IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology

Online ISSN: 1868-4238
Publications
Conference Paper
In this article a versatile packaging solution is presented that allows the static and active alignment of a microlens array that is to be placed over a micro- UV-LED array. A modified UV-LIGA process is applied for building up the structure. For the static approach, the microlens array rests on four posts with the aim of reducing the contact area between the two parts, hence reducing the probability of vertical misalignment. The fine height adjustment is done by electroplating a certain thickness to the electrodes where the posts are being placed. Since the electrodes can be individually addressed, a possible tilt, caused by uneven post heights, can be compensated. With minimal modifications, the structure can be rendered into a dynamic alignment system, featuring actuators for vertical and lateral movement. Even though the microlens array is part of the actuator itself, it is not connected to any potential or energy sources. A magnetic actuator is proposed and partly tested that is capable of simultaneously perform a lateral movement while the vertical actuation is in progress. As a restoring means, a gel material is used as a precursor for a photo-patternable PDMS structure.
 
Conference Paper
ATM networks use virtual paths (VPs) to route information from source to destination. By using VPs, the call setup and switching costs can be reduced. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting where VPs should be placed. We propose an algorithm that is based on reducing the network diameter. The performance of this diameter method is compared with another heuristic that uses a clustering algorithm. Using simulation, it is shown that the Diameter method performs better than the Clustering method in reducing the average connection cost.
 
Conference Paper
In the paper we describe a framework for resource management and traffic control which is based on the virtual network concept. In this context the virtual networks are used as a tool for customization of networks management functions and for virtual separation of network resources. We identify three main categories of virtual network applications (service, user and management oriented virtual networks). We discuss generic and application oriented problems, which have to be solved to take full advantage of the proposed framework. We also study the relation between the virtual network concept and the virtual path concept in the context of bandwidth management. The study indicates that using virtual paths for bandwidth management involves some inherent contradictions.
 
Conference Paper
Boolean function decomposition is ubiquitous in logic synthesis. Existing solutions are based on BDDs and, more recently, on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). A widely studied special case is function bi-decomposition, where a function is decomposed into two other functions connected with a simple gate. Recent work exploited the identification of Minimally Unsatisfiable Subformulas (MUSes) for computing the sets of variables to use in Boolean function bi-decomposition. This paper develops new techniques for improving the use of MUSes in function bi-decomposition. The first technique exploits structural properties of the function being decomposed, whereas the second technique exploits group-oriented MUSes. Experimental results obtained on representative benchmarks demonstrate significant improvements in performance and in the quality of decompositions.
 
Conference Paper
In this paper we address the problem of determining source traffic descriptors for virtual path connections formed by a number of delay-sensitive virtual channel connections. In order to obtain a virtual path connection which allows an efficient use of the network resources, traffic shaping should be performed at the origin of the connection to reduce its burstiness. However, a conventional shaping process in conjunction with FIFO multiplexing introduces delays that may be too long, especially for delay-sensitive connections offering a low cell rate, such as phone calls or video telephony. To solve this trade-off, we propose a shaping algorithm called dual cell spacing, which allows to obtain small shaping delays and an efficient use of the network resources at the same time. Furthermore, we give simple dimensioning rules for the source traffic descriptors of the shaped virtual path. Such a dimensioning is not straightforward if traffic shaping is omitted. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
 
Conference Paper
A novel steady-state evolutionary algorithm (MEA) is proposed to solve the constrained global optimization problems. MEA adopts the partial ordering scheme to handle the equality constraints and inequality constraints in a universal way. Meanwhile,a novel multi-parent crossover operator which can instruct its search direction using statistical information is presented to accelerate the convergence. Experiments have been carried on several benchmark functions to test the performance of the presented MEA. Numerical results show that MEA is highly competitive with other algorithms in effectiveness and generality.
 
Conference Paper
We present a rate-based, explicit feedback flow control mechanism. Congestion control is distributed among all the nodes on the path from the sender to the receiver. This leads to a more accurate control mechanism and a scalable design. Our mechanism is shown to be effective in scenarios where the bottleneck can vary among the intermediate nodes without leading to buffer overflows during transitional periods. Overhead is kept low by using the same control packet to relay control information and measure internode delays. We analyze both an end-to-end and a hop-by-hop approach, as well as multidrop scenarios.
 
