IEEE Pervasive Computing

Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Online ISSN: 1558-2590
Print ISSN: 1536-1268
Publications
The graphical representation of a HMM  
Example of CRF for eating activity  
Extraction of motion patterns from sensor data [5]  
In principle, activity recognition can be exploited to great societal benefits, especially in real-life, human centric applications such as elder care and healthcare. This article focused on recognizing simple human activities. Recognizing complex activities remains a challenging and active area of research and the nature of human activities poses different challenges. Human activity understanding encompasses activity recognition and activity pattern discovery. The first focuses on accurate detection of human activities based on a predefined activity model. An activity pattern discovery researcher builds a pervasive system first and then analyzes the sensor data to discover activity patterns.
 
First, the phenomenon of blogging changed the rules for online publishing. Now, podcasting has opened the world of online broadcasting to anyone with a PC, a microphone, and a net connection. Don't be mistaken, podcasting, which gets its name from a combination of broadcasting and the Apple iPod, isn't just for fun and games. You can find plenty of podcasts focused on music, talk-radio style banter, and humor, but podcasts also now serve key purposes for news organizations, businesses, and even politicians trying to connect with voters. Furthermore, they're making news in education, especially in universities with the resources and funding to support early applications
 
The key research topics at UbiComp 2003 were location and space, modeling and inference, context awareness, new devices and technologies, domestic environments and healthcare, social aspects, and new interfaces. Research from Intel, the University of Washington, and Georgia Tech dominated the conference.
 
The Sixth IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications took place in December 2004 in England’s Lake District. WMCSA 2004 continued the trend of a high-quality interactive workshop focused on mobile and ubiquitous applications, systems, and environments, as well as their underlying state-of-the-art technologies.
 
Mobile HCI is rapidly becoming one of the prime conferences on human-computer interaction with mobile technology. Its sixth edition took place on 13-16 September in Glasgow, where it originated in 1998. The conference, chaired by Mark Dunlop (University of Strathclyde) and Stephen Brewster (Glasgow University), gathered a heterogeneous group of academics and practitioners that has acquired a unique identity over the past five years. This year's contributions highlighted four research areas: evaluation methods and techniques, context-adaptive systems (including user adaptation, location technology, and power management), the tension between experience and reflection, and interaction styles (auditory, small-display presentation, tilt and touch input, and text entry).
 
At the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Computing, researchers and practitioners in all areas of pervasive and ubiquitous computing met in palatial surroundings to participate in workshops, technical presentations, and a doctoral colloquium.
 
PerCom 2004's theme was the emergence of the pervasive computing and communications paradigm with the goal of providing computing and communication services all the time, everywhere. The featured research represented the advances in pervasive computing and communications, including wireless networks, mobile computing, distributed computing, and agent technologies that will help realize this goal.
 
Some members of the ubiquitous computing community feel that application-led research needs to make more coherent progress. Their perception is that with few exceptions, such research is neither systematically building on what little new knowledge it has derived so far nor setting specific challenges and benchmarks to guide its progress. In light of these concerns, the 2005 UbiApp workshop's tenet was that ubiquitous computing research could benefit from better metrics for the selection, analysis, and evaluation of applications and common infrastructure. The workshop aimed to identify methodological problems in the way researchers conduct application-led research and to recommend how to address these problems.
 
The 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing focused on new middleware, software engineering approaches, widescale interdomain deployment, techniques and benchmarking for evaluation of ubicomp systems. The conference featured two paper sessions and three panel discussions to discuss the possibility of common set of ubicomp abstractions and a platforms to facilitate research. Researchers presented their research covering new applications and services for capturing images and context, augmenting the images and context with sound, and sharing them via the Web or in printed form. Various participants stressed the need of evaluation and benchmarking of ubicomp systems research. The use of furniture and architecture with integrated electronics, and room-based sensor system, was presented. Various features of integrated document and metadata system used for supporting different types of sessions, security, privacy, and efficient document handling, were discussed.
 
