IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching

Published by De Gruyter
Online ISSN: 1613-4141
Publications
Article
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2.
 
Article
This study uses eye-tracking to examine the processing of case-marking information in ambiguous subject- and object-first wh-questions in German. The position of the lexical verb was also manipulated via verb tense to investigate whether verb location influences how intermediate L2 learners process L2 sentences. Results show that intermediate L2 German learners were sensitive to case-marking information, exhibiting longer processing times on subject-first than object-first sentences, regardless of verb location. German native speakers exhibited the opposite word order preference, with longer processing times on object-first than subject-first sentences, replicating previous findings. These results are discussed in light of current L2 processing research, highlighting how methodological constraints influence researchers' abilities to measure the on-line processing of morphosyntactic information among intermediate L2 learners.
 
Article
Investigated, in 2 experiments, the ability of monolingual American schoolchildren to learn the pronunciation of 2nd-language speech sounds. In Exp I, 18 children, 3 of each sex from the 2nd, 4th, and 6th grades, were taught to associate a "word" with each of 10 flashcard drawings. Five of the words consisted of an English consonant phoneme plus the vowel a, 3 of a non-English consonant sound plus a, and 2 words were non-English vowel sounds. Results indicate that the effect of age on learning was not significant, and the predicted hypothesis that younger Ss would demonstrate superiority in pronunciation learning was not confirmed. In Exp II, 18 children (aged 5–22 yrs) were participants in a Mandarin Chinese course. Each S was tested on performance in repeating 15 Chinese sentences and in describing 15 posters in Chinese. Results show a tendency for a positive correlation of older age with performance in both production and repetition. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Defines gemination as "the meaningful perceptual doubling of a consonant phoneme." The "acoustic and the articulatory correlates of consonant gemination, both across and within word boundary" were examined and their behavior compared for English, German, Spanish, and French. Appropriate examples were composed in each language making maximum use of short pairs. Examples were recorded by native speakers in each language. And spectrograms were made in order to measure consonant duration in centiseconds and to observe the tempo of formant transitions and variations of overall amplitude. X rays were also made which showed a profile of the motions of the tongue, jaw, velum, and lips, and other movements of the mouth. Artificial-speech synthesizers were used to aurally test what consonant durations, or ratios of same, were appropriate in each language in distinguishing geminate consonants from single ones. For the phonemes /n/, /l/, and /s/, regularly occurring in all 4 languages, the geminate consonants were "compared to single consonants in 2 different syllabic positions: word final before a vowel and word initial after a vowel, and to the average of these 2 positions." Total averages and total ratios "separate the 2 Latin languages from the 2 Germanic ones with respect to the role of duration in the meaningful opposition of geminate consonants to single ones." The duration ratio was higher in the Latin languages. Intensity data indicate that "variations in loudness seem to play a part in distinguishing geminate from single consonants and that they correlate with, and support, the role played by duration." Geminate consonants were not significantly preceded by shorter vowels than corresponding single consonants. The X-ray findings are illustrated and discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examines the ways in which teachers and learners interpret foreign language data in terms of the teaching/learning situation (i.e., second language acquisition [SLA] outside a classroom vs foreign language teaching [FLT] in a classroom). Methodologies and expectations of teachers and learners are discussed. It is concluded that, considering the different conditions and goals of SLA and FLT, simple transfer of research information from one to the other is not justifiable, although it is presumed that the two schemes can contribute to and complement each other. (German & French abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared (a) the implicit (IM) and explict (EX) methods of teaching English grammar and (b) the merits of the underlying habit and cognitive code learning theories. 125 17-60 yr old adults served as Ss and were of various socioeconomic and educational backgrounds and had limited linguistic training. Ss were tested in 6 classes and 2 treatment groups with no significant differences between classes and only one (age) between groups. Results of pre- and posttesting are presented in tables followed by variance and convariance analyses. Experimental lessons resulted in considerable progress in both groups with the EX group showing significantly better results; the oral posttest yielded the same results. Term tests, used as a check of the progress in the nonexperimental situation, indicate that the findings were not due to the variables in the regular course teaching in which IM groups scored better (reflecting their slightly superior pretest scores). EX lessons were received more favorably than IM lessons. It is concluded that adults profit more from the cognitive approach to teaching grammar. Data suggest that the cognitive command of grammatical structures provides a short-cut to the acquisition of aural-oral skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Divides motivation for foreign-language study into 3 components: practical, cultural, and intellectual. Current foreign-language programs in universities are considered too narrow in their emphasis on purely linguistic subject matter, and hence neglectful of students' motivation. It is recommended that curricula should be much extended and made more flexible in response to individual students' aptitudes and vocational requirements. A major recommendation is that a language could be taught, not merely in conjunction with another academic subject, but by using the subject as a medium; e.g., chemistry or history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluates several studies in the past decade that have attempted to establish a firm empirical base for the claim that certain constellations of affective factors tend to produce optimum 2nd (or foreign) language learning. Research indicates that popular methods of measuring affect may be inadequate and that the severe difficulties involved in constructing valid measures of affect may be unsolvable in principle. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a classification of errors made in essays written by African university students who had been exposed to English as a 2nd language for 10–24 yrs. A distinction is made between competence and performance errors. Errors are traced to mother-tongue interference, overgeneralization, incomplete learning, incorrect association, and pretentious verbosity. An appendix detailing errors of incomplete learning is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Hypothesized that the detection of lexical ambiguity among non-native speakers would be hindered because of incomplete lexical storage, and that, in the syntactical domain, Ss would have a greater facility in the detection of underlying ambiguity. The hypothesis was tested with 22 Dutch university students with at least 7 yrs training in English, in which the Ss determined the lexical, derived, or underlying ambiguities in 18 English sentences. It was found that 2nd-language learners had more difficulty with surface-structure ambiguity than with deep-structure ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Contends that the notion of communicative competence should include knowledge of the patterns of discourse on the part of second-language learners in the same way as speakers of a language have an unconscious knowledge of patterns of discourse. To the extent that a native speaker is able to show the relationships between sentences and paragraphs in written language, he/she has shown knowledge of discourse patterns. It is concluded that in earlier stages of teaching writing beyond the sentences and the paragraph, a clear distinction must be made between the categories of situation and evaluation. A circular sequencing pattern between situation, problem, solution, and evaluation can be established. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Intonation des Französischen in Form von Betonungsmustern, Rhythmus und Intonationsmustern. Die französischen Intonationskonturen werden mit ihren funktionalen Äquivalenten im britischen Standard English kontrastiert, um auf mögliche Interferenzquellen aufmerksam zu machen. Es wird ein Programm zum Lehren der franzö-sichen Intonation skizziert, und ein Notationsvorschlag zur Darstellung der französischen Intonationskonturen gemacht. Am Schluß des Artikels werden einige pädagogische Strategien vorgeschlagen zum Vermitteln der französischen Intonation an englischsprachige Lernende.
 
