temporal scales and current
rates, extents and intensities of changes far greater than ever in
history. This is especially true in the African context due to over
dependence on primary resources. This study quantified the land use land
cover changes and analyzed the implications on environmental change.
Estimation of soil organic matter content (SOMC) is essential for soil quality evaluation. Compared with traditional multispectral remote sensing for SOMC mapping, the distribution of SOMC in a certain area can be obtained quickly by using hyperspectral remote sensing data. The Advanced Hyper-Spectral Imager (AHSI) onboard the ZY1-02D satellite can simultaneously obtain spectral information in 166 bands from visible (400 nm) to shortwave infrared (2500 nm), providing an important data source for SOMC mapping. In this study, SOMC-related spectral indices (SIs) suitable for this satellite were analyzed and evaluated in Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province. A series of SIs were constructed for the bare soil and vegetation-covered (mainly rice crops and tree seedlings) areas by combining spectral transformations (such as reciprocal and square root) and dual-band index formulas (such as ratio and difference), respectively. The optimal SIs were determined based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient () and satellite data quality, and applied to SOMC level mapping and estimation. The results show that: (1) The SI with the highest in the bare soil area is the ratio index of original reflectance at 654 and 679 nm (OR-RI(654, 679)), whereas the SI in the vegetation area is the square root of the difference between the reciprocal reflectance at 551 and 1998 nm (V-RR-DSI(551, 1998)); (2) the spatial distribution trend of regional SOMC results obtained by linear regression models of OR-RI(654, 679) and V-RR-DSI(551, 1998) is consistent with the samples; (3) based on the optimal SIs, support vector machine and tree ensembles were used to predict the SOMC of bare soil and vegetation-covered areas of Shuyang County, respectively. The determination coefficient of the soil–vegetation combined prediction results is 0.775, the root mean square error is 3.72 g/kg, and the residual prediction deviation is 2.12. The results show that the proposed SIs for ZY1-02D satellite hyperspectral data are of great potential for SOMC mapping.
China’s forest ecological problems are becoming increasingly serious, especially in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) area. The basin has rich species resources and a well-developed natural forest management and conservation policy. Taking the YRB as the object, we combine the DPSIRM model to build a forest evaluation system containing 6 criterion layers and 24 indicator layers. The entropy weight method-TOPSIS and ArcGIS were combined to assess the forest state and the distribution characteristics of the 11 regions. Furthermore, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to study the influencing factors of forest status. The results are as follows: (1) the comprehensive index of the YRB forests increased by 192.66% during the study period. The forest status showed the stage characteristics of small climb, basic flatness, and significant improvement. (2) The forest status varied significantly among provinces (cities), with Tibet (0.483) in the best condition and Qinghai (0.103) in a worse condition. (3) Except for Tibet, the rest of the regions are more influenced by the extent of development of the economy. (4) The factor most strongly correlated with the YRB is the forest response (R) indicator.
Agenda 2030 pursues a universal approach and identifies countries in the Global South and in the Global North that are in need of transformation toward sustainability. Therefore, countries of the Global North such as Germany have signed the commitment to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the SDGs need to be “translated” to the specific national context. Existing sustainability indicators and monitoring and reporting systems need to be adjusted as well. Our paper evaluates how three different initiatives translated SDG 11 (“Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”) to the German context, given the specific role of cities in contributing to sustainable development. These initiatives included the official ‘National Sustainable Development Strategy’ of the German Government, a scientific initiative led by the ‘German Institute for Urban Affairs’, and a project carried out by the ‘Open Knowledge Foundation’, a non-governmental organization (NGO). This article aims to analyze how global goals addressing urban developments are contextualized on a national level. Our findings demonstrate that only a few of the original targets and indicators for SDG 11 are used in the German context; thus, major adjustments have been made according to the main sustainability challenges identified for Germany. Furthermore, our results show that the current contextualization of SDG 11 and sustainable urban development in Germany are still ongoing, and more changes and commitments need to be made.
The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) produces new global spatial information, evidence-based analytics describing the human presence on the planet that is based mainly on two quantitative factors: (i) the spatial distribution (density) of built-up structures and (ii) the spatial distribution (density) of resident people. Both of the factors are observed in the long-term temporal domain and per unit area, in order to support the analysis of the trends and indicators for monitoring the implementation of the 2030 Development Agenda and the related thematic agreements. The GHSL uses various input data, including global, multi-temporal archives of high-resolution satellite imagery, census data, and volunteered geographic information. In this paper, we present a global estimate for the Land Use Efficiency (LUE) indicator—SDG 11.3.1, for circa 10,000 urban centers, calculating the ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate between 1990 and 2015. In addition, we analyze the characteristics of the GHSL information to demonstrate how the original frameworks of data (gridded GHSL data) and tools (GHSL tools suite), developed from Earth Observation and integrated with census information, could support Sustainable Development Goals monitoring. In particular, we demonstrate the potential of gridded, open and free, local yet globally consistent, multi-temporal data in filling the data gap for Sustainable Development Goal 11. The results of our research demonstrate that there is potential to raise SDG 11.3.1 from a Tier II classification (manifesting unavailability of data) to a Tier I, as GHSL provides a global baseline for the essential variables called by the SDG 11.3.1 metadata.
Indicator 11.3.1 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 11.3.1) was designed to test land-use efficiency, which was defined as the ratio of the land consumption rate (LCR) to the population growth rate (PGR), namely, LCRPGR. This study calculates the PGRs, LCRs, and LCRPGRs for 333 cities from 1990–2000 and 391 cities from 2000–2015 in four geographical divisions in Eurasia according to the method given by UN metadata. The results indicate that Europe and Japan have the lowest PGR and LCR, indicating that this region’s level of urbanization is the highest. South and Central Asia have the lowest values of LCRPGR, indicating relatively lower urban land supply during the measurement periods. Compared with the mean LCRPGR in a region, the average values from SDG 11.3.1 by different types of cities in a region can have more guiding significance for urban sustainable development. While paying attention to the urban land-use efficiency of mega and extra-large cities, more attention should be paid to the coordination relationship between urban land supply and population growth in large, medium, and small cities. Additionally, the method from UN metadata works well for most urban expansion cities but is not suitable for cities with small changes in urban populations.
