We observed temporal fading on 1.9 GHz fixed wireless channels during short-term measurements at 107 different locations in a suburban macrocell environment characterized by flat terrain and heavy foliage in order to determine how the rate of fading varies with average wind speed and distance. For each location, we estimated: (1) the Ricean K-factor using a moment-based estimator and (2) an equivalent Doppler frequency which is related to the maximum Doppler frequency by a factor that depends upon the shape of the Doppler spectrum. We did so by fitting the measured level crossing rate (LCR) and average fade duration (AFD) distributions to expressions normally justified for mobile wireless links using a method recently proposed by Feick, Valenzuela and Ahumada (2007). As has been observed at other sites, the Ricean K-factor decreased with both average wind speed and distance. However, we found that the equivalent Doppler frequency was effectively uncorrelated with wind speed and noticeably increased with distance. Similar measurements at other sites will be required to determine the extent to which these trends are affected by foliage density and tower height.
The robustness to noise of the 802.11b/g 5.5 Mb/s and 11 Mb/s rates must be investigated experimentally as they cannot be predicted theoretically. In this paper we report on detailed outdoor and indoor measurements that lead us to the surprising conclusion that the 11 Mb/s 802.11g rate experiences fewer packet losses than the 6 Mb/s 802.11g rate at any given (symbol) SNR. This occurs due to the combination of modulation and physical layer coding schemes used by these rates and has serious implications for rate control algorithms. The practical implications of this, factoring in the interaction between packet loss and 802.11 MAC retries, is that 6 Mb/s is effectively redundant as a packet transmission rate if the 11 Mb/s rate is available.
End-to-end performance of two-hop wireless communication systems with nonregenerative relays over flat Rayleigh-fading channels is presented. This is accomplished by deriving and applying some new closed-form expressions for the statistics of the harmonic mean of two independent exponential variates. It is shown that the presented results can either be exact or tight lower bounds on the performance of these systems depending on the choice of the relay gain. More specifically, average bit-error rate expressions for binary differential phase-shift keying, as well as outage probability formulas for noise limited systems are derived. Finally, comparisons between regenerative and nonregenerative systems are presented. Numerical results show that the former systems clearly outperform the latter ones for low average signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that the two systems have similar performance at high average SNR.
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) transmissions are promising technologies for high data rate (multi-Gbps) Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). In this paper, we first introduce the concept of exclusive region (ER) to allow concurrent transmissions to explore the spatial multiplexing gain of wireless networks. Considering the unique characteristics of mmWave communications and the use of omni-directional or directional antennae, we derive the ER conditions which ensure that concurrent transmissions can always outperform serial TDMA transmissions in a mmWave WPAN. We then propose REX, a randomized ER based scheduling scheme, to decide a set of senders that can transmit simultaneously. In addition, the expected number of flows that can be scheduled for concurrent transmissions is obtained analytically. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed REX scheduling scheme. The results should provide important guidelines for future deployment of mmWave based WPANs.
Interference management has been a key concept for designing future high data-rate wireless systems that are required to employ dense reuse of spectrum. Static or semi-static interference coordination based schemes provide enhanced cell-edge performance but with severe penalty to the overall cell throughput. Furthermore, static resource planning makes these schemes unsuitable for applications in which frequency planning is difficult, such as femtocell networks. In this paper, we present a novel dynamic interference avoidance scheme that makes use of inter-cell coordination in order to prevent excessive inter-cell interference, especially for cell or sector edge users that are most affected by inter-cell interference, with minimal or no impact on the network throughput. The proposed scheme is comprised of a two-level algorithm - one at the base station level and the other at a central controller to which a group of neighboring base stations are connected. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the reference schemes, in which either coordination is not employed (reuse of 1) or employed in a static manner (reuse of 3 and fractional frequency reuse), in terms of cell edge throughput with a minimal impact on the network throughput and with some increase in complexity.
This paper is on relay selection schemes for wireless relay networks. First, we derive the diversity of many single-relay selection schemes in the literature. Then, we generalize the idea of relay selection by allowing more than one relay to cooperate. The SNR-optimal multiple relay selection scheme can be achieved by exhaustive search, whose complexity increases exponentially in the network size. To reduce the complexity, several SNR-suboptimal multiple relay selection schemes are proposed, whose complexity is linear in the number of relays. They are proved to achieve full diversity. Simulation shows that they perform much better than the corresponding single relay selection methods and very close to the SNR-optimal multiple relay selection scheme. In addition, for large networks, these multiple relay selection schemes require the same amount of feedback bits from the receiver as single relay selection schemes.
We analyze the impact of imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the performance of bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) over fading channels. We develop a general, accurate and efficient theoretical error-free feedback bound (EF bound) to analyze the asymptotic bit-error rate (BER) of BICM-ID with imperfect CSI, and predict the BER floor due to channel estimation error. The convergence to the EF bound and the accuracy of the BER floor prediction are verified by simulation with various sets of code and channel parameters. These results are canonical, in that they apply to a variety of system configurations. Pilot symbol assisted modulation is used as a particular example for Rayleigh-fading channels.