Stages in NPD-Systems Maturity [6, 3]  
Stages in CAI-Systems Maturity [6, 3]  
Chapter
This article examines current and future developments in the field of CAI using a model called “CAI-NPD-Systems Maturity Model”. This model is based on two aspects of the CAI systems development: The development in innovation theory and models such as Stage Gate or Open Innovation, and the development in the technologies-supporting software approaches such as Web2.0 to develop new generations of CAI. As a result, an evolution path from generic IT-support and simple ad-hoc NPD-processes over closed CAI systems to holistic CAI2.0 is proposed. Examples and implications of these trends are specified. KeywordsClosed CAI 1.0–Closed CAI 2.0–Open CAI 2.0–Computer Aided Innovation–Open Innovation–Closed Innovation–Web 2.0–Crowd sourcing–Open Innovation Accelerators–OIA–New Product Development–NPD–CAI-NPD-Systems Maturity Model
 
Conference Paper
We can best see many things from a historical perspective. What were the first pioneers doing in the information technology departments of Finnish manufacturing companies? In early 1960s, I had a special chance to work in a steel industry that had long traditions to use rather advanced tools and methods to intensify their productivity. The first computer in our company had such novel properties as movable disk packs making a direct access of stored data possible. In this paper, we describe the following issues and innovations in some depth. These include (a) transitioning from the punched card machines to a new computer era, (b) using advanced programming language to intensify production of new computer software, (c) drawing pictures by using a line printer, (d) supporting steel making with mathematical software, (e) storing executable programs to the disk memory and calling and moving them from there to the core memory for running, and (f) building a simple report generator. I will also pay attention to the breakthrough in those innovations and in this way demonstrate how some computing solutions were growing at that time.
 
Conference Paper
The region of Oulu has been emphasizing the importance of electronics industry for its business growth since the 1960s. After a pitch-dark recession, the region developed in the 1990s into a new, well-established hub of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finland. The city with its 100,000 inhabitants occupied nearly 10,000 ICT professionals in 1995. This article will contribute to the body of research knowledge through analyzing the role of computer science, in particular information systems and software engineering, for the development of the ICT industry in Oulu in the latter half of the 1980s. This analysis is based on a variety of both primary and secondary sources. This article suggests that the system-theoretical and software-oriented research expertise played a key role for the rapid and successful ICT business development of the Oulu region.
 
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the internationalization of software business in the Oulu region. Despite its small size, the region grew rapidly and very successfully into a global information and communication technology business center. The University of Oulu, which was the northern most university in the world at the time of its establishment (1958) had a strong emphasis on engineering since its very beginning. Research on electronics was carried out since the early 1960s. Later, when the Department of Information Processing Science was founded in 1969, research on information systems and later also on software engineering was carried out. This paper discusses the role of the information systems and software engineering research for the business growth of the region. Special emphasis is put on understanding the role of system-theoretical and software development expertise for transferring research knowledge into practice.
 
Chapter
Users need useful mechanisms for sharing their Web 2.0 content with each other in a controlled manner across boundaries of content-hosting and service providers (CSPs). In this paper, we discuss open problems and research opportunities in the domain of Web 2.0 content sharing among users. We explore issues in the categories of user needs, current sharing solutions provided by CSPs, and distributed access-control related technologies. For each open problem, we discuss existing and potential solutions, and point out areas for future work.
 
Challenges of SME-networks using Web 2.0.  
Chapter
Small- and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are of high social and economic importance since they represent 99% of European enterprises. With regard to their restricted resources, SMEs are facing a limited capacity for innovation to compete with new challenges in a complex and dynamic competitive environment. Given this context, SMEs need to increasingly cooperate to generate innovations on an extended resource base. Our research project focuses on the aspect of open innovation in SME-networks enabled by Web 2.0 applications and referring to innovative solutions of non-competitive daily life problems. Examples are industrial safety, work-life balance issues or pollution control. The project raises the question whether the use of Web 2.0 applications can foster the exchange of creativity and innovative ideas within a network of SMEs and hence catalyze new forms of innovation processes among its participants. Using Web 2.0 applications within SMEs implies consequently breaking down innovation processes to employees’ level and thus systematically opening up a heterogeneous and broader knowledge base to idea generation. In this paper we address first steps on a roadmap towards Web 2.0-based open innovation processes within SME-networks. It presents a general framework for interaction activities leading to open innovation and recommends a regional marketplace as a viable, trust-building driver for further collaborative activities. These findings are based on field research within a specific SME-network in Rhineland-Palatinate Germany, the “WirtschaftsForum Neuwied e.V.”, which consists of roughly 100 heterogeneous SMEs employing about 8,000 workers.
 