Rural tourism development has been an essential driving force behind China’s promotion of integrated urban–rural development, sustainable rural development and rural revitalization in the new era. This study included 1470 villages on the national list of beautiful leisure villages in China (BLVCs) from 2010 to 2021. We explored the distribution characteristics and influencing factors based on mathematical statistics and spatial analysis in ArcGIS to provide a theoretical reference for promoting the development of leisure village agriculture and rural tourism. The results show that the distribution of BLVC presents a clustered state, showing a distribution pattern of a dual core, seven centers and multiple scattered points. BLVCs are mainly distributed in areas with flat terrain and sufficient water resources, which are conducive to agricultural production and life. Having convenient transportation and rich tourism resources aids the promotion of rural tourism development. The resulting gap in regional development is balanced to some extent by government support. The research results provide a reference value for future rural spatial optimization and sustainable development. This paper summarizes the law of rural development and clarifies the factors influencing the development of rural tourism, and it provides the Chinese experience as a model for a rural renaissance empowered by rural tourism.
The history of modern maps in Japan began with Inoh’s map that was made by surveying the whole of Japan on foot 200 years ago. Inoh’s team investigated coastlines, major roads, and geographical features such as rivers, lakes, temples, forts, village names, etc. The survey was successively conducted ten times from 1800 to 1816. Inoh’s map is known as the first scientific map in Japan using a systematic method. However, the actual survey was conducted only for 75% of the coastlines in Japan and the remaining 25% was drawn by Inoh’s estimation (observation). This study investigated how the non-surveyed (estimated) coastlines were distributed in the map and why the actual survey was not conducted in these non-surveyed coastlines. Using GIS, we overlaid the geometrically corrected Inoh’s map (Digital Inoh’s Map Professional Edition) with the current map published by the Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan for examining the spatial difference. We found that the non-surveyed coastlines were in places where the practice of actual surveying was topographically difficult because of the limited surveying technology of those days. The analytical result shows that 38.6% of the non-surveyed coastlines were cliffs, 25.7% were rocky beaches, and 6.2% were wetlands and tidal lands (including rice fields and tidal flats).
Social distancing is a powerful non-pharmaceutical intervention used as a way to slow the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus around the world since the end of 2019 in China. Taking that into account, this work aimed to identify variations on population mobility in South America during the pandemic (15 February to 27 October 2020). We used a data-driven approach to create a community mobility index from the Google Covid-19 Community Mobility and relate it to the Covid stringency index from Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). Two hypotheses were established: countries which have adopted stricter social distancing measures have also a lower level of circulation (H1), and mobility is occurring randomly in space (H2). Considering a transient period, a low capacity of governments to respond to the pandemic with more stringent measures of social distancing was observed at the beginning of the crisis. In turn, considering a steady-state period, the results showed an inverse relationship between the Covid stringency index and the community mobility index for at least three countries (H1 rejected). Regarding the spatial analysis, global and local Moran indices revealed regional mobility patterns for Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (H1 rejected). In Brazil, the absence of coordinated policies between the federal government and states regarding social distancing may have played an important role for several and extensive clusters formation. On the other hand, the results for Argentina and Chile could be signals for the difficulties of governments in keeping their population under control, and for long periods, even under stricter decrees.
The global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has caused a considerable impact on humans, which expresses the urgency and importance of studying its impacts. Previous studies either frequently use aggregated research methods of statistic data or stay during COVID-19. The afterward impacts of COVID-19 on human behaviors need to be explored further. This article carries out a non-aggregated study methodology in human geography based on big data from social media comments and takes Nanjing, China, as the research case to explore the afterward impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the spatial behavior of urban tourists. Precisely, we propose the methodology covers two main aspects regarding travel contact trajectory and spatial trajectory. In contact trajectory, we explore three indicators—Connection Strength, Degree Centrality, and Betweenness Centrality—of the collected attractions. Then, in spatial trajectory, we input the results from contact trajectory into ArcGIS by using the Orientation–Destination Model and Standard Deviation Ellipse to explore the influences on the spatial pattern. By setting up comparative groups for the three periods of before, during, and after the COVID-19 in Nanjing, this study found that, in the post-epidemic era, (1) the spatial behavior of urban tourists showed a state of overall contraction; (2) the objects of contraction changed from urban architectural attractions to urban natural attractions; (3) the form of contraction presents concentric circles with the central city (Old City of Nanjing) as the core; (4) the direction of contraction heads to the large-scale natural landscape in the central city, which highlights the importance of green open spaces in the post-epidemic era.
Social distancing is an effective method for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic by decreasing population mobility, but it has also negatively affected local business sales. This paper explores the spatio-temporal impact of population mobility on local business sales in response to COVID-19 in Seoul, South Korea. First, this study examined the temporal variability by analyzing statistical interaction terms in linear regression models. Second, the spatio-temporal variability was captured using Moran eigenvector spatial filtering (MESF)-based spatially varying coefficients (SVC) models with additional statistical interaction terms. Population mobility and local business sales were estimated from public transportation ridership and restaurant sales, respectively, which were both obtained from spatial big datasets. The analysis results show the existence of various relationships between changes in the population mobility and local business sales according to the corresponding period and region. This study confirms the usability of spatial big datasets and spatio-temporal varying coefficients models for COVID-19 studies and provides support for policy-makers in response to infectious disease.
As the threat of COVID-19 increases, many countries have carried out various non-pharmaceutical interventions. Although many studies have evaluated the impact of these interventions, there is a lack of mapping between model parameters and actual geographic areas. In this study, a non-pharmaceutical intervention model of COVID-19 based on a discrete grid is proposed from the perspective of geography. This model can provide more direct and effective information for the formulation of prevention and control policies. First, a multi-level grid was introduced to divide the geographical space, and the properties of the grid boundary were used to describe the quarantine status and intensity in these different spaces; this was also combined with the model of hospital isolation and self-protection. Then, a process for the spatiotemporal evolution of the early COVID-19 spread is proposed that integrated the characteristics of residents’ daily activities. Finally, the effect of the interventions was quantitatively analyzed by the dynamic transmission model of COVID-19. The results showed that quarantining is the most effective intervention, especially for infectious diseases with a high infectivity. The introduction of a quarantine could effectively reduce the number of infected humans, advance the peak of the maximum infected number of people, and shorten the duration of the pandemic. However, quarantines only function properly when employed at sufficient intensity; hospital isolation and self-protection measures can effectively slow the spread of COVID-19, thus providing more time for the relevant departments to prepare, but an outbreak will occur again when the hospital reaches full capacity. Moreover, medical resources should be concentrated in places where there is the most urgent need under a strict quarantine measure.
