INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH (IJPER)

Published by Ram-Eesh Institute of Vocational and Technical Education
Online ISSN: 2582-2152
Publications
Article
Some novel 4-(aryliidineamino)-5-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethyl)-4-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols were prepared from the reaction of carbon-di-sulphide and hydrazine hydrate in water to produce thiocarbohydrazides. The thiocarbohydrazides is then refluxed with ibuprofen for 2 hour, followed by cooling to room temperature and washing with sodium bicarbonate solution to produce 5-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethyl)-4H-1,2,4- triazole-3-thiole. It is then refluxed with different aldehydes in the presence of ethanol and HCl to produce the title compounds. The synthesized compounds are recrystallized from ethanol and are analyzed for their physical and spectral data. They are screened for their anti-microbial activity and it was found that the title compounds are found to have moderate to good antimicrobial activity.
 
Article
COVID-19 also known as SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that attacks the respiratory system of a person. The first case in humans of this virus was reported in Wuhan city, China, in December 2019. It was believed that the virus came from the food market of the China. Also it was linked with the bats. A variety of studies are currently underway or are being carried out to better understand the cause of the outbreak in China , including human case investigations with an onset of symptoms in and around Wuhan in late 2019, Sampling from markets and farms in areas where the first human cases have been reported and detailed records of the source and type of species of wildlife and agricultural animals sold on these markets. Vaccine have developed by few countries like Russia, United Kingdom, USA, India. But there are no claim of 100% result of it so we have to take all the protective measures to protect us from the COVID-19 and don’t trust the myths that are being spread everywhere out there.
 
Article
The present manuscript highlights the basic concept of quarantine with the history of quarantine concept, which deals with the different types of emotions, such as, resentment, acceptance, curiosity, etc. The impact of quarantine on the Indian population in terms of mental health, psychological health, and financial crisis is explained with the preventive measures. The positive and negative impact of COVID-19 led quarantine on public health is an important issue to highlight, and it is challenging to control the negative impact if the preventive measures are not employed seriously.
 
Article
Introduction: In the present study a novel series of twelve 1-(aryl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methanones 3(a-l) were synthesized and characterised by physicochemical and spectral analysis,viz. elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy. The antibacterial property of the compounds were examined, in order to develop new broad spectrum antibiotics. Methods: The compounds 3(a-l) were synthesised by reacting the corresponding 2-(aryl)-1H-imidazoles 2 with substituted benzoyl chlorides. Binding mode analysis of the most active compound was carried out. Predictive ADME studies were carried out for all the compounds. Results and Discussions: Among the synthesized compounds, (2-(3-nitrophenyl) (2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1Himidazol-1-yl)methanone 3i exhibited highest antibacterial activity. Binding mode analysis of the highest active compound was carried out in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (2VF5).
 
Article
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a first-line topical treatment in acne vulgaris. It is commonly used in topical formulations for the treatment of acne and athletes foot. Skin irritation is a common side effect, and it has been shown that controlled release of BPO from a delivery system to the skin could reduce the side effect while reducing percutaneous absorption. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce Eudragit L 100 microparticles containing BPO which were able to control the release of BPO to the skin. Microspheres were prepared by Solvent Evaporation Technique. Microspheres are optimized on the basis of their properties like Entrapment efficiency, % drug loading, % yield & Particle size. Polymers Ethyl cellulose, Eudragit L100, Eudragit RS 100 were used in the formulations of Microspheres & the optimized batch incorporate in Gel preparation.
 
Article
Introduction The Indian cosmetics industry plays a vital role in ayurvedic and herbal cosmetics sector because India is traditionally strong in this field. Acne is common skin disorder for which dermatologists come across since last decade. Throughout the Indian market, different proprietary cosmetic formulations are available for the treatment of acne. Among the whole range of products that fall within the region of the Indian cosmetic market, the most popular items are color cosmetics, of which Fair & Lovely, Clean&Care, Vicco Turmeric & Ponds glosses account for the most sales. Lakme and Revlon are the most popular brand in the local market. The present study was to evaluate the uses of cosmetic prepration in teenagers Girl for Acne. Material and Methods: This was concurrent observational based study conducted by different pharmacy colleges in Greater Noida. The study was carried out in the month of March 2018 to May 2018. During study period total 200 Acne Patient Girls were evaluated. Results & Discussion: The present study has made an earnest attempt to examine the cosmetics usage behavior of College girls. The scope of the study however has been limited to age particular arts and science College in which co-education is in vogue. The prevalence of acne was most common in the age group between 19-22 years. Among the participated teenagers girls were most commonly used product was Herbal followed by allopathic. The total average cost of the cosmetic product used by the girls in the prescription was found to be 112.23 rupees. Keywords: Concurrent, Cosmatics, Herbal, Ayurvedic, Prevalence
 
Article
Introduction: Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Family- Cyperaceae) is an important medicinal plant found in upland and paddy fields in temperate to tropical regions throughout India, China, Pakistan, Europe, France, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and Austria. The scented rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus posses tremendous pharmacological potentials. Objective: To determine analgesic and anticonvulsant activities of the methanolic extracts of rhizomes of Cyperus rotendus. Materials and Methods: Rhizomes were extracted in methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated under vaccume. The Analgesic activity was performed on rats by Tail flick method using Analgesiometer. Anticonvulsant activity was carried out using Maximal Electroshock (MES) method in mice. Results: The methanolic extract (500 and 1000mg/kg body weight.) showed significant analgesic effect (p<0.01) when compared with control and standard Diclofenac Sodium. Cyperus rotundus at 100mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight, i.p. produced a significant (p<0.01) effects in the extensor phase, 5.6530.187** sec, 3.18 sec respectively and recovery 20.1330.620** and 9.890.135** (P<0.001) sec, compared to control 8.2710.142 and 198.463.465 sec, respectively. The Metanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus at doses 100mg/kg and 150mg/kg didn’t abolish the hind limb extension, but decreased it by nearly half the extension time in control. Conclusion: The present study revealed that methanolic extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus possess significant analgesic and anticonvulsant activity and can be employed to develop future medicines for treatment of diseases like Epilepsy.
 