Chapter
This paper describes a research evidence-based practice model, TSOI Hybrid Learning Model as a viable alternative to support productive integration of Web 2.0-mediated collaboration for learning. The model is advanced from the Science learning cycle and the Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. An authentic example on understanding multimedia learning pedagogy for pre-service teachers in chemistry education is illustrated. The model guides the learning design involving Web 2.0-mediated collaborative activities. Outcomes in terms of richness of collaborative learning and reflections have been positive. Implications will be discussed in the context of blended learning in science education. KeywordsHybrid learning model-Web 2.0-collaborative learning
 
Conference Paper
Nowadays, organizations aiming to be successful in an increasingly competitive market tend to group together into virtual organizations. Designing the information system (IS) of such virtual organizations on the basis of the IS of those participating is a real challenge. The IS of a virtual organization plays an important role in the collaboration and cooperation of the participants organizations and in reaching the common goal. This article proposes criteria allowing virtual organizations to be identified and classified at an intentional level, as well as the information necessary for designing the organizations’ IS. Instantiation of criteria for a specific virtual organization and its participants, will allow simple graphical models to be generated in a modelling tool. The models will be used as bases for the IS design at organizational and operational levels. The approach is illustrated by the example of the virtual organization UGRT (a regional stockbreeders union in Tabasco, Mexico).
 
Chapter
Haptic Modeling of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. In spite of extensive research, no generic system has been proposed. The previous work mainly assumes that textile has a 2D planar structure. They also require time-consuming objective measurement of textile properties in mechanical/physical model construction. A novel approach for haptic modeling of textile is proposed to overcome the existing shortcomings. The method is generic, assumes a 3D structure textile artifact, and deploys computational intelligence to estimate textile mechanical and physical properties. The approach is designed primarily for display of textile artifacts in museums. The haptic model is constructed by superimposing the mechanical model of textile over its 3D geometrical model. Digital image processing is applied to the still image of textile to identify its pattern and structure. In order to deal with the non-linearities associated with the textile, a fuzzy rule-based expert system is deployed. This information is then used to generate a 3D geometric model of the artifact in VRML. Selected mechanical and physical properties of the textile are estimated by an artificial neural network with the textile geometric characteristics and yarn properties as inputs. The neural network learning and verification and validation processes are carried out by a sample data set. The mechanical properties are used in the construction of the textile mechanical model. The haptic rendered model is generated by superimposing the physical/mechanical model over the 3D geometric model. This model has been implemented and rendered in Reachin environment, provided an interactive Virtual Reality environment where the user can navigate the graphic 3D presentation of the textile and touch it by a haptic device. Different samples have been modeled and the whole approach has been validated. The interface can be provided in both in the physical environment and through the cyberspace. The validation of method indicates the feasibility of the approach and its superiority to other haptic modeling algorithms. KeywordsHaptic-Fuzzy logic-Neural Network-Hand-woven textile
 
Autonomous Mobile Agente (AMA) principal modules.
Conference Paper
Automatic facial expressions recognition using vision is an important subject towards human-robot interaction. Here is proposed a human face focus of attention technique and a facial expressions classifier (a Dynamic Bayesian Network) to incorporate in an autonomous mobile agent whose hardware is composed by a robotic platform and a robotic head. The focus of attention technique is based on the symmetry presented by human faces. By using the output of this module the autonomous agent keeps always targeting the human face frontally. In order to accomplish this, the robot platform performs an arc centered at the human; thus the robotic head, when necessary, moves synchronized. In the proposed probabilistic classifier the information is propagated, from the previous instant, in a lower level of the network, to the current instant. Moreover, to recognize facial expressions are used not only positive evidences but also negative. KeywordsFacial Symmetry-Focus of Attention-Dynamic Bayesian Network
 
A superimposed view of the ATM scenario when a rubbery is happening.
Inputs and outputs for the different methods in the low-level classification stage.
LMA-based Bayesian net  
Concurrent Hidden Markov Models (left) HMM model (right)
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a HMM-based approach for detecting abnormal situations in some simulated ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenarios, by using a network of heterogeneous sensors. The applied sensor network comprises of cameras and microphone arrays. The idea is to use such a sensor network in order to detect the normality or abnormality of the scenes in terms of whether a robbery is happening or not. The normal or abnormal event detection is performed in two stages. Firstly, a set of low-level-features (LLFs) is obtained by applying three different classifiers (what are called here as low-level classifiers) in parallel on the input data. The low-level classifiers are namely Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), crowd and audio analysis. Then the obtained LLFs are fed to a concurrent Hidden Markov Model in order to classify the state of the system (what is called here as high-level classification). The attained experimental results validate the applicability and effectiveness of the using heterogeneous sensor network to detect abnormal events in the security applications. KeywordsHeterogeneoussensor network–LLF (Low level Feature)–HBA (Human Behaviour Analysis)–HMM (Hidden Markov Model)–LMA (Laban Movement Analysis)–Crowd analysis–ATM (Automated Teller Machine) security
 
