Humanities and Social Sciences Communications

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For decades, researchers, knowledge brokers and policymakers have been working to increase the use of evidence in policymaking. This has spanned a wide range of approaches, from developments in evidence generation, to efforts to increase demand amongst decision-makers, and everything in between. Policymakers are central in this process, and we have well documented examples of how the policy system in some countries is increasingly embedding evidence into routine decision-making processes. These structural shifts are the holy grail of those who work to support the use of evidence, achieving degrees of ‘ownership’ and ‘institutionalisation’ of evidence-informed policy within governments. However, if one examines evidence generation, you see a lack of equivalent structural developments in the system for evidence generation, in particular research evidence. Academics may be increasingly likely to disseminate their research effectively. Funders may be demanding greater policy impact from research. Nevertheless, when looking at the core investment by countries for knowledge production (referred to as National Systems for Innovation in some contexts), several agencies constituting these systems – from science councils, universities, advisory bodies, funders and innovation centers – continue to incentivize established and new academics to use individualised motives to influence collective decisions and effect changes on broader, complex societal challenges. There is a case to be made that the evidence generation system needs reform if it is to lead to the desired transformation, and that a transformed evidence system needs to be better geared to interact with the policy-practice processes and systems which ultimately influence society.
Ramón y Cajal's drawing of nerve impulses corresponding to the olfactory and visual systems. Note the arrows that indicate the neuronal flow in a scientific illustration that introduces dynamic polarization, a hypothesis for functional analysis of the brain that remains relevant today. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Juan A. De Carlos; copyright © Cajal Institute (Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC), all rights reserved.
Scientific illustrations of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. a The first higher-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy image, obtained by the Cryo-EM Centre of the Southern University of Science and Technology. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Professor Peiyi Wang; copyright © Cryo-EM Centre of SUSTech available at 2020.03.02.972927v1.full.pdf, all rights reserved. b Illustration created at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by Alissa Eckert and Dan Higgins. Source CDC, public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions at c Infographic based on cryo-electron tomography, created in false colour by Nanographics using data from Tsinghua University. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Nanographics at copyright © Nanographics, all rights reserved.
Several television news programs with stage design and illustrations of SARS-CoV-2. a-m Fake coronavirus models or other viruses, n a scientific illustration, o, p real photos with retouched colour. Sources: a K21 News, Pakistan, b Canal 24horas RTVE, Spain, c Central Korea TV show, North Korea, d News in Spanish, France24, France, e News in Al Jazeera, Qatar, f NTV7, Malaysia, g News on India Today, India, h Local news in ABC, USA, i News in Channel 8 in CBS/MyNetwork TV, USA, j News in Nzdt, New Zealand, k Today this morning, Channel 9, Australia, l Sky News, Australia, m Antena 3 Noticias, Spain, n 8 Wish-TV, USA, o Deutsche Welle, Germany, p BBC News, UK. This figure is not covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Andreu-Sánchez and Martín-Pascual; copyright © Andreu-Sánchez and Martín-Pascual, all rights reserved.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an overload of scientific information in the media, sometimes including misinformation or the dissemination of false content. This so-called infodemic, at a low intensity level, is also manifested in the spread of scientific and medical illustrations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the beginning of the pandemic, images of other long-known viruses, sometimes imaginary reconstructions, or viruses that cause diseases in other, non-human species have been attributed to SARS-CoV-2. In a certain way, one can thus speak of a case of an imagedemic based on an alteration of the rigour and truth of informative illustrations in the media. Images that illustrate informative data have an influence on the emotional perception of viewers and the formation of attitudes and behaviours in the face of the current or future pandemics. So, image disinformation should be avoided, making it desirable that journalists confirm the validity of scientific images with the same rigour that they apply to any other type of image, instead of working with fake, made-up images from photo stock services. At a time when scientific illustration has great didactic power, high-quality information must be illustrated using images that are as accurate and real as possible, as for any other news topic. It is fundamental that informative illustrations about COVID-19 used in the media are scientifically rigorous.
Methods of data collecting in qualitative research.
Main architecture of the proposed system.
The architecture process – systematic creation of a system.
The system how Machine Learning is enhancing the Future of Education.
Distributions of internal assessment percentage of the students concerning results.
  • Mustafa İçenMustafa İçen
This study examined the potential effects of artificial intelligence on Turkish education. A qualitative research approach was employed by posing an open-ended question to academics in order to attain this objective thanks to built-in capabilities for conducting complicated computer operations, cloud-based services, and conciliatory accession for agile network connections. This study emphasizes that Turkey is highly fragmented and consists of various business organizations at both the municipal and regional levels. The two main policy documents produced by the Turkish government suggest that colleges play a strong role in national and regional Artificial Intelligence (AI) strategies for workforce growth, with substantial consequences for AI adoption strategies. These documents include information on three well-known educational entities: The new oriental workgroups, recurrent neural networks, and classroom clustering. Significant aspects of Turkey’s educational AI growth include a strong private education industry and a growing international interest. The investigation results revealed a decline in the level of understanding regarding the methods of using artificial intelligence, indicating the necessity for additional awareness-raising in Turkey.
Coding scheme, frequencies, and coder reliabilities.
Top ranked terms.
Model fit assessment.
Effects of communication functions on user engagement (with and without multimedia inclusion), normalized by logarithm and number of followers.
The value experience perceived by users and the extent of interactivity on social media show how engaging audiences are. Few studies have looked at what drives this value experience in organizational communication. This study explores the functional use of communications by interest group organizations (IGOs) and discerns their effect on user engagement with and without multimedia inclusion on Twitter. A bi-term topic modeling technique is used to analyze posts from 121 organizations, and a generalized linear regression model to assess the link between the content functions and user engagement. The results show that the information and communication content functions include event updates and people recognition. Further, report, event, period, and people communication functions drive a higher engagement with multimedia inclusion, while unite, sign, and glean communication functions are more likely to increase engagement without multimedia elements. This study bridges the gap in the service literature as it pertains to non-profit organizations (i.e., interest group organizations) by exploring organizational communication using communications content functions of Twitter posts. This study is the only one to investigate content functions beyond the categorizations of message functions and the relationship between content functions and user engagement.
