Hungarian Geographical Bulletin

Online ISSN: 2064-5147
Print ISSN: 2064-5031
Sewage sludge can be used to improve forestry soil properties, because it is rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material and, thus, can enhance the growth of tree seedlings in poor quality soils. Our study was performed on a site amended with industrial sewage sludge and aff orested with birch and pine seedlings. To evaluate the growth of tree seedlings, tree dry biomass, height, diameter, root/shoot ratio, specific root length, shoot and root length were calculated. Higher concentrations of heavy metals and no significant increase in the biomass of trees on sewage sludge amended soil suggest an inhibitory effect of heavy metals on tree biomass growth. The site treated with sewage sludge had signifi cantly higher soil moisture content, soil pH, total copper and total lead concentrations and significantly lower exchangeable acidity. Tree tissues at the sewage sludge treated site contain significantly higher concentrations of copper and cadmium. Therefore, both positive and negative impacts of treatment are apparent. In terms of management strategies, it is recommended that the chemical quality of sewage sludge is analyzed prior to possible field applications and only sewage sludges with toxic heavy metal concentrations below accepted safety limits are applied.
δ 13 C variations in selected carbon-bearing materials. Source: redrawn from Meija, J. et al. 2016.
Isotopic composition of C 3 and C 4 plants compared to atmospheric CO 2 and the C isotope ratio measurement standard. Source: redrawn from Ehleringer, J.R. and Cerling, T.E. 2002.
The basis of C 3 -C 4 vegetation change for natural abundance 13 C labelling. The figure represents the replacement of SOM derived from previous vegetation A by the new vegetation B. Source: redrawn from Balesdent, J. and Mariotti, A. 1996.
Main sources of soil CO 2 efflux and C pools in order of turnover rates and residence times. Source: redrawn from Kuzyakov, Y. and Gavrichkova, O. 2010.
Since the invention of the isotope ratio mass spectrometer, isotope analysis has shed light on many key processes in the Earth’s ecosystems. Stable isotope analysis was first applied in the field of chemistry and geochemistry, while the use of isotopic fractionation for various biochemical reactions was elaborated later. The knowledge gained from isotope research led to a better understanding of the dynamics of the biosphere and to the more efficient study of interactions between the geosphere and biosphere. In soil research, stable isotopes are ideally suited to provide a wider insight into the element cycles in soil ecosystems. Stable carbon isotopes, in particular, have been in the focus of soil research, since soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role not only in soil fertility, soil water management and many other physical, chemical and biological soil functions, but also in the global carbon cycle. If processes connected with these soil functions are isotopically labelled with stable carbon isotopes, the key reactions of C input, exchange and output in the soil and other soil organic matter functions can be studied accurately. Moreover, analysing the isotopic composition of CO2 exchange between the soil and the atmosphere helps to predict ecosystem responses to global changes.
The Grand Duchy of Finland after the peace treaty of 1743 (edited by the author) 
In this article, I analyse the institutionalization of the border region between Sweden and Imperial Russia presented in the peace treaty signed in Åbo (now Turku) in 1743. The Russo-Swedish war of 1741-1743 was disastrous for Sweden. Instead of regaining the losses suffered on the eastern front in the previous war (1700-1721), Sweden ceded more territory to Russia shifting the state border westwards again. The new border located in the middle of the present-day eastern Finnish countryside followed no religious or linguistic divisions. The peace treaty was a top-down measure. However, one must recognise that regions were institutionalised in several parallel and interactive processes. I apply the approach of institutionalization of regions to categorise the peace treaty according to the four dimensions of the approach. The aim is to untangle the official re-establishment of the new regional order to indicate the room for the local influencing. I conclude that the peace treaty did not extensively define the shape of the border region, which led to challenges in reshaping and further developing the border region in the local practices. Classifying the region building process according to the dimensions of the regional institutionalization-though intertwined in practice-provide comparativeness for the local progressions foregrounding their distinctive and consistent characteristics. © 2017, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
Snow-related variables are analysed in the present paper in the period 1901‒2010 on the basis of the ERA-20C dataset. Relationships between different snow characteristics, temperature and the NAO index are investigated on monthly, yearly and decadal scales for eight regions within Europe representing different climatic types (i.e. oceanic, continental, polar) to analyse the differences and similarities between them depending on the climatic conditions. According to our results, the ratio of snow (i.e. snowfall compared to total precipitation) can reach 1 in winter in the colder, northern regions, whereas it is about 0.6 in the continental areas of Central Europe, even in the coldest months. During a strong positive phase of NAO more snow falls in the northern regions of Europe due to the large-scale circulation characteristics. When a negative NAO phase occurs, the temperature and snowfall anomalies are the opposite in northern Europe. The highest temperature values generally occurred after 2000, and the snowfall amount was smaller in the first decades of the 21st century compared to the previous decades. The relationship between temperature and snowfall is the strongest in autumn in the colder regions; in spring in the continental areas and in winter in the oceanic climate.