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the role of pharmacists in improving clinical outcomes and adherence to psychotropic medications in patients with mental illness. The majority of patients tend to stop taking their medications due to the delayed effects or adverse events. It has been established that pharmacists have a positive effect on patients’ clinical outcomes in different chronic disease states other than mental illness. There is also a stigma associated with how comfortable pharmacists are on counseling patients about psychotropic medications. This literature review will evaluate the level of pharmacists’ involvement in treating patients with mental illness as well as strategies used to achieve persistence and compliance with therapy. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to identify articles related to mental illness and pharmacists. MeSH terms included “antidepressants”, “adherence”, “pharmacists”, and “bipolar disorder”. A free-text search was conducted using the same terms and to search for the most updated American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines. The National Institute of Mental Health database was searched for current mental health statistics in the United States. Collectively, 62 results returned for the MeSh search. This review included studies on adults with mental disorders who were evaluated by pharmacists for adherence and clinical outcomes between the years of 1995-2019. The results of five clinical trials assessing the role of pharmacists in adherence to psychotropic medications will be discussed in this literature review. Results: The clinical trials included in this review showed a statistically significant increase in adherence to psychotropic medications associated with pharmacists’ interventions. The results were not statistically significant for the clinical outcomes in most studies but presented positive improvements in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Canales et al. results showed that patients receiving pharmacists’ interventions in the inpatient setting had >30% improved clinical outcomes measured by different rating scales. The results of Valenstein et al. study conducted at Veteran Affairs clinics were statistically significant for adherence improvement presented by a 25% increase in medication possession ratio. Aljumah et al. clinical trial had a 18% increase in adherence associated with pharmacist interventions. The EMDADER-TAB trial resulted in a statistically significant decrease in ER visits, significant improvement of the depression symptoms, and overall improvement of severity of symptoms. Conclusion: Mental illness should be treated as any other medical condition that requires interventions whenever clinical outcomes are not optimal. Pharmacists have the skills to evaluate clinical symptoms of different psychiatric disorders as well as the knowledge on therapeutic treatments necessary for the optimization of medication use.
 
Article
The first nanoscale drug to be approved for clinical use in 1995 was known as a liposome. Since then, the technology has grown substantially, and current work on liposome drug delivery systems has revoluted remarkable developments with significant clinical implications. Liposomal drug delivery includes long-circulating liposomes, stealth liposomes, nebulized liposomes, and elastic liposomes for topical, oral, and transdermal delivery, and covalent lipid-drug complexes for improved drug plasma membrane crossing and targeting to specific organelles and other recent advancements. This review is based on the liposomal drug delivery system, its introduction, classification, methods of preparation, types of targeting the liposomal drug delivery, applications, recent advancements in liposomes, and its application.
 
Article
The behavioral and biochemical antiparkinson effect of 7-hydroxyflavone (7-HF) was evaluated by using virtual screening with an e-pharmacophore and shape-based screening approach, and the compound was screened by using the Sigma Aldrich compound library. Screened hits were filtered based on Lipinski’s rule, absorption, distribution,metabolism,elimination, (software for evaluation) (ADME), and toxicity parameters. The best scoring hit, 7-hydroxy 2 phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one, i.e., 7-HF was selected based on shape similarity (> 0.7), g-score, and conserved interactions. Toxicity assessment of retrieved hits was carried out by Osiris and Lazar programs. This study aims to obtain some potential hits, against various antiparkinson category from reported literature and available online resources, and validate their potency by in vivo, in vitro methods. Reserpine 5 mg/kg produces Parkinson’s like condition by depleting presynaptic catecholamines, particularly dopamine through the process of degranulation of storage vesicles. 7-HF 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg was used as a test compound. Syndopa 275 mg/kg was used as a standard drug. The results demonstrate that treatment with 7-HF improved the total locomotor activity and muscular coordination in the rotarod test. In the open field test, enhanced rearing, grooming duration of mobility, and gripping strength in the chimney test, while a decrease in cataleptic scores in the bar test. 7-HF significantly increases catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduces glutathione level, while reduced the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The total protein concentration was also increased in 7-HF treated groups. The behavioral and biochemical results obtained from this study disclosed a definite neuroprotective role of 7-HF in a dose-dependent manner. It is also clear that 7-HF showed potent and effective antiparkinson activity in a similar way as standard. Interestingly, in behavioral and biochemical studies, 7-HF showed approximately equivalent effects as compared to syndopa.
 