Feature-matching value
It supports the composition beyond the common source.
Feature-matching identification value
The feature-matching identification value for hypothesis is defined by the feature-matching likelihood of opposite hypothesis. Ln1P(E∣H,C)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$Ln\frac{1}{{P(E|H,C)}}$$\end{document} reduce the uncertainty of H¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\bar H$$\end{document}, and Ln1P(E∣H¯,C)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$Ln\frac{1}{{P(E|\bar H,C)}}$$\end{document} reduce the uncertainty of H. H and H¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\bar H$$\end{document} are unknown for the forensic scientists.
Simple feature-matching measurements
Matching and mismatching.
Feature-matching measurements
The measurements of feature-matching distribute in a range.
Scientific principles of forensic source identification have attracted widespread interest in recent years. Among those presented principles and theorems, the Bayes inference was regarded as one of the most scientific principles. In this paper, we argue that the Bayes theorem is in challenge when used as principal basis for forensic source identification. Furthermore, two novel concepts: feature-matching value and feature-matching identification value are proposed inspired by the basic ideas of information theory. Based on these two concepts, a new framework is established to describe the source identification principles of forensic science. The proposed source identification principle uses deduction logic structure, and unifies the three existing source identification paradigms. The newly proposed framework is expected to provide a solid scientific basis for the source attribution methods in forensic science.
The flowchart demonstrates the research, identification, and screening process
A total of 1455 papers were originally identified and screened resulting in 38 papers being included that examined 45 interventions.
Global distribution of government interventions targeting ethics review or governance processes
This figure shows a map of where each intervention occurred; the darker colouring indicates more interventions.
Governments have attempted to increase clinical trial activity in their jurisdictions using a range of methods including simplifying the ethics review and governance process of clinical trials. This study’s objective was to systematically review the effects of government actions targeting ethics reviews or governance processes on clinical trial activity. The data sources of Pub Med, Scopus, Sage, ProQuest, Google, Google Scholar and reference lists were all searched between 9/8/20 and 6/9/20. From these sources, 1455 potentially eligible reports were reviewed and full text assessments were done for 295. Thirty-eight reports provided data on 45 interventions—13 targeting ethics review and 32 targeting governance processes—were included. There were data describing effects on a primary or secondary outcome (the number of clinical trials or expenditure on clinical trials) for 39/45 of the interventions. 23/39 (59%) reported positive effects, meaning a greater number of trials and/or expenditure on clinical trials (6/11 ethics, 17/28 governance), 7/39 (18%) reported null effects (4/11 ethics, 3/28 governance) and 9/39 (23%) reported adverse effects (1/13 ethics, 8/28 governance). Positive effects were attributable to interventions that better defined the scope of review, placed clear expectations on timelines or sought to achieve mutual acceptance of ethics review outcomes. Adverse effects were mostly caused by governance interventions that unintentionally added an extra layer of bureaucracy or were developed without full consideration of the broader clinical trial approval system. Governments have an opportunity to enhance clinical trial activity with interventions targeting ethics reviews and governance processes but must be aware that some interventions can have an adverse impact.
Research design
Representation of the mixed-method design, differentiating between the semi-standardised interviews with the sample of (former) migrant detainees and the in-depth interviews with the expert group. The figure portrays the respective research questions, instruments and methods of analysis. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Julia Manek; copyright © Julia Manek, all rights reserved.
Median and IQR of the TES subscales
The figure displays boxplots of the eight subscales. Statistical extreme values are marked with asterisks. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Julia Manek; copyright © Julia Manek, all rights reserved.
A spatial configuration of a torturing environment
This figure is a visual integration of the different counter-mappings by n = 5 former detainees and n = 5 participants of the group of key actors. The integration portrays an estación migratorias from the perspective of an adult cis-male inmate. The figure indicates different areas. Colours represent emotions linked to a certain place. Icons describe the infrastructure, conditions of the detention’s environment, incidents and different state actors. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Reproduced with permission of Julia Manek; copyright © Julia Manek, all rights reserved.
Mexico’s role in the US-Central American migration regime is threefold: not only is it a country of origin, and a transit country, but also increasingly becoming a receiving country for migrants who flee from violence, insecurity and poverty. The Mexican state responds with detention enforcement. Clinical research usually puts emphasise on the negative impact of detention enforcement on the detainees‘ mental health. Yet, it often disregards the spatial configurations of detention centres and their socio-political context. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing how such factors create harmful environments that affect both the detainees‘ mental health and their social life in Mexico’s migration detention centres. The study’s mixed method approach builds on semi-structured interviews with a sample of N = 56 migrants of diverse nationalities and varying socioeconomic status of whom 22 were still detained while 34 had been released. The interviews include the Torturing Environment Scale (TES), a novel instrument for the analysis of detention environments, as well as clinical psychological measures of emotional distress. Additional n = 10 in-depth interviews with human rights advocates to explore the interconnections between the detention environments, their impact on mental health, and Mexican migration politics. Facultative counter-mappings of the detention centres complement the interviews. Without exception, all interviews of detainees underline that the manipulation of detention conditions creates torturing environments that cause harm to basic physiological and psychological needs. A comparison between detained vs. released interviewees revealed lasting feelings of fear and shame. The study emphasises that immigration detention immobilises migrants in a necropolitical limbo, which destroys hope as much as human integrity. It indicates that detention is part of deterrence politics, which perpetuates harm and inequality through detention and deportation. Highlighting structural human rights violations, the findings stress the need to review current migration policies.