In order to understand how related research are evolving to respond to COVID-19 and to facilitate the containment of COVID-19, this paper accurately extracted the spatial and topic information from the metadata of papers related to COVID-19 using text mining techniques, and with the extracted information, the research evolution was analyzed from the temporal, spatial, and topic perspectives. From a temporal view, in the three months after the emergence of COVID-19, the number of published papers showed an obvious growth trend, and it showed a relatively stable cyclical trend in the later period, which is basically consistent with the development of COVID-19. Spatially, most of the authors who participated in related research are concentrated in the United States, China, Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain, India, and France. At the same time, with the continuous spread of COVID-19 in the world, the distribution of the number of authors has gradually expanded, showing to be correlated with the severity of COVID-19 at a spatial scale. From the perspective of topic, the early stage of COVID-19 emergence, the related research mainly focused on the origin and gene identification of the virus. After the emergence of the pandemic, studies related to the diagnosis and analysis of psychological health, personal security, and violent conflict are added. Meanwhile, some categories are most closely related to the control and prevention of the epidemic, such as pathology analysis, diagnosis, and treatment; epidemic situation and coping strategies; and prediction and assessment of epidemic situation. In most time periods, the majority of studies focused on these three categories.
Many previous studies have shown that open-source technologies help democratize information and foster collaborations to enable addressing global physical and societal challenges. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has imposed unprecedented challenges to human society. It affects every aspect of livelihood, including health, environment, transportation, and economy. Open-source technologies provide a new ray of hope to collaboratively tackle the pandemic. The role of open source is not limited to sharing a source code. Rather open-source projects can be adopted as a software development approach to encourage collaboration among researchers. Open collaboration creates a positive impact in society and helps combat the pandemic effectively. Open-source technology integrated with geospatial information allows decision-makers to make strategic and informed decisions. It also assists them in determining the type of intervention needed based on geospatial information. The novelty of this paper is to standardize the open-source workflow for spatiotemporal research. The highlights of the open-source workflow include sharing data, analytical tools, spatiotemporal applications, and results and formalizing open-source software development. The workflow includes (i) developing open-source spatiotemporal applications, (ii) opening and sharing the spatiotemporal resources, and (iii) replicating the research in a plug and play fashion. Open data, open analytical tools and source code, and publicly accessible results form the foundation for this workflow. This paper also presents a case study with the open-source spatiotemporal application development for air quality analysis in California, USA. In addition to the application development, we shared the spatiotemporal data, source code, and research findings through the GitHub repository.
Clarifying the regional transmission mechanism of COVID-19 has practical significance for effective protection. Taking 103 county-level regions of Hubei Province as an example, and taking the fastest-spreading stage of COVID-19, which lasted from 29 January 2020, to 29 February 2020, as the research period, we systematically analyzed the population migration, spatio-temporal variation pattern of COVID-19, with emphasis on the spatio-temporal differences and scale effects of related factors by using the daily sliding, time-ordered data analysis method, combined with extended geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results state that: Population migration plays a two-way role in COVID-19 variation. The emigrants’ and immigrants’ population of Wuhan city accounted for 3.70% and 73.05% of the total migrants’ population respectively; the restriction measures were not only effective in controlling the emigrants, but also effective in preventing immigrants. COVID-19 has significant spatial autocorrelation, and spatio-temporal differentiation has an effect on COVID-19. Different factors have different degrees of effect on COVID-19, and similar factors show different scale effects. Generally, the pattern of spatial differentiation is a transitional pattern of parallel bands from east to west, and also an epitaxial radiation pattern centered in the Wuhan 1 + 8 urban circle. This paper is helpful to understand the spatio-temporal evolution of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, so as to provide a reference for similar epidemic prevention.
The outbreak of the Delta Variant of COVID-19 presents a natural experiment without modern precedent. As authorities scrambled to control the spread of the disease in Australia’s largest cities, construction workers were allowed to keep working on site without the benefit of mandatory vaccination, unlike their peers in healthcare, defense, education or aviation. Using publicly available COVID-19 surveillance data, we analyzed the geographic spread of the Delta Variant and its relationship with construction in both cities. The period of this study covers the identification of the first case of community transmission to the achievement of 90% full vaccination in the eligible population. We show how the risk profile of construction workers varies according to socio-economic status such that Machinery Operators and Drivers were most at risk, followed by Laborers, owing to where they tend to live in each city. Moreover, these highly mobile workers may unknowingly serve as vectors for the spread of infectious disease to the most vulnerable communities in an urban setting. Remarkably, we also found that the risk profile of construction businesses can also be described similarly in terms of annual income. Sole traders and small businesses were mostly located in vulnerable areas, which presents threats to business continuity that public policy must address. We observed that the first eight weeks of an outbreak are critical; after this time, vulnerable workers and most construction businesses will see steep rises in their exposure to the risk of infection until the disease is brought under control. Accordingly, we recommend short, sharp pauses of all construction works on site to control the spread of future pandemic outbreaks once cases of community transmission are detected. Fiscal policy must support workers and small business owners, so they are not forced to choose between their health and earning a living during these periods. The government and trade unions must commit to mandatory vaccination for construction workers to safeguard their communities. Health authorities must continuously engage with particularly vulnerable workers as immunity wanes and vaccine boosters become necessary. Digital disinformation must be tirelessly countered by consistent expert medical advice at all levels of the industry.
Short distance travel and commute being inevitable, safe route planning in pandemics for micro-mobility, i.e., cycling and walking, is extremely important for the safety of oneself and others. Hence, we propose an application-based solution using COVID-19 occurrence data and a multi-criteria route planning technique for cyclists and pedestrians. This study aims at objectively determining the routes based on various criteria on COVID-19 safety of a given route while keeping the user away from potential COVID-19 transmission spots. The vulnerable spots include places such as a hospital or medical zones, contained residential areas, and roads with a high connectivity and influx of people. The proposed algorithm returns a multi-criteria route modeled on COVID-19-modified parameters of micro-mobility and betweenness centrality considering COVID-19 avoidance as well as the shortest available safe route for user ease and shortened time of outside environment exposure. We verified our routing algorithm in a part of Delhi, India, by visualizing containment zones and medical establishments. The results with COVID-19 data analysis and route planning suggest a safer route in the context of the coronavirus outbreak as compared to normal navigation and on average route extension is within 8%–12%. Moreover, for further advancement and post-COVID-19 era, we discuss the need for adding open data policy and the spatial system architecture for data usage, as a part of a pandemic strategy. The study contributes new micro-mobility parameters adapted for COVID-19 and policy guidelines based on aggregated contact tracing data analysis maintaining privacy, security, and anonymity.