In this paper, we focus on the diversity order of the decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative networks with relay selection. Many detection schemes have been proposed for the DF; but it has been shown that the cooperative maximum ratio combining (C-MRC) can achieve almost the same performance as the optimum maximum likelihood detector and has a much lower complexity. Therefore, we first combine the C-MRC with the relay selection and show that it achieves the full diversity order by deriving an upper bound of its average bit error rate (BER). In order to reduce the signaling overhead, we then combine the link-adaptive regeneration (LAR) with the relay selection. By deriving an upper bound of the average BER, we show that, when there are two relays, the diversity order of the LAR with relay selection is upper-bounded by three and lower-bounded by 3 - epsiv, where xi is an arbitrarily small positive number.
In this paper, we study the problem of supporting multicast traffic in wireless sensor networks with network coding. On one hand, coding operations can reduce power consumption and consequently improve the network lifetime. On the other hand, performing network coding requires the use of the limited resources of the sensor nodes such as memory and energy. We study the tradeoff between maximizing the network lifetime and minimizing the number of network coding operations. We introduce the coding flow variables which enable us to determine the rate at which different operations (e.g., forwarding, replication, and coding) are performed in each sensor node. Using the coding flow variables, we formulate the maximum-lifetime minimum-resource (MLMR) coding subgraph problem as a linear programming problem. The objective in MLMR problem is to jointly maximize the network lifetime and minimize the rate of performing network coding. We propose an MLMR algorithm in order to obtain the optimal coding subgraph. We investigate the lifetime-resource tradeoff assuming that the cost of performing network coding varies for intermediate nodes. Simulation results show that the network lifetime can considerably be improved when the cost of performing network coding is relatively low compared to the case that this cost is high for intermediate nodes in the network. Moreover, results show that the network lifetime can substantially be increased using MLMR algorithm compared with the classical multicast with Steiner tree and another algorithm which uses network coding without considering the broadcast nature of wireless links.
This paper presents comprehensive experimental results obtained from narrowband and wideband radio-channel measurements in an underground mine with narrow veins at 2.4 GHz. From continuous-wave (CW) measurement data, large-scale distance-power curves and path-loss exponents of the environment are determined. Other relevant parameters, such as the mean excess delay, the maximum excess delay, the root-mean-square (rms) delay spread, and the coherence bandwidth are extracted from the wideband-measurement data. Results show a propagation behavior that is specific for these underground environments with rough surfaces. The rms delay spread does not follow a dual-slope relation with respect to distance, as in environments with smooth surfaces. Moreover, the dependence of the rms delay spread on the bidimensional position of the user is found to be very significant. For the majority of locations, the rms delay-spread values are less than 60 ns.
Wireless technologies sharing the same frequency band and operating in the same environment often interfere with each other, causing severe decrease in performance. We propose two coexistence mechanisms based on traffic scheduling techniques that mitigate interference between different wireless systems operating in the 2.4-GHz industrial, medical, and scientific band. In particular, we consider IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Bluetooth (BT) voice and data nodes, showing that the proposed algorithms can work when the two systems are able to exchange information as well as when they operate independently of one another. Results indicate that the proposed algorithms remarkably mitigate the interference between the IEEE 802.11 and BT technologies at the expense of a small additional delay in the data transfer. It is also shown that the impact of the interference generated by microwave ovens on the IEEE 802.11 WLANs performance can be significantly reduced through the mechanisms presented.
This paper presents outdoor propagation measurements together with derivative analysis, modeling, and simulation of the 2×2 fixed wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel. Experimental data were collected in the suburban residential areas of San Jose, CA, at 2.48 GHz by using dual-polarized antennas. Measurement results include the estimation of path loss, Rician K-factor, cross-polarization discrimination (CPD), correlation coefficients, and the MIMO channel capacity. An elaborate K-factor model that assumes variation over location, time, and frequency is developed. Distance-dependent CPD models of the variable and constant signal components are proposed. A generalized 2×2 MIMO channel model is then derived based on the correlation among the path loss, the copolarized K-factor, and the CPD's distribution of the constant and scattered signal components. Finally, the MIMO channel response is simulated using the newly developed model, and results are found to be well in agreement with measurements.
This paper contains measured data and empirical models for 2.5 and 60 GHz in-building propagation path loss and multipath delay spread. Path loss measurements were recorded using a broadband sliding correlator channel sounder which recorded over 39000 power delay profiles (PDPs) in 22 separate locations in a modern office building. Transmitters and receivers were separated by distances ranging from 3.5 to 27.4 m and were separated by a variety of obstructions, in order to create realistic environments for future single-cell-per-room wireless networks. Path loss data is coupled with site-specific information to provide insight into channel characteristics. These measurements and models may aid in the development of future in-building wireless networks in the unlicensed 2.4 and 60 GHz bands.