Article
Studied form-oriented and content-oriented lexical errors in learner language. Data from advanced German learners' translations were used to illustrate theoretical aspects of form orientation, taxonomy of form-oriented approximation, and content-oriented approximations. Form- and content-orientation can be L1- or L2-oriented and occur at different levels of language. Even advanced learners were shown to sometimes rely on L1-based form-orientation as a strategy of lexical search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a theory of lexical semantics, in which a word can be resolved into 1 or more "hormonemes." A homoneme is defined as a set of sublexical, phonemically similar segments which relate to a set of semantic categories. Since it includes a nonsegmental (semantic) component, and since it is polyvalent, a homoneme is distinct from a morpheme. Thus "PI" is posited as a homoneme expressing the categories (a) orientational, (b) spatial, and (c) special, in the speech of a German infant who had the utterances "piti" (pretty, candy out of reach); "pipi" (bird, picture of bird, aeroplane); "pik" (pin prick, pencil, sharp object). Because of the prevalence of homonymy in child language, the homoneme is offered as a potential insight for developmental psychology. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews recent work which, it is argued, shows that there are cognitive processes occurring in successful reading which cannot be described at the level of surface linguistic structure alone. For example, errors occur not simply in the form of isolated units, but involve large-scale restructuring of the material being read. Thus a singular noun misread as plural produces corresponding changes later in the sentence, such as pronoun agreement of number. The fact that reading aloud can occur without understanding, and the relative inefficiency of visual information-processing and storage are held to support the view that overt, observable responses such as visual scanning and vocal responses cannot lead to a full understanding of the reading process. It is therefore suggested that the teaching of reading should discourage close attention to text as a concatenation of surface elements, and introduce redundancy into texts to facilitate the development of deep-structure strategies. Current approaches in teaching reading are held to overemphasize lower-level phonic units at the expense of the more psycholinguistically relevant unit, which is the sentence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Analyzes longitudinally the acquisition of Yes-No questions by beginning English-as-a-Second-Language students. The students' rates of learning went through evolutions similar to those observed among students in other studies. The findings support the existence of universal principles of language acquisition even in foreign-language learning. (28 references) (JL)
 