The 10th annual IEEE Computer Society International Symposium on Wearable Computers took place on the shores of Lake Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2006. ISWC is the premier conference in wearable computing, featuring the latest in technical advances and fashions. Attendees came from both academia and industry, representing a broad spectrum of nationalities and technical interests, with more than 150 participants from 19 countries. The papers, posters, and demonstrations at the conference focused on several themes. The conference had sessions on activity recognition, location systems, interface evaluation, input devices and sensors, and wearability
 
Rigorous electromagnetic methods are applied to calculate the propagation constants and the fields of the allowed guided modes in uniaxial slab waveguides for an arbitrary orientation of the optic axis. In addition to the familiar TE and TM modes, there are hybrid guided modes. These hybrid guided modes can be divided into three distinct types: homogeneous pure guided modes, inhomogeneous pure guided modes, and leaky guided modes. The conditions for the existence of these pure guided and leaky guided modes are derived. A quantitative method of classifying the hybrid modes in terms of the limiting decoupled TE and TM cases within that mode where the ordinary and extraordinary polarizations propagate independently is introduced. For each mode the propagation constant has a continuous band of allowed values as a function of optic axis orientation. Metal-indiffused positive-birefringent (lithium tantalate) and metal-in-diffused and proton-exchange negative-birefringent (lithium niobate) planar waveguides are treated for illustration. This analysis of hybrid guided modes is important, not only for the design and use of anisotropic waveguides, but also suggests a new class of waveguide devices based on material birefringence
 
Like the First IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, held in 1994, the 2006 workshop aimed to foster interaction between mobile computing practitioners. In keeping with this goal, we returned to a small, informal workshop with few papers but significant discussions. We accepted just nine papers, but we had two important group discussions, two exciting panels, and an insightful keynote address. To reflect these changes, the steering committee changed the nickname of this year's workshop to HotMobile 2006. Approximately 40 people attended the two-day event, held at the Semiahmoo resort in Blaine, Washington.
 
This year, the 11th International Symposium on Wearable Computers returned to the city where it began: Boston, Massachusetts. ISWC is the premier conference in wearable computing, reporting the latest advances in research and technology. As in previous years, attendees came both from academia and industry, representing a broad spectrum of nationalities and technical interests. The year 2008's program emphasized gesture and activity recognition but also reported on power considerations, augmented reality, evaluation, and new interaction modalities, among other topics.
 
Pervasive computing is as much about the user as it is about the technology. So, the Fifth International Conference on Pervasive Computing emphasized desirability rather than just feasibility. Featured themes included user benefits, human-computer interaction, group and social interactions, context awareness, finding and positioning people and objects, and personal privacy.
 
Pervasive 2007 hosted an incredible full day of workshops before the main conference. One-hundred twenty enthusiastic participants in eight great workshops discussed experiences and ideas on particular aspects of pervasive computing with like-minded researchers and practitioners. The variety of projects presented demonstrated how truly interdisciplinary the Pervasive conference has become.
 
HotMobile 2008 presented a two-day program on mobile computing systems and applications. The authors focuses on the sessions on sensors, modularity, wireless, security, systems, and screens. The mobile device is the most amazing invention in history and that it has had the largest impact on human kind. Because mobile phones combine mobile devices with ongoing developments in software and communication technologies, they have the potential to change the way people think and act.
 
Sixteen PhD students presented their research at the PhD Forum at PerCom 2009. The PhD forum offered the students an opportunity for interaction with and feedback from senior researchers in pervasive computing.
 
We report on the current state and future direction of ubiquitous VR, based on presentations and discussions during the 2009 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality. In the symposium, enabling technologies and applications for realizing ubiquitous VR on mobile devices are discussed and several approaches were proposed aimed at improving ubiquitous VR applications with pervasive and ubiquitous computing technologies.
 
The International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality (ISUVR) series continues to provide an interdisciplinary forum for leading researchers and graduate students, especially in the areas of ubiquitous computing, virtual reality, and augmented reality. The 2010 symposium's theme, "Toward a Digital Ecosystem," emphasized the roles of end users in actively creating and maintaining content in a managed systematic way, referred to as the digital ecosystem.
 