Growing use of point-to-multipoint fixed wireless networks to support network access and SCADA applications in suburban macrocell environments has prompted regulators to re-allocate various bands between 200 MHz and 2 GHz to such applications. Links in such networks are usually obstructed by buildings and foliage and are classified as non-line-of-sight. Although it is well-known that such links are susceptible to fading caused by windblown trees and foliage, most past efforts to characterize fading on such links have focused on frequency bands at 1.9 GHz and above. Here, we show how signal fading in the 220, 850 and 1900 MHz bands vary with both distance and time-averaged wind speed in a representative macrocell environment. Based upon time-series of received signal strength collected in a typical macrocell environment with moderate foliage at locations between 1 and 4 km from a transmitting site located 80 m above ground level, we show that fading on such links is relatively severe at 1.9 GHz but decreases rapidly as the carrier frequency decreases. We have expressed our results in the form of a first-order simulation model. Additional data will be required to estimate standardized model parameters that can be applied to a broad range of environments.
Third-generation code-division multiple access (CDMA) cellular systems incorporate a downlink transmission technique called transmit diversity (TD). This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of the performance and practical implementation issues of open-loop transmit diversity schemes for the IS-2000 third-generation cellular CDMA standard. Discussed in detail are orthogonal transmit diversity (OTD) and space-time spreading (STS) diversity schemes. STS is a TD technique that is motivated by space-time coding principles originally described for narrowband systems. OTD is a TD technique that obtains diversity not at the symbol level, but in the decoding process, and has performance that is in general lower bounded by STS, which obtains diversity combining prior to decoding. Thus, STS always outperforms OTD, with the improvement particularly significant in the presence of weak convolutional codes. Probability of error analysis is performed for STS under the assumptions of imperfect channel estimates, correlation between antennas, and unequal pilot power allocations. Extensions to STS are provided for the multicarrier version of the standard and four transmit antennas. Simulation studies are performed to detail the performance of both open-loop TD schemes with convolutional coding and closed-loop power control consistent with the 3GPP2/IS-2000 standard. Many of these results were generated in the course of the IS-2000 standardization procedure. Performance is studied in radio environments which experience flat Rayleigh fading, frequency selective Rayleigh fading, spatially selective fading, as well as Ricean fading with various K factors. Some additional results are presented for cases where mobile receivers have two receive antennas. Implementation issues are also considered including the impact of antenna delay differences on performance, transmitter and receiver architectures, and computational complexity.
A sensor network of nodes with wireless transceiver capabilities and limited energy is considered. We propose distributed algorithms to compute an optimal routing scheme that maximizes the time at which the first node in the network drains out of energy. The problem is formulated as a linear programming problem and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. The resulting algorithms have low computational complexity and are guaranteed to converge to an optimal routing scheme that maximizes the network lifetime. The algorithms are illustrated by an example in which an optimal flow is computed for a network of randomly distributed nodes. We also show how our approach can be used to obtain distributed algorithms for many different extensions to the problem. Finally, we extend our problem formulation to more general definitions of network lifetime to model realistic scenarios in sensor networks
In this paper, large-scale fading and temporal fading characteristics of the industrial radio channel at 900, 2400, and 5200 MHz are determined. In contrast to measurements performed in houses and in office buildings, few attempts have been made until now to model propagation in industrial environments. In this paper, the industrial environment is categorized into different topographies. Industrial topographies are defined separately for large-scale and temporal fading, and their definition is based upon the specific physical characteristics of the local surroundings affecting both types of fading. Large-scale fading is well expressed by a one-slope path-loss model and excellent agreement with a lognormal distribution is obtained. Temporal fading is found to be Ricean and Ricean K-factors have been determined. Ricean K-factors are found to follow a lognormal distribution.
We study upper and lower bounds on the achievable sum-rate of a correlated MIMO MAC with channel estimation error at the receiver when the correlation information is available to the users' transmitters, and prove that, for Gaussian input signals with arbitrary input covariance matrices, the gap between these bounds does not exceed a limiting value at any input transmit power. We further prove that in systems with uniform input power utilization over the transmit antennas, the gap between the mutual information bounds increases monotonically as the input power of each user increases. Furthermore, we show that in the absence of correlation, the gap between the mutual information bounds is maximum for beamforming and minimum for uniform input power allocation over the transmit antennas. We further prove that utilizing the input power of each user towards the directions of the eigenvectors of its transmit correlation matrix maximizes the mutual information lower bound. Moreover, we derive the transmit directions that maximize the mutual information lower and upper bounds in an uncorrelated MIMO MAC with delayed feedback from the receiver to the transmitters, and characterize the power allocation of this system in terms of its beamforming range. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our theoretical results.