Article
Focuses on the teaching of French-as-a-Second-Language in Holland. The following questions are discussed: (1) Can an intensive teaching method be used in a nonintensive setting? (2) Can learning be accelerated (i.e., can two years be taught in one). (SBR)
 
Article
Language educators need to consider whether the goal for learning English as a foreign language is to be bookish "correctness" or something approaching the competence and performance of at least moderately well-educated native speakers. Grammatical usages and pronunciations are considered and comparisons with other languages are made. (SW)
 
Article
A study of adults learning French as a second language showed that enhancing the pedagogical environment through development of a French phonetic training program resulted in improved discrimination and production ability among the students. (39 references) (LB)
 
Article
It has been asserted in the literature that the recognition of speech takes place not because of phonemic distinctions only. There are many phonetic cues to a particular distinction that are located right outside the segment with which the distinction is usually associated. It has been claimed that these allophonic variations are not only important for maintaining phonemic distinctions, but are also important for the purposes of social acceptability. This paper argues that the question of social acceptability is not a linguistic issue; it has rather become an issue of social identity.
 
Pre-and post-verbal placement of adverbials and negation Moroccan learners Turkish learners 
Pre-and post-verbal placement of TAPs, TACs, and negation Moroccan learners Turkish learners 
Finiteness marking in relation to the positioning of TAPs, TACs and negation
Adverbial placement in Dutch native speakers Sentence-initial Post-verbal Total 
Article
This study investigates the acquisition of post-verbal (temporal) adverbials and post-verbal negation in L2 Dutch. It is based on previous findings for L2 French that post-verbal negation poses less of a problem for L2 learners than post-verbal adverbial placement (Hawkins, Towell, Bazergui, Second Language Research 9: 189-233, 1993; Herschensohn, Minimally raising the verb issue: 325-336, Cascadilla Press, 1998). The current data show that, at first sight, Moroccan and Turkish learners of Dutch also have fewer problems with post-verbal negation than with post-verbal adverbials. However, when a distinction is made between different types of adverbials, it seems that this holds for adverbials of position such as 'today' but not for adverbials of contrast such as 'again'. To account for this difference, it is argued that different types of adverbial occupy different positions in the L2 data for reasons of scope marking. Moreover, the placement of adverbials such as 'again' interacts with the acquisition of finiteness marking (resulting in post-verbal placement), while there is no such interaction between adverbials such as 'today' and finiteness marking.
 
Article
Using experimental data from adult and child non-native language acquirers (L2ers), this paper addresses ‘interface issues’ in language acquisition in two different ways. First, it examines the acquisition of direct object scrambling in Dutch, a phenomenon which involves the interaction of at least two different modules of language, i.e., syntax and semantics. Second, it considers the interface between language and cognition in terms of the potential effect of cognitive maturity on the language acquisition process. Specifically, we examine data from adult and child non-native acquirers (L2ers) of Dutch, comparing these two groups both with each other and to relevant first language (L1) data. The results of these comparisons indicate that not only are both groups of L2ers able to acquire the particular aspect of scrambling under investigation, the developmental stages which they pass through are identical. Implications for the status of the syntax-semantics interface in L2 acquisition are also discussed. © 2004, by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG. All rights reserved.
 