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading in New York State since March 2020, posing health and socioeconomic threats to many areas. Statistics of daily confirmed cases and deaths in New York State have been growing and declining amid changing policies and environmental factors. Based on the county-level COVID-19 cases and environmental factors in the state from March to December 2020, this study investigates spatiotemporal clustering patterns using spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan analysis. Environmental factors influencing the COVID-19 spread were analyzed based on the Geodetector model. Infection clusters first appeared in southern New York State and then moved to the central western parts as the epidemic developed. The statistical results of space-time scan analysis are consistent with those of spatial autocorrelation analysis. The analysis results of Geodetector showed that both temperature and population density were strong indications of the monthly incidence of COVID-19, especially in March and April 2020. There is a trend of increasing interactions between various risk factors. This study explores the spatiotemporal pattern of COVID-19 in New York State over ten months and explains the relationship between the disease transmission and influencing factors.
COVID-19 containment policies are not only curbing the spread of COVID-19 but also changing human behavior. According to the routine activity theory, owing to lockdown, the closure of entertainment sites (e.g., pubs and bars), an increase in stay-at-home time, and an increase in police patrols are likely to influence chance of committing a crime. In this study, we aimed to further examine the spatial association of COVID-19 infection rate and crime rate. Particularly, we empirically validated the speculation that increase in COVID-19 cases is likely to reduce crime rate. In the empirical study, we investigated whether and how COVID-19 infection rate is spatially associated with crime rate in London. As the spatial data used are mainly areal data, we adopted a spatial regression mode (i.e., the “random effects eigenvector spatial filtering model”) to investigate the spatial associations after controlling for the socioeconomic factors. More specifically, we investigated the associations for all the four crime categories in three consequent months (March, April, and May of 2020). The empirical results indicate that 1) crime rates of the four categories have no statistically significant associations with COVID-19 infection rate in March; 2) violence-against-the-person rate has no statistically significant association with COVID-19 infection rate; and 3) robbery rate, burglary rate, and theft and handling rate have a statistically significant and negative association with COVID-19 infection rate in both April and May.
The stagnation of multinational and cross-regional goods circulation has created significant disruptions to manufacturing supply chains due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the impact of COVID-19 on the circulation of manufacturing industry products at different geographical scales, we drew upon a case study of development zones in the city of Weifang in China to analyze the characteristics of firms’ logistics networks in these development zones, and how these characteristics have changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data used in this study were collected from fieldwork conducted between 26 August 2020 and 15 October 2020, and included the supply originations of firms’ manufacturing sources and the sales destinations of their goods. We chose the two-mode network analysis method as our study methodology, which separates the logistics networks into supply networks and sales networks. The results show the following: First, the overall structure of firms’ logistics networks in Weifang’s development zones is characterized by localization. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the local network links have further strengthened, whereas the global links have seriously declined. Moreover, the average path length of both the supply and sales logistics networks has slightly decreased, indicating the increased connectivity of the logistics networks. Second, in terms of the network node centrality, the core nodes of the supply logistics networks are the development zones and the city in which the firms are located, whereas the core nodes of the sales logistics networks are the core companies in the development zones. However, since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the centrality of supply originations and sales destinations at the local scale has increased, whereas the centrality of supply originations and sales destinations at the global scale has decreased significantly. Third, the influencing factors of such changes include controlling personnel and goods circulation based on national boundaries and administrative boundaries, forcing the logistics networks in the development zones to shrink to the local scale. Moreover, there are differences in the scope of spatial contraction between supply logistics networks and the sales logistics networks.
COVID-19 has had a huge impact on many industries around the world. Internationally-funded enterprises have been greatly affected by COVID-19 prevention and control measures, such as border controls. However, few studies have examined the impact of COVID-19 on internationally-funded enterprises. To this end, this paper considered 12 of China’s industrial parks situated in Southeast Asia, while comparing the operation status before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 based on remote sensing of nighttime lights (NTL). The NTL is generally used as a proxy for economic activity. First, six parameters were proposed to quantify and monitor the operation status based on NTL data. Subsequently, these parameters were calculated for the parks and for 10 km buffer zones surrounding them to analyze the differences in operating conditions. The results showed that (1) despite the negative impact of COVID-19, 9 out of the 12 parks had a mean NTL greater than 1, indicating that these parks are in better operating condition in 2020 than 2019; (2) 7 out of the 10 km buffer zones around the parks showed a decline in mean NTL. Only three parks showed a decline in mean NTL. The impact of COVID-19 on surrounding areas was greater than the impact on parks.
Public behavior in cyberspace is extremely sensitive to emergency disaster events. Using appropriate methodologies to capture the semantic evolution of social media users’ behaviors and discover how it varies across geographic space and time still presents a significant challenge. This study proposes a novel framework based on complex network, topic model, and GIS to describe the topic change of social media users’ behaviors during disaster events. The framework employs topic modeling to extract topics from social media texts, builds a user semantic evolution model based on a complex network to describe topic dynamics, and analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of public semantics evolution. The proposed framework has demonstrated its effectiveness in analyzing the semantic spatial–temporal evolution of Chinese Weibo user behavior during COVID-19. The semantic change in response to COVID-19 was characterized by obvious expansion, frequent change, and gradual stabilization over time. In this case, there were obvious geographical differences in users’ semantic changes, which were mainly concentrated in the capital and economically developed areas. The semantics of users finally focused on specific topics related to positivity, epidemic prevention, and factual comments. Our work provides new insight into the behavioral response to disasters and provides the basis for data-driven public sector decisions. In emergency situations, this model could improve situational assessment, assist decision makers to better comprehend public opinion, and support analysts in allocating resources of disaster relief appropriately.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge for society as a whole, and analyzing the impact of the spread of the epidemic and government control measures on the travel patterns of urban residents can provide powerful help for city managers to designate top-level epidemic prevention policies and specific epidemic prevention measures. This study investigates whether it is more appropriate to use groups of POIs with similar pedestrian flow patterns as the unit of study rather than functional categories of POIs. In this study, we analyzed the hour-by-hour pedestrian flow data of key locations in Beijing before, during, and after the strict epidemic prevention and control period, and we found that the pedestrian flow patterns differed greatly in different periods by using a composite clustering index; we interpreted the clustering results from two perspectives: groups of pedestrian flow patterns and functional categories. The results show that depending on the specific stage of epidemic prevention and control, the number of unique pedestrian flow patterns decreased from four before the epidemic to two during the strict control stage and then increased to six during the initial resumption of work. The restrictions on movement are correlated with most of the visitations, and the release of restrictions led to an increase in the variety of unique pedestrian flow patterns compared to that in the pre-restriction period, even though the overall number of visitations decreased, indicating that social restrictions led to differences in the flow patterns of POIs and increased social distance.