This paper describes the attributes of the COST 259 directional channel model that are applicable for use in the design and implementation of macrocellular mobile and portable radio systems and associated technology. Special care has been taken to model all propagation mechanisms that are currently understood to contribute to the characteristics of practical macrocellular channels and confirm that large scale, small scale, and directional characteristics of implemented models are realistic through their comparison with available measured data. The model that is described makes full use of previously published work, as well as incorporating some new results. It is considered that its implementation should contribute to a too) that can be used for simulations and comparison of different aspects of a large variety of wireless communication systems, including those that exploit the spatial aspects of radio channels, as, for example, through the use of adaptive antenna systems
To deploy a multi-cell 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN), access point (AP) placement and channel assignment are two primary design issues. For a given pattern of traffic demands, we aim at maximizing not only the overall system throughput, but also the fairness in resource sharing among mobile terminals. A novel method for estimating the system throughput of multi-cell WLAN is proposed. An important feature of this method is that co-channel overlapping is allowed. Unlike conventional approaches that decouple AP placement and channel assignment into two phases, we propose to jointly solve the two problems for better performance. The optimal solution can be found using exhaustive searching. Due to the high computational complexity involved in exhaustive searching, an efficient local searching algorithm, called patching algorithm, is designed. Numerical results show that for a typical indoor environment, patching algorithm can provide a close-to-optimal performance with much lower time complexity than exhaustive searching
In this paper, we address the problem of the estimation of a spatial field defined over a two-dimensional space with wireless sensor networks. We assume that the field is (spatially) bandlimited and that it is sampled by a set of sensors which are randomly deployed in a given geographical area. Further, we impose a total bandwidth constraint which forces the quantization error in the sensor-to-FC (Fusion Center) channels to depend on the actual number of sensors in the network. With these assumptions, we derive an analytical expression of the mean-square error (MSE) in the reconstructed random field and, on that basis, an approximate closed-form expression of the optimal sensor density which attains the best trade-off in terms of observation, sampling and quantization noises. The analysis is carried out both in Gaussian and Rayleigh-fading scenarios without transmit Channel State Information (CSI). For the latter scenario, we also derive an expression of the common and constant rate at which the observations must be quantized. Computer simulation results illustrate the dependency of the optimal operating point on the variance of the observation noise or the signal-to-noise ratio in the sensor-to-FC channels, as well as the scaling law of the reconstruction MSE (which is also derived analytically) for both scenarios.
In this paper, an amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative strategy for interference limited networks is considered. In contrast to previously reported work, where the effect of interference is ignored, the effect of multi-user interference in AF schemes is analyzed. It is shown that the interference changes the statistical description of the conventional AF protocol and a statistical expression is subsequently derived. Asymptotic analysis of the expression shows that interference limits the diversity gain of the system and the related channel capacity is bounded by a stationary point. In addition, it is proven that previously proposed relay selection criteria for multi-relay scenarios become inefficient in the presence of interference. Based on consideration of the interference term, two extensions to the conventional max-min selection scheme suitable for different system setups are proposed. The extensions investigated are appropriate for legacy architectures with limitations on their flexibility where the max-min operation is pre-designed. A theoretical framework for selecting when to apply the proposed selection criteria is also presented. The algorithm investigated is based on some welldefined capacity approximations and incorporates the outage probabilities averaged over the fading statistics. Analytical results and simulation studies reveal enhancements of the proposed algorithm.
The operation and maintenance of the third generation (3G) mobile networks will be challenging. These networks will be strongly service driven, and this approach differs significantly from the traditional speech dominated in the second generation (2G) approach. Compared to 2G, in 3G, the mobile cells interact and interfere with each other more, they have hundreds of adjustable parameters, and they monitor and record data related to several hundreds of different variables in each cell. This paper shows that a neural network algorithm called the self-organizing map, together with a conventional clustering method like the k-means, can effectively be used to simplify and focus network analysis. It is shown that these algorithms help in visualizing and grouping similarly behaving cells. Thus, it is easier for a human expert to discern different states of the network. This makes it possible to perform faster and more efficient troubleshooting and optimization of the parameters of the cells. The presented methods are applicable for different radio access network technologies.
We propose a call (user) admission control (CAC) algorithm and a scheduling framework for real-time services in the enhanced third-generation (3G) cellular systems, e.g., WCDMA HSDPA or cdma2000 HDR systems, where multiple IP users share a time-slotted downlink packet channel in each cell. At the user or flow level, the CAC algorithm maximizes user accommodations under the QoS constraint, e.g., per-user expectation of profile rate, and the constraint of location-dependent resource availability. At the packet level, our scheduling framework, named maximum cost deduction (MCD), derives two algorithms - both are QoS-aware and channel-dependent: One is called real-time MCD (rt-MCD), which minimizes a delay-derived cost function of backlogged packets at the smallest timescale; the other is called non-real-time MCD (nrt-MCD), which balances between the real-time delay deduction and the non-real-time (i.e., large-timescale) per-user fairness. The cross-layer designed CAC and MCD algorithms exploit multi-user diversity based on online measured radio resource allocation. Together they provide high system efficiency and a balance between flow-level QoS (e.g. the aggregate goodput and the blocking rate of newly arrived users) and packet-level QoS (e.g., the packet queueing delay or loss). Extensive simulations and comparisons with the prior art show that our algorithms can deliver efficient real-time services and remain robust to different load scenarios that vary according to system dynamics and/or user mobility
This paper proposes an architecture for interworking heterogeneous all-IP networks with an in-depth analysis of its performance. The novelty of this framework is that it freely enables any 3G cellular technology, such as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) or the CDMA 2000 system, to interwork with a given broadband wireless access (BWA) system, such as the Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) network or the wireless local area network (WLAN) via a common signaling plane. As a universal coupling mediator for real-time session negotiation and management between these dissimilar networks, the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) has been exploited. The analytical evaluation investigates the behavior of handoff delay, transient packet loss, jitter, and signaling cost during a vertical handoff for the given framework. Finally, an OPNET based simulation platform has been introduced for the verification of the analytical model and results.