Classroom teaching model. 
Pedagogical content knowledge. (After Shulman [3].) 
Chapter
This paper uses an hypothetical scenario to report on the use of ICT to enable students with a chronic illness to partly overcome prolonged absence for school. The focus is on the responses of teachers when one of their students can no longer attend school regularly as a consequence of a serious illness, but wants to continue their education. The special education needs of students participating in the Link ’n Learn project result from a desire to continue studying while absent from school for prolonged periods. It appears that this desire for continuity is misunderstood by many adults, including teachers. Discussion is centred around a hypothetical case study of two teachers as they work with students absent for an extended period. KeywordsOnline learning-Students absent from school
 
Chapter
The shift to modularized cars leads to the need for early and precise concept decisions for the development of modules. Many module definitions focus on the interaction between modules to make them upgradeable. The focus here is on modules that have to work with unknown restrictions in terms of uncertainty. In this paper, emphasis is put on unknown car styling in early design stages. Because of frequent interface modifications during the validation process of car styling, the great influence of this unknown restriction on modules is discussed for kinematic systems. The systematic approach of Robust Kinematics Optimization is successively described and exemplified. Due to the early and computer-aided consideration of uncertainties, the developer is able to judge even very unconventional and innovative module concepts. Furthermore, a higher level of transparency is achieved in concept decisions because the consequences of modifications during later development stages have been precociously integrated and validated. KeywordsEarly Design Stage–Integration of Innovation–Robust Design Optimization–Automotive Development Process
 
Chapter
Health Information Systems (HIS) are being implemented in all aspects of healthcare; from administration to clinical decision support systems. Usability testing is an important aspect of any HIS implementation with much done to deliver highly usable systems. However, evidence shows that having a highly usable system is not enough. Acceptance by the clinician users is critical to ensure that the HIS implemented is used fully and correctly. A longitudinal case study of the implementation of the Community Health Information Management Enterprise System (CHIME) in NSW is used to illustrate the importance of ensuring clinician acceptance of a HIS. A mixed methods approach was used that drew on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The implementation of CHIME was followed from the early pre-implementation stage to the post implementation stage. The usability of CHIME was tested using expert heuristic evaluation and a usability test with clinician users. Clinician acceptance of CHIME was determined using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The clinician users were drawn from different community health service departments with distinctly different attitudes to information and communication technology (ICT) in healthcare. The results of this research identified that a successful implementation of a HIS is not a measure of its quality, capability and usability, but is influenced by the user’s acceptance of the HIS. Keywordshealth information systems-acceptance-usability-information and communication technology
 
E-health system infrastructure.  
Conference Paper
Ambient assisted living is a new interdisciplinary field aiming at supporting senior citizens in their home by means of embedded technologies. This domain offer an interesting challenge for providing dependability and security in a privacy-respecting way: in order to provide services in an emergency we cannot monitor on a second-by-second base a senior citizen. Beside being immoral, it would be illegal (at least in Europe). At the same time if we do not get notified of an emergency, the entire system would be useless. In this paper we present an access control model for this domain that extends RBAC with the notion of organizational model, goals and dependencies. In this model we can associate permission to the objectives that have been assigned to the users of the system and solve the trade-off between security and dependability.
 
Conference Paper
This paper reports on African Higher Education Research Online (AHERO), an innovative web based open access project that facilitates the communication of research on African higher education that is otherwise invisible. In addition, the paper demonstrates the functionality of the AHERO website, to show how and why authors may deposit their papers; and provides a report of the methods used to populate the archive, how AHERO deals with copyright and the progress that has been made thus far. Some experiences are shared. It ends with the conclusions and recommendations drawn from an assessment survey. KeywordsDigital libraries–e-resources–digital repository
 
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a purpose-based framework for supporting privacy preserving access control policies and mechanisms. The mechanism enforces access policy to data containing personally identifiable information. The key component of the framework is purpose involved access control models (PAC) that provide full support for expressing highly complex privacy-related policies, taking into account features like purposes and conditions. A policy refers to an access right that a subject can have on an object, based on attribute predicates, obligation actions, and system conditions. Policy conflicting problems may arise when new access policies are generated. The structure of purpose involved access control policy is studied, and efficient conflict-checking algorithms are developed. Finally a discussion of our work in comparison with other access control and frameworks such as EPAL is presented. KeywordsPurpose-Privacy-Access Control-Conflicts
 
Conference Paper
Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound (and complete) embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in and about prominent access control logics.
 