This report summarizes the work presented in the 8th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys 2010). This conference included a keynote talk given by Rosalind W. Picard, a keynote by Deborah L. Estrin, and eight distinctive sessions covering different aspects of mobile computing. All the interesting and diverse talks made the conference fruitful and inspiring.
 
HotMobile is SIGMOBILE's highly selective, interactive workshop focused on mobile applications, systems, and environments, as well as their underlying state-of-the-art technologies. Themes from this year's workshop were mobile and urban computing, security, privacy, and sensing.
 
This survey article proposes the idea that advertising is the next major application for ubiquitous computing. Part of the support for this idea is that ubiquitous computing applications will very likely be supported by advertising, continuing the success of advertising on the Worldwide Web and paralleling the predicted growth of mobile advertising. More interesting, however, is that ubiquitous computing will eventually support advertising in several ways. The author explains how advertisers are already adopting certain ubiquitous computing technologies, and shows how ubiquitous computing research can help advertisers in the areas of ad targeting, ad feedback, customer awareness, and privacy. The article concludes with a scenario illustrating ubiquitous advertising along with suggestions for ubiquitous computing researchers in light of the author's predictions.
 
Story Play scenario. (a) Marie and her dad read together with Grandma over videoconference. (b) Marie engages Elmo to make him talk about the page.  
The Family Story Play system. The wooden housing uses magnetic switches to detect magnets on each page. A custom video conferencing client reads page sensors over USB and transmits page information to the remote videoconference partner.  
Family Story Play is an interactive book-reading system designed for two-to-four-year-olds that couples videoconferencing with paper books and interactive content to support grandparents reading together with their grandchildren over the Internet. The Story Play system is designed to improve the amount and quality of interaction between children and distant grandparents by shifting interactions from conversation to shared activities. Ethnographic methods provide a rich understanding of current family practices. Findings from this research help the authors articulate the design rationale behind Story Play and express opportunities in a broader design space for family communication.
 
Ubiquitous computing's overarching goal is for technology to disappear into the background yet remain useful to users. A technique from the field of psychology - the experience sampling method - could help researchers improve ubiquitous computing's evaluation process.
 
In a previous study, we evaluated six 2D barcodes using eight criteria for standardization potential: omnidirectional symbol reading, support for low-resolution cameras, reading robustness under different lighting conditions, barcode reading distance, error correction capability, security, support for multiple character sets, and data capacity. We also considered the fidelity of the camera phone's captured image as a metric for gauging reading reliability. Here, we review the six 2D barcodes and then use an additional metric - a first-read rate - to quantitatively verify our earlier results and better gauge reading reliability.
 
Building a good content adaptation service for mobile devices poses many challenges. To meet these challenges, this quality-of-service-aware decision engine automatically negotiates for the appropriate adaptation decision for synthesizing an optimal content version.
 
A sample mix zone arrangement with three application zones. The airline agency (A) is much closer to the bank (B) than the coffee shop (C). Users leaving A and C at the same time might be distinguishable on arrival at B.
Floor plan layout of the laboratory. Combinations of the labeled areas form the mix zones z 1 , z 2 , and z 3 , described in the main text.
A technique called as the mix-zone, a new construction inspired by anonymous communication techniques, together with metrics for assessing user anonymity is discussed. Mix zones are based on location privacy, a particular type of information privacy. The applications of location privacy in pervasive computing are also discussed. When location systems track users automatically on an ongoing basis, they generate an enormous amount of potentially sensitive information. Privacy of location information controls access to this information.
 
A prototype pervasive computing infrastructure, Gaia, which allows applications and services to reason about uncertainty, using an uncertainty model, is described. The model is based on a predicate representation of contexts and associated confidence values, and uses mechanisms like probabilistic logic, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian networks. Gaia's context infrastructure provides services and libraries that help entities acquire and reason about uncertain contextual information. Access control decisions in Gaia use fuzzy reasoning, and Bayesian network is used for troubleshooting the environment.
 
