IEEE Microwave Magazine

Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Print ISSN: 1527-3342
Publications
This article discusses the prospect of free- space optical links (FSOLs) in relation to backhaul applications as well as its technology trend, including the recent development of radio on free-space optical links (RoFSOLs). Here, we consider how FSOLs act as useful transport media, focusing on practical experience in mobile backhaul networks. We refer to studies on FSOL conducted by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) from the viewpoint of the possible exploitation of the frequency bands above 3,000 GHz, which are outside the scope of the current Radio Regulations.
 
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This is a review of developments and milestones in the FET and HFET field, including experimental results compared to model predictions. The noise performance of cryogenic FETs and HFETs has made tremendous progress over the last several decades. The most rapid advances seem to have occurred between 1980 and 1995. Three different generations of HFETs were proposed and reduced to practice during that period. Since 1995, no significant new ground has been broken in device technology. However, InP HFET technology has matured and allowed construction of extremely low-noise amplifiers. These amplifiers were used in the construction of several instruments for the investigation of the physics of the early universe.
 
The choice of proper radio architecture and sharing of ground plane among LTCC passive components enables compact implementation of the RF front end. In fact, most of the current wireless LAN solutions aim for very low intermediate frequency (VLIF) radio frequency (RF) architectures for better integration of integrated circuits (ICs) in commonly available semiconductor processes. This paper presents the development of complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and LTCC multilayer passive components.
 
Comparison of shortlisted candidates for low-noise amplifier.
An LNA with 15 K noise at 2.45 GHz working at ambient temperature has been developed using the GaAs metamorphic HEMT iT8002D manufactured by GigOptix. Unfortunately, this transistor has been discontinued. We replaced iT8002D by the FHX45X, general purpose GaAs SuperHEMT manufactured by Eudyna in the same circuit. FHX45X has the same gate width of 280 um. The measured S parameters were quite similar to the original LNA. The noise was increased to about 18 K at 2.45 GHz. We feel that FHX45X can be used as a replacement for the iT8002D. Based on the results of this LNA, we are developing a wideband (0.54 GHz) LNA that will work at ambient temperatures as well as cryogenic temperatures for radio astronomy applications.
 
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Presents a microwave quiz. To answer the questions consult your symposium digests, the IMS 2003 Web site, and your knowledgeable colleagues.
 
This book contains 14 chapters and covers some of the following material: the physical layer of the WCMA specification (five chapters); media access control (MAC) (three chapters); and radio resource control (RRC) (four chapters). The book seems balanced between math, practicality, software, and hardware. It is surprising because it is both concise and detailed. This book is a very well-thought-out tour of cell phones from the wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) perspective.
 
MTT-S member Dr. Les Besser has received the 2006 IEEE Educational Activities Board (EAB) Meritorious Achievement Award in Continuing Education.
 
This book on retirement planning is geared to the engineering mind, but anyone with a minimal set of math skills will find the book useful. The author tackles such topics as managing expenses, investing, health care, taxes, emergency funds, and the question of what to do after you retire. The book is well organized and referenced very well. It also includes a list of Web sites in the Appendix. Readers will find this highly recommended book high on content and low on fluff.
 
Municipal Wi-Fi networks are currently a hot topic (with over 4 million Google postings as of December 2006). Regrettably, however, lobbying by incumbent service providers succeeded in some states to enact legislation that prevents municipalities from competing. While this significantly limits public Wi-Fi opportunities, at least for the time being, viable business plans present the most significant challenge for two main reasons: the inclusion of a free or reduced-rate "digital inclusion" service plan and the competitive pressures from alternative services, e.g., cell phone data and DSL. Business risk exposure is highest for network builders and operators and lowest for equipment suppliers
 
This book brings together many authors from both industrial and academic backgrounds. It is not a treatise on the mathematics of antennas, but a tour of antenna applications for portable electronics. The techniques, applications, mathematics, radiation patterns and realization of antennas in handsets, RFID tags, laptop computers, thermal therapy, wearable devices, and ultrawideband communications are all covered. Some of the chapters are more academic and some are more practical, and this doesn't always correlate with whether an academic or industrial person wrote the article. Although not a design manual or textbook, the book offers a great look into the world of antennas in the wireless devices that surround us.
 
Lists those individuals presented with IEEE and Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) awards at the IMS 2007, held in Honolulu, HI in June 2007. Also lists the IEEE MTT-S members designated as IEEE Fellows in 2007.
 
This useful book is a core text on practical electromagnetics with a bent to integrated circuits (ICs). The author touches on all the main aspects of electromagnetics: statics, dynamics, transmission lines, Smith charts, baluns, transmission line transformers, antennas, matrix analysis, S-parameters, transmitter circuit design, distributed amplifiers, pulses on transmission lines, etc. Some of the topics are brief and the chapters cursory, but all of the information is thoughtful and useful. The time spent on IC issues such as devices, substrate coupling, semiconductor loss, and IC inductors gives the student a lot of motivation to learn electromagnetics, with the text offering many practical problems to solve. The descriptions of basic electromagnetics are clear and the figures are helpful. Many views are taken to solving problems, such as energy calculations, field solutions and the mathematics of partial elements. The book is a coherent applied electromagnetics text with lots of details on skin effect, coupling, and computation of reactance and resistance, and it includes a concise tour of electromagnetic theory. All in all, this is a wonderful book.
 