The rural landscape in Slovakia was a synonym of agricultural production until 1989 and countryside has fulfilled specifically a productive function. Agriculture still plays a very important role in the Slovak countryside, but after 1989 there have been socio-economic changes in Slovak economy, which has reoriented to the market economy, resulting in changes of the ownership of enterprises, production processes and competition in the market. Countryside has been looking for new poles of development, what can be termed as the diversification of the functions of the countryside, i.e. the transformation of a mono-functional space into a multifunctional space. However, the increase in the amount of rural functions also results in changes of the land cover structure, which are most evident in built-up areas of municipalities. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the changes of the land cover structure of the rural landscape in Slovakia, focusing on the built-up area of the monitored municipality. The municipality of Podhájska, which is the centre of the Termál micro-region, was selected as the model territory and was researched as a case study. In this region, there is a constantly developing tourism, services and business instead of focusing only on agriculture. Changes in the land cover structure were monitored using aerial images from 1987 and 2014 (updated by field research) and the extent and nature of these changes were then analysed by Analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.2. The changes occurred in almost a quarter of the monitored area. Particularly, the use of gardens around houses has changed and they transformed from production to recreation area. The built-up area is also thickened and expanded under the influence of an increase of the tourism importance, especially in the area of former vineyards that had a long tradition in the municipality. The results of the research point to the loss of rural identity in case of increasing amount of function. Similar case studies should serve as base material for documents dealing with the sustainable development of rural areas. © 2018, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
The transformation of the landscapes due to the anthropogenic activities is increasing worldwide. These changes are also manifested in the change of soil-forming processes. The land cover (LC) changes evaluated according to their influence on anthropogenic features of soils allows to distinguish between LC changes resulting increased and decreased human impact (HI). In our study, we assess the changes of HI on landscapes and its spatial distribution across Hungary. The changes were evaluated by using LC data of four periods between 1990 and 2018 reclassified based on the related anthropogenic soil features. To identify the hotspots of the changes 1×1 grids were applied in which the direction (increasing, neutral or decreasing HI) and frequency (number of landscape patches with LC changes) of changes were evaluated. In our research, the hotspots were identified over the studied four periods. We point out that the spatial distribution of hotspots is very different. The hotspots of the increased human impact are 2,449 cells (643.0 km2 ) between 1990 and 2018, and the most of it localized in the Pest Plain (67), Csepel Plain (64) and Nagykálló-Nyírség (60). Most of the multiple hotspots are in the outskirts of Budapest to Kiskunlacháza, Bugyi, Délegyháza. As we examine the decreasing hotspot data we found 1,679 cells (1,524.9 km2 ) between 1990 and 2018. In largest number, they occur on the Kiskunság Sand Ridge (38), Majsa–Szabadka Sand Ridge (37) and Nagykállói-Nyírség (36). Multiple hotspots are located in settlements Izsák, Ásotthalom, Vatta and Nyírmihályi. Regions with numerous hotspots require special management to moderate its negative consequences on soils to consider both increased anthropisation, but also extensification of land use and their consequences.
The forest that covers Csornó Valley Hills still shown by the 2 nd Military Survey
Land cover categories and border of forest by planned management on the Magas Hill, projected onto aerial photo of 2005.-x, y, z = closed forest; A, B, C, D = remnant of grazing forest (outside forest); a, b, c = remnant of grazing forest (within forest); Q = remnant of wood pasture; 1, 2 = open pasture, grassland, meadow
Almost 200 years old veteran trees are the witnesses of the forest shown by the 2 nd military survey map (compiled by Bartus, P. 28.08.2016).-A, B, C, Q, a, b, c, 1, 2 = for explanation see Fig. 5.
The Bükk Mountains were covered by continuous forests even in the 18th century. First plans for exploitation originate from the late 1700’s; thus, this is the time when planned forest management in the Bükk Mountains started. Our aim is to shed light on land use and historical land cover changes of the grazing forest and wood pasture on the Magas Hill Forest (Ózd–Egercsehi Basin, NE-Hungary) since the 18th century, describe its current state (based on ethnographical data, maps, and field research), and give suggestions on its reconstruction and conservation management. The hills around Egercsehi and Mikófalva villages were once covered by 808.5 ha continuous grazing forest. This forest has almost totally disappeared, and one-time oak forests show no continuity with today’s black locust stands, despite for a 35.3-ha patch in the southern slope of Magas Hill. This remnant is a various mosaic of closed forest, degraded grazing forest, wood pasture, clearing, and grassland, with old (150–200 year) veteran trees. As a consequence of no management (abandonment of forest grazing), original vegetation has almost totally been abolished by invasive alien species. Area of mowed, open grassland is 5.3 ha, while 20.1 ha commemorates on the one-time wood pasture, the remaining is shrubby (spontaneously) with afforestation. The area is not listed in the Hungarian cadastre of wood pastures. This register lists 6 wood pastures in Heves County; this current one is the 7th. The unique stand of veteran trees is still visible and the process of scrub encroachment might by stopped by adequate management, therefore, valuable habitats can be conserved. In favour of reconstruction of the wood pasture – grazing forest mosaic and maintenance of the desirable state, we suggest beef and sheep grazing, combined with mowing, depending on the state of afforestation. © 2018, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
Trade union density in Germany and Hungary (% of employees, 1994–2013). Source: OECD trade union density data 
Survey venues in Berlin. 1 = Brandenburg Gate (Borough " Mitte " – DGB); 2 = Kottbus Gate (Borough " Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg " – MyFest). Source: Design by the authors. 
Survey venues in Budapest. 1 = Városliget (City Park, small urban wood); 2 = Vérmező ( " Field of Blood " ); 3 = Tabán (so-called " Raitzenstadt " ); 4 = Hajógyári-sziget (Shipyard Island). Source: Design by the authors. 