More recently, personal area network connectivity in vehicles has evolved, bringing with it a new set of challenges and associated opportunities. Principal among these challenges is the last-inch problem. The telecommunications industry uses the term "last mile" to refer to the challenge of bringing high-bandwidth connectivity to individual homes. We use the term "last inch" to characterize the challenges of delivering computing services through in-vehicle human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to users who are sometimes driving at speeds upwards of 70 miles per hour. We focus on the nonfunctional requirements of security, privacy, usability, and reliability (SPUR)). These attributes both encompass safety concerns and offer insight into the consumer experience. We took the SPUR requirements into account in designing our vehicle consumer services interface (VCSI), a service-oriented middleware architecture that we've implemented in a demonstration vehicle
 
Micro power generator: (a) the power management circuit (which consists of a voltage multiplier and a storage capacitor) and the micro power transducer (with the magnet in the center), and an assembled AA-sized MPG containing the power management circuit and two MPTs; and (b) the micro power transducer's inner structure, showing the coil wound around the inner housing.
Transient response of the start-up circuit and system supply during start-up and usage: (a) input voltages to the start-up circuit (top trace) and the corresponding start-up circuit output (bottom trace), (b) an oscilloscope trace showing voltages at different points, and (c) a block diagram of the system.
Energy efficiency versus resistive load for V th (H) = 1.8 V and V th (L) = 1.4 V (from PSpice simulations).
This paper deals with the vibration-to-electrical transducer that has an M-size form factor and generates a DC voltage that can power off-the-shelf integrated circuits. Vibration-powered wireless sensors obtain power from machine vibrations, human movement, or other forms of motion. The feasibility of incorporating micro power transducers (MPTs) with a voltage multiplier and rectifier to make a micro power generator (MPG) is demonstrated, that has the same size and shape as an AA battery. The AA-sized module includes a voltage multiplier and a large capacitor to produce the DC output
 
Plan B operating system is created to map abstract interfaces to files and adopts to file tree availability. The system is easy to program and offers a general purpose computing environment, as well as supports smart space without using middleware. Plan B is the first system that is used in all machines and all the applications in the environment and allows for more convenient programming of pervasive computing applications. Abstract interfaces are provided that is amenable to both users and applications through file trees. The file trees server also provides abstract operations on the resource and provides all the implementation for such operations, making it shared. Plan B uses various protocols to export resources such as Plan 9 File System Protocol that lets machines export and remotely use files. Plan B handles authentication and protection for the systems and does not require any administration domain and is known to scale well.
 
Teens' mobile phone and social media use has risen in the past few years. Teens are using these devices and applications at school, though not necessarily for school-related purposes. Given the widespread nature of these practices, it's important to understand the impact in school settings.
For research on pervasive computing technologies and youth to be truly significant, we must ask why mobile devices and social media applications are much less pervasive in the classroom than in other parts of youth life. Mobile devices and social media have considerable potential for learning, from both the individual-skills and socialization perspectives. However, acceptable-use policies have limited the use of mobile devices on school campuses as a response to the risks schools face in dealing with disruptive or harmful speech. Certain perceived risks and observed problems with regard to youth online underlie educators' attitudes toward pervasive technologies in formal learning settings. Educators, researchers, and designers must work together to increase understanding of the youth experience with pervasive computing technologies and provide greater access to these systems and applications in the formal schooling context.
 
Six people moving over the course of 15 time steps. Each user's location is annotated with the time stamp at which they move to the space. No time stamp indicates that they remain in that space. The table shows visibility events between users. The last column shows visibility events inferred by the system when the parameterizable time window is 1 and antennas 1–3, 4–11, and 12–19 are mutually visible.  
Average precision and recall for visibility events in each scenario. Each group of experimental results represents a single visibility event between two tags, except for the first, which is the average of A's visibility events with their objects.
To protect the privacy of RFID data after an authorized system captures it, this policy-based approach constrains the data users can access to system events that occurred when and where they were physically present. RFID security is a vibrant research area, with many protection mechanisms against unauthorized RFID cloning and reading attacks emerging. However, little work has yet addressed the complementary issue of protecting the privacy of RFID data after an authorized system has captured and stored it. We've investigated peer-to-peer privacy for personal RFID data through an access-control policy called Physical Access Control. PAC protects privacy by constraining the data a user can obtain from the system to those events that occurred when and where that user was physically present. While strictly limiting information disclosure, PAC also affords a database view that augments users' memory of places, objects, and people. PAC is appropriate as a default level of access control because it models the physical boundaries in everyday life. Here, we focus on the privacy, utility, and security issues raised by its implementation in the RFID Ecosystem.
 