Article
Background: Pharmacognostic standards and toxicological studies of the leaf of S. siamea were carried out. Objectives: To determine the quantitative phytochemical constituents present, pharmacognostic standards and toxicological effect of the methanol leaf extract and fractions of S. siamea. Methodology: Fresh leaves of S. siamea were collected, dried, pulverizes to powder and subjected to pharmacognostic and quantitative phytochemical analysis. The pulverized leaves were cold macerated in methanol for three days with intermittent shaking and exchange of fresh solvent every 24 hrs (aliquot extraction). Fractionation was done using n-hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Chromatographic analysis of the methanol extract and fractions were obtained using standard methods. The methanol extract and fractions where screened for phytochemical constituents and toxicological effects using standard methods. Acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined using Lorke’s method. Results: Macroscopic and microscopic examinatios revealed acute apex, pinnate veination and diacytic stomata, trichomes respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extract and fractions revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins etc. Proximate analysis of S. siamea revealed moisture content of 5.50 %, total ash value of 15.00 %, water soluble ash of 2.00 % etc. The LD50 was found to be > 5000 mg/kg. Increase in ALT, AST and ALP when metanol extract and fractions were administered were not statistically different from the control group, indicating no hepatotoxic potential. Increase in PCV, Hb and RBC when metanol extract and fractions were administered were not statistically different from control group. The non-significant decrease in the levels of ALP, ALT and AST indicates that the extract has possible hepatoprotective effect. The non-significant decrease in the levels of RBC, Hb and PCV indicates that the extract does not affect the heamatopoietic system when administered orally and at the doses used in the study. Conclusions: Specific standards obtained from the study may be compiled into a monograph of S.siemea plant that may constitute in herbal pharmacopoeia.
 
Article
Introduction: Centratherum anthelminticum is an ethnomedicinal plant in India and a common ingredient in Ayurvedic formulations. The pharmacological effects of C. anthelminticum ranges from anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial to recently found anti-cancer activity. Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties. Objective: To isolate and identify the compounds in the essential oils from the seeds of C. anthelminticum Kuntz and peels of C. aurantifolia (Christm.) swingle collected from the Delhi NCR region. Materials and Methods: The essential oils from seeds of C. anthelminticum Kuntz and peels of C. aurantifolia were extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatograph and gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. Results: Chemical characterization of the volatile oil and seeds of C. anthelminticum Kuntz showed that the oil is greenish and semi viscous. The major component of the oil was found to be beta-caryophyllene (64.43%), beta-pinene (9.81%), alpha-humulene (4.64%), caryophyllene oxide (2.24%), gamma-elemene (1.73%), limonene (1.48%) and myrecene (0.11%). Whereas the major constituents of volatile oil from peels of C. aurantifolia comprises of twenty nine components viz. sesquiterpne alcohols (20.68%) including Globulol, Hurmularel, 6 - dien - 3 - ol. (-) -Spathulenol, ledol,alpha-bisabolol, - (-) Spathulenol and Sesquíterpene esters (20.68%), caryophyllene, alpha- Farnesene, alpha-Caryophylline, gamma -elemene, gamma-.neoclovene, monoterpene alcohol (13.79%). Conclusion: The present study revealed the chemical composition of essential oils of both the drugs under study which can be used as references in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
 
Article
Introduction: Solanum nigrum (Linn) is known as Makoy and Black night shade. It is found in India and in cultivated ground. This plant has been reported for hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiseptic, narcotic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant, molluscidal, antiulcer, cardiac depressant, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. It is widely used as expectorant, anodyne, vulnerary, digestive, laxative, diuretic, cardiotonic, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, swelling, wounds, ulcer, dyspepsia, ophthalmic disorder, vomiting, cardiac disorder, leprosy, skin disease, fever, splenomegaly, hemorrhoids, hoarseness, nephropathy, dropsy, gonorrhea.Leaves are use as poultice for rheumatic an gouty joints, decoction of berries and flower useful in cough, erysipelas, rat bite, bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, fever, diarrhea, ophthalmopathy and hydrophobia. Root bark is useful in diseases of ear, eye, nose and hepatitis. Material and methods: For anti-inflammatory activity adult wister rats of both sexes weighing between 200-250g was used for experiment. Group-1 received 0.5% CMC suspension (control) group 2, 3 and 4 received methanolic extracts (125, 250 and 375 mg/kg) of S. nigrum respectively. Group 5 received diclofenac (reference standard 1mg/kg). The antioxidant activity of the fruit of S. nigrum was determined by using a method based on the reduction of methanolic solution of colored free radical 1, 1 di phenyl-1-2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). Result and discussion: Methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. fruit has shown antioxidant activity in vitro DPPH Method. The methanolic extract of S. nigrum (375 mg/kg) prevented the formation of edema induced by carrageenan and thus showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data collectively indicates that methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum fruits have potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
 
Article
Antibiotics have been regarded as one of the major discoveries of the 20th century. But the problem that came attached with is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals and communities. The genetic makeup of microbes has benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and means of horizontal gene transmission to give rise to various mechanisms of resistance. Alexander Fleming upon accepting the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine said “It is not difficult to make microbes resistant to penicillin in the laboratory by exposing them to concentrations not sufficient to kill them. There is a danger that an ignorant man may easily under dose himself and by exposing his microbes to non lethal quantities of the drug and make them resistant”. This review presents the multifaceted aspects of antibiotic resistance development, history, superbug and superresiatance and resistance data observed over the past years with an overt conclusion showing undeniable methods to overcome the discussed problem, glaringly striking that it is time to act.
 