The transition from industrial to post-industrial society has changed the conditions for labour protest in Europe fundamentally. In this paper recent forms of labour protest are explored in two European capital cities, Berlin and Budapest. In the context of growing job insecurity, flexibilisation and fragmentation of labour markets, the motivations and class positions of protest participants are scrutinised, along with the diversified geographies of protest events. Building on empirical results by means of a survey based on structured mini-interviews, the paper argues, first, that a fragmentation of labour protests on May 1st is observable. This fragmentation is driven by an overall change of Labour Day celebrations from trade union oriented demonstrations towards segmented party zones of protest in both cities. Second, neither traditional forms of labour protest is nor newly created, more festive forms of labour celebrations attract a significant proportion of people suffering from precarity or unemployment. Thus, most marginalised people in the service-dominated economy do not have a voice in labour protests today. © 2017, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
From the very formation of the European Union there have existed regions with different natural and social endowments. This causes a diversity in living conditions, income, and maturity within the integration. To reduce the socio-economic disparities between regions, and to raise the lagging ones are the major tasks within the EU in order to strengthen social and economic cohesion. The 2007-2013 year planning period for the first time opened an opportunity for the regions to develop separate operational programs in the EU. The present study summarizes the results of a survey which examined the direct or indirect resources that arrived into the region during the first two years (2007-2008) of the Southern Great Plain's Operational Program (SGPOP). An analysis is made how the EU funds were used, which part of the regional operational program was financed from them and how the mechanism for resource allocation worked.
Budapest bore witness to dramatic changes in its industry following 1989, and these have had a major impact on the location of industry and on the use of former industrial areas. The main purpose of this study serves to illustrate the major developments and shift s that took place within the traditional industrial areas during the last decade and is based upon the results of a survey carried out in 2006, in order to reveal the extent of the functional transformation of areas that were traditionally industrial in nature. Over the last decade the former processes (deindustrialisation, rehabilitation, shrinkage of industrial areas, and change in their functions) have developed, albeit at a diff erent pace spatially. As a consequence, the spatial patt ern of the Hungarian capital, as well as its functional divisions have undergone signifi cant transformation.
The present paper evaluates the alteration of certain night-time climate indices namely warm nights (Tmin≥ 17 °C) and tropical nights (Tmin≥ 20 °C) during the 21stcentury in the city of Szeged. This examination was performed within the framework of a project founded by International Visegrad Fund, where the change of more climate indices were examined in several Central European cities. In this study the MUKLIMO_3 microclimatic model was used, which ensured the modelling of the local scale processes in the examined area. In the model for the land use we applied the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) system. In order to analyze longer periods the cuboid method was applied, which is a dynamical-statistical downscaling technique. We calculated the indices for 1981-2010 based on measurements and for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 from the EURO-CORDEX datasets. In this study we present the results of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios namely RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Our results show that highest values appear in the city centre and the number of the days clearly increases in the 21st century especially according to scenario RCP 8.5. The values depend on the built-up types and there are more days towards to the densely built-up LCZs. Moreover, considering the relative changes of the zones, larger values appear in sparsely built-up zones and natural surfaces. © 2016, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
This study evaluates the pattern of a nighttime climate index namely the tropical nights (Tmin ≥ 20ºC) during the 21st century in several different sized cities in the Carpathian Basin. For the modelling, MUKLIMO_3 microclimatic model and the cuboid statistical method were applied. In order to ensure the proper representation of the thermal characteristics of an urban landscape, the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) system was used as landuse information. For this work, LCZ maps were produced using WUDAPT methodology. The climatic input of the model was the Carpatclim dataset for the reference period (1981–2010) and EURO-CORDEX regional model outputs for the future time periods (2021–2050, 2071–2100) and emission scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP8.5). As results show, there would be a remarkable increase in the number of tropical nights along the century, and there is a clearly recognizable increase owing to urban landform. In the near past, the number of the index was 6–10 nights higher in the city core than the rural area where the number of this index was negligible. In the near future this urban-rural trend is the same, however, there is a slight increase (2–5 nights) in the index in city cores. At the end of the century, the results of the two emission scenarios become distinct. In the case of RCP4.5 the urban values are about 15–25 nights, what is less stressful compared to the 30–50 nights according to RCP8.5. The results clearly highlight that the effect of urban climate and climate change would cause serious risk for urban dwellers, therefore it is crucial to perform climate mitigation and adaptation actions on both global and urban scales.
The aim of this paper is to capture the changed location decision-making processes and location factors of the automotive industry, resulting from the current challenges brought by electro mobility. From the Taylorist assembly-line production system in the “Fordism” era to the just-in-time focused manufacturing of the Japanese carmakers during “post-Fordism” and at the turn of the millennium with global production and new technologies in the digital age, location analysis has changed massively over time. The same is to be expected for the fourth revolution in the industry. For this reason, the decision-making process of a major German car manufacturer is analysed in a field study conducted over a two-year period. Based on this, a decision process that takes the new framework conditions into account is modelled. The relevant location factors are then examined in a survey of the relevant departments in the BMW Group. Due to the changed production requirements in the course of the electrification, the uncertainty in the technological change and the unstable political trading conditions, the factors: network suitability, risk exposure, optimal sunk cost usage and sustainability play central roles. Before the latest economic crisis, the industry was focused on exploiting opportunities and expanding the production network. This tendency now seems to be transformed by a volatile technological future and by cost pressure. This means that ‘sustainability’ is increasingly important in automobile industry decision-making, but in specific ways.
The value of industrial production per county's inhabitant in per cent of the country's average and the number of manufacturing companies employing at least 250 people by headquarters, 2018. Names of counties (bold) and settlements (italic) with the most manufacturing companies mentioned in the text are labelled by stars. Source: Data of Hungarian Central Statistical Office.