Soft vertical handoff (VHO) and admission control are usually considered as two independent mechanisms ensuring respectively packet-level QoS and call-level QoS for voice calls in loosely coupled 3G/WLAN networks. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the soft VHO on the blocking performance of the optimal voice admission control in different mobility environments where the WLAN operates the Point Coordination Function (PCF). For this purpose, we propose an accurate analytical mobility model for the soft VHO region. Then, based on the proposed model, we derive and analyze the blocking and dropping probability expressions of the optimal voice admission control algorithm in the 3G network loosely coupled to the PCF-based WLAN. Results show us that a resource-efficient soft handoff (RESHO) performs significantly better than a static-threshold soft handoff (STSHO) particularly in WLAN mobility environments. In fact, the 3G new call blocking probability reduction gained by using RESHO compared to STSHO is largely increased when mobile station (MS) velocities have low mean and high variability which typically characterizes theWLAN mobility environment. Besides, results show us that RESHO reduces all blocking and dropping probabilities.We believe that the provided model and the presented results could help design efficient MS controlled soft VHO algorithms for emergent loosely coupled 3G/WLAN networks.
For better capacity and higher availability, present day third generation (3G) wireless systems based on the code division multiple access(CDMA) technology are evolving to operate on multiple carriers (frequencies) spread over multiple bands. In order to provide better quality of service, the 3GB (3rd generation and beyond) systems need to distribute calls equitably to different carriers on different base-stations accessible to the mobiles irrespective of the bands or carriers on which those mobiles initiated their calls. However, there is a risk of call failure when a call originated on a carrier in a band is migrated to another carrier in a different band, particularly because of the differences in the radio coverage of the base-stations operating in different bands. This paper presents a class of methods that offer equal robustness against call failures and varying degrees of call distribution effectiveness. For call distribution, these methods employ an enhanced carrier capacity measure (ECM) proposed in this paper. ECM augments the gross capacities of the carriers (to house calls) with pre-configured biases specific to the mobile users. We develop here an intuitively appealing distribution-effectiveness measure based on the ECM for comparing the methods. Relative performances of the proposed methods with respect to call failure rate and distribution effectiveness are established by means of simulation results for calls originating anywhere in the cell coverage area as well as calls originating exclusively near the cell boundaries. The latter results help to study the effect of mobility on the performances of the algorithms.
This paper analyzes the authentication and key agreement protocol adopted by Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), an emerging standard for third-generation (3G) wireless communications. The protocol, known as 3GPP AKA, is based on the security framework in GSM and provides significant enhancement to address and correct real and perceived weaknesses in GSM and other wireless communication systems. In this paper, we first show that the 3GPP AKA protocol is vulnerable to a variant of the so-called false base station attack. The vulnerability allows an adversary to redirect user traffic from one network to another. It also allows an adversary to use authentication vectors corrupted from one network to impersonate all other networks. Moreover, we demonstrate that the use of synchronization between a mobile station and its home network incurs considerable difficulty for the normal operation of 3GPP AKA. To address such security problems in the current 3GPP AKA, we then present a new authentication and key agreement protocol which defeats redirection attack and drastically lowers the impact of network corruption. The protocol, called AP-AKA, also eliminates the need of synchronization between a mobile station and its home network. AP-AKA specifies a sequence of six flows. Dependent on the execution environment, entities in the protocol have the flexibility of adaptively selecting flows for execution, which helps to optimize the efficiency of AP-AKA both in the home network and in foreign networks.
The selection of a suitable transport format combination (TFC) according to the system load condition is one important issue of the radio resource management (RRM) in 3GPP W-CDMA systems. Different TFCs specify different ways of transmitting user data input from logical channels. It is observed that data transmission with a higher data rate will suffer a higher bit error rate (BER). This paper investigates the impact of BER on the selection of optimal TFC for transmitting the user data. Two filtering strategies are proposed to filter out infeasible TFCs so that the optimal TFC can be selected to achieve high performance. Moreover, an imbedded Markov chain is developed to evaluate the proposed strategies. From the simulation results, the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed strategies are demonstrated as well. We are suggesting that, for the design of an optimal TFC selection algorithm, the proposed TFC filtering strategy shall be taken into consideration.