Article
Introduction: The present work deals the formulation of hard gelatin capsules containing granules of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri). Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurvedic traditional medicine to improve memory and to treat various ailments. The aim of the project is to achieve immediate release of drug from dosage form to achieve therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Hard gelatin capsules offer rapid drug release and protection from atmospheric oxygen. Materials and methods: In this work we have prepared the granules of Brahmi and filled into the empty hard gelatin capsule shells. The hard gelatin capsules were then evaluated for dissolution studies, disintegration study, drug content and weight variation. Results and Discussion: After dissolution study it was found that 93.46% of Brahmi was released within 90 min. The kinetics of drug release was also studied and it was found to follow Korsmeyer Peppas model.
 
Article
Cassia fistula (Aragvadhah) is an important drug used in the Indian system of medicine. It is a medium sized deciduous tree with long and cylindrical fruits containing pulp and also with a bright yellow coloured flower. The tree is found throughout India in all deciduous forests and hilly tracts. The present article gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties. The review reveals that wide numbers of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant which possesses activities like antiperiodic, diuretic, purgative, laxative, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic and various other important medicinal properties. Phytochemical and Pharmacological reviews on plants will give valuable information which will assist the scientists in getting more advanced knowledge about a plant species.
 
Article
Introduction: Paracetamol tablets are very common over the counter (OTC) products among the patients as a good analgesics s. It is the drug of choice in patients that cannot be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as people with bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer disease, hemophilia, salicylate-sensitized people and children under 12 years of age, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the paracetamol tablet formulations those are locally available in India pharmaceutical market manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies with pharmacopeia standards. Materials and Methods: The two popular brands (A & B) of paracetamol conventional tablet of 500 mg strength were chosen. The paracetamol tablets were obtained from the local medical shops. To compare the quality of tablet formulations of different brands various official parameters like friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution were performed as per the standards mentioned in pharmacopoeia. Result and Conclusion: The result of all these parameters of different brands was in the Pharmacopoeial limits so it could be concluded that marketed pharmaceutical tablets of paracetamol of these brands are safe, effective and efficacious.
 
Article
Introduction: Mahamrutyunjaya rasa is a herbomineral ayurvedic formulation used for various indications like fever, pain, cardiac arrhythmia, etc. It contains Solanum indicum as one of the ingredients having anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and diaphoretic properties. Solanine is one of the active biomarkers for Solanum indicum. The therapeutic window of Solanine is very narrow, with the LD50 value of 3-6 mg/kg body weight in humans. Objective: Estimation of such biomarkers is very significant to avoid any adverse events due to the administration of ayurvedic preparations containing Solanine. In the present study, two simple, sensitive, reliable chromatographic techniques have been developed and validated for the estimation of Solanine in Mahamrutyunjaya rasa. Materials and Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of Solanine was performed on an reversed phase C-18 column (250 mm 9 4.6 mm ID, 5 lm particle size), with isocratic elution using a mixture of Tris buffer (10mM, pH 6.00): Acetonitrile(60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 218 nm for solanine. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) separation was done on Silica gel 60 F254 pre-coated plates using Chloroform: Methanol: Ammonia (7:3:0.5 v/v). The densitometric scanning was performed at 500 nm. The developed methods were validated for linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and specificity as per ICH guidelines. Results: Solanine was eluted at 4.43 ± 0.1 min and established a linearity range of 1 – 100 μg/ml (r2 = 0.9992). In the HPTLC method, the Rf value of Solanine was 0.05 in a linearity range of 1600-4800 ng/ml. Conclusion: Reliable, rapid, simple, and sensitive chromatographic methods were developed for the quantification of Solanine in Mahamrutyunjaya Rasa.
 
Harade plant
Contains the formula for the Triphala churna formulation:
Observations for Organoleptic characteristics of Triphala Churna
demonstrates the observation for extractive values.
Preliminary phytochemical investigation of Formulated Triphala churna
Article
In a couple of decades, there has been exponential development in the field of homegrown medications. The greater part of the conventional arrangement of herbal medication is viable; however, they need standardization. So there is a need to build up a procedure standardization. Standardization of natural medicine is fundamental so as to evaluate the quality, purity, efficacy and safety of the herbal medications. Homegrown medications are the well-known type of customary medication and the high universal requests because of their simplicity of accessibility, there lesser reactions. These homegrown details are the property or information on the mature ages of each home. Homegrown medications additionally have an enormous holistic accepts ex. Holi tulsi plant. It is important to build up basic procedures to the standardization of related natural medications. The present investigation standardization of Triphala Churna significantly centered around that region under WHO guidelines. This polyherbal Churna utilized to treat the obstruction and another gastric issue. Right now, arranged Triphala Churna was nearly standardized with the reference acquired from advertising. For the standardization of the above details were finished by assessing the macroscopically, microscopical, powder stream properties, extractive qualities, physicochemical characters, overwhelming metal substance location, qualitative and quantitive tests of tannins and alkaloids, TLC fingerprinting test to evaluate the quality and safety and therapeutic activity of formulation.
 