Article
In this contribution, I focus on the concept of “appropriateness” in the usage, the learning and the teaching of foreign languages. Using a participant-based emic perspective, I investigate multilinguals’ perceptions of appropriateness in their foreign languages. Referring to the existing literature, and using previously unpublished material collected through a web questionnaire (Dewaele and Pavlenko 2001–2003), I will show that multilinguals develop their judgements of appropriateness, a crucial aspect of sociopragmatic and sociocultural competence, as part of their socialisation in a new language/culture. However, their ability to judge appropriateness accurately does not imply that they will always act “appropriately”. Indeed, the presence of conflicting norms in their other languages may contribute to conscious or unconscious divergence from the “appropriate” norm in a particular language. Some implications for foreign language teaching will be considered.
 
Article
Research on the acquisition of English restrictive relative clauses (ERRCs) among L1/L2 learners has shown that universal linguistic factors substantially determine the learning processes rather than the peculiarities of particular languages and learning situations (cf. Sheldon, 1974a, 1974b, and 1977; Houston, 1978; Sadighi, 1982, and 1986). To this end, this study examines the comprehension of ERRCs containing three universal factors - Interruption, Word Order Re-Arrangement, and Parallel Function. The subjects are Chinese, Japanese, and Korean adult native Speakers whose languages employ pre-nominal RC formation strategy, a sharp contrast with the post-nominal strategy of English. The findings of this study support the dominance of language universals in the course of language acquisition regardless of particular languages' specificities. Additionally, universals are seen to be accessible to both adults and children, and they remain intact maturationally (cf. Bley-Vroman, R. W., Felix, S. W., and loup, G. L, 1988; and duPlessis, J., Solin, D., Travis, L. and White, L, 1987).
 
Article
The development of German proficiency by a three-year-old Australian boy living in Germany was monitored for a five-month period. His command of German negation is reported. The study is seen as bearing on issues in first and second language acquisition, such as competence and interference. (JB)
 
Article
One of the critical debates in (adult) L2 acquisition research surrounds the question of how L2 acquisition proceeds. Some argue that UG plays a significant role; others argue that instead it is general learning strategies which play the crucial role - i.e., L2s are learned in ways similar to learning any random skill. This paper reviews the literature on general learning strategies as they pertain to the "UG-or-not-UG" debate and the L2 acquisition process, and discusses this literature in the context of the literature on learning strategies from psychological research. It becomes apparent that general learning strategies do not play a notable role in distinguishing L2 from L1 acquisition: what few general learning strategies have been found to exist are present in both children and adults, with the result that general learning strategies cannot be the characteristic which distinguishes adult L2 acquisition. L2 researchers should thus abandon the notion that general learning strategies are what differentiate L1 from adult L2 acquisition, and focus instead on developing a theory of domain-specific strategies (i.e. strategies specific to language) which could account for the L2 acquisition process, and how these might be similar to or different from UG.
 
Article
Discusses do-support errors in English made by second-language learners. Also presented are the main lines of argument in explaining this type of error from first-language research, after which, the shortcomings from these arguments are assessed. (33 references) (GLR)
 
Article
Describes the conditions affecting the translation and borrowing of acronyms (such as "VHS") among other languages, concluding that the major difficulty in translating acronyms is in balancing intended expressed meaning, represented technicality or potential for common usage, articulation, and perceived acceptability of "foreign" terms. (20 references) (CB)
 
Article
Results of an error analysis of compositions by students of Spanish are reported. Advanced students are shown to still make errors in morphology, syntax, choice of prepositions, and lexical choice. Error patterns suggest utilization of variable rules in the analysis of transitional competence. (JB)
 
Article
This article examines whether, how and why oral fluency develops at different rates amongst undergraduate learners of French. Twelve subjects were asked to undertake two tasks during their course. The results show that some learners attain higher absolute scores on temporal variable measures than others, but that those who begin at a lower point increase their scores the most. A qualitative analysis of the output of two learners reveals that the learner who most increases her score from a low point does so largely by modifying her pausing behaviour. The learner who increases from a medium to the highest level also modifies her pausing behaviour but, in addition, makes her syntax more complex. Individual factors, such as working memory (Baddeley 1986), are seen to be important for fluency, as has been suggested by N. Ellis (to appear) and Dewaele (1998). A certain level of processing ability may also be required before certain aspects of syntax can be acquired, as argued by Pienemann (1998).
 