We investigate how smart phones can augment site-specific services - that is, electronic services or applications that reside in a specific location. Site-specific services already exist in the form of ticket machines, electronic information kiosks, interactive product catalogues, and so on. However, integrating users' smart phones into these interactions can enhance service functionality while reducing deployment costs. Our approach offers several benefits. By using personal information stored on smart phones, site-specific services can automatically tailor their actions to suit a particular user. Our research led us to develop the Mobile Service Toolkit: a client-server software framework supporting the development of site-specific services that exploit interaction with smart phones. We discuss the Mobile Service Explorer (MST) and present case studies of two site-specific services implemented using it.
 
You can build an effective palmprint verification system using a combination of mostly off-the-shelf components and techniques. Access security is an important aspect of pervasive computing systems. It offers the system developer and end users a certain degree of trust in the use of shared computing resources. Biometrics verification offers many advantages over the username-plus-password approach for access control. Users don't have to memorize any codes or passwords, and biometric systems are more reliable because biometric characteristics can't easily be duplicated, lost, or stolen. Researchers have studied such biometric characteristics as faces, fingerprints, irises, voices, and palmprints.Facial appearance and features change with age. Fingerprints can be affected by surface abrasions or otherwise compromised. Capturing iris images is relatively difficult, and iris scans can be intrusive. Voices are susceptible to noise corruption and can be easily copied and manipulated. Palmprints are potentially a good choice for biometric applications because they're invariant with a person, easy to capture, and difficult to duplicate. They offer greater security than fingerprints because palm veins are more complex than finger veins. However, compared to other biometric characteristics, they have perhaps seen less research. This provides a big opportunity for advancing palmprint technology and applications. We've developed an effective prototype palmprint verification system using a combination of mostly off-the-shelf (and therefore tried and tested) components and techniques. Such an approach should make palmprint verification an appealing proposition.
 
The Universal Remote Console specification's structure and components.
V2, a technical committee of the International Committee for information technology standards is developing standards for information technology access interfaces. As part of this endeavor, V2 is to issue the Universal Remote Console architecture, a set of draft standards for public review and comment. The five standards specify communications between a Target - a device or service the user wishes to access and a universal remote console-software that is typically hosted on a user's personal device. The standards specify mechanisms for the discovery, selection, configuration, and operation of user interfaces and its options.
 
The AnySpot Web-service-based architecture. The clients (top left) include Web interfaces and external applications that integrate users' files into existing document devices or applications. External services (bottom left) process, route, and output documents, while file sources (right) offer a standard interface to files, folders, and file history across multiple file systems.  
The World Wide Web, wireless devices, and wireless networks have increased the opportunities for supporting pervasive document access and sharing. However, today's solutions remain spotty in their coverage for pervasive information needs. To address this, AynSpot is developed, a Web-service-based platform that seamlessly connects users to personal and shared documents wherever they go, meeting several key requirements of pervasive information access. This paper describes AnySpot's design principles and report our experience deploying it in a large, multinational organization.
 
A prototype RF-free receiver next to a AAA battery for size comparison.
Positioning experiment results: Computed paths for (a) manually calibrated system and (b) automatically calibrated systems. Comparison of (c) computed paths and (d) computed stationary position accuracy.
A positioning system's design must account for several aspects of usability, most of which are determined by the application the system supports. The development of inexpensive, easy-to-use positioning technology simplifies the deployment of location-based applications. To explore the ubiquitous positioning systems' design space we use the term accessibility, which encompasses all aspects of usability. We've at tempted to address several of these aspects in the design of ultrasonic positioning systems. Our solutions score better in some categories than in others, but our approach has enabled us to design and install more than 20 systems for use in permanent and temporary applications
 