Investigational stage device and approved therapeutic device A) External trigeminal nerve stimulator, B) vagus nerve stimulator a) electrodes are wrapped around the left vagus nerve in the neck b) the pulse generator is implanted under the left clavicle. Panel A image was adapted and modified from NeuroSigma, Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA. Panel B image was adapted and modified from Cyberonics, Inc., Houston, TX, USA
Approved therapeutic devices
Devices used in Treatment of Epilepsy
Article
Epilepsy is a group of chronic neurological disorder of the brain that affects around 1-2% of the population across the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), epilepsy is characterized by periodically spontaneous seizures, which are usually due to excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. The earlier day electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are useful tool for detection of epileptic seizures.Epileptogenesis is a slow process. After several months of initial insult, spontaneous recurrent seizures begin to appear. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who are seizure-free for the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years. Currently, used drugs available for treating epilepsy have draw backs like Epileptogenesis and other dose-related side effects. In spite of daily treatment, nearly 30% of patients continue to have convulsions and fail to provide a complete cure. Hence, there is a need for another alternative option to control the epileptic seizure and minimize the duration of seizure without taking a medicine and improving the quality of patient’s life. In current scenario the Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has become an important tool for controlling the epileptic seizure. Vagus nerve stimulation is used for patient with refractory and drug resistant epilepsy. Various non-drug therapies form preclinical to clinical for controlling seizures in epileptic patients with drug resistance current available have been highlighted in this review.
 
Article
Introduction: Piper longum Linn, belonging to the family Piperaceae, is a climber, perennial shrub which is commonly found in India. The dried fruits of Piper longum are widely used in Ayurvedic System of medicines since time unknown. It posses significant pharmacological properties due to presence of variety of chemical constituents in it. Objective: The present study is aimed to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physiochemical and phytochemical parameters for Piper longum fruits, as per the WHO guidelines for herbal drug standardization. Materials and Methods: WHO emphasized the use of standardized herbs and formulations for safety and best therapeutic results. Results and Discussion: Pharmacognostical studies shows that the fruits of Piper longum are found as green when fresh which turns grayish black upon drying. It posses pungent, bitter and acrid taste. The fruits are cylindrical with small petiole. The powder microscopy shows the presence of brown content, oleo resins, stone cells and calcium oxalate crystals. Physiochemical analysis shows variable extractive values in different solvents with maximum extractives of 20.6±0.021% in water and minimum extractive value of 6.6±0.036% in chloroform. Total Ash value of 8.3±0.015%, Acid Insoluble Ash- 1.16±0.025% and Water Soluble Ash- 5.5±0.01%, Foreign Matter- 1.62±0.12%, Moisture content of 15.70±0.051%, Bitterness value-1.96, Swelling Index-1.5±0.01 and Foaming Index- 102.33. Phytochemical analysis of the fruits of Piper longum shows the presence of alkaloids, volatile oil, tannins, fixed oils, and phenolics. Conclusion: The botanical, physical and chemical parameters obtained in this study can be used for establishing the identity and purity of the drug that will lead to safety and efficacy of the herb.
 
Article
Background: Snow mountain garlic (SMG) is also known as Kashmiri garlic and ek pothi lahsun is herb which grows in high altitude and in low temperature conditions. It has shown beneficial effects in breathing discomforts like common cold, Asthma, flu also refines the blood circulation Various standardization parameters have been recorded in this study. Objectives: The present study focuses on standardization of SMG. Materials and Methods: The standardization parameter follow WHO Guidelines of herbal drugs. Standardization parameter like macroscopic characters, extractive value (hot extraction), ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash), bitterness value, swelling Index, phytochemical screening have been studied. Results: The pharmacognostic studies shows that SMG is semi obtuse in shape and have pale brown outer covering and inner colour is white with little sticky latex. It has characteristic odour and slight astringent taste. The physiochemical analysis shows different extractive values in solvents, with maximum extractives obtained in hydro alcohol (45%). total ash value observed was 1.038%, acid insoluble ash 0%, water soluble ash 0.16%, bitterness value of 0.030mg/ml, swelling index of 1.06 and foaming index was found to be less than 100. Conclusion: The Standardization of snow mountain garlic was performed and the data obtained can be further utilized for establishing the identity and purity of the drug. Key Words: Snow mountain garlic, Kashmiri garlic, Standardization parameter, Physiochemical analysis, Phytochemical evaluation
 
The Summary of the significance of Regression Model Result
The Summary of the Regression Model Linearity Test result
The Result of statistical measures for X4, X1, X2 and X3 variables
Direct and indirect effects of teacher performance (X4)
Article
The quality of teacher performance determines the quality of educational outcomes because the teacher is a figure who often interacts with students. The purpose of this study is to find ways to improve teacher performance, to examine organizational culture, personality and job satisfaction by identifying the direct influence of organizational culture on teacher performance, the direct effect of personality on teacher performance, the direct effect of job satisfaction on teacher performance, the direct effect of organizational culture on Job satisfaction, the direct effect of personality on job satisfaction and the direct effect of organizational culture on personality. The method used in this study was path analysis and SITOREM. In this study, there was a positive and significant direct effect between teacher performance with organizational culture, there was a positive and significant direct effect between teacher performance and personality, there was a positive and significant direct effect between teacher performance and job satisfaction, there was a positive and significant direct effect between organizational culture with personality, there was a positive and significant direct effect between personality and job satisfaction, and there was a positive and significant direct effect between organizational culture and personality.
 