The main characteristics of the studied enterprises, 2019
Industry 4.0 developing on the basis of digitalisation is gradually transforming production, the conditions of competition and relationships in global industry, affecting its interpretation and expanding its limits. This paper attempts to explore changing economic geographical context with the revaluation of comparative and competitive advantages in a semi-peripheral area of the EU. Based on company interviews, the effects of the new technologies of Industry 4.0 on the dual Hungarian manufacturing industry and its spatial structure are studied, and that whether they contribute to the reduction of duality and geographical polarization. In Eastern Hungary – just like in most areas in East-Central Europe – internationally competitive manufacturing companies emerged almost exclusively as a result of foreign direct investment, while domestic companies are forced into secondary or dependent roles. The empirical research has revealed significant differences in the progress of companies in Industry 4.0. Hungarian-owned companies evolve in a specific way from several aspects and face many difficulties. In contrast, enterprises with foreign interest continue to be the engine of development, driven from the “outside”. Duality is also reflected in the corporate structure, in space and in the realisation of Industry 4.0.
Industrial revolutions during the history. Source: Forschungsunion and acatech, 2013.
Smart factories as part of the Internet of Things and Services. Source: Acatech, 2013.
Dimensions of Industrie 4.0. Source: Schuh, G. et al. 2017.
Despite all the hype, digitalization is not a new trend. The third industrial revolution started as early as the beginning of the 1970s and has continued to this day. It is shaped using electronics and information technologies (IT) in the economy and progressive standardization and automation of business processes. While exponential growth is typical for the IT sector, this is rarely the case for the classic industries. For a long time, the change was barely perceivable, which led many players to denounce these developments as uninteresting, losing interest at an early stage. But then, as the process picks up breakneck speeds, it often becomes impossible to jump on board or keep up. When automation driven by electronics and IT established itself in production, it led to dramatic changes in value chains and employment structures. Through standardization and automation, business processes became more efficient, quicker, and transparent. When the dot-com speculative bubble burst in 2000, vending machines that ordered supplies independently were already in operation. In the search for the business model of the Information Age, electronic marketplaces became popular pioneers for dynamic business networks and real-time business. Many of today’s well-known technology firms – such as Google, Netflix, or the predecessors of Facebook – were already active on the market in a similar form. In recent years a second wave of digital transformation is experienced and with it, a fourth industrial revolution. The necessary information and communication technologies have now become so cost-effective that they can be used in widespread areas. As a result, many of the dot-com promises have been realized today. The aim of this paper is to intensify the Industrie 4.0 debate in economic geography by showing the evolutionary and disruptive potential of Industrie 4.0.
Number of computers per 1,000 enterprises by county in Hungary, 2017. Source: Data of Hungarian Central Statistical Office.
Ratio of employees using computers in enterprises by county in Hungary, 2016. Source: Data of Hungarian Central Statistical Office.
Cumulated ranking of all ICT indicators by county in Hungary. Source: Based on the Table 1 and 2.
Cumulated ranking of industrial indicators by county in Hungary. Source: Based on Table 4.
Ranking of new ICT (ICTn)* indicators by county in Hungary, 2017-2018
In the short history of Hungarian industry there were relevant changes several times, which had a great impact not only on industrial production and employment, but also on the spatial pattern of industry. After the regime change and latest economic crisis Industry 4.0 or/and the fourth industrial revolution mean(s) newer challenge. Due to information and communication technologies (ICT), which can be considered the basis of Industry 4.0 radical changes can be expected in all fields of life and numerous questions will emerge. The primary aim of this paper is to reveal the geography of older and newer information and communication technologies and their relationship with the spatial pattern of Hungarian industry. The main question is whether the digital divide follows the industrial divide in the Hungarian economic space or not. According to the analysis based on different ICT and industrial indicators, there is no close correlation between the digital and industrial spaces. The geography of Industry 4.0 is characterised by a sharp north-south division.
Box plot of the soil erosion results in the cultivated and abandoned plots.-a = runoff; b = soil loss; c = sediment concentration; d = runoff coefficient; e = infiltration coefficient. Red dotted line represents the mean values.
Conclusions obtained from the cultivated and abandoned vineyards
Land degradation in vineyards is a big concern which should be considered by farmers, enterprises and policymakers. Due to intense tillage, the use of herbicides and heavy machinery, vine plantations are registering a decrease in soil fertility and, subsequently, in productivity. Recently, farmers have decided to abandon the vineyards, but any restoration planning is being carried out to recover biodiversity or to reduce soil and water losses. Nowadays, there is no information about environmental changes after the abandonment in terms of possible soil property changes and erosion in Central European vineyards such as in Germany. Therefore, the main aims of this preliminary study were to compare: i) soil properties and soil profiles of one cultivated vineyard and an abandoned one; and, ii) to assess the activation of soil erosion processes using a small portable rainfall simulator. Our results showed that the vineyard registered several differences in soil properties among slope positions and soil profile characteristics due to tillage and trampling effects, showing clear marks of compaction and soil detachment in the lower parts. Also, in this cultivated field, higher means and maxima of soil losses (g m-2) and sediment concentration (g l-1) values than in the abandoned plot were quantified, being the main driving factors the vegetation cover and the inclination. On the other hand, in the abandoned vine plantation, a rapid homogenization of soil profiles and soil properties were found along the hillslope, where a deeper organic horizon was consistently developed above a compacted and rocky horizon, which was generated during the cultivation phase. Due to the high compaction due to the machinery cultivation and the difficulties for the roots to make deep into the soil, the infiltration defaulted and the amount of runoff and runoff coefficient were higher in the abandoned plots than in the cultivated ones.