This paper addresses two common challenges in analyzing spatial epidemiological data, specifically disease incidence rates recorded over small areas: filtering noise caused by small local population sizes and deriving estimates at different spatial scales. Geostatistical techniques, including Poisson kriging (PK), have been used to address these issues by accounting for spatial correlation patterns and neighboring observations in smoothing and changing spatial support. However, PK has a limitation in that it can generate unrealistic rates that are either negative or greater than 100%. To overcome this limitation, an alternative method that relies on soft indicator kriging (IK) is presented. The performance of this method is compared to PK using daily COVID-19 incidence rates recorded in 2020–2021 for each of the 581 municipalities in Belgium. Both approaches are used to derive noise-filtered incidence rates for four different dates of the pandemic at the municipality level and at the nodes of a 1 km spacing grid covering the country. The IK approach has several attractive features: (1) the lack of negative kriging estimates, (2) the smaller smoothing effect, and (3) the better agreement with observed municipality-level rates after aggregation, in particular when the original rate was zero.
The outbreak of COVID-19 in Beijing has been sporadic since the beginning of 2022 and has become increasingly severe since October. In China’s policy of insisting on dynamic clearance, fine-grained management has become the focus of current epidemic prevention and control. In this paper, we conduct a refined COVID-19 risk prediction and identification of its influencing factors in Beijing based on neighborhood-scale spatial statistical units. We obtained geographic coordinate data of COVID-19 cases in Beijing and quantified them into risk indices of each statistical unit. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation was used to analyze the epidemic risk clustering characteristics. With the multi-source data, 20 influencing elements were constructed, and their spatial heterogeneity was explored by screening 8 for Multiscale Geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model analysis. Finally, a neural network classification model was used to predict the risk of COVID-19 within the sixth ring of Beijing. The MGWR model and the neural network classification model showed good performance: the R2 of the MGWR model was 0.770, and the accuracy of the neural network classification model was 0.852. The results of this study show that: (1) COVID-19 risk is uneven, with the highest clustering within the Fifth Ring Road of Beijing; (2) The results of the MGWR model show that population structure, population density, road density, residential area density, and living service facility density have significant spatial heterogeneity on COVID-19 risk; and (3) The prediction results show a high COVID-19 risk, with the most severe risk being in the eastern, southeastern and southern regions. It should be noted that the prediction results are highly consistent with the current epidemic situation in Shijingshan District, Beijing, and can provide a strong reference for fine-grained epidemic prevention and control in Beijing.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis resulted in unprecedented changes in the spatial mobility of people across societies due to the restrictions imposed. This also resulted in unexpected mobility and population dynamics that created a challenge for crisis preparedness, including the mobility from cities during the crisis due to the underlying phenomenon of multi-local living. People changing their residences can spread the virus between regions and create situations in which health and emergency services are not prepared for the population increase. Here, our focus is on urban–rural mobility and the influence of multi-local living on population dynamics in Finland during the COVID-19 crisis in 2020. Results, based on three mobile phone datasets, showed a significant drop in inter-municipal mobility and a shift in the presence of people—a population decline in urban centres and an increase in rural areas, which is strongly correlated to secondary housing. This study highlights the need to improve crisis preparedness by: (1) acknowledging the growing importance of multi-local living, and (2) improving the use of novel data sources for monitoring population dynamics and mobility. Mobile phone data products have enormous potential, but attention should be paid to the varying methodologies and their possible impact on analysis.
With the wide availability of low-cost proximity sensors, a large body of research focuses on digital person-to-person contact tracing applications that use proximity sensors. In most contact tracing applications, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 spread through touching contaminated surfaces in enclosed places is overlooked. This study is focused on tracing human contact within indoor places using the open OGC IndoorGML standard. This paper proposes a graph-based data model that considers the semantics of indoor locations, time, and users’ contexts in a hierarchical structure. The functionality of the proposed data model is evaluated for a COVID-19 contact tracing application with scalable system architecture. Indoor trajectory preprocessing is enabled by spatial topology to detect and remove semantically invalid real-world trajectory points. Results show that 91.18% percent of semantically invalid indoor trajectory data points are filtered out. Moreover, indoor trajectory data analysis is innovatively empowered by semantic user contexts (e.g., disinfecting activities) extracted from user profiles. In an enhanced contact tracing scenario, considering the disinfecting activities and sequential order of visiting common places outperformed contact tracing results by filtering out unnecessary potential contacts by 44.98 percent. However, the average execution time of person-to-place contact tracing is increased by 58.3%.
Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic, but the prevention and control of the disease in various countries have also entered the normalization stage. To achieve economic recovery and avoid a waste of resources, different regions have developed prevention and control strategies according to their social, economic, and medical conditions and culture. COVID-19 disparities under the interaction of various factors, including interventions, need to be analyzed in advance for effective and precise prevention and control. Considering the United States as the study case, we investigated statistical and spatial disparities based on the impact of the county-level social vulnerability index (SVI) on the COVID-19 infection rate. The county-level COVID-19 infection rate showed very significant heterogeneity between states, where 67% of county-level disparities in COVID-19 infection rates come from differences between states. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was adopted to examine the moderating effects of state-level social distancing policies on the influence of the county-level SVI on COVID-19 infection rates, considering the variation in data at a unified level and the interaction of various data at different levels. Although previous studies have shown that various social distancing policies inhibit COVID-19 transmission to varying degrees, this study explored the reasons for the disparities in COVID-19 transmission under various policies. For example, we revealed that the state-level restrictions on the internal movement policy significantly attenuate the positive effect of county-level economic vulnerability indicators on COVID-19 infection rates, indirectly inhibiting COVID-19 transmission. We also found that not all regions are suitable for the strictest social distancing policies. We considered the moderating effect of multilevel covariates on the results, allowing us to identify the causes of significant group differences across regions and to tailor measures of varying intensity more easily. This study is also necessary to accomplish targeted preventative measures and to allocate resources.
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to public health across the world and has further exposed health disparities and the vulnerability of marginal groups. Since the pandemic has exhibited marked regional differences, it is necessary to better understand the levels of vulnerability to the disease at local levels and provide policymakers with additional tools that will allow them to develop finely targeted policies. In this study, we develop for the State of Alabama (USA) a composite vulnerability index at county level that can be used as a tool that will help in the management of the pandemic. Twenty-four indicators were assigned to the following three categories: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The resulting subindices were aggregated into a composite index that depicts the vulnerability to COVID-19. A multivariate analysis was used to assign factor loadings and weights to indicators, and the results were mapped using Geographic Information Systems. The vulnerability index captured health disparities very well. Many of the most vulnerable counties were found in the Alabama Black Belt region. A deconstruction of the overall index and subindices allowed the development of individual county profiles and the detection of local strengths and weaknesses. We expect the model developed in this study to be an efficient planning tool for decision-makers.