Schematic Figure of Fused Deposition Modelling.
Tabulation of results for disintegration time of four copolymer-based devices in rat. observed using PET/CT imaging. 37
Article
Background: Three-dimensional (3D) printing fabricates a structure by depositing materials layer-by-layer to form an object. Drug personalization receives attention due to problems arising from drug treatments such as undesirable side effects and ineffective drug therapy among pediatric and geriatric patients. Hypothesis: Conventional dosage form faces issues such as non-adherence to medication, ineffective treatment due to non-preferable dosage form and non-optimized drug release. Personalized 3D printing drugs offer personalized drug dosing, novel drug release profile and unique dosage form production. Results and Conclusion: Therefore, this review discussed the benefits of 3D-printed drugs and an overview of the standard 3D printer technology used in pharmaceuticals. This article aimed to review the current application of 3D-printed drugs in the personalization of drug dosing, the variation of drug release profile and fabrication of unique drug dosage form. Further research and experimentation of 3D-printed drugs are recommended as they will offer a significant aid in the customization of medicine. The potential utilization of 3D-printed drugs in optimizing effective and safe medication is undeniable. However, there are some challenges needed to be overcome, such as compatibility between chosen methods with materials used, difficulty to scale-up production, regulatory requirement as well as protection of individual rights issues.
 
Effect of ethanolic extract of C. paniculatus seeds 400 mg/kg (EECP-400) and 800 mg/kg (EECP-800) compared with n-acetylcysteine (NAC 200 mg/kg) in lead acetate toxicity (LA, 30 mg/kg) on antioxidant markers. Data are expressed as mean + SE (n = 6 each). The 'F' and 'P' values are by one way ANOVA with Student Newman Keul's multiple comparison test. aSignificantly different from the control group, bSignificantly different from LA group, cSignificantly different from NAC group.
Histopathology of Kidney using Haematoxylin and eosin, Magnification 100X.
Immunohistochemistry KIM 1 Expression, Magnification 100X, Arrow indicating Immunopositive Region. KIM-1 Expression in Kidney (A-Control, B -LA (30mg/kg B.W), C -NAC (200mg/kg B.W) + LA (30mg/kg B.W), D-EECPS Low Dose (400mg/kg B.W) + LA (30mg/kg B.W), E -EECPS High Dose (800mg/kg B.W) + LA (30mg/kg B.W).
Protective effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract on lead acetate induced changes in oxidative markers. Value are mean±SEM (n = 6 each).
Article
Objectives: The plant Celastrus paniculatus is used in the traditional medical practices of India to treat a plethora of diseases. Earlier research on the plant revealed several biological properties and interesting bioactive compounds with significant medicinal uses. Materials and Methods: In this study, the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (EECP) has been investigated against lead acetate (LA) induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were divided into five groups (n=6) wherein group 1 that contained normal animals served as control while group 2 received LA (30mg/kgb.w/day, p.o.). Animals in groups 3-5 received respectively the standard drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200mg/kg b.w/day, p.o.) and EECP in two doses (400and 800mg/kgb.w/day, p.o.) together with LA (30mg/kg b.w/day, p.o.) for 28 consecutive days.On day 29, all the animals were sacrificed and the blood and kidney were collected for analysis. Results and Conclusion: LA significantly decreased the level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) and increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), hydroxyl radicals (OH-) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) as compared to those in control rats. Administration of EECP especially 800mg/kg b.w. significantly downregulated the serum urea, creatinine and KIM 1 levels and also the level of oxidative stress markers when compared to the LA group. Histological and immunohistochemistry (KIM 1) study showed a significant change in the cytoarchitecture of the renal tissue thereby revealing the pro-active role of C. paniculatus seeds in nephrotoxicity.
 
Article
Lymph nodes are found within the body have B, T, and other immune cells and help to filter and trap foreign particles. Like any other primary culture, lymph node culture would retain many of the differentiated characteristics of cells in vivo; thus, they have the potential for acting as an alternative method to the mammalian model. For setting up primary lymph node culture in mice, different types of lymph nodes were collected from mice, followed by isolation, activation and cryopreservation of cells from a lymph node. The present review emphasizes various procedures used for isolation, activation and cryopreservation of lymph node cells. Isolation of cells was performed by collagenase digestion, teasing apart of lymph node using dissecting needle or lymph nodes were disrupted between two frosted slides. Concanavalin A has been widely used to stimulate mice lymph node cells. A low dose of Con A has a stimulatory effect on T cells but high dose have inhibitory action and caused suppression of proliferation of T cell. Balb/c mice and C57Bl/6 mice were used for a different dose of Con A. The addition of cryoprotective agents, e.g.dimethylsulphoxide and careful control of cooling rates, affords protection from cell damage during freezing.
 