Basic descriptive statistics of the sample. Source: Author's own survey.
Share of respondents having/willing to use a smartphone for navigation in the hospital according to gender, age, and education, in per cent. Source: Author's own survey.
Spatial distribution of perceived wayfinding difficulties in the hospital complex. Source: Author's own survey.
Variables employed in the statistical analysis
This paper analyses the acceptance of a smartphone navigation app in a hospital among its patients/visitors. We tested the effects of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, and education) on technology acceptance and on perceived difficulties with wayfinding in the hospital complex. The empirical research is based on a survey among 928 patients/visitors of the Vítkovice Hospital in Ostrava, Czechia. We found that the acceptance of smart navigation increases with the level of education and decreases with age. No significant gender differences were observed.
Access to urban green spaces and environmental inequalities are increasingly on the agenda in contemporary cities due to increasing density of people, widening social inequalities, and limited access to Urban Green Spaces (UGS). This is even so in post-socialist cities where recent urban sprawl and suburbanisation could be strongly linked to the scarcity of adequate green spaces in the inner-parts of cities. This paper examines the provision and accessibility of public green spaces in Debrecen, a second tier city in post-socialist Hungary, with applying a walking distance approach. Using GIS technology and socio-demographic data of residents the study assesses the availability and accessibility of green spaces in the city, and their social equity. According to research results the geographical distribution of UGS is very uneven in the city, some neighbourhoods lack public green spaces, while others are well-supplied. This is partly due to the natural environment and the post-WWII development of the city. Research findings show that the quality of residential green spaces is generally poor or very poor. Research also confirmed the widening environmental inequalities within the local society. New upmarket residential areas, where the wealthiest section of population reside are rich in high-quality (private) green spaces. Other lower-status neighbourhoods, including some of the socialist housing estates, suffer from the lack of good quality green spaces. Authors argue that environmental justice should be a core concept of city-planning considering not only the officially designated public green spaces, but also other forms of urban green (institutional, private etc.).
Regional distribution of types of treatment in Hungary by seven most considerable sending countries, 2006-2010 in percent 
The effect of international migration on public health care system is one of the emerging themes within health and mobility studies. Unfortunately, there is scarce information on health situation of international migrants in Central and Eastern Europe. This research paper tries to contribute filling in this gap with a case study related to Hungary and it deals with the access and participation of third-country nationals to the Hungarian public health care system as patients. The study integrates quantitative and qualitative methodologies coupled with a holistic approach. Macro data of the National Health Insurance Fund was analysed and field works in the National Ambulance Service and at the Semmelweis University (Budapest) were carried out. The volumes and rates of nationals of Ukraine, China, Vietnam, Serbia, former Yugoslavia, Russia and Mongolia are the dominant groups in the provision of acute care, in-patient care, out-patient care, dental care and cash benefits. Acute care is relatively the most populous and medical treatments in capital institutions as opposed to countryside ones. The main spatial factors affecting the provider and supplier side of public health care system in Hungary are identified while concluding that third-country migrants utilize selectively the institutions of the Hungarian public health care system. Conclusions subscribe to the need for future research in this theme in the light of most recent international mobility upheavals. © 2016, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
The availability of health care services is an important issue, however, improving availability of health care services does not necessarily mean better accessibility for everybody. The main aim of this study is to find out how better availability in the care of acute myocardial infarction vary with accessibility of patients’ geographical location within Hungary. We applied statistical analysis and interview techniques to unfold the role of spatiality in the conditions of access to health care. Results of statistical analysis indicate significant health inequalities in Hungary. Decreasing national mortality rates of acute myocardial infarction, has been coupled by increasing spatial inequalities within the country especially at micro-regional level. According to in-depth interviews with local health care stakeholders we defined factors that support access to health care as well as important barriers. The supporting factors are related to the improvement of availability (i.e. infrastructural developments), while geographical distance, lack of material and human resources, or low level of health literacy proved to be the most relevant barriers. Main conclusion is that barriers to accessibility and availability are not only spatial but are also based on individual stages of acute myocardial infarction care. The development of cardiac catheter centres in Hungary has improved the short-term chances of infarction survival, but long-term survival chances have worsened in recent years due to deficiencies in rehabilitation care as well as low level of health literacy.
This paper discusses the situation in the emerging field of accessible tourism at the Lake Balaton destination. The main objective of the study was to explore the current situation of accessible tourism at Lake Balaton, focusing on the perspectives of tourism stakeholders. Various issues were reflected upon, such as: a) the “general” accessibility of the destination in terms of the current state of accessibility of the destination as well as the accessibility of information, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services, tourist attractions, funds and know-how; b) factors that make the destination Lake Balaton competitive as an accessible destination; and c) general attitudes of tourism stakeholders towards accessible tourism. The research focus was on the destination itself, not on individual attractions or tourism service providers. In order to assess the current situation and future prospects for accessible tourism at Lake Balaton, an exploratory quantitative online survey among stakeholders was conducted between 5 September and 5 October 2020. A total of 39 stakeholders participated in the survey, including 11 local municipality stakeholders, 8 local destination management organisations, and 20 tourism service providers (accommodation, catering or attractions/sights). The results show that the Lake Balaton destination accessibility is currently at an early stage of development and tends to target groups with low accessibility needs. Among the factors of destination competitiveness for the accessible tourism market, supportive factors (e.g. accessibility, infrastructure, and the commitment of stakeholders) are ranked first, followed by resources and attractions (landscape, climate, activities, culture, history, tourism service providers, and events) and the quality factor (including value for money, safety, perception and image). Planning and management (including positioning and branding) is the lowest ranked factor even though such aspects are critical factors and foundations for the development of accessible tourism.