We set forth what one may call a “constitutional reading” in opposition to the traditional widespread “constructivist reading” of the object of cognition. In the light of the so-called one-object view reading of Transcendental idealism, the object of cognition is nothing but the object that exists in itself insofar as it appears to our cognitive apparatus. The object exists mind-independently , while our cognition of the same object must be mind-independent . The constructivist reading mistakes the epistemological problem of how we come to cognize mind-dependently that what we represent (“the constitutional view”) are mind-independent objects with the Berkelian ontological problem of how we construct objects out of an undifferentiated, unstructured manifold (the constructivist view) My diagnosis is as follows. The first reason is the traditional “two-worlds view” reading of Kant’s idealism: if we take what exists in itself and the object of cognition as distinct things, then we must conclude that the object of cognition is a mind-dependent construction. Constructivist readers mistake the mind-dependent nature of our human cognition of objects for the putative mind-dependent nature of the known object . The second reason is overintellectualization. Constructivist readers mistake the objectifying syntheses of the imagination, below the threshold of self-consciousness, for cognitive conceptual operations by means of which we cognize ( erkennen ) the objects of cognition, or so I shall argue.
Four levels of STEM education and their corresponding thinking degrees. STEM education 1.0 to 4.0 correspond to four levels of integration: Disciplinary, Multi-disciplinary, Interdisciplinary, Discipline-Integrated. The thinking degrees corresponding to each type of integration are unistructural, multi-structural, relational and extended abstract thinking.
Interdisciplinary learning requirements for different learning stages in National Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education (MOE, 2022).
STEM education has been extensively recognized by the Chinese government and the public nationally. However, there is no consistent terminology for naming STEM education in China, which leads to confusion about the use of STEM label in practice. Meanwhile, STEM-related evaluation has not received sufficient consideration by the Chinese government except for the Ministry of Education. In addition, macro-regulation and policy support at the national level in STEM education are limited, especially for vulnerable groups, contrasting with the United States. In order to fully release the enormous potential in developing science and technology, four approaches to reforming China’s STEM-related actions are discussed: (1) China should develop a consensus terminology based on national conditions as well as international communication. (2) China’s K-12 education should move forward along with four levels of STEM education and gradually reach the corresponding thinking degrees. (3) A multi-party collaborative service mechanism should be established. (4) It is critical to establish a school culture and environment that supports the integrated implementation of STEM-related education, including targeted instruction and training for vulnerable populations. In the future, a systematic top-level design is expected to promote the development of Chinese STEM education.
Argumentation and reasoning acting as hinge between cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis
Discourse as socio-linguistic vantage point is not fully compatible with methodology from cognitive linguistics. In adding the layer of pragmatics, reasoning & argumentation that act as hinge, we conceptually overcome this shortage. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright © the authors of this paper, all rights reserved.
General approach of the method applied conducting this study
The predefined corpus is filter for search terms indicating reference on the COVID-19 pandemic. The resulting collection is mined for the pre-identified language usage patterns indicating use of spatial metaphor. After explorative automated analysis resulting in directed association graphs, interesting sources are interpreted in detail by the introduced scheme derived from Toulmin (1976 [1958]). This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright © the authors of this paper, all rights reserved.
Example graph yielded by association rule mining
An example graph visualises the result of the rules extracted by association rule mining on the introduced text fragment. Nodes represent (proper) nouns, edges are annotated with the frequency of the originating node in all sentences containing the target node. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright © the authors of this paper, all rights reserved.
Detailed semantic context analysis
Clipped part of a context binding graph in the semantic context of the additional search term ‘breiten’. As introduced above, values assigned to directed edges indicate the strength of contextual linkages, e.g. 5 of the 5 occurrences of ‘Kommission’ share the context with ‘EU’ which binds the first term completely to the scope of the second one on all occurrences in the pre-set context. This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright © the authors of this paper, all rights reserved.
Detailed semantic context analysis
Recurring pattern of term binding in the context of ‘Grenze’ (border) and ‘Maßnahmen’ (measures) in boulevard media (clipped graph area). Strong mutual dependencies are observed between occurrences of ‘Krise’ (crisis) and ‘Corona’. ‘Kontrolle’ (control) is an important context marker of ‘Pandemie’ (pandemic). This figure is covered by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright © the authors of this paper, all rights reserved.
As other crises before, the COVID-19 pandemic put established discursive routines at stake. By framing the pandemic as a crisis, an immediate search for adequate counter-measures started to define proper means of mitigation and protection for the population. In the early stages of COVID-19, when little reliable information on the virus and its transmission behaviour was available, an intense use of metaphor to explain and govern the crisis had to be expected. Beside its well-known impact on (geo-)politics, a thorough analysis especially of the use of spatial metaphors to reason about the crises is still missing. In our approach, we rely on the foundational work of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) on image schemata, and prior work on spatial metaphors as part of argumentation patterns from cultural geography (Schlottmann, 2008). After a thorough analysis of prominent examples according to the argumentation scheme of Toulmin (1976 [1958]), we explored examples from the pre-existing corpus on COVID-19, deliberately compiled by DWDS for analysis of language patterns used throughout the pandemic. In a subsequent filter-refinement approach building on methods from cognitive linguistics and utilising a chunk of the same corpus, we were able to obtain and discuss results on the variety of spatial metaphors used at that time.
The literature searching and filtering process
Boxes indicate the sources used and filtering processes.
Types of effect of a leave policy on fertility, by parity
The two columns correspond to the current-child effect and the future-child effect. The rows correspond to the parity of the parent. The blue, red, and green oblongs represent the current-child effect (parity 1+), the total effect (parity 1), and the total effect, respectively.
Study designs for evaluating the effects of leave on fertility
a The short before-after study design, used to evaluate the current-child effect. b The long before study design, used to evaluate the future-child effect on individuals of parity 1 or higher. c The case-control difference-in-differences study design, used to evaluate the total effect. Long check marks on the horizontal axis indicate years, and short check marks indicate half-years. Solid horizontal lines indicate data on births being collected at that time, and dashed horizontal lines indicate that data on births occurring at that time will be collected later.
ROBINS-I evaluations of included studies
Study references are the same as those in the “Study key” column of Table 2. Figure adapted from visualisations produced by the R package “robvis” (McGuinness and Higgins, 2020).