Article
The analysis of 2,369 finite clauses in 11 English-language academic articles on oceanography attempts to establish the semantic characteristics of "by" phrases as a step toward understanding the circumstances in which authors were likely to use the prepositional phrase following a passive verb form. (CB)
 
Article
Suggests a methodology, based on the highly successful model of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) literacy training, for teaching non-Latin alphabets such as Arabic. A holistic communication approach, presenting the alphabet as a key to learning the target language, helps learners to assimilate vocabulary more rapidly. (CB)
 
Article
Examines why the French verb of motion "passer" is used so much more widely in French than its English cognate "pass" is in English and identifies features of "passer" that distinguish it from similar motion verbs in French, concluding that the key is its relatively neutral semantic content. English avoids the abstractness of "passer," preferring more concrete alternatives. (Author/MSE)
 
Article
Analyzes listener back-channel responses observed in conversations--in English--between American and Japanese university students. Emphasizes the importance of careful attention given to the interactional management observed in intercultural conversation as well as the significance of realizing "otherness" in communication and social interaction. (40 references) (Author/CK)
 
Article
Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed. (MDM)
 
Article
Supports the claim that aspect in English and written Arabic is a function of a variety of sentential elements including verb form, verb class, and adverbials. The two languages are basically similar in regard to two universal aspectual distinctions: syntactic categories and semantic categories. (TR)
 
Article
Two Arabic stories and their English translations and two Arabic and English stories (unrelated by translation) were compared with reference to sentence organization, coordination and subordination. This comparison showed that Arabic and English sentences are differently organized, coordination is more common in Arabic than in English, while subordination is more frequent in English than in Arabic. It is argued that these syntactic differences and their underlying semantic representations reflect differences at the higher level of rhetorical text organization.
 
Article
Describes the identifying chain manifested in different types of Arabic texts, demonstrates the ways a chain is formulated, and highlights the functions performed by such chains. Findings indicate that chains are unifying relations that create texture and structure within texts. (12 references) (Author/CK)
 
Article
In teaching the tense-aspect system of English to speakers of Moroccan Arabic (MA), the teacher should take into account the reinterpretation of MA categories into English ones, the learning of new categories, the redistribution of categories, and the learning of contrasts existing in English but underdifferentiated in MA. (JB)
 
Article
Investigated whether there were differences in retention of language when both visual and auditory stimuli were employed as opposed to just a visual stimulus. It was found that reading-only resulted in higher scores on tests taken immediately, whereas combined listening and reading resulted in higher tests when tests were delayed. (12 references) (JL)
 
Article
This article is a contrastive study of the devices Russian and German dispose of in order to designate a receptacle with content and without it. The German opposition "Wodkaflasche-Flasche Wodka" is represented in Russian by four constructions: relational adjective, genitive, and prepositional forms ("s" and "iz-pod"). (SW)
 
Article
A survey investigated the attitudes of second language learners about authentic texts, written and oral, used for language instruction. Respondents were 186 randomly-selected university students of German. The students were administered a 212-item questionnaire (the items are appended) that requested information concerning student demographic variables, previous experience with German, current enrollment level, target language country travel, and last course grade, and presented 53 scenarios. Respondents rated the scenarios on four levels: authenticity; contribution to language learning; difficulty level; and level of anxiety/enjoyment elicited. Scenario themes included reading a menu, listening to a conversation about the weather, reading a letter, listening to directions, watching the news, and reading a literary story. Each varied with respect to the number and nature of authenticity factors they contained. Analysis of survey results indicate that: (1) certain authenticity factors (immediacy, currency, medium authenticity, native inception, native reception, cue authenticity, intent authenticity, learner inclusiveness, source authenticity, initiative authenticity, setting authenticity, cultural orientation) influence perceptions of authenticity, contribution to language learning, ease/difficulty, and anxiety/enjoyment; (2) perceived authenticity and difficulty are independent of each other; and (3) correlations between authenticity, contribution to learning, ease/difficulty, and anxiety/enjoyment varied by student characteristics. Contains 15 references. (MSE)
 