Online public opinion reflects social conditions and public attitudes regarding special social events. Therefore, analyzing the temporal and spatial distributions of online public opinion topics can contribute to understanding issues of public concern, grasping and guiding the developing trend of public opinion. However, how to evaluate the validity of classification of online public opinion remains a challenging task in the topic mining field. By combining a Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) pre-training model with the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model, we propose an evaluation method to determine the optimal classification number of topics from the perspective of semantic similarity. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified based on the standard Chinese corpus THUCNews. Taking Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related geotagged posts on Weibo in Wuhan city as an example, we used the proposed method to generate five categories of public opinion topics. Combining spatial and temporal information with the classification results, we analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the five optimal public opinion topics, which are found to be consistent with the epidemic development, demonstrating the feasibility of our method when applied to practical cases.
The most important protective measure in the pandemic process is a vaccine. The logistics and administration of the vaccine are as important as its production. The increasing diffusion of electronic devices containing geo-referenced information generates a large production of spatial data that are essential for risk management and impact mitigation, especially in the case of disasters and pandemics. Given that vaccines will be administered to the majority of people, it is inevitable to establish vaccination centres outside hospitals. Site selection of vaccination centres is a major challenge for the health sector in metropolitan cities due to the dense population and high number of daily cases. A poor site selection process can cause many problems for the health sector, workforce, health workers, and patients. To overcome this, a three-step solution approach is proposed: (i) determining eight criteria using from the experience of the advisory committee, (ii) calculating criterion weights using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and performing spatial analysis of criteria using Geographic Information System (GIS), (iii) assigning potential vaccination centres by obtaining a suitability map and determining service areas. A case study is performed for Bağcılar, Istanbul district, using the proposed methodology. The results show that the suitable areas are grouped in three different areas of the district. The proposed methodology provides an opportunity to execute a scientific and strategic vaccination programme and to create a map of suitable vaccination centres for the countries.
Building information model (BIM) data are digital and geometric-based data that are enriched thematically, semantically, and relationally, and are conceptually very similar to geographic information. In this paper, we propose both the use of the international standard ISO 19157 for the adequate formulation of the quality control for BIM datasets and a statistical approach based on a binomial/multinomial or hypergeometric (univariate/multivariate) model and a multiple hypothesis testing method. The use of ISO 19157 means that the definition of data quality units conforms to data quality elements and well-defined scopes, but also that the evaluation method and conformity levels use standardized measures. To achieve an accept/reject decision for quality control, a statistical model is needed. Statistical methods allow one to limit the risks of the parties (producer and user risks). In this way, several statistical models, based on proportions, are proposed and we illustrate how to apply several quality controls together (multiple hypothesis testing). All use cases, where the comparison of a BIM dataset versus reality is needed, are appropriate situations in which to apply this method in order to supply a general digital model of reality. An example of its application is developed to control an “as-built” BIM dataset where sampling is needed. This example refers to a simple residential building with four floors, composed of a basement garage, two commercial premises, four apartments, and an attic. The example is composed of six quality controls that are considered simultaneously. The controls are defined in a rigorous manner using ISO 19157, by means of categories, scopes, data quality elements, quality measures, compliance levels, etc. The example results in the rejection of the BIM dataset. The presented method is, therefore, adequate for controlling BIM datasets
In recent years, surveys of personal travel behavior have been conducted around the world and these surveys have been used for understanding the characteristics of people flow. However, it is impossible to acquire people and traffic flows for the modern era (1868–1945). In modern era Japan, some traffic surveys were conducted, and that records still persist. The purpose of this study was to estimate origin-destination (OD) flows in old Tokyo in 1925 based on the historical traffic census record. In this study, OD flows were estimated using an absorbing Markov chain model, which is a simple model based on traffic generation and transition probabilities. Transition probabilities in unobserved nodes were estimated using genetic algorithms (GA). The result of OD distributions is clearly different in the eastern part of Tokyo City, the Shitamachi area, from the western part, the Yamanote area. The traffic was very busy in Shitamachi, an area which included terminal stations and a central business district. In Yamanote, major traffic generation and absorption points were distributed along the main streets to the Shinjuku or Shibuya areas. These results are affected by the distribution of main roads and the locations of residences or workplaces of car owners.
Prediction of drought and flood events can be difficult, but the standardized precipitation index (SPI) calculated from monthly data may be a useful tool for predicting future dryness/wetness events in China. The rainy season SPI was calculated from monthly precipitation data from 3804 meteorological stations in China. The spatiotemporal variation, periodic change, and trend in rainy season SPI from 1961 to 2014 in eight regions were investigated. The results indicate that the rainy season SPI is valuable for assessing dryness/wetness spatial and temporal variations. The SPI time series in the northwest and southwest show increasing trends, while northeast China, south China, and Taiwan show more than one upward/downward trend during the study period, and the SPI time series in central, east, and north China show no change in trend. South China has an approximately 10-year periodic oscillation, while the other regions show an approximately 16-year periodic oscillation. The results of this study imply that the SPI can be used to explore historical drought/flood spatiotemporal variations, as well as to predict future wetness/dryness variations.
Better and more detailed analyses of global human exposure to hazards and associated disaster risk require improved geoinformation on population distribution and densities. In particular, issues of temporal and spatial resolution are important for determining the capacity for assessing changes in these distributions. We combine the best-available global population grids with latest data on volcanoes, to assess and characterize the worldwide distribution of population from 1975–2015 in relation to recent volcanism. Both Holocene volcanoes and those where there is evidence of significant eruptions are considered. A comparative analysis is conducted for the volcanic hot spots of Southeast Asia and Central America. Results indicate that more than 8% of the world’s 2015 population lived within 100 km of a volcano with at least one significant eruption, and more than 1 billion people (14.3%) lived within 100 km of a Holocene volcano, with human concentrations in this zone increasing since 1975 above the global population growth rate. While overall spatial patterns of population density have been relatively stable in time, their variation with distance is not monotonic, with a higher concentration of people between 10 and 20 km from volcanoes. We find that in last 40 years in Southeast Asia the highest population growth rates have occurred in close proximity to volcanoes (within 10 km), whereas in Central America these are observed farther away (beyond 50 km), especially after 1990 and for Holocene volcanoes.