Low fertility is set to worsen economic problems in many developed countries, and maternity, paternity, and parental leave have emerged as key pro-natal policies. Gender inequity in the balance of domestic and formal work has been identified as a key driver of low fertility, and leave can potentially equalise this balance and thereby promote fertility. However, the literature contends that evidence for the effect of leave on fertility is mixed. We conduct the first systematic review on this topic. By applying a rigorous search protocol, we identify and review empirical studies that quantify the impact of leave policies on fertility. We focus on experimental or quasi-experimental studies that can identify causal effects. We identify 11 papers published between 2009 and 2019, evaluating 23 policy changes across Europe and North America from 1977 to 2009. Results are a mixture of positive, negative, and null impacts on fertility. To explain these apparent inconsistencies, we extend the conceptual framework of Lalive and Zweimüller (2009), which decomposes the total effect of leave on fertility into the “current-child” and “future-child” effects. We decompose these into effects on women at different birth orders, and specify types of study design to identify each effect. We classify the 23 studies in terms of the type of effect identified, revealing that all the negative or null studies identify the current-child effect, and all the positive studies identify the future-child or total effect. Since the future-child and total effects are more important for promoting aggregate fertility, our findings show that leave does in fact increase fertility when benefit increases are generous. Furthermore, our extensions to Lalive and Zweimüller’s conceptual framework provide a more sophisticated way of understanding and classifying the effects of pro-natal policies on fertility. Additionally, we propose ways to adapt the ROBINS-I tool for evaluating risk of bias in pro-natal policy studies.
In 1527–1541, the Mac dynasty was at risk of invasion from its northern neighbor in China and had to fight consecutively with the Revival Le dynasty in Dai Viet. Therefore, in relations with China, the Mac dynasty during this period tried to maintain peaceful relations and avoid war between the two sides. Owing to the return of several former Chinese lands to China during this period, many people, especially historians of medieval Vietnam, have condemned the humility of the Mac dynasty, especially the humility of border and territorial issues, and said that it was the surrender and betrayal of their national interests. However, based on specific evidence from both Vietnamese and Chinese sides, the current article proves that the modesty of the Mac dynasty was only a formality and strategic ploy; in essence, the Mac dynasty was independent in relation to China at that time.
SDG performance scores in regions before the outbreak (2019)
The color of the map reflects the global average score for each country on the 17 SDGs. Bar charts indicate the SDG index scores for different subregions, including Asia, Africa, North America, Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. We collected data from the Sustainable Development Report 2019 (
The relationship between the confirmed COVID-19 infection rate (cumulative cases per 100 million people in 2020) and SDG index score growth rate (2020 compared to 2019) globally
The bar chart shows the number of countries (divided into global, high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries) achieving positive and negative SDG growth (2020 compared to 2019), respectively. We collected data from the Sustainable Development Report 2020 ( and the WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard (
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose substantial challenges to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Exploring systematic SDG strategies is urgently needed to aid recovery from the pandemic and reinvigorate global SDG actions. Based on available data and comprehensive analysis of the literature, this paper highlights ongoing challenges facing the SDGs, identifies the effects of COVID-19 on SDG progress, and proposes a systematic framework for promoting the achievement of SDGs in the post-pandemic era. Progress towards attaining the SDGs was already lagging behind even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Inequitable distribution of food–energy–water resources and environmental crises clearly threaten SDG implementation. Evidently, there are gaps between the vision for SDG realization and actual capacity that constrain national efforts. The turbulent geopolitical environment, spatial inequities, and trade-offs limit the effectiveness of SDG implementation. The global public health crisis and socio-economic downturn under COVID-19 have further impeded progress toward attaining the SDGs. Not only has the pandemic delayed SDG advancement in general, but it has also amplified spatial imbalances in achieving progress, undermined connectivity, and accentuated anti-globalization sentiment under lockdowns and geopolitical conflicts. Nevertheless, positive developments in technology and improvement in environmental conditions have also occurred. In reflecting on the overall situation globally, it is recommended that post-pandemic SDG actions adopt a “Classification–Coordination–Collaboration” framework. Classification facilitates both identification of the current development status and the urgency of SDG achievement aligned with national conditions. Coordination promotes domestic/international and inter-departmental synergy for short-term recovery as well as long-term development. Cooperation is key to strengthening economic exchanges, promoting technological innovation, and building a global culture of sustainable development that is essential if the endeavor of achieving the SDGs is to be successful. Systematic actions are urgently needed to get the SDG process back on track.
The composition of science facilitation expertise
Science facilitation expertise is a combination of expertise in scientific collaboration and interpersonal expertise as applied to facilitation practice.
Metacognitive processes that support learning from experience to inform future experiences
Reflection-on-action is experiential learning based on past experiences. Reflection-in-action is real-time reflection to link current experiences with relevant past experiences.
Key qualities of the three science facilitation pathways.
Today’s societal challenges, such as climate change and global pandemics, are increasingly complex and require collaboration across scientific disciplines to address. Scientific teams bring together individuals of varying backgrounds and expertise to work collaboratively on creating new knowledge to address these challenges. Within a scientific team, there is inherent diversity in disciplinary cultures and preferences for interpersonal collaboration. Such diversity contributes to the potential strength of the created knowledge but can also impede progress when teams struggle to collaborate productively. Facilitation is a professional practice-based form of interpersonal expertise that supports group members to do their best thinking. Although facilitation has been demonstrated to support group functioning in a wide range of contexts, its role in supporting scientific teams has been largely overlooked. This essay defines scientific facilitation as a form of interactional expertise and explains how facilitating scientific teams requires skills in managing interpersonal interactions as well as understanding how different types of disciplinary knowledge integrate in the creation of new knowledge. Next, it explains how this science facilitation expertise may be developed through metacognition. Finally, it provides examples of how scientific facilitation could be more widely incorporated into research by describing three pathways to expand the use of facilitation theory and techniques in collaborative scientific research: developing facilitation skills among scientists leading teams, using broadly trained facilitators, and using specialised science facilitators. The strengths and risks of each path are discussed, and criteria are suggested for selecting the right approach for a given team science project.