Article
A study of advanced English learners' use or avoidance of English idioms is described. The investigation looked at whether the subjects would attempt to use English idioms in a translation task containing idioms, or would instead use non-idiomatic synonyms or paraphrase. It also looked at which idioms are used and which are avoided: those that are identical to idioms in the first language, those that are different, those that are commonly used, or those that are semantically transparent. The subjects were 12 bilingual Spanish/English speakers who had learned English as a second language as adults but whose conversation showed very few grammatical or lexical errors. The results showed that the best-known English idioms were the ones with identical Spanish equivalents, and the least known were totally different in the two languages. There was no correlation between idioms produced the most and frequency of general use. Semantic transparency appears not to be as important as similarity to a first-language idiom. The study does not measure the use of the idioms in normal conversation, cannot measure the number of idioms known or unknown, and does not distinguish between true avoidance representing choice of usage and apparent avoidance due to lack of knowledge. The relationship of avoidance and communication strategies and the study's implications for teaching idioms are also discussed. (MSE)
 
Article
Examines ways in which the cross-cultural aspects of learning a second language may be integrated with the objective of achieving communicative competence. The article suggests that foreign-language studies constitute for the learner a preparation for a way of thinking and behaving that views the "foreigner" as a necessary and enriching value. (23 references) (Author/CK)
 
Article
In this article I examine differences in conversational style between British English and Ecuadorian Spanish which can be the source of communication conflict among speakers of these two languages in telephone conversations, and, presumably in other types of interaction. I look at the language of mediated and non-mediated telephone conversations and examine one feature that interacts with indirectness, i.e., the degree of explicitness participants employ to realize similar acts or moves in the two languages. In non-mediated telephone interactions both British English and Ecuadorian Spanish speakers appear to display a preference for the use of explicitness in formulating various telephone management moves. On the other hand, in mediated interactions, while the British appear to favour explicitness, Ecuadorians in the present study, make use of elliptical forms. The latter, however, tend to be accompanied by deference markers. Differences in the use of explicit and elliptical utterances are interpreted as reflecting that, in certain types of interactions, Ecuadorians favour a style that can be characterized as fast and deferential, but possibly rather abrupt to the English, whereas the latter appear to favour a less hurried style which emphasizes the expression of consideration rather than deference.
 
Article
Examines sources of superfluous negation in Bulgarian-English interlanguage by examining the nature and occurrence of negatives in English and Bulgarian. It is concluded that these superfluous negations result from the process of passing from a scope-prominent stage to a syntax prominent stage in expressing negation. (one reference) (JL)
 
Article
Confronted with various issues in teaching business writing to Chinese students in New Zealand, this paper sees the need for bridging the gap between genre-based research and teaching in an intercultural context. Specifically, it develops an intercultural reflective model in the light of Bhatia's sociocognitive genre study as well as cross-cultural persuasion. As an important part of the model, New Zealand and Chinese experts' intracultural and intercultural reflections on business writing are solicited and compared and the theoretical implications for teaching and learning business writing are discussed. It has been found, through a case study of analysing English and Chinese business faxes, this model can offer an in-depth understanding about discursive competence across cultures, and provide a link between genre-based theory, teaching practice and professional expertise.
 
Article
In diesem Artikel werden die Forschungsergebnisse zur kontrastiven Analyse und zur Fehleranalyse von drei Wissenschaftlern aus den 60iger Jahren vorgestellt und diskutiert: E.J. Brière, W.J. Nemscr und L. Selinker. Dabei wird deutlich, daß bereits zu dieser Zeit Zwischensprachen (m/er-languages) festgestellt und detailliert beschrieben wurden, die einerseits sowohl von der Muttersprache der Lernenden als auch von der Zielsprache beeinflußt waren, andererseits aber auch von diesen Sprachen scheinbar unabhängige Elemente enthielten. Die damit zusammenhängende Frage, ob beim Fremdsprachenerwerb die Verwendung universaler Hypothesen bei den Lernenden überwiegt oder der Rückgriff auf das muttersprachliche Wissen, ist bis heute noch nicht geklärt.
 
Article
Discusses the science of pronunciation teaching and learning, a science that deals with the theory and practice of conditions and possibilities of acquiring the pronunciation of a foreign language. Looks at the causes and forms of pronunciation impairments. (SED)
 
Article
Describes a syntactic study (undertaken at the University of Nottingham) of some linguistic features of texts taken from recent German chemical journals. The study was intended to aid in the development and improvement of courses in German offered to students of chemistry. (RM)
 
Top-cited authors
Peter Robinson
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Guangwei Hu
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Jun Lei
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