Chapter
There are settings where we have to collaborate with individuals and organizations who, while not being enemies, should not be fully trusted. Collaborators must be authorized to access information systems that contain information that they should be able to receive. However, these systems typically also contain information that should be withheld. Collaborations can be rapidly created, requiring dynamic alterations to security policies. Classifying data to cover all current and possible access privileges is both awkward and costly, and always unreliable. An alternative approach to protection, complementing basic access control, is to provide filtering of results. Filtering of contents is also costly, but provides a number of benefits not obtainable with access control alone. The most important one is that the complexity of setting up and maintaining specific, isolated information cells for every combination of access rights held by collaborators is avoided. New classes of external collaborators can be added without requiring a reorganization of the entire information structure. There is no overhead for internal use, i.e., for participants that are wholly trusted. Finally, since documents contents rather than their labels are being checked, cases of misfiled information will not cause inappropriate release. The approach used in the TIHI/SAW projects at Stanford uses simple rules to drive filtering primitives. The filters run on a modest, but dedicated computer managed by the organization’s security officer. The rules implement the institution’s security policy and must balance manual effort and complexity. By not relying on the database systems and network facilities, and their administrators a better functional allocation of responsibilities ensues.
 
Chapter
As mobile computing continues to rise, users are increasingly able to connect to remote services from a wide range of settings. To provide this flexibility, security policies must be adaptive to the user’s environment when the request is made. In our work, we define context to include the spatiotemporal aspects of the user request, in addition to quantifiable environmental factors determined by the server hosting the resource. We identify a number of key open problems in this field and propose potential solutions to some of the problems.
 
(continued)
Conference Paper
This paper proposes conceptual model which can be used to facilitate the discovery, integration and analysis of environmental data in cancer-related risk studies. Persistent organic pollutants were chosen as a model because of their persistence, bioaccumulation potential and genotoxicity. Part dealing with cancer risk is primarily focused on population-based observations encompassing a wide range of epidemiologic studies, from local investigations to national cancer registries. The proposed model adopted multilayer hierarchy working with characteristics of given entities (POPs, cancer diseases as nomenclature classes) and couples “observation – measurement” as content defining classes. The proposal extends formally used taxonomy applying multidimensional set of descriptors including scores of measurement validity and precision. This solution has the potential to aid multidisciplinary data discovery and knowledge mining. The same structure of descriptors used for environmental and cancer part enables the users to integrate different data sources recognizing their methodical origin, time & space coordinates and validity. KeywordsPersistent organic pollutants–cancer risk–data model–data discovery
 
Overview of Security Checkpoint  
Number and Types of Interviews Performed at the Airport
Conference Paper
Based on a study of ICT use at an airport security checkpoint, this paper explores a possible explanation to the paradox that travelers find existing airport security measures inadequate while at the same time believing air travel to be sufficiently secure. We pursue this explanation by showing that, for the security checkpoint to function properly in relation to the overall function of the airport, travelers have to be enrolled in a particular program of action. They are then locked into this program through sanctions. Travelers are forced into participating in a system many of them find ethically and morally objectionable. Yet, active participation makes it difficult for them to object to the moral and ethical issues of their actions without damning themselves. Our explanation of the security paradox is, therefore, that while travelers remain critical of airport security, they avoid damning themselves by criticizing the system in terms of its own logic. They have been made accomplices.
 
The seven phases of the proposed framework 
A 3-layered structure graph of the initial user and the top-3 Followers of Followers 
The tables containing the details of each sampling set
A 3-layered structure graph with a sink node 
Calculation of a TT value 
Conference Paper
We describe a methodology of rating the influence of a Twitter ac-count in this famous microblogging service. We then evaluate it over real accounts, under the belief that influence is not only a matter of quantity (amount of followers), but also a mixture of quality measures that reflect interaction, awareness, and visibility in the social sphere. The authors of this paper have created InfluenceTracker, a publicly available website where anyone can rate and compare the recent activity of any Twitter account.
 