Historical elements in the names and logos of LAGs in Czechia, January 2017. (Compiled by Semian, M.) 
The usage of historical elements in the selected aspects of LAGs in Czechia, January 2017. Historical element in 
Selected examples of LAGs' logos with historical elements 
Photo 1. The example of introductory photographs depicting both folklore tradition and historical monument, LAG Hlinecko. Source: 
History is a construct based on the reselection, reconstruction and reinterpretation of past events in order to validate former, present, as well as future actions of actors. Therefore, there is no single history but rather many histories based on different ways of reinterpretation. The reinterpretation of history plays an important role in the process of regional identity formation. In this paper we aim to examine how and to what extent the relatively new ad hoc regions – Local Action Groups (LAGs) – in Czechia use history and historical and historicizing elements to present the region’s image, and how LAGs reinterpret history in order to foster a sense of territorial togetherness among inhabitants. The research had two phases. In the first phase, we evaluated the primary presentation of all 180 LAGs. While in the second one, more detailed analysis was performed on the strategies of selected LAGs towards the reinterpretation of history. In general, we can conclude that LAGs work with history and historical themes only to a limited extent. However, some LAGs use actively history. The paper identifies three ways of reinterpretation of history engaged in the process of regional identity formation: regional patriotic, critical and conciliatory. Keywords: regional history, new regionalism, regional identity, reinterpretation of history, Local Action Group, Czechia
Cartoons in the questionnaire.-a-g = for explanation see the text. Sources: http://www.transitionpenwith. (a); (b); (c, d, e, f); (g)
Ranking of global problems
Ranking of environmental problems
Ranking of geographic-climatic regions from the point of view of their exposedness to climate change
Ranking of continental regions from the point of view of their exposedness to climate change
This study is based on a non-representative, national level survey sample whose main purpose is to interpret the general population’s understanding of climate change. The study also provides an examination of correlations between climate change concerns and the taking of individual action as well as the relationship between pro-environmental thinking and climate change scepticism. Our results show a moderate correlation between the general population’s concerns and the professional views on the subject, known in the literature as the New Environmental Paradigm scale and Scepticism scale, but a significantly weaker correlation when it comes to taking action against climate change. Factors relating to the respondents, such as residence settlement type, education level, gender, age, personal and social values, or casual attributions in relation to climate change heavily influence this weaker correlation. Most respondents assessed climate change as a current (urgent), but geographically remote phenomenon. This is a clear indication of problems associated with cognitive conceptualization and the localization of climate change in communication. The target audience must be taken into account when designing climate change communications because interpretations of climate change can vary widely and cover a broad range attitudes ranging from concern about to issue all the way to climate change scepticism. This also applies to views concerning responsibility for climate change with some believing it is a political responsibility and others believing it is a scientific responsibility. © 2018, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
Changes in land use of the lowland landscape along the Tisza River have largely been shaped by processes that took place aft er flood control and regulation measures of that river. As a result fl uvial accumulation has either been eliminated or restricted to the flood plain. At present human sett lements extend to some segments of the low flood plain threatened by flood hazard. The amended Vásárhelyi Scheme focuses on raising embankments and extension of flood plain. Floods called the att ention to problems that have to be solved, such as the stability of levee slopes. To prevent slope slumps it would be reasonable to start studies on flood control embankments in order to reveal sections endangered by an extreme water pressure during floods.
Location of the study area
ROC-plots for the four models
Characteristics of the AUC values for the four susceptibility models
Confusion matrices of the four susceptibility models
Summary of the validation metrics for the four susceptibility models
In the studies of landslide susceptibility assessment which have been developed in recent years, statistical methods have increasingly been applied. Among all, the BLR (Binary Logistic Regression) certainly finds a more extensive application while MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), despite the good performance and the innovation of the strategies of analysis, only recently began to be employed as a statistical tool for predicting landslide occurrence. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the predictive performance and identify possible drawbacks of the two statistical techniques mentioned above, focusing in particular on the prediction of debris flows. To this aim, we employed an inventory of debris flows triggered by the passage of the hurricane IDA and the low-pressure system associated with it 96E, on November 7thand 8th2009 in the Caldera Ilopango, El Salvador (CA). Two validation strategies have been applied to both statistical techniques thus obtaining four models (BLR(I), MARS(I), BLR(II), MARS(II)) to be compared in pairs. Model performance was assessed in terms of AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve), Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Prediction Value and Negative Prediction Value. Moreover, to evaluate the robustness of the modeling procedure, 50 replicates were created for each model and the standard deviation was calculated for each of them. The results show that both techniques allow for obtaining good or excellent performances so that it is not possible to define one of the two techniques as absolutely better. However, the validation procedure reveals slightly better performance of the MARS models, with greater sensitivity and greater discrimination among TNs.