In this paper a Markov chain based analytical model is proposed to evaluate the slotted CSMA/CA algorithm specified in the MAC layer of IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The analytical model consists of two two-dimensional Markov chains, used to model the state transition of an 802.15.4 device, during the periods of a transmission and between two consecutive frame transmissions, respectively. By introducing the two Markov chains a small number of Markov states are required and the scalability of the analytical model is improved. The analytical model is used to investigate the impact of the CSMA/CA parameters, the number of contending devices, and the data frame size on the network performance in terms of throughput and energy efficiency. It is shown by simulations that the proposed analytical model can accurately predict the performance of slotted CSMA/CA algorithm for uplink, downlink and bi-direction traffic, with both acknowledgement and non-acknowledgement modes.
In this paper, we introduce a new transmit architecture that employs a 2-dimensional Fourier Transform and a 2-dimensional cyclic prefix (2D-CP) at the base station. In addition, the proposed scheme incorporates relay nodes that forward the received signals with one OFDM symbol delay. The new method introduces artificial frequency, time and spatial diversity, and unlike previously proposed relaying communication systems, the proposed scheme requires only a single transmission phase. Extensive system simulation studies have shown impressive system throughput gain compared to a single hop and conventional 2-hop systems.
Theoretical capacity calculations and corresponding simulations show significant capacity/throughput gains from MIMO systems. Whether these gains are achievable in a real system, deployed in a practical environment, depends on a variety of factors, such as the choice of the communication algorithms, analog impairments and the "quality" of the wireless channel to sustain MEMO communications. In this paper, a 5.25 GHz broadband MIMO-OFDM testbed is described along with field measurements conducted with it. The MIMO-OFDM communication algorithms and also the impact of analog impairments on the performance of the system are described. Detailed system calibration results are described which serve as a baseline for results of field measurements. The results of wireless measurements are compared with the theoretical capacity, computed with the channel estimates obtained during the demodulation process. The average achievable capacity in the indoor wireless environment is shown to be 9.97 bps/Hz (bits per sec per Hz) while the capacity loss due to analog impairments and the choice of algorithms is about 2.33 bps/Hz. Also, field measurements conducted with the system in various environments are presented comparing the average throughput/capacity achieved in each of these environments.
Multiple transmitters and receivers can be used to provide high link capacity in future wireless systems. Herein, an analysis of indoor environment multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) measurements in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 5.8 GHz is performed and the possible increase in capacity, utilizing multiple transmitters and receivers is examined. The investigation shows that in the measured indoor environment, the scattering is sufficiently rich to provide substantial link capacity increases. Furthermore, the effect of intra-element spacing on the channel capacity is studied. Our investigation also shows that the envelope of the channel coefficients for this obstructed-line-of-sight (OLOS) indoor scenario is approximately Rayleigh distributed and the MIMO channel covariance matrix can be well approximated by a Kronecker product of the covariance matrices describing the correlation at the transmitter side and the receiver side, respectively. A statistical narrowband model for the OLOS indoor MIMO channel based on this covariance structure is presented.
This paper presents propagation measurements in the presence of human activity for a 60 GHz channel. Series of 40-min-long measurements of the channel impulse response have been recorded with a sampling period of 1.6 ms, for a total duration of about 20 h. During measurements, the human activity (between zero and 15 persons) was observed with a video camera. The obstruction phenomenon due to the human bodies is characterized in duration and amplitude from the propagation characteristics (attenuation, coherence bandwidth) by means of an appropriate method. The results highlight and quantify the problems due to the human activity for high data rate communication systems. When the direct path is shadowed by a person, the attenuation generally increases by more than 20 dB, for a median duration of about 100 ms for an activity of one to five persons and 300 ms for 11-15 persons. Globally, the channel is "unavailable" for about 1% or 2% of the time in the presence of one to five persons. This channel characterization makes it possible to modelize the temporal variations of the 60 GHz channels. The results also give orientations for the design of high data rate communications systems and networks architectures at 60 GHz.
60 GHz radio is a very attractive technology for short-range wireless communication due to its capability to provide Gbps data rate. To address the neighbor discovery (ND) problem in 60 GHz networks, we propose a novel analytical framework to investigate the ND performance. The main difficulty in modeling the ND process in a 60 GHz network is the involvement of the directional antennas with gain differences between the antenna's main lobe and side lobes. Different antenna modes - directional or omni-directional - coupled with different ND mechanisms make the analytical study demanding. In this article, we propose a comprehensive theoretical model to demonstrate the performance of ND processes using one-way ND and handshake-based ND mechanisms. Moreover, we combine them with different antenna modes, i.e., directional transmitting with omni-directional listening (DO) and directional transmitting with directional listening (DD) modes. The impact of antenna modes on the ND process is analyzed. Since 60 GHz radio is prone to co-channel interference, we examine a realistic interference-aware link model and antenna pattern via simulation studies. Our work is specifically beneficial to provide guidelines for applying directional neighbor discovery process within 60 GHz wireless networks.