When public health emergencies occur, relevant information containing different topics, sentiments, and emotions spread rapidly on social media. From the cognitive and emotional dimensions, this paper explores the relationship between information attributes and information dissemination behavior. At the same time, the moderating role of the media factor (user influence) and the time factor (life cycle) in information attributes and information transmission is also discussed. The results confirm differences in the spread of posts under different topic types, sentiment types, and emotion types on social media. At the same time, the study also found that posts published by users with a high number of followers and users of a media type are more likely to spread on social media. In addition, the study also found that posts with different information attributes are easier to spread on social media during the outbreak and recurrence periods. The driving effect of life cycles is more obvious, especially for topics of prayer and fact, negative sentiment, emotions of fear, and anger. Relevant findings have specific contributions to the information governance of public opinion, the development of social media theory, and the maintenance of network order, which can further weaken the negative impact of information epidemic in the occurrence of public health emergencies, maintain normal social order, and thus create favorable conditions for the further promotion of global recovery.
Self-reliance and success deservingness
Mean ratings of self-reliance (left) and success deservingness (right) in Study 4. Note: Error bars indicate ± SEM.
Mediation results
Mediational paths of family background on success deservingness through perceived self-reliance for Study 4.
Demographics across studies.
Extant research demonstrates that individuals from higher-income families are more likely to become successful than individuals from lower-income families. This research aims at investigating how deserving people judge the same socioeconomic success when that success is achieved by individuals from higher- versus lower-income families. Building on the literature suggesting that people draw diverse inferences about others based on their socioeconomic status, seven preregistered experiments, conducted among participants from the United States, demonstrate that people deem the same socioeconomic success of an individual as less deserving when that individual comes from a higher- versus lower-income family. This difference in success deservingness judgments occurs because, in accomplishing the same success, people judge individuals from higher- versus lower-income families as less self-reliant, even when success can be attributed to individuals’ own effort. Importantly, this discrepancy in judgments of self-reliance and success deservingness has critical behavioral consequences: people prefer to give less support to individuals from higher- versus lower-income families, even when these individuals have experienced the same economic downturn and have accomplished the same career success. Together, these results extend existing research on the consequences of social class stereotypes for individuals and society, contribute to the philosophical and socio-political discourse about the nature of deservingness, and caution against a potentially biased provision of support based on people’s family background.
Fierce, ever-increasing competition has prompted universities to pay more attention to their academic brand. Since the 1980s, top Chinese universities have begun to register trademarks and manage academic brands. After more than 20 years of hard work, what have they achieved? This paper, which conducts research based on big data on the trademarks and litigation of the 42 first-class universities, is the first systematic analysis of the trademark practices and strategies of Chinese universities. Our data show the following dimensions of top Chinese universities: the timing of the first trademark application, core trademark, non-core trademarks, trademark elements, distribution of trademarks in the Nice Classification, number of trademarks, legal status, and trademark litigation. Additionally, several typical universities, offering both positive and negative examples, were studied. Through the above analysis, we found that the application has some blind spots, there is a lack of initiative in trademark litigation, and the trademark management systems in universities are not considered relevant. To solve these problems, a range of suggestions from macro to micro is offered to help universities formulate a systematic and reasonable trademark protection strategy, strengthen the legal protection of their trademark rights, and improve their internal trademark management system.
Energy poverty (EPOV) is considered to have a significant impact on health and has become an essential issue on the policy agenda in most countries, especially those with rapid aging. Cognitive and mental health (CMH) for aging well is just as important a component as physical health, but the literature on the effect of EPOV on CMH is still rare. Using 2014–2018 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), this study explores EPOV and its impacts on CMH among middle-aged and older adults. Six measures based on energy affordability are constructed to capture the state of EPOV. The results show that the proportion of middle-aged and older adults living in EPOV in China ranges from 24.3% to 27.8%, according to different measures. Applying a two-way FE model, the estimates show that overall, the impact of EPOV on CMH is significantly negative. Furthermore, physical health is an important channel through which EPOV affects CMH. Although EPOV has a significant adverse effect on the CMH of both middle-aged and older adults, it harms the latter more.
Baseline results.
Summary statistics.
Robustness test results.
Based on the micro data set of Chinese manufacturing enterprises, this study examines in detail the impact of foreign direct investment on the innovation performance of Chinese local enterprises and its mechanism. Results show that foreign direct investment helps to improve the innovation performance of Chinese local enterprises, and spillover effect and competition effect are important ways for foreign direct investment to affect the innovation performance of local enterprises. In addition, the impact of foreign direct investment on the innovation of local enterprises of different types varies. Foreign direct investment has significantly promoted the innovation of high-productivity, capital-intensive, non-coastal, export, and non-state-owned enterprises. This study enriches the research literature on foreign direct investment and enterprise innovation and provides new micro evidence for understanding the impact of foreign direct investment on the innovation performance of local enterprises.
Demographics of the participants (N = 1171).
  • Wangqian FuWangqian Fu
  • Chonggao WangChonggao Wang
  • Hongqin ChaiHongqin Chai
  • Rui XueRui Xue
Prosocial behavior acting as a precondition for shaping ideal interpersonal relationships, is curial in the development of a person’s social competence. This study examined the association between empathy and prosocial behavior in a sample of 1171 adolescents in China. An empathy questionnaire, social support rating scale, and helping attitude scale were applied in the study. Empathy had an influence on prosocial behavior through social support as a mediating factor. The mediating effect of social support between empathy and prosocial behavior was mainly manifested through perceived social support. The current findings imply that cultivating the empathy of adolescents and promoting their perceived social support may be effective to enhancing their prosocial behavior.