Mangrove ecosystems are valuable, yet vulnerable, and therefore they have been an important subject of protection and restoration in China. Reliable information on long-term China mangrove dynamics is lacking but vital to analyze the driving forces and evaluate the efforts of mangrove conversation. This study aims to quantify the conversions among mangroves and other land covers with high accuracy. The updated mangrove base map for 2018 was produced by integrating Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 (PALSAR-2) yearly mosaics and Landsat imagery with an overall accuracy of 95.23 ± 6.02%. Then, a novel approach combining map-to-image and image-to-image methods was proposed to detect the changed pixels in mangrove forests from 1985 to 2018. The mangrove base map was adopted to mask the images from other years. To determine the changed pixels, the differencing values in the masked area between two images were calculated and compared with the corresponding thresholds. Based on the changed pixels, the possible driving forces were analyzed and associated with socioeconomic development. The resultant mangrove dynamics demonstrated that mangrove forests in China experienced a tendency of loss first and recovery later during the past 30 years. Most mangrove gains came from aquaculture and mudflat, whilst losses were due to the built-up construction and aquaculture reclamation. These conversions indicated that mangrove deforestations were mainly due to human-induced destruction, while the recoveries were strongly associated with conservation and restoration actions.
Because the dynamics of phenology in response to climate change may be diverse in different grasslands, quantifying how climate change influences plant growth in different grasslands across northern China should be particularly informative. In this study, we explored the spatiotemporal variation of the phenology (start of the growing season [SOS], peak of the growing season [POS], end of the growing season [EOS], and length of the growing season [LOS]) across China’s grasslands using a dataset of the GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, 1985–2010), and determined the effects of the annual mean temperature (AMT) and annual mean precipitation (AMP) on the significantly changed phenology. We found that the SOS, POS, and EOS advanced at the rates of 0.54 days/year, 0.64 days/year, and 0.65 days/year, respectively; the LOS was shortened at a rate of 0.62 days/year across China’s grasslands. Additionally, the AMT combined with the AMP explained the different rates (ER) for the significantly dynamic SOS in the meadow steppe (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.007, ER = 12.65%) and typical steppe (R2 = 0.28, p = 0.005, ER = 32.52%); the EOS in the alpine steppe (R2 = 0.16, p < 0.05, ER = 6.22%); and the LOS in the alpine (R2 = 0.20, p < 0.05, ER = 6.06%), meadow (R2 = 0.18, p < 0.05, ER = 16.69%) and typical (R2 = 0.18, p < 0.05, ER = 19.58%) steppes. Our findings demonstrated that the plant phenology in different grasslands presented discrepant dynamic patterns, highlighting the fact that climate change has played an important role in the variation of the plant phenology across China’s grasslands, and suggested that the variation and relationships between the climatic factors and phenology in different grasslands should be explored further in the future.
An urban agglomeration is a growth pole of regional development. However, the land uses have changed significantly due to the impacts of intense human activities. Analyzing the overall change characteristics of land use and hotspots has direct reference value for the formulation and implementation of land use management measures. This study used a complex network of analysis methods and a cluster and outlier analysis to study the land use changes and hotspots in the Harbin–Changchun urban agglomeration (HCUA). The results showed that farmland exhibited a high weighted degree of centrality, indicating that it is the key land type in the HCUA land use change network. From 1990 to 2000, the land use change in each city mainly manifested as the loss of ecological land, whereas from 2000 to 2010 it manifested as the restoration of ecological land. From 1990 to 2020, the average path length of the network in 11 cities was less than 1.4, which was reduced in 10 cities, indicating that the stability weakened and land use change more likely occurred. Specifically, the area of ecological land reduction hotspots gradually decreased from 15,237.81 km2 to 11,533.95 km2. In the ecological land concentration area, the change hotspots for ecological land use and ecological function had strong consistency. The distribution and changes of hotspots were affected by policies and the terrain. The increase in ecological land around urban built-up areas, however, did not improve the landscape connectivity. Therefore, in the planning of ecological land use, attention should be paid to the landscape pattern.
In this article, we conducted the evaluation of artificial intelligence research from 1990–2014 by using bibliometric analysis. We introduced spatial analysis and social network analysis as geographic information retrieval methods for spatially-explicit bibliometric analysis. This study is based on the analysis of data obtained from database of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S). Our results revealed scientific outputs, subject categories and main journals, author productivity and geographic distribution, international productivity and collaboration, and hot issues and research trends. The growth of article outputs in artificial intelligence research has exploded since the 1990s, along with increasing collaboration, reference, and citations. Computer science and engineering were the most frequently-used subject categories in artificial intelligence studies. The top twenty productive authors are distributed in countries with a high investment of research and development. The United States has the highest number of top research institutions in artificial intelligence, producing most single-country and collaborative articles. Although there is more and more collaboration among institutions, cooperation, especially international ones, are not highly prevalent in artificial intelligence research as expected. The keyword analysis revealed interesting research preferences, confirmed that methods, models, and application are in the central position of artificial intelligence. Further, we found interesting related keywords with high co-occurrence frequencies, which have helped identify new models and application areas in recent years. Bibliometric analysis results from our study will greatly facilitate the understanding of the progress and trends in artificial intelligence, in particular, for those researchers interested in domain-specific AI-driven problem-solving. This will be of great assistance for the applications of AI in alternative fields in general and geographic information science, in particular.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international non-profit standards organization. Established in 1994, OGC aims to make geospatial information and services FAIR-Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable. OGC specifications have greatly facilitated interoperability among software, hardware, data, and users in the GIS field. This study collected publications related to OGC specifications from the Web of Science (WoS database) between 1994 to 2020 and conducted a literature analysis using Derwent Data Analyzer and VosViewer, finding that OGC specifications have been widely applied in academic fields. The most productive organizations were Wuhan University and George Mason University; the most common keywords were interoperability, data, and web service. Since 2018, the emerging keywords that have attracted much attention from researchers were 3D city models, 3D modeling, and smart cities. To make geospatial data FAIR, the OGC specifications SWE and WMS served more for “Findable”, SWE contributed more to “Accessible”, WPS and WCS served more for “Interoperable”, and WPS, XML schemas, WFS, and WMS served more for “Reusable”. The OGC specification also serves data and web services for large-scale infrastructure such as the Digital Earth Platform of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Woodlands in the traditional rural landscape of Japan are thought to have a role as windbreaks, among various functions. However, in previous studies, the windbreak effect of woodlands in early-modern settlements has not been quantitatively analyzed. To perform a quantitative analysis, computational fluid dynamics was used with a 3D reconstruction of the early-modern rural landscape of Kichijoji village in a suburb of Tokyo. The landscape was reconstructed based on historical records. The analysis showed that the woodland in Kichijoji village effectively reduced the speed of northbound and southbound winds in the fields. The results are consistent with the actual prevailing wind direction in this area. The purpose of this study was to determine a method and model to quantify the windbreak effect of woodlands in early-modern settlements.