Bit-sizes of objects in the credential schemes.
The most expensive operations (i.e. exponentiations, pairings, multiplications) for the pro- tocols in the credential scheme, with N a the number of accumulated values and N r , the number of revoked values. The numbers between brackets denote operations that can be precalculated.
Performance results for the 3 schemes, with respect to the different protocols.
Conference Paper
Anonymous credentials are discussed as a privacy friendlier replacement for public key certificates. While such a transition would help to protect the privacy of digital citizens in the emerging information society, the wide scale deployment of anonymous credentials still poses many challenges. One of the open technical issues is the efficient revocation of anonymous credentials. Currently, accumulator based revocation is considered to be the most efficient and most privacy friendly mechanism for revoking anonymous credentials. This paper analyses the performance of three accumulator based credential revocation schemes. It identifies the bottlenecks of those implementations and presents guidelines to improve the efficiency in concrete applications. KeywordsAnonymous Credentials-Revocation-Accumulators
 
Chapter
The objective of this paper is to show process data captured with barcode administration system and the results of data analyses and visualizations for improving quality of care and productivity. Hospital Information System named Point-of-Act System that was designed to capture every process of all medical acts was employed to capture data of medical processes. Data of injection process was analyzed based on operative timeliness. The result shows nursing workload didn’t be allocated equally through the day and some parts of injections hadn’t been administrated at the right time. Improving operative timeliness can contribute to improve quality of care and productivity. This kind of process information has a possibility to provide new research opportunity to analyze outcome with context information including process information. KeywordsHospital Information System-Process Management-Electrical Data Capturing-Data Analysis-Visualization
 
IS design knowledge development (from Carlsson et al. 2011; Hrastinski et al. 2010)
Chapter
There is a growing interest in critical realism (CR) in Information Systems (IS) research. This paper presents and discusses how critical realism can be an alternative philosophical underpinning for IS research. It briefly presents critical realism and how it can be used in IS research. Contemporary examples of how CR have been used in IS research are presented and discussed. The future use of CR in IS research is also discussed. KeywordsCritical realism–empirical research–theory development–design science research–theory testing–evaluation research
 
The Action-Research Cycle applied for the study
The Architecture of the Service 
Chapter
R&D has always been considered a strategic asset of companies. Traditionally, companies that have their own R&D function are better prepared to compete in the globalized economy because they are able to produce the knowledge and technology required to advance products and services. SMEs also need to become highly innovative and competitive in order to be successful. Nevertheless, their ability to have an internal R&D function that effectively meets their innovation needs is usually very weak. Open innovation provides access to a vast amount of new ideas and technologies at lower costs than closed innovation. This paper presents an action research study being carried out at University of Minho to develop a business model and technology platform for an innovation brokering service connecting ideas and technologies being developed at Universities with the specific innovation needs of SMEs. The expected contributions of the study include the empirical investigation of the effectiveness and risks of crowdsourcing innovation when applied in the socio-economic context of a European developing country where SMEs represent 99,6% of the businesses.
 
Conference Paper
This paper contributes to the studies of design activities in information systems development. It provides a case study of a large agile development project and focusses on how customers and users participated in agile development and design activities in practice. The investigated project utilized the agile method eXtreme Programming. Planning games, user stories and story cards, working software, and acceptance tests structured the customer and user involvement. We found genuine customer and user involvement in the design activities in the form of both direct and indirect participation in the agile development project. The involved customer representatives played informative, consultative, and participative roles in the project. This led to their functional empowerment— the users were enabled to carry out their work to their own satisfaction and in an effective, efficient, and economical manner. KeywordsParticipatory design-agile software development eXtreme programming-customer and user involvement-case study research
 
Conference Paper
This paper presents an Actor Network Theory (ANT) analysis of a computer hack at a large university. Computer hacks are usually addressed through technical means thus ensuring that perpetrators are unable to exploit system vulnerabilities. We however argue that a computer hack is a result of different events in a heterogeneous network embodying human and non-human actors. Hence a secure organizational environment is one that is characterized by ‘stability’ and ‘social order’, which is a result of negotiations and alignment of interests among different actants. The argument is conducted through a case study. Our findings reveal not only the usefulness of ANT in developing an understanding of the (in)security environment at the case study organization, but also the ability of ANT to identify differences in interests among actants. At a practical level, our analysis suggests three principles that management needs to pay attention to in order to prevent future security breaches. KeywordsInformation security-Computer hack-Actor network theory-IS security
 
3I diagram for clarifying objects' fuzzy relationship with ideas, innovation and innovation  
Chapter
In their work on the C-K theory, Le Masson et al talk about the passage from R&D to RID, claiming that R&D in the era of innovation must revise its practices to adapt to the changes that have given birth to this new industrial paradigm. The authors speak of ‘performance logic’ as an incontrovertible step in this evolution without going any further into their thoughts on the matter. Only a few syntheses exist to allow us to understand the contributions that aim to qualify the inventive performance of R&D, this article puts forward an analysis and provides a literature interpretation on this subject. We then discuss three main points in accordance to what seems to us to be appropriate for the future metrics of inventive efficiency. KeywordsInnovation–Inventive metrics–Creativity–Computer Aided Innovation–TRIZ
 