List of independent and dependent variables.
Evaluation of FP-NLC as per central composite design.
Evaluation of optimized formulation.
Evaluation of FP loaded NLC based gel.
Dunnett's multiple comparison test of FP nanogel
Article
Introduction: Formulation of a nano lipid carrier loaded hydrophilic gel of a corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP) was investigated systemically with response surface model (RSM) for promising dermal delivery of the drug. Objectives: To achieve a better penetration of the drug and to overcome the generally associated adverse reactions of corticosteroids, the present study, explored the formulation and evaluation of nano lipid carriers (NLCs) of FP in a hydrophilic gel base. Methods: A central composite design was proposed to study the effect of processing materials on the physicochemical properties of the NLC. High shear homogenization method with stearic acid, isopropyl myristate and poloxamer 407 was used to make different batches of FP-NLCs. The model was optimized at a significance level of P<0.05. FTIR, DSC and surface morphology studies were carried out for the optimized product. The optimized product was incorporated in the Carbopol P940 gel base and was evaluated for its mechanical and rheological properties, ex-vivo permeation and skin irritation study. Results: It was observed that using the proposed model, a nano size (179 nm) stable (Zeta potential -26 mV) optimized product of FP-NLC with 85% entrapment efficiency was achieved. The nanogel exhibited a spreadability of 4.2 gm.cm/sec and a viscosity of 92.6 cp. Approximately 3.5 times improvement in ex-vivo permeation and no skin irritations on animals were reported on application of the nanogel of FP. Conclusion: Hence the investigation created a paradigm to explore the efficacy of nanogel of FP for dermal application with improved permeation and promising therapy for dermatitis
 
Treatment regime for the different animal groups
Extraction yields from the leaf and stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis
The phytochemical constituents present in the methanolic extract of leaves and stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis.
Effect of Methanol extract of leaves and stems bark of Anthocleista djalonensis on wound contraction showing percentage wound contraction.
Article
This study is aimed at evaluating and comparing the wound healing potential of ointment base of leaves and Stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis on burn wounds created on wistar albino rats. The leaves and Stem bark of Anthocleista djalonensis collected were extracted using 95%v/v methanol and phytochemical analysis conducted. Simple ointments of varying concentrations were formulated to screen for wound healing activity using the burn wound model on experimental rats grouped into six (n=4). Group 1 was treated with silver sulfadiazine cream (positive control), group 2 with ointment base (negative control), group 3 with 1% stem bark extract ointment, group 4 with 2% stem bark ointment, group 5 with 1% leave extract ointment, and group 6 with 2% leave extract ointment. All animals were anesthetized before the creation of burn wounds. Measurement was taken on day zero and the wound was left untreated for 48 hours in order to allow bacterial colonization before daily treatment of the wound for 16 days. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed that both extract of Anthocleista djalonensis contains flavonoids, tannins and saponins. On day 2, 1% stem bark, 2% stem bark and 1% leaf extract had 16%, 15%, and 10% wound contraction respectively which was higher than the 8.5% wound contraction of silver sulfadiazine. Also as the concentration of the extract increased, the wound healing effect also increased as seen by the percentage wound contraction on day 16 for all treatment. The findings of the study have shown that methanolic extracts of stem bark and leaf of Anthocleista djalonensis contained bioactive constituents which have burn wound healing activity. The stem bark extract showed better activity when compared with the leaf extract and also the positive control (silver sulfadiazine).
 
Article
Background: Phytosome is a novel technique introduced by Indena that combines standardised herbal extract and phospholipid in preferably equal ratio to provide better absorption enhancing bioavailability. Purpose: The objective of proposed study is to prepare, optimise and characterize phytosomes of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng extract to improve its antidiabetic properties. Materials and Methods: Antisolvent precipitation technique was used to prepare phytosomes. Design expert software was used to evaluate the impact of soya lecithin and cholesterol concentration on various dependent variables such as particle size, span value and entrapment efficiency. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes model was used to evaluate in vivo antidiabetic activity in rats for extract as well as prepared phytosomes. Results: The phytosomes were successfully designed and optimised for particle size, entrapment efficiency, span value, and zeta potential of 236 nm, 75.1%, 0.395 and-16.85 mV respectively. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes model was used to study antidiabetic potential of plant extracts and its optimized phytosomal formulations in male Wistar rats. Optimized phytosomal formulation showed significant reduction in serum glucose concentration at lower dose, suggesting enhancement in its therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion: We were successful in formulation, optimization and characterization of phytosomes for Murraya koenigii extract. The tested phytosomes showed better antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities as compared to crude extract in male Wistar rats.
 
Article
Introduction: The emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum has increasingly become a serious health problem worldwide. To address this challenging issue, there is an urgent need to discover and develop novel and potent antimalarial agents. Materials and Methods: A new series of lawsone Mannich base derivatives were synthesized, characterized (IR, NMR and Mass) and evaluated for in vitro for antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains of P. falciparum. Results and Discussion: Among synthesized compounds, five compounds showed good antimalarial activity against both chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D-7) and-resistant (RKL-2) strains of P. falciparum, which, however, was considerably less than that of the standard reference drug, CQ. The antimalarial activity of these five compounds was found better against sensitive (IC50 = 0.411-0.502 μg/ml) strain than the resistant (IC50 = 1.391-2.394 μg/ml) one. The IC50 values for CQ were 0.044 μg/ml and 0.216 μg/ml against sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum, respectively. SAR study suggests that antimalarial potential of lawsone structural scaffold can be modulated by different substitution pattern like Mannich base substitution (alkyl/aryl/heteroaryl substituted aminoalkyl moiety) at the C-3 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone ring system. Conclusion: Owing to their antimalarial effectiveness, lawsone derived aminonaphthoquinones can be used as lead structure(s) in the development of yet more potent antimalarial agents. © 2018, Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. All rights reserved.
 