This paper presents the measurements, the statistical results and channel models extracted by impulse response measurements of an indoor 60 GHz radio channel. The measurements were based on the pulse sounding technique. Multipath parameters that characterize the channel have been extracted and analyzed statistically concerning corridors and offices locations. The mean excess delay is in the range of 3.84 to 8.18 ns for hallways and 3.52 to 14.69 ns for offices. Additionally, rms delay spread varies from 12.34 to 15.04 ns in corridors and from 12.56 to 21.09 ns inside the laboratory. The coherence bandwidth varies between 13.88 and 30.49 MHz in corridors with a mean value of 22.48 MHz. Inside offices the mean coherence bandwidth is 22.80 MHz for LoS locations and drops to 7.05 MHz for NLoS. Small-scale models for all the measured locations were developed using tapped delay lines. The maximum Doppler frequency of the modeled channel remains around 1 Hz, whereas the coherence time is calculated 1.04 s, which indicates that the channel remains, almost stationary, exhibiting very slow fading. Finally, from the models it is derived that the channel preserves WSS and US characteristics giving rise to a WSSUS representation.
The problem of frequency synchronization, channel estimation, and data detection for all active users in the uplink of an OFDMA system is investigated in this work. Since the exact maximum likelihood (ML) solution to this problem turns out to be too complex for practical purposes, we derive an alternative scheme that operates in an iterative fashion. At each step, the superimposed signals arriving at the base station (BS) are separated by means of the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm. Each separated signal is then passed to an expectation-conditional maximization (ECM)-based processor that updates frequency estimates and performs channel estimation and data detection for each user. The resulting architecture is reminiscent of the parallel interference cancellation (PIC) receiver, where interference is generated and removed from the received signal to improve the system performance. Simulations indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms other benchmark solutions at the price of increased computational complexity
One of the challenges today for wireless network operators is to find techniques which will make it possible to introduce multimedia capabilities into mobile communications. The application of a wireless network structure made up of pico-cells to solve this problem will cause an increase in the handover rate. Therefore, a major requirement in a wireless environment is to design an effective call admission control (CAC) strategy to minimize the handover drop probability. Another important requirement is to maximize network utilization in terms of the mean number of channels used. The goal of this paper is to define a resource management strategy for heterogeneous adaptive-rate traffic. The proposed strategy is actually a combination of two: a CAC management strategy and a bandwidth management one. The CAC management strategy extends the Guard Channel strategy to obtain priority-based CAC management for adaptive-rate sources; the bandwidth management strategy allows channels to be assigned proportionally to the throughput window declared by users. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed CAC strategy, two Markov models of the system are introduced: one, from the network point of view, to evaluate global system performance, and another, from the user point of view, to evaluate the performance each user is provided with by the network. Numerical examples conclude the paper to analyze which factors most affect performance when the source rate is adaptive and the proposed admission strategy is applied.
In this paper, we present an analytic model for evaluating the queueing delays at nodes using the IEEE 802.11 point coordination function (PCF) MAC for real time, delay sensitive traffic. We develop a queueing model to obtain closed form expressions for the expected delay at each node which accounts for arbitrary (but fixed) packet sizes, polling rates, channel rates and the order in which the nodes are polled. The model is then further extended to account for the delays when the nodes use power management, and for cases when not all nodes are served in a frame. Our analytical results are verified through simulations. The model is also extended to evaluate the number of nodes that can be supported by a base station while satisfying an arbitrary delay requirement at all nodes and can be used as a mechanism for admission control by the base station
In this paper, we model the problem of bandwidth sharing in wireless multi-hop networks as a general utility maximization problem with link bandwidth constraints. Lagrangean relaxation and duality are invoked to derive a gradient-based iterative algorithm to solve the problem. We then investigate the practical aspects of the problem and discuss how such theoretical framework can be used to design practical fair media access control frameworks that can be implemented in real systems based on the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function.
In this paper, we provide a throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.11 protocol at the data link layer in non-saturated traffic conditions taking into account the impact of both transmission channel and capture effects in Rayleigh fading environment. The impact of both non-ideal channel and capture become important in terms of the actual observed throughput in typical network conditions whereby traffic is mainly unsaturated, especially in an environment of high interference. We extend the multi-dimensional Markovian state transition model characterizing the behavior at the MAC layer by including transmission states that account for packet transmission failures due to errors caused by propagation through the channel, along with a state characterizing the system when there are no packets to be transmitted in the buffer of a station. Finally, we derive a linear model of the throughput along with its interval of validity. Simulation results closely match the theoretical derivations confirming the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Due to the low cost and ease of deployment, single- hop and multi-hop 802.11 networks have become attractive solutions for providing last-mile broadband (wireless) access in urban environments. However, a critical issue in using such networks to support applications such as Voice over IP is the widely known overheads in the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and Physical (PHY) layer for each transmission. The effect of these overheads can be more severe in multi-hop deployments, and can limit the number of VoIP calls per Gateway Access Point (GAP) in a multi-hop system to be no greater than that of a single-hop single-GAP system. In this paper, we build upon our previous work that showed that a multi-hop network, with one GAP using a single channel, can in fact support more users than a single-hop network. To do so functions such as aggregation have to be intelligently used at relays in the network. We build on this prior work giving a theoretical framework that considers the joint tradeoff of aggregation, bursting, and PHY rate adaptation given a set of admission and routing decisions. We compare call-capacity estimates from the theory to those derived from simulations, and illustrate through examples the advantages of considering routing/admission decisions jointly with bursting and aggregation.