Spectrogram of the sound of a multifrequency B-ASK (binary-amplitude shift key) modulated message with a 100ms symbol duration. Carrier frequencies are those of the musical notes of the pentatonic scale. The message is a sequence of 7-bit ASCII characters in which the higher-order bit is always 0. This sound resembles music played by soprano flutes.
Spectrogram of the sound coding an FSK-modulated 8-bit text string. The sinusoidal carrier frequencies are 20-Hz harmonics and the symbol duration is 100 ms. This acoustic message sounds like a bird.
The use of device-to-device aerial acoustic communications for enabling communication among small computing devices and humans in Ubicomp applications, is discussed. Sound expose the communication to humans when necessary and also location aspects of the communication. The designing aspects of an acoustic modem are also discussed. R2D2 modem transmits at an average bit rate of 35 bps. The experiment results show that constructing aerial acoustic modems in software and using the existing hardware infrastructure for sound is feasible.
 
A key aspect of pervasive computing is using computers and sensor networks to effectively and unobtrusively infer users' behavior in their environment. This includes inferring which activity users are performing, how they're performing it, and its current stage. Recognizing and recording activities of daily living is a significant problem in elder care. A new paradigm for ADL inferencing leverages radio-frequency-identification technology, data mining, and a probabilistic inference engine to recognize ADLs, based on the objects people use. We propose an approach that addresses these challenges and shows promise in automating some types of ADL monitoring. Our key observation is that the sequence of objects a person uses while performing an ADL robustly characterizes both the ADL's identity and the quality of its execution. So, we have developed Proactive Activity Toolkit (PROACT).
 
Distributed embedded systems such as wireless sensor and actuator networks require new programming models and software tools to support the rapid design and prototyping of sensing and control applications. Unlike centralized platforms and Web-based distributed systems, these distributed sensor-actuator network (DSAN) systems are characterized by a massive number of potentially failing nodes, limited energy and bandwidth resources, and the need to rapidly respond to sensor input. We describe a state-centric, agent-based design methodology to mediate between a system developer's mental model of physical phenomena and the distributed execution of DSAN applications. Building on the ideas of data-centric networking, sensor databases, and proximity-based group formation, we introduce the notion of collaboration groups, which abstracts common patterns in application-specific communication and resource allocation. Using a distributed tracking application with sensor networks, we'll demonstrate how state-centric programming can raise the abstraction level for application developers.
 
Connections in a MANET: (a) In a tight connection, each device is one hop away from any other device. (b) In a loose connection, devices and aren't within radio range but can communicate through and .  
Voronoi-based mobility model trajectories with obstacles. Red indicates the allowed pathways.
shows our pervasive architecture. Each device has a wireless stack consisting of a wireless network interface and the hardware for calculating distances from neighbors. On top, a network service interface offers to upper layers the basic services for sending and receiving messages (through multihop paths) to and from other devices, by abstracting over the specific routing protocols. Offered services (that is, specific applications supporting tasks of the devices' human users) are accessible to other devices and can be coordinated and composed cooperatively. Some of these services are applications that don't require human intervention (for example, an image-processing utility). Others act as S i j t , ( )
We're investigating a specific pervasive architecture that can maintain continuous connections among MANET devices. We're targeting this architecture for computer-supported-cooperative-work (CSCW) and workflow management applications that would constitute the coordination layer. The basic problem of such an architecture is, how do you predict possible disconnections of devices, to let the coordination layer appropriately address connection anomalies? To solve this problem, we've developed a technique for predicting disconnections in MANETS. This technique serves as the basic layer of an innovative pervasive architecture for cooperative work and activity coordination in MANETS. We believe that in emergency scenarios, our proposed pervasive architecture can provide more effective coordination among team members.
 
The Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Interoperability and Cooperation, or MANIAC, Challenge is a student competition aimed at a better understanding of cooperation and interoperability in ad hoc networks. It also hopes to encourage student interest in solving the complex issues involved in mobile-network technology. Student teams develop and program their strategy for routing and forwarding packets for other network nodes, using an API developed by us. During the competition, teams come together to generate a mobile ad hoc network. The cooperation strategies and the network topology, routing, and performance data collected provide valuable insights into how ad hoc networks will behave when widely deployed outside tightly controlled laboratory environments.
 