Distribution of participant (n = 959) expectations for oversight of invertebrates involved in animal-based research after reading one of the four vignettes involving research with mice, fish, sea star, and grasshopper
The grasshopper vignette resulted in lower expectations in an oversight system compared to the other three animal vignettes, regardless of whether oversight was explicitly stated as being present or not. Participants were asked to indicated on a 7-point scale “Compared to vertebrates (like mice and fish) the oversight of invertebrates (like grasshoppers and sea stars) should be” with 0 indicating “zero oversight”, 0.5 indicating “50% less oversight as vertebrates”, 1 indicating “same oversight as vertebrates”, and intermediate options were indicated but not labeled.
Boxplot for participant (n = 959) confidence score in the oversight of scientists involved in animal-based research after reading one of the four vignettes involving research with mice, fish, grasshoppers or sea stars (line indicates median, triangle indicates mean, box indicates interquartile range, minimum whisker indicates Q1-1.5*IQR, maximum whisker indicates Q3 + 1.5*IQR, circles indicate outliers)
Participants had the most confidence in the vertebrate oversight systems, mice and fish, the least for the oversight of sea stars and were intermediate when considering the grasshoppers. The mean of three confidence Likert statements constructed a confidence score.
Boxplot for participant (n = 959) trust score of scientists involved in animal-based research after reading one of the four vignettes involving research with mice, fish, grasshoppers or sea stars (line indicates median, triangle indicates mean, box indicates interquartile range, minimum whisker indicates Q1-1.5*IQR, maximum whisker indicates Q3 + 1.5*IQR, circles indicate outliers)
Regardless of whether the participants were told if there was an oversight system in place, trust in scientists was higher for those that initially read one of the vertebrate oversight systems (mice and fish) compared to sea stars whereas the grasshopper treatment was intermediate. The mean of ten trust Likert statements constructed a trust score.
Ethical and regulatory oversight of research animals is focused on vertebrates and rarely includes invertebrates. Our aim was to undertake the first study to describe differences in public confidence, trust, and expectations for the oversight of scientists using animals in research. Participants were presented with one of four treatments using a 2 by 2 design; terrestrial (T; mice and grasshoppers) vs. aquatic (A; zebrafish and sea stars) and vertebrates (V; mice and zebrafish) vs. invertebrates (I; grasshoppers and sea stars). A representative sample of census-matched Canadian participants (n = 959) stated their confidence in oversight, trust in scientists and expectation of oversight for invertebrates on a 7-point Likert scale. Participants’ open-ended text reasoning for confidence and expectations of oversight were subjected to thematic analysis. Participants believed invertebrates should receive some level of oversight but at two-thirds of that currently afforded to vertebrates. Four primary themes emerged to explain participant expectation: (1) value of life, (2) animal experience, (3) participant reflection, and (4) oversight system centered. Confidence in oversight was highest for TV (mean ± SE; 4.5 ± 0.08) and AV (4.4 ± 0.08), less for TI (3.8 ± 0.10), and least for AI (3.5 ± 0.08), indicating the absence of oversight decreased public confidence. Four themes emerged to explain participant confidence, centered on: (1) animals, (2) participant reflection, (3) oversight system, and (4) science. Trust in scientists was similar for TV (4.3 ± 0.07) and AV (4.2 ± 0.07), but higher for TV compared to TI (4.1 ± 0.07) and TV and AV compared to AI (4.0 ± 0.06); absence of oversight decreased public trust in scientists. These results, provide the first evidence that the public believe invertebrates should receive some level of oversight if used for scientific experiments. The gap that exists between current and public expectations for the oversight of invertebrates may threaten the social licence to conduct scientific research on these animals.
Adaptation actions and SDG 5 linkages across sectors
[Note (1) The inner circle is the net score (sum of positive and negative scores) that reflects the strength of the link between adaptation options and the nine SDG 5 targets* within each sector. The higher the score, the stronger the link. The magnitude of net scores is not comparable across sectors, but signs are comparable. (2) The middle circle depicts the four broad categories of adaptive actions. The numbers in parenthesis show the selected number of publications (Supplementary Material 2 and Table 1). Further, the sectors are colour-coded as follows: . (3) The outer circle identifies the total number of individual adaptation options in each adaptive action category (Table 1). The size of the slice in the outer ring shows the relative contribution of the individual option (whether positive or negative). (4) Solid colours denote positive net score; hatching denotes the negative net score; for abbreviations, please see the details in Table 1]. *Briefly, the different targets for all women and girls everywhere are: (for details please see United Nations, 2020). Target 5.1 Ending all forms of discrimination, Target 5.2 Eliminating all forms of violence, Target 5.3 Eliminating all harmful practices, Target 5.4 Recognising unpaid care and domestic work, Target 5.5 Ensuring full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership, Target 5.6 Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health, Target 5.a Undertaking reforms to give equal rights to economic resources, Target 5.b Enhancing the use of enabling technology to promote empowerment and Target 5.c Adopting and strengthening sound policies and enforceable legislation for gender equality and empowerment.
List of targets across all SDGs that contribute to SDG 5 referred here as SDG 5+
[Note Figure: Colour codes of the slices are the same as the SDG-icon colour codes. In the brackets, the numbers represent SDG 1–SDG 17 and alphabets associated with the numbers represent targetsa under each SDG. The size of the slice is proportionate to the relative numbers of targets with a gender dimension within a given SDG. aThe targets, in short, are about: SDG 1: Eradicating extreme poverty (1.1; 1.2), Implementing nationally appropriate social protection systems (1.3), Ensuring equal rights to economic resources and basic services (1.4), creating sound policy frameworks for gender-sensitive development strategies (1.b). SDG 2: Ending all forms of malnutrition (2.2), Doubling the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers (2.3). SDG 3: Ending epidemics and communicable diseases (3.3), ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services (3.7). SDG 4: Ensuring children complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education (4.1), ensuring access to quality early childhood development care and pre-primary education (4.2), ensuring affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university (4.3), eliminating gender disparities in education (4.5), ensuring that all youth achieve literacy and numeracy (4.6), ensuring that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development (4.7), building and upgrading education facilities (4. a). SDG 5: see caption of Fig. 1. SDG 6: Achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene (6.2). SDG 8: Promoting development-oriented policies that support productive activities (8.3), achieving full and productive employment and decent work (8.5), taking immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking (8.7), protecting labour rights and promoting safe and secure working environments (8.8). SDG 10: Empowering and promoting the social, economic and political inclusion (10.2). SDG 11: Providing access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems (11.2), providing universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces (11.7). SDG 13: Promoting mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management (13.b). SDG 16: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates (16.1), ending abuse, exploitation, trafficking (16.2), ensuring responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels (16.7). SDG 17: Enhancing capacity-building support to developing countries (17.18) (for details see Supplementary Material 5 and United Nations, 2015a, 2020)].