Landscape aesthetic research that emerged from the second half of the 20th century has become increasingly appreciated and popular in the last few decades. There are two main reasons for this. On the one hand, it was recognized the role of landscape aesthetics in land use and environmental planning, management and conservation. On the other hand, its definition among Cultural Ecosystem Services has made it clear that landscape aesthetics has significant impact on human well-being and there is a need to examine it in the concept of Ecosystem Services and, in particular, Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES). The mapping of landscape aesthetics is mostly based on the exclusive evaluation of objective, biophysical landscape factors. The aim of the research was to create the landscape aesthetic map of Hungary with a novel method based on human perception. For this, a questionnaire survey and a GIS approach were used. In order to better understand the role of factors influencing the aesthetic value of the landscape, value maps separately for land cover and elevation that are decisive for the landscape experience were prepared. To validate the results of the maps, and contribute a better understanding of the interrelationship between CES, a certain tourism product was chosen, and the connection between landscape aesthetics and the offer of rural tourism was examined in Hungary and in the Danube Bend priority tourism development area. Our findings show that there is a difference in the results of the objective (GIS-based) and subjective (questionnaire-based) assessment of landscape aesthetic value with the more important role of elevation in the latter. According to our tourism product-based analysis, which represents a niche approach in its kind, landscape values are higher in the areas with rural accommodation. At the same time, based on the results of the Danube Bend region, it can also be concluded that elevation and land cover together are crucial factors in landscapes considered to be the most valuable in aesthetic terms. The most direct practical application of our research is to orientate further tourism development of the new Danube Bend area designated in 2017.
Location map of Magdolna Quarter inside District VIII in Budapest (left), and Albert Park inside the Inner city of Durban (right).
This study compares the social sustainability of urban renewal interventions in Hungary and South Africa. The societal and environmental challenges arising from urbanisation and the associated population growth in major urban centres around the world have increased the research and policy foci on urban sustainability and governance. While urban regeneration projects are vitally important to urban sustainability, these interventions have been widely criticised because social sustainability issues have been overlooked or ignored. Therefore, there is a need for governance practices that are applicable to different national and urban contexts. The main aim of this study is twofold: firstly, it provides a literature review on the social sustainability of urban renewal and secondly, it compares urban renewal interventions in two different geographical settings to provide recommendations about public participation and stakeholder involvement, which can contribute to increasing social sustainability of urban renewal projects. To this end, a comparative approach was adopted through the analysis of two urban renewal projects: Magdolna Quarter Programme (Budapest, Hungary) and the Albert Park (Durban, South Africa), the data for which were based on a review of secondary sources, including international literature and policy documents. It was found that although urban renewal serves a city-wide purpose (and not just a local one), the socio-economic impacts of these projects have not yet been adequately explored. Furthermore, to achieve higher urban renewal sustainability, there is a need for impact assessments (with special attention paid to the social effects) to promote public participation and empowerment.
Proportion of population aged 0–14 years in Europe, %  
Proportion of population aged 65 years and over in Europe, %  
Types of age structures of European populations  
Index of economic support for European countries, %  
Types of population according to intensity of population ageing in Europe  
Age structure is one of the most important demographic characteristics of the population, which is multicausally related to almost all population processes. On one hand, age structure is the complex result of processes such as fertility, mortality, immigration and emigration. At the same time, it substantially aff ects a number of socio-demographic phenomena such as marriage, divorce, migration, potential labour resources etc. Certain relationships between the age structure and other population characteristics, such as ethnic, educational, sex, economic or religious structure can also be observed. The demographic behaviour of the European population in the second half of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century is characterised by signifi cant changes. They are refl ected in a number of population processes and indicies, which are typically interconnected and interrelated. These changes have been most strikingly manifested in a drop of fertility rates, changes in family behaviour, and shifts in the age structure of the population. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the time-space development of the age structure of the European population. The period of investigation is 1950–2010 which is extended by a projected development until 2060. Changes in age structure are analysed through several indicators such as coeffi cients of infl ow, outfl ow and exchange, as well as with indices of economic and social support. Authors make also efforts to provide a complex assessment on population ageing. Using the method of standardised variable, 11 indicators of age structures for 39 European countries are used in the synthesis. In view of the londer time span, several types of age structures are pointed out in Europe.
Increase of regional polarisation in GDP per capita, NUTS-3 regions 2000 and 2009 (calculated by Tomas Hanell and Stefan Haunstein, data source: Eurostat)  
In the past years, new patterns of regional disparities between metropolised core regions and the remaining parts of Central and Eastern European countries (CEE) have emerged. Such spatial disparities have lately fuelled concerns about further regional polarisation and the peripheralisation of non-metropolitan regions in particular. This is the case although balancing spatial development has been a major goal of European Regional Policy. The paper argues that there is a clear need to beter understand the social, economic, discursive and political processes constituting regional polarisation and to conduct further research on approaches to deal with and respond to peripheralisation. The proposed research agenda focuses on a multi-scalar relation between core and peripheral regions and applies a process based dynamic understanding of peripherality and central-ity. Following this, peripheralised regions bear agency capacities and cannot be seen as powerless victims of some overarching processes associated with the globalising economy. Applying the notions of polarisation and peripheralisation to guide further research, offers multi-dimensional, multi-scalar and process based conceptualisations of regional development research. With the proposed research agenda, I would like to open up the discussion on new interpretations of the terms peripherality and centrality, rurality and urbanity, border and rural areas, core and peripheral regions, and contribute to the development of new approaches in multi-level governance and ultimately in regional policy. © 2015, Reasearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences Hungarian Academy. All rights reserved.