In this paper we evaluate analytically the average occupancy of the transmission buffer of a 802.11 station (STA). The station belongs to a Wi-Fi Hot-Spot and exchanges data with a fixed host. The data exchange is regulated by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The research interest is motivated by the fact that several papers assume that in these conditions the STA buffer is nearly empty. On the contrary, we prove that this assumption may be wrong and discuss the consequences of this fact. We test the proposed model by means of ns2 simulation, ascertain its accuracy, and highlight its limits.
This paper investigates the near-memoryless behavior of the service time for IEEE 802.11 saturated single-hop ad hoc networks. We show that the number of packets successfully transmitted by any node over a time interval follows a general distribution, which is close to a Poisson distribution with an upper bounded distribution distance. The bound on the distribution distance is almost constant and is mainly affected by some system parameters and very slightly by the number of active nodes in the network. We also show that the service time distribution can be approximated by a geometric distribution. We illustrate that the usage of discrete-time queuing analysis (M/Geo/1) near network saturation greatly simplifies the queuing analysis and leads to sufficiently accurate results for both the first order statistics and the probability distribution of the number of packets in the queuing system. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the M/Geo/1 queuing model is very accurate.
The IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) enables fast installation with minimal management and maintenance costs, and is a very robust protocol for the best effort service in wireless medium. However, the current DCF is unsuitable for real-time applications. This paper studies backoff-based priority schemes for IEEE 802.11 and the emerging IEEE 802.11e standard by differentiating the minimum backoff window size, the backoff window-increasing factor, and the retransmission limit. An analytical model is proposed to derive saturation throughputs, saturation delays, and frame-dropping probabilities of different priority classes for all proposed priority schemes. Simulations are conducted to validate analytical results. The proposed priority schemes can be easily implemented, and the results from this paper are beneficial in designing good priority parameters.
This paper proposes a new call admission control (CAC) scheme for one-hop homogeneous 802.11 DCF networks. Using the proposed scheme, we can perform admission control quickly and easily without the need for network performance measurements and complex calculations. The CAC rule is derived under asymptotic conditions, but our extensive numerical examples show that it works well for practical-sized networks with a finite retransmission limit and realistic nonsaturated traffic.
With the rapid development in wireless communication technologies, the IEEE 802.11 WLANs are experiencing a huge popularity and widespread deployment. Designed with traditional layered architecture, current WLANs adopt functional layer partitioning and aim at optimization at individual layers. However, in a highly dynamic and media sharing wireless environment, the capacity enhancements at individual physical layers may not necessarily benefit, and sometimes even degrade the system performance with multiple users. It has been shown that in a multiuser setting, one can increase the throughput substantially if partial knowledge of the channels at the receiver sides is known. The challenge is to make good matching of the instantaneous channel conditions of multiple users with the bandwidth and time allocation to each user. In this paper, we address the issue of cross layer design in the proposed "weighted fair scheduling based on adaptive rate control" (WFS-ARC) framework, where the PHY layer knowledge is shared with the MAC and LLC layer in order to provide efficient resource allocation. We evaluate the WFS-ARC approach in ns-2 and the simulation results demonstrate that our design can significantly improve the system throughput.
A new approach for modeling and performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol is presented. The approach is based on the so-called system approximation technique, where the protocol service time distribution of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol is studied and approximated by an appropriate phase-type distribution, leading to the construction of a versatile queueing model which is amenable to analysis and, at the same time, general enough to allow for bursty arrival process as well as key statistical characteristics of the protocol operations. The versatility of the model is demonstrated by considering Markov modulated and on/off arrival processes as well as various data frame size distributions. The accuracy of the analytical results is verified by simulation.
In this paper, we evaluate and enhance the performance of a Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC). A novel retransmission combining technique is proposed to enhance the performance of the MAC-level FEC scheme.,We also identify the problem with the IEEE 802.11a physical (PHY) layer when it is used with the MAC-level FEC. A new PHY frame format, backward compatible with the original format, is proposed to resolve the problem. Finally, we analytically evaluate the error performance of the MAC-level FEC, and its enhanced performance via retransmission combining and new 802.11a PHY frame format in AWGN environment. Additionally, we present and discuss the results from simulations using TCP/UDP traffic in more realistic channel environments.
This paper presents a new two-step mathematical model which analyzes the throughput of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) with the automatic rate fallback (ARF) rate adaptation algorithm. First, the ARF algorithm is modeled as a discrete-time Markov chain and, from the Markov chain, the station distribution among physical rates is obtained. Then, it is fed to the DCF throughput model which takes the backoff mechanism into account. This two-step approach simplifies the overall model by separating the ARF algorithm and the backoff mechanism in modeling.