Sectors descriptions and adaptation options by adaptation category.
Climate change impacts are being felt across sectors in all regions of the world, and adaptation projects are being implemented to reduce climate risks and existing vulnerabilities. Climate adaptation actions also have significant synergies and tradeoffs with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 5 on gender equality. Questions are increasingly being raised about the gendered and climate justice implications of different adaptation options. This paper investigates if reported climate change adaptation actions are contributing to advancing the goal of gender equality (SDG 5) or not. It focuses on linkages between individual targets of SDG 5 and climate change adaptation actions for nine major sectors where transformative climate actions are envisaged. The assessment is based on evidence of adaptation actions documented in 319 relevant research publications published during 2014–2020. Positive links to nine targets under SDG 5 are found in adaptation actions that are consciously designed to advance gender equality. However, in four sectors—ocean and coastal ecosystems; mountain ecosystems; poverty, livelihood, sustainable development; and industrial system transitions, we find more negative links than positive links. For adaptation actions to have positive impacts on gender equality, gender-focused targets must be intentionally brought in at the prioritisation, designing, planning, and implementation stages. An SDG 5+ approach, which takes into consideration intersectionality and gender aspects beyond women alone, can help adaptation actions move towards meeting gender equality and other climate justice goals. This reflexive approach is especially critical now, as we approach the mid-point in the timeline for achieving the SDGs.
According to the literature, educational technologies present several learning benefits to promote online education. However, there are several associated challenges, and some studies illustrate the limitations in elaborating educational technologies, called Design limitations. This aspect is responsible for unleashing various issues in the learning process, such as gender inequality, creating adverse effects on cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mediators, which opposes the fifth UN’s Sustainable Development Goal. Therefore, many studies notice the harmful effects of stereotypes in educational technologies. These effects can be included in the design, like colors or other stereotyped elements, or how the activity is conducted. Based on this, the present study aimed to verify the predominance of color bias in educational technologies available on the WEB. This study developed a computational solution to calculate male and female color bias in the available educational technology web pages. The results suggest the prevalence of the development of educational technologies with a male color bias, with an imbalance among genders, without adequate customization for age groups. Furthermore, some environments, such as Computer Science, present a higher color bias for men when compared to women. Despite both scales being independent, results indicated interesting evidence of a substantial prevalence of colors associated with the male scale. According to the literature, this may be associated with dropout and lack of interest in female students, especially in sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains.
A paradigm of social media effect on cultural identity
This figure represents the full structural model to demonstrate the potential relationships among the concepts of communication/relationship, acculturation, and community, in which social media connects people, and through social media utilizing, connections are increased, which aids individuals to avoid acculturation process effects and establish a sense of community.
Reasons for respondents' use of social media.
Respondents' responses according to the change in the cultural identity component of time respect.
Distribution of respondents according to the level of change in the components of cultural identity as a whole.
Cultural identity refers to the identical compound of reminiscences, impressions, ideologies, images, idioms, inventions, and ambitions that maintains a human set’s civilizational identity within the framework of what it knows of developments due to its internal dynamism and its ability to communicate or give and take. Social Media’s deep effect on cultural identity is a matter of constant concern. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to recognize the effect of social media on some components of rural people’s cultural identity. This study was conducted on 360 respondents from rural people in Bamha village, Egypt. Our data were collected using a questionnaire in December 2021 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s simple correlation coefficient, chi-square, and the ascending multiple regression correlation analysis model (Stepwise). The results showed that for two-fifths of the respondents (40%) the level of change in cultural identity was high in relation to their use of social media; there is a significant relationship between some independent variables of respondents and the degree of change in their cultural identity. These results have important implications for policy, practice, and subsequent research, the most important of which are: working on developing thinking skills and self-learning among students in schools and universities, as well as the need to activate the role of the media in providing meaningful content that preserves societal values, in addition to employing social media to support community participation of young people on the ground by organizing awareness, volunteer and charitable activities, and finally the need to increase cooperation and coordination between all parties, whether they are media, schools, religious or civil institutions, youth centers, or other institutions to maximize the positive use of social media and to reduce its negative effects.
Data accurately representing the population distribution at the subnational level within countries is critical to policy and decision makers for many applications. Call data records (CDRs) have shown great promise for this, providing much higher temporal and spatial resolutions compared to traditional data sources. For CDRs to be integrated with other data and in order to effectively inform and support policy and decision making, mobile phone user must be distributed from the cell tower level into administrative units. This can be done in different ways and it is often not considered which method produces the best representation of the underlying population distribution. Using anonymised CDRs in Namibia between 2011 and 2013, four distribution methods were assessed at multiple administrative unit levels. Estimates of user density per administrative unit were ranked for each method and compared against the corresponding census-derived population densities, using Kendall’s tau-b rank tests. Seasonal and trend decomposition using Loess (STL) and multivariate clustering was subsequently used to identify patterns of seasonal user variation and investigate how different distribution methods can impact these. Results show that the accuracy of the results of each distribution method is influenced by the considered administrative unit level. While marginal differences between methods are displayed at “coarser” level 1, the use of mobile phone tower ranges provided the most accurate results for Namibia at finer levels 2 and 3. The use of STL is helpful to recognise the impact of the underlying distribution methods on further analysis, with the degree of consensus between methods decreasing as spatial scale increases. Multivariate clustering delivers valuable insights into which units share a similar seasonal user behaviour. The higher the number of prescribed clusters, the more the results obtained using different distribution methods differ. However, two major seasonal patterns were identified across all distribution methods, levels and most cluster numbers: (a) units with a 15% user decrease in August and (b) units with a 20–30% user increase in December. Both patterns are likely to be partially linked to school holidays and people going on vacation and/or visiting relatives and friends. This study highlights the need and importance of investigating CDRs in detail before conducting subsequent analysis like seasonal and trend decomposition. In particular, CDRs need to be investigated both in terms of their area and population coverage, as well as in relation to the appropriate distribution method to use based on the spatial scale of the specific application. The use of inappropriate methods can change observed seasonal patterns and impact the derived conclusions.