The area of the selected national parks and the nearby settlements
Karst areas, which are less involved in productive activities are often declared protected areas that can have a positive impact on the lives of the local communities. To verify this hypothesis, we examine karst areas, where national parks have been established to preserve mostly geological but also biological values. According to the threefold system of objectives in national parks, not only protection and conservation, but also the presentation of the natural values to the outside world is important. Thus, tourism and related services are essential and often exclusive economic activities in these protected areas. Our questions are how national parks appear in the daily lives of the local communities and how much locals perceive the beneficial effects of national parks. The selected area of our study is the Gömör-Torna / Gemer-Turňa Karst on the Hungarian-Slovak border, where national parks have been established on both side of the border (Aggtelek National Park in Hungary and Slovak Karst National Park in Slovakia) to preserve karst landforms and caves. We conducted structured interviews with leaders of settlements in and around the national park. Interviews reveal the ambivalent system of everyday relationships. Local communities are experiencing multiple conflicts with national parks. The conflicts stem from the contrast that usually occurs within the threefold system of objectives of national parks (the tension between the practice of protection/preservation and presentation). Locals are negatively affected by the presence of national park as an authority, which limits to some extent their economic activities. They perceive national parks as barriers that prevents them from building a more diversified economy, so the existence of the national park is seen by the majority as a disadvantage rather than an advantage. Some people even question the need to protect nature, which can be seen as a legacy of the former socialist regime. Thus, we conclude that there is a need to change the attitudes of local communities more positive towards nature conservation.
Sh a ded a nd s tretch-colored DEM of the s tudy a re a with the terr a in unit s of Fig. 3 a nd s w a th loc a tion s of fi gs 5 a nd 6. In s et ma p s how s the loc a tion of the s tudy a re a 
Shaded and stretch-colored DEM of the study area with the terrain units of Fig. 3 and swath locations of fi gs 5 and 6. Inset map shows the location of the study area
Slope ma p of the Gö m ör–Torn a K a r s t with pl a te a u bound a rie s a nd gener a lized as pect ro s e s . Arrow s indic a te the loc a lly do m in a nt as pect. Nu m ber s indic a te pl a te a u s with reference to Table 1 . 
Slope map of the Gömör-Torna Karst with plateau boundaries and generalized aspect roses. Arrows indicate the locally dominant aspect. Numbers indicate plateaus with reference to Table 1.
The surface of the Gömör–Torna/Gemer–Turňa Karst (GTK) was largely formed by Pannonian or Pliocene pediplanation. Although this surface has been dissected by subsequent tectonic and fluvial processes, the present karst plateaus still preserve large pieces of this once homogeneous surface. GIS-based statistical methods have been used to calculate exact aspects and slopes of the relict surfaces using the Shutt le Radar Topography Mission digital terrain model (SRTM DTM). Topographic swath profiles proved to be especially useful in the analysis, because top levels of the relief are marked in these profiles thus facilitating the identification and quantitative characterisation of these relict surfaces. Analysis results show that a general 1° slope is valid for most of the GTK. This very low slope angle is typical for particular karst plateaus as well as for long north to south cross-sections covering the whole karst area. Based on the smooth-filtered DTM the largest, most homogeneous surfaces (Plešivská plateau, Silická plateau) have a dominant south–south-western aspect, many other plateaus have southern aspect, whereas peripheral plateaus slope towards the margins. Uplift resulted in a uniform tilt in the western part of the area including the Slovenské rudohorie (Slovak Ore Mts.) found north of the GTK, while in the central and eastern zones the blocks uplift ed to different elevations and their tilts are more varied. In these zones, the Slovenské rudohorie are above the elevation trend of GTK, therefore a fault step also separates these morphological units. The origin of Slaná (Sajó) and Štítnik (Csetnek) valleys (east and west of Plešivská plateau) is debatable in the literature. Taking into consideration the good fit of topographic trends on opposite sides of valleys, vertical faulting can be excluded, therefore superimposition/antecedence could be the dominant process although tectonic preformation certainly had some influence in case of Štítnik valley. Before the tectonic uplift of GTK or in its early phase, water courses fl owing in north to south direction existed in the central parts. Traces of these flows are observable in the present relief around Jablonovské sedlo (saddle) and Derenk.
Because of population growth the global demand for food is rapidly increasing. As a consequence of this agriculture is expanding and becoming more intensive. Agricultural land use has the highest share among land use categories in the world therefore it is very important that farming activities are sustainable for the landscape and environment friendly. The aim of this paper is to present the positive role of conservation agriculture in landscape protection on the example of the results of the SOWAP (Soil and Surface Water Protection) project, supported by EU LIFE and Syngenta. Within the framework of the project tillage plots were established at two locations in Hungary, near Lake Balaton on Luvisol and Cambisol soils. The experimental program included soil erosion, biodiversity, soil microbiology measurements and agronomic traits. Runoff from the conservation tillage treatments was reduced by 66.8%, soil loss by 98.3%, TOC loss by 94.1%, nitrogen loss by 86.8%, phosphorus loss by 95.6% and potassium loss by 78.8% relative to values measured on the conventional plots. Soil moisture conditions have improved in the upper 20 cm under conservation tillage. Rainfall simulation experiments indicate the protection of plant residues resulting in the reduced number and volume of rills under conservation tillage. Yields of winter wheat, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet and maize were similar from plowed fields and conservation-tilled fields. There was a considerable improvement of biodiversity conditions on the conservation plots. The results of the SOWAP project give a reliable evidence that conservation agriculture is sustainable and it is an adequate tool for landscape protection.
Top-cited authors
Lajos Boros
  • University of Szeged
Zoltan Kovacs
  • University of Szeged
Thilo Lang
  • Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography
Szabolcs Fabula
  • University of Szeged
Adam Kertesz
  • Hungarian Academy of Sciences