Chapter
Service discovery allows the interaction between network nodes to cooperate in activities or to share resources in client-server, multi-layer, as well as in peer-to-peer architectures. Ad hoc networks pose a great challenge in the design of efficient mechanisms for service discovery. The lack of infrastructure along with node mobility makes it difficult to build robust, scalable and secure mechanisms for ad hoc networks. This paper proposes a scalable service discovery architecture based on directory nodes organized in an overlay network. In the proposed architecture, directory nodes are dynamically created with the aim of uniformly covering the entire network while decreasing the query latency for a service (QoS) and the number of control messages for the sake of increased scalability.
 
Conceptual architecture for citizen-centric process views  
Co-evolution in virtual organizations or process change coordinated centrally. M: Municipalities; GA: Government Agency; CGA: Central Government Agency  
Chapter
As users of government services, citizens spend much of their time in transit between government agencies acting in different roles with varying responsibilities. Government agencies are providers of services virtually connected, but with limited actual integration in practice. We believe that by allowing citizens more direct access to ongoing processes in which they are involved, it could improve service delivery from the perspective of citizen and the government organization alike. In this paper we discuss the concept of citizen-centric process views, a conceptual architecture providing channel independent support for knowledge management and monitoring of cross-organizational service delivery in transformational government. We will set the stage for the discussion of requirements for the next generation government infrastructures and the surrounding organizations in order to support delivery of adaptive and evolving government services. Keywordse-government-services-knowledge management-workflow-evolving IS
 
Search results displayed in A-POInter
Chapter
Mobile applications are becoming increasingly widespread and complex. Many of these applications suffer from usability issues, including information overload, screen clutter, lack of task support and limited interaction mechanisms. Adaptive user interfaces (AUIs) have been proposed to address some of these usability issues. The aim of this paper is to investigate how AUIs can improve the usability of mobile applications. This paper discusses several simple types of adaptation that have been shown to yield significant usability benefits for mobile applications. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how an AUI can be incorporated into different types of mobile applications. This paper also discusses the lessons learned from these case studies and presents some implications for designing adaptive systems in the future. KeywordsAdaptive user interfaces-adaptive systems-mobile applications-usability evaluation
 
HANFIS architecture 
Conference Paper
We propose the use of a hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (HANFIS) for automated speaker verification of Persian speakers from their English pronunciation of words. The proposed method uses three classes of sound properties consisting of linear prediction coefficients (LPC), word time- length, intensity and pitch, as well as frequency properties from FFT analysis. Actual audio data is collected from fourteen Persian speakers who spoke English. False acceptance ratio and false rejection ratio as are evaluated for various HANFIS trained with different radius. Results indicate that vowel sounds can be a good indicator for more accurate speaker verification. Finally, the hierarchical architecture is shown to considerably improve performance than ANFIS. KeywordsANFIS-Speaker verification-LPC-FFT-intensity and pitch coefficients-HANFIS
 
Control architecture of the Molecular transport line  
Overall multi-agent control architecture
Chapter
Nowadays, a new generation of responsive factories is needed to face continuous changes in product demand and variety, and to manage complex and variant production processes. To such an aim, self-adaptive automation solutions are required, capable to adapt their control strategy in real-time to cope with planned as well as unforeseen product and process variations. In such a context, the present paper describes an automation solution based on a modular distributed approach for agile factory integration and reconfiguration, integrating a knowledge based cooperation policy providing self-adaptation to endogenous as well as exogenous events. The proposed approach is discussed through its application to a plant for customized shoe manufacturing. KeywordsDistributed Control Systems-Multi-Agent-IEC 61499-Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
 
Chapter
Information system (IS) development methods pay little attention to security aspects. Consequently, several alternative approaches for designing and managing secure information systems (SIS) have been proposed. However, many of these approaches have shortcomings. These approaches lack fully comprehensive modeling schemes in terms of security, i.e. no single method covers all modeling needs. Rarely can these approaches be integrated into existing IS development methods. Also, these approaches do not facilitate the autonomy of developers. This paper describes a framework that helps us understand the fundamental barriers preventing the alternative SIS design approaches from more effectively addressing these shortcomings. This framework is illustrated with an example of a framework-based solution: meta-notation for adding security into IS development methods. Future research questions and implications for research and practice are presented. Key wordsIS security
 