The urban fringe area is a discontinuous spatial phenomenon that refers to the urban-rural interlacing zone which is undergoing urbanization on the fringe of the core built-up area of a large city after the emergence of industrialization. Dynamic, ambiguous, and complex interlacing of various types of lands make urban planners and managers fuzzy about the spatial scope of the urban fringe and it is difficult to control its evolution patterns scientifically. Based on remote sensing data from 2000 to 2020, the range of Wuhan’s urban fringe was extracted from the surface impermeability ratio mutation points, landscape flocculation, and population density. On this basis, the dynamic evolution characteristics of land-use and landscape patterns in the urban fringe area of Wuhan City were analyzed by using dynamic change and landscape pattern index analysis. The results show that: Wuhan City shows a clear “urban core area-urban fringe area-rural hinterland” circle structure, and the urban fringe area continuously extends to the rural hinterland. Moreover, most of the rural hinterland, in the process of moving to the urban core area, has gone through the process of the urban fringe. By comparison with other cities, it is found that the expansion of large cities is generally influenced by policies, topography, and traffic arteries, and gradually shifts from expansion to infill, with the urban core of Wuhan continuously extending and the urban fringe rapidly expanding from 2000 to 2010, and gradually entering a stable development state from 2010 to 2020. The future urban construction of Wuhan should pay attention to the influences of these characteristics on the implementation of urban territorial spatial planning.
Inner Mongolia (IM) is one of the five major pastoral areas in China, and animal husbandry is its traditional industry. The population of livestock is an important factor affecting the sustainable development of livestock and grassland. Due to the special geographical location of IM, various meteorological disasters occur frequently, which have a significant impact on the local livestock population. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) and geographically weighted principal component analysis (GWPCA) were used to explore the spatial and temporal patterns of small livestock and large livestock populations in county-level administrative units from 2000 to 2020, and the effects of meteorological disasters on livestock populations were also considered. We found that the cumulative proportion of total variance (CPTV) of the first two principal components of global PCA for small livestock and the first principal component for large livestock reached 94.54% and 91.98%, respectively, while the CPTV of GWPCA was in the range of 93.23–96.45% and 88.47–92.49%, respectively, which showed stronger spatial explanation; the small livestock population was significantly correlated with spring drought, summer drought, spring–summer drought and snow disaster. However, the correlation between large livestock and summer drought and spring–summer drought is greater. We conclude that GWPCA can better explain the spatial change of livestock populations; meteorological disasters have both advantages and disadvantages on the livestock population, and the drought types that have a greater impact on livestock are summer drought and spring–summer drought. There are geographical differences in the impact of meteorological disasters, with drought affecting most of IM and snow disaster mainly affecting the eastern region; large livestock were mainly affected by drought, while small livestock were affected by both drought and snow disaster.
Congenital Malformations (CM) impose a heavy burden on families and society. Identification of spatial patterns of CM is useful for understanding the epidemiology of this public health issue. In Israel, about 1,000,000 births and 25,000 CM cases at 37 groups were geocoded during 2000–2006. These were geo-analyzed using global-Moran’s-I statistics. Eight groups demonstrated geospatial heterogeneity and were further analyzed at both the census tract (Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) and hot spot analyses) and street levels (spatial scan statistics with two population threshold sizes). The positional definition of results is further discussed in relevance to possible exposure to teratogenic sources in the region. Limitations of data and methods used are presented as well.
Changes in cropping intensity reflect not only changes in land use but also the transformation of land functions. Although both natural conditions and socioeconomic factors can influence the spatial distribution of the cropping intensity and its changes, socioeconomic developments related to human activities can exert great impacts on short term cropping intensity changes. The driving force of this change has a high level of uncertainty; and few researchers have implemented comprehensive studies on the underlying driving forces and mechanisms of these changes. This study produced cropping intensity maps in China from 2001 to 2016 using remote sensing data and analyzed the impacts of socioeconomic drivers on cropping intensity and its changes in nine major agricultural zones in China. We found that the average annual cropping intensity in all nine agricultural zones increased from 2001 to 2016 under rapid socioeconomic development, and the trends in the seven major agricultural zones were significantly increased (p < 0.05), based on a Mann–Kendall test, except for the Northeast China Plain (NE Plain) and Qinghai Tibet Plateau (QT Plateau). Based on the results from the Geo-Detector, a widely used geospatial analysis tool, the dominant factors that affected cropping intensity distribution were related to the arable land output in the plain regions and topography in the mountainous regions. The factors that affected cropping intensity changes were mainly related to the arable land area and crop yields in northern China, and regional economic developments, such as machinery power input and farmers’ income in southern China. These findings provide useful cropping intensity data and profound insights for policymaking on how to use cultivated land resources efficiently and sustainably.
Land surface temperature (LST) can significantly alter seasonal vegetation phenology which in turn affects the global and regional energy balance. These are the most important parameters of surface–atmosphere interactions and climate change. Methods for retrieving LSTs from satellite remote-sensing data are beneficial for modeling hydrological, ecological, agricultural and meteorological processes on the Earth’s surface. This paper assesses the geospatial patterns of LST using correlations of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) in the southeastern region of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2016. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series datasets for LST and SINDVI were used for estimations in the study. From 2001 to 2016, the MODIS-based land surface temperature in the southeastern region of Bangladesh was found to have gently increased by 0.2 °C (R2 = 0.030), while the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index also increased by 0.43 (R2 = 0.268). The interannual average LSTs mostly increased across the study areas, except in some coastal plain and tidal floodplain areas of the study. However, the SINDVI increased in the floodplain and coastal plain regions, except for in hilly areas. Physiographically, the study area is a combination of low lying alluvial floodplains, river basin wetlands, tidal floodplains, tertiary hills, terraced lands and coastal plains in nature. The hilly areas are mostly covered by dense forests, with the exception of agricultural areas. The impacts of increased LSTs were inversely correlated for the hilly areas and areas with forest coverage; LSTs were conversely correlated for the floodplain region, and tree cover outside of the forest and agricultural crops. This study will be very helpful for the protection and restoration of the natural environment.