The author, Michael Gaynor, has a lot of experience in packaging and shares a broad view of the field in this book. He provides a historical foundation as well as a view of the state of the art on package design and test. One of the critical aspects of the text is that it is not a discussion about the capabilities of each technology as much as it is a practical review of what the various packaging alternatives can provide. Some of the topics covered include: vias; interconnects; inductors; capacitors; assembly processes; and advanced packaging techniques. Several case studies and many examples of impedance matching networks, filters, and power packaging are included. Thus is a very useful book for anyone who needs to know about packaging, the interface, and the limitations packaging creates for a product.
 
Under the auspices of the European Microwave Association (EuMA) the 11th annual European Microwave Week was organized in the Amsterdam RAI Congress Centre, The Netherlands, 27-31 October 2008. This major event consisted this year of five conferences, an exhibition, and various side events. The 38th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), the Third European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), the Fifth European Radar Conference (EuRAD), and the First European Wireless Technology Conference (EuWiT) were complemented by the Military Radar Conference 2008. The latter was organized by Defence IQ in London and collocated with the Microwave Week for the fi rst time by invitation of the EuMA and the local organizers. The Military Radar delegates were invited to participate in EuRAD.
 
This special issue of IEEE Microwave Magazine represents a new initiative of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) focused on the International Microwave Symposium (IMS) to be held in Boston, Massachusetts, 7-12 June 2009 (IMS 2009). In the pages that follow, you can read about the specific aspects of IMS 2009 and also the technical features that focus on the topics covered in the IMS 2009 panel, focus, and rump sessions. Our intention for this issue is to cover details of the IMS 2009, the Society's biggest meeting and one of the most anticipated events of the year for many microwave engineers, while still providing thought-provoking articles on state-of-the-art topics that will appeal to our readers who won't be attending the symposium.
 
Difference between the noise temperature and the physical temperature, for physical temperatures 4 K, 77 K, and 300 K-Callen-Welton (red curves), and Planck (green curves).
Minimum noise single-sideband receiver consisting of a double-sideband mixer with a resistive image termination. All resistors are at 0 K. The vacuum (zero-point) noise associated with the source resistance R s contributes half a photon of noise, and half a photon comes from the image termination R i. With equal signal and image gains, the minimum equivalent input noise of the single-sideband receiver is half a photon: T min = hf/2k.
Minimum noise single-sideband receiver consisting of a double-sideband mixer with a short-circuit image termination. The source resistor is at 0 K. The zero-point noise associated with the source resistance Rs contributes half a photon of noise, and half a photon comes from the shot noise of the mixer. The minimum equivalent input noise of the receiver is half a photon: T min = hf/2k.
Figure S1. Minimum possible noise of (a) a high-gain amplifier and (b) a direct detector, with input terminations at absolute zero temperature.
Figure S3. (a) The noise equivalent circuit of an ideal diode. (b) The shot noise current i S (t) in the diode with a steady dc bias current i d. In the frequency domain, this noise can be represented as a multitude of pseudo-sinusoidal frequency components, I S (f). (c) The current in the diode is modulated by the local oscillator, producing correlated components at the sideband frequencies.
We have presented a close look at effects of order hf/kT in noise measurements and in the definition of noise quantities-noise temperature, noise figure, etc. Given the perennial push to higher frequency, lower noise, and smaller uncertainty, such effects are becoming significant in an increasing number of applications, and especially in radio astronomy where the noise temperature of a modern receiver can be within a factor of a few of the quantum limit. In particular, we have discussed issues arising from the definition of noise temperature and the treatment of contributions from vacuum fluctuations. There is more than one correct way to deal with these effects, but it is important to be consistent in one's approach and not to mix methods.
 
It is my honor and privilege to represent the Steering Committee in welcoming you to Baltimore, Maryland’s beautiful Inner Harbor for the 2011 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2011). The theme for IMS2011 is Microwaves for the World with emphasis on world experts showcasing how our technology and profession has shown to be benefi cial around the globe. Since Baltimore last hosted the IMS in 1998, the beautiful Baltimore Inner Harbor area revitalization has continued. With the Convention Center centrally located in the Inner Harbor area, attendees are assured of quick and easy pedestrian access to a multitude of restaurants, attractions, and official IMS2011 hotels. In addition to Microwave Week’s technical programs and exhibition, the main IMS events will be Monday evening’s Welcome Reception, Wednesday evening’s Awards Banquet, and Thursday evening’s Crab Feast. The Crab Feast makes IMS in Baltimore unique and should not be missed; however, space is limited, so buy your tickets early.
 
This article explores the history and diversity of this remarkable technology, with emphasis on advances in vacuum-electronic amplifiers, including the microwave power module (MPM), that have been enabled by the ongoing development of modeling and simulation tools. These physics-based codes, enabled by rapid advances in computational hardware, allow simulation-based design and optimization of complex vacuum-electronic circuits. The growth of satellite-based digital communications technology over the past decade has opened lucrative commercial opportunities for vacuum-electronic amplifiers. This exciting new area requires the efficient production of high-frequency power and the ability to handle spectrally efficient modulations within stringent packaging constraints at affordable cost
 
This paper discusses current and emerging technologies of several types of sources and radiating systems for narrow, moderate, ultra-moderate and hyper-band (band ratio greater than a decade) high-power electromagnetic signals. On the other hand, it is a polemic advocating the view that the 21st century call for a new paradigm for weapons technology and that nonlethal weapons (NLW) are going to play an increasingly important role in combat and civil conflicts in the coming years.
 
Top-cited authors
Christophe Caloz
Anthony Lai
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Roberto Aiello
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F.M. Ghannouchi
  • The University of Calgary
Gregory D. Durgin
  • Georgia Institute of Technology