Formulation optimization: different ration of polymer and other excipients.
Article
Irbesartan is hypertensive drugs approved for high blood pressure and protect the kidneys damage due to diabetes. It is an angiotensin receptor blockers, belongs to BCS class II, exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Therefore, it is need to enhancement of dissolution rate and bioavailability. The objective of this study was to develop a transdermal patches system of Irbesartan to reduce the above drawback. Methods: Various batch of Irbesartan loaded transdermal patches were prepared by the solvent extraction method employing HPMC and ethyl cellulose as polymer in presence or absence of eudragit. Physicochemical characterization of patches was done by thickness, weight variation, folding endurance, drug content, moisture uptake and loss. The drug interaction was carried out by FTIR spectroscopy. Further, patches were evaluated their in-vitro drug release, ex-vivo permeation study in Franz diffusion cell. While in-vivo skin irritation and toxicity study performed in Wister rats. Results: The final batch was selected on the basis of physicochemical characteristics and proceeds for further studies FTIR result indicates that there is no interaction between drug and polymer. The in-vitro release study showed that 93.54% of drugs released at 48 hr and steady-state flux was found to be 0.35±3.23 μg/cm2/h. the developed patch were free from edema and hypersensitivity reaction which is confirm by in-vivo study. Conclusion: Patches were successfully prepared and their evaluation of excellent quality and uniformity. This can be the potential for therapeutic application due to reduced dosing frequency, improve patient compliance and bioavailability.
 
Article
The review provides an insight into the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a versatile tool for analysis of complex dynamics of air and fluid flow in pharmaceutical operations. The principle of Navier Stokes equation on the explanation of the mathematics on flow of material is outlined in the review. Using the mathematical equations generation of a computer simulated model helps to develop a process, design a device and an operation by fusion of their theoretical background and experimental validation. The use of CFD is gaining importance in the pharmaceutical field as it can trace the critical minor change that leads to a significant impact in the process development. The simulation concept can be useful in terms of identifying and controlling the hazards of these operations on product damage. An outcome of an optimized process, device or operation can be beneficial in each stage of product development and quality build-up. The application of CFD in the development of inhalers, drying process and hydrodynamics of dissolution apparatus is focused here.
 
Chemical structure of decitabine.
Concentration and Absorbance of Standard Solution.
Repeatability of 10 ug/ml drug sample.
Recovery studies.
Robustness results.
Article
Objectives: In the proposed study, a basic, novel, protected economic, delicate and cost-effective UV-Spectrophotometric technique for the analysis of Decitabine which is antineoplastic drug. Methods: The created method was approved according to ICH rules. The decitabine indicated maximum absorption at 221nm. This strategy can successfully apply for estimation of Decitabine in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form for routine examination with UV identification at 221nm. A Shimadzu UV-Visible spectrophotometer 1800 with 1cm quartz cells and Acetonitrile (ACN) as diluent was utilized in this technique. Results: The Developed technique obeyed Beer's-Lambert's law in the conc. of 5.0-15.0ug/ml, having R2 of 0.9993and 99.82% ±0.75 recovery of decitabine was found. Different approval parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness were performed and were found to be within the limits as per the guidelines of ICH. Key words: Decitabine, UV-spectroscopy, Validated method, ICH guidelines, Beer’s Lambert’s law, Analysis.
 
Article
Objectives: The present investigation was to study the combination of liposomes (LP) and microneedles (MNs) as a single drug treatment approach for the delivery of an antifilarial drug, ivermectin (IVM) in which the role of MN arrays (commercial solid MNs of different lengths and laboratory fabricated polymeric dissolving MNs of length 0.6mm) in increasing the in vitro permeation of IVM-LP across pig ear skin was studied. Experimental: IVM-LP were formulated and optimized using solvent injection method and thin layer film hydration method. The optimized IVM-LP formulation F4 were then incorporated into the dissolving MN arrays and tested for the increased permeation of IVM by the assistance of MNs. A transdermal patch with IVM-LP was prepared as passive permeation study. Solid MNs (poke and patch) were tested for assisting the penetration of IVM from IVM-LP patch. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells for a period of 24 h. Results and Discussion: The optimized IVM-LP were < 100 nm in diameter suitable for lymphatic uptake and MNs of IVM-LP had good mechanical strength, insertion capabilities. From the dermatokinetic study it was evident that the delivery of IVM into the excised porcine skin by MNs was significantly higher than that from passive studies, with apparent permeability coefficient of 0.798±0.009 cm/h for 0.6mm dissolving MNs. Conclusion: MN assisted transdermal delivery of IVM-LP could be used to target specifically human lymphatic system where single drug treatment for lymphatic filariasis could be made possible. Key words: Lymphatic filariasis, Ivermectin, liposomes, Microneedles, Transdermal drug delivery systems, Bioavailability.
 
Oral delivery of various steroidal drugs by using novel drug delivery systems.
Article
This review summarises the oral route of drug delivery of steroids. Oral drug delivery is widespread owing to its non-invasive nature which complements high patient compliance. This article summarises the problems associated with oral delivery of steroids including bioavailability. In this review, a brief description of the novel types of drug delivery systems of steroids such as microspheres, nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, multimatrix tablets, pellet technology, liposomes are presented. The review also presents the latest innovations and advances that have been achieved in recent years
 
Top-cited authors
Mithun Rudrapal
  • Rasiklal M. Dhariwal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (RMDIPER)
Dr. Dipak Chetia
  • Dibrugarh University
Jyothirmayee Devineni
  • KVSR Siddhartha College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rahul Kaushik
  • Ram-Eesh Institutions
Pallavi Dinanath Rai
  • Ram-Eesh Institutions