Conference Paper
The UK National Health Service is undergoing a tremendous IS -led change, the purpose of which is to create a service capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which persuasive discourse, or rhetoric, influences and affects the adoption of information systems within the health sector. It seeks to explore the ways in which various actors use rhetoric to advance their own agendas and the impact this has on the system itself. As such, the paper seeks to contribute to diffusion research through the use of a case study analysis of the implementation of an Electronic Single Patient Care Record system within one UK Health Service Trust. The findings of the paper suggest that rhetoric is an important and effective persuasive tool, employed by system trainers to coax users into not only adopting the system but also using the system in a predefined manner. KeywordsRhetoric-NHS-healthcare systems-diffusion theory-social actors
 
Conference Paper
The possible benefits of open source software (OSS) have led organizations into adopting a variety of OSS products. However, the risks related to such an adoption, and how to reduce these risks, are not well understood. Based on data from interviews, a questionnaire, and workshops, this paper reports ongoing work in a multi-national telecom company. The paper has three main contributions. First, it identifies and discusses several risks related to OSS adoption. Second, it identifies steps for reducing several of these risks. Third, it shows how research can be used to increase the visibility of, and involve the employees in, ongoing OSS efforts.
 
Conference Paper
Many countries, like Australia, have introduced a radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) based livestock identification and management system,which can be used for condition monitoring and fault prognosis during an outbreak situation. This paper examines the adoption process and its subsequent diffusion and extended usage of RFID in Australian livestock management practices, and proposes a research model. The model is primarily built on Rogers’ innovation-diffusion theory and Oliver’s expectation–confirmation theory, with some logical modifications. It posits that while adoption of RFID may be the result of legislative pressure, its further diffusion is an evaluative process, which is judged against “satisfaction” and “performance” derived from RFID systems. The implications of these and other related concepts are also discussed. Hypotheses are developed which can be tested via empirical study. The proposed model has both theoretical and practical implications. Although it is developed on the basis of the Australian livestock industry, it can be used in other countries and also in other applications with some industry-specific modifications. KeywordsRFID-adoption-diffusion-extended use-livestock industry- Australia
 
Conference Paper
Existing research into online privacy attitudes, whilst useful, remains insufficient. This paper begins by outlining the shortcomings of this existing research before offering a fresh approach which is inspired by Solove’s notion of “situated and dynamic” privacy. With reference to ongoing PhD research it is argued that the generation of rich, situated data can help us to understand privacy attitudes in context. In this research semi-structured interviews are being used in order to grasp how young adults understand, manage, and negotiate their privacy across online settings. The paper concludes with a call for further qualitative research into online privacy attitudes and suggests focusing on more niche online settings than Facebook. KeywordsOnline privacy–Young adults–Qualitative
 
Conference Paper
We present a game-theoretic framework for modeling and solving routing problems in dynamically changing networks. The model covers the aspects of reactivity and non-termination, and it is motivated by quality-of-service provisioning in cognitive radio networks where data transmissions are interfered by primary systems. More precisely, we propose an infinite two-player game where a routing agent has to deliver network packets to their destinations while an adversary produces demands by generating packets and blocking connections. We obtain results on the status of basic problems, by showing principal limitations to solvability of routing requirements and singling out cases with algorithmic solutions.
 
Conference Paper
The reorganization of the supply chain in the aerospace industry has led to a new situation for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). The suppliers are forced to deliver completed systems instead of components and assemblies. In order to react to the changed requirements, one possible solution is the project-oriented and temporary cooperation of SME by building a Virtual Organization in order to stay competitive and marketable. The research project AerViCo - Aerospace Virtual Company - is aimed at developing standard business processes, structures and tools to support a Virtual Organization in the aerospace industry.
 
Chapter
This paper examines elements from Piaget’s and Scherer’s theories that are able to offer subsidies for the specification of the affective aspects involved in Virtual Learning Environments (VLE). The affective dimension is characterized by the moods manifested during interactions in virtual space by affective portion of psychological subject. To figure moods out is a way to personalize the pedagogical activities and to understand the student’s actions and competence. KeywordsAffective subject-psychological subject-moods-virtual learning environment
 
Top-cited authors
Luis Camarinha-Matos
  • Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
Hamideh Afsarmanesh
  • University of Amsterdam
David Romero
  • Tecnológico de Monterrey
Peter Bernus
  • Griffith University
Ovidiu Noran
  • Griffith University