Mobile devices, such as smart phones, have become an important tool for content creation. Viewing or presenting content is the complement of creating it. Historically, rendering content such as music, pictures, email, and especially Web pages via mobile phones has been much more important than using a phone to create such content. Modern smart phones have a variety of media players and increasingly capable Web browsers, which are available for displaying or presenting different types of content. Phones have high-resolution color displays, stereo sound, lots of memory, and powerful processors, yet the rendering of content on mobile devices, especially Web content, still presents challenges. One major goal of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has been device-independent content or as they say in the Java community, "write once, display everywhere." Decoupling layout from rendering was supposed to make it possible to easily and clearly present Web content by using different browsers running in different-sized windows on different computers with different- sized screens.
 
Illustration of membership function definition for the linguistic variable AvailMem.
Delivering a complex application on a resource-constrained mobile device is challenging. An adaptive offloading system enables dynamic partitioning of the application and efficient offloading of part of its execution to a nearby surrogate. To deliver pervasive services without modifying the application or degrading its fidelity, we propose an adaptive offloading system that includes two key parts: a distributed offloading platform and an offloading inference engine. There are two important decision-making problems for adaptive offloading: adaptive offloading triggering and efficient application partitioning.
 
Survey results: (a) relative-advantage factors of the iPod jacket; and (b) the degree to which the jacket meets consumers' needs. Numbers on the x-axis indicate the range of responses, from " exceeds my needs " on the far left to " fails to meet my needs " on the far right.  
Ranking of factors affecting consumer adoption of iPod jackets.
Some of the major factors that affecting the consumers adoption of smart wearable electronic products, such as iPod jackets, are discussed. Style, price, convenience, and widespread assimilation are the major factors that affecting the consumer adoption of smart wearable electronics. It has been observed that smart wearable-electronics consumer fall into two categories, including early adopter young people and with substantial disposable income. Consumer group will not likely purchase an iPod with wrong color or fits. Consumer will buy the iPod jacket only if it fits within their acceptable price range, because consumers generally demand products with lower prices. The success of technical functionality also play an important role in adoption of products by the consumers. iPod jackets and other smart wearable-electronics products is possessing slow adoption rate similar to Bluetooth headsets due to widespread assimilation.
 
Two case studies revealed a number of crucial factors for the adoption of pervasive computing in healthcare. These factors included proof of medical benefit, user participation, and financial clarification. The case studies were conducted under the Pervasive Computing in Medical Care (PerCoMed) project to analyze the risks and obstacles, along with the benefits and potentials of pervasive computing in healthcare. The Stroke Angel and the MS Nurses case studies were specifically conducted in real healthcare settings with real end users, such as patients and medical personnel, to examine the stages of innovation from prototype development to routine use. The Stroke Angel case study covered the adoption of a mobile stroke diagnosis and data transmission device for emergency medical services (EMS). Stroke Angel was evaluated through a process analysis and a user acceptance analysis.
 
Distribution of interevent time (time between two consecutive cellular network connections) for our mobile phone users: median (solid line), first quartile (dash-dotted line), and third quartile (dashed line).
In each location (zip code), we show the event category that (a) is the most popular event in each area, and (b) has the highest term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF)-that is, the highest popularity in the area of residence.
Popularity of event categories across locations. In each row, we consider the popularity in a specific zip code using bar charts. Each bar reflects the fraction of dwellers who have attended events in a certain category.
Clusters of preferences for social events generated by the eigendemposition: (a) the eigendecomposition identifies four clusters, and (b) predominant clusters in each area of residence.
Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. Here we propose a new way of performing audience measurements that combines mobile phone location estimations with information freely available on the Internet. We show that it is possible to estimate the number of people who drive or walk by a given area in Greater Boston from location estimations of a large fraction of mobile phone users in the region. We also infer the preferences for social events of the users by combing their location estimations with Internet listings of social events. This makes it possible to profile areas based on their residents’ interests and dynamically change displayed advertising based on those assessments.
 
Top-cited authors
Diane J. Cook
  • Washington State University
Sumi Helal
  • Lancaster University
Eunju Kim
  • Gyeongsang National University
John Krumm
  • Microsoft
Gregory Abowd
  • Georgia Institute of Technology