Policy makers’ ultimate goal is to deliver the highest possible level of population welfare. Economists investigate the effect of socio-economic dimensions on wellbeing using unidimensional measures of life satisfaction or happiness as proxies for welfare. However, social psychologists have shown that wellbeing is a much broader construct and that an intervention may have opposite effects on its components. Unidimensional measures may hide these patterns. Most literature focuses on high-income countries. The growing evidence from low- and middle-income countries also largely relies on standard unidimensional measures. This study tests the validity of this reliance by exploring the wellbeing construct of South African women, quantitatively analysing textual data from focus group discussions to investigate whether unidimensional measures are appropriate in this context. It provides evidence against the indiscriminate use of unidimensional wellbeing measures. Cluster and correspondence analysis of the transcripts show that relevant domains of women’s wellbeing include relations with others, autonomy, and a perception of control over their environment (environmental mastery). Results also reveal that participants have a relational view of themselves, distinct from the individuated view predominant in the US and Europe and the collectivist view found in East Asia. Such relational self-perception modifies study participants’ wellbeing construct in ways that are important for policy implementation and evaluation. For example, women’s autonomy and environmental mastery rely on shared peer-identity to redefine rules and meet challenges. Wellbeing measures for policy evaluation would benefit from incorporating these insights to meaningfully measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3 on ‘good health and wellbeing’ in South Africa and other contexts that exhibit similar concepts of wellbeing.
Details of participants, fieldwork, and other activities.
Governments in Africa are licensing major global ride-hailing firms to launch operations in the continent. This is often presented as a refreshing development for the continent to leverage technology to address its twin problems of inefficient urban transport and rising youth unemployment. Interviews with ride-hailing adopters (drivers, riders, and car owners) and researchers in Ghana suggest, however, that whereas the technology is driving up the standards of road transport experience, the benefits are accessible to a select few (largely, the younger, highly educated and relatively high income-earning class). The lopsided power relations underlying the ride-hailing industry have also meant that the economic opportunities it avails disproportionately benefit a few powerful players (e.g. ride-hailing firms and car owners) while stimulating ‘turf wars’ among online and traditional taxi drivers; deepening existing gender inequalities in access to income-earning opportunities in the commercial passenger transport sector; encouraging unhealthy driving practices, shifts from shared public transport, and inundation of the roads with more private cars. While it will be imprecise to say that the private gains of ride-hailing outstrip the public costs and, therefore, the technology is detrimental to Ghana’s development, the considered evidence raises the need for sustained scrutiny of the hailing of technological interventions as though they are the magic bullets for socio-economic transformation in Africa. Overall, the paper argues that dismantling the power structures underlying Africa’s urban challenges will require more than splashing ‘smart’ apps and other tech wizardries around. Indeed, the lessons from Ghana’s ride-hailing industry suggest that such exclusively technical solutions could easily take root and pattern after existing strictures of unjust power structures in ways that could exacerbate the social and environmental problems they are supposed to address.
Many previous studies have used performance evaluation to explore the impact of environmental regulation on the green development of enterprises. However, there are few studies on the process by which enterprises adopt green development behavior. Here, we aim to simulate the whole process by which Chinese construction enterprises adopt green development. We also consider impact of environmental regulation and industry clusters in this process. Using agent-based modeling, we construct a computational experimental simulation model for the adoption of green development behavior by construction enterprises. The model considers the organizational behavior characteristics of construction enterprises and the evolutionary characteristics of the renewable construction materials market. Our results show that in terms of renewable building materials, construction enterprises that actively adopt green development behavior are more sustainable than those that do not. Moreover, with the implementation of sustainable environmental regulations, more enterprises are passively adopting green development behaviors. However, unsustainable environmental regulations do not have a positive effect. The formation of industrial clusters is also conducive to promoting companies’ adoption of green development behaviors. Therefore, construction enterprises should take the initiative to adopt green development behavior and migrate to industrial agglomerations. This practice is not only beneficial to the sustainable operation of the enterprise and the expansion of the enterprise scale, it will also have an optimization effect on the external environment. Here, we take construction enterprises as the breakthrough point and expand research on enterprise green development. We also provide a theoretical basis and insights for enterprises with environmental responsibility to engage in green development behavior.
Differences in means between high and low herd immunity thresholds, showing 95% confidence intervals
Note: For A, the Y-axis is the belief about reaching the threshold (1 = completely unlikely, 4 = either or, 7 = completely likely). For B, the Y-axis is the percentage one believes will get vaccinated in the total population.
Mediation model diagram
The mediation model puts the two beliefs, that the herd immunity threshold can be reached (ReachThresh) and that others in the population will get vaccinated (Vac%Pop), as mediators between the high herd immunity threshold condition and vaccine willingness.
Mean values and differences across experimental conditions.
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, media and policymakers openly speculated about the number of immune citizens needed to reach a herd immunity threshold. What are the effects of such numerical goals on the willingness to vaccinate? In a large representative sample (N = 1540) of unvaccinated Swedish citizens, we find that giving a low (60%) compared to a high (90%) threshold has direct effects on beliefs about reaching herd immunity and beliefs about how many others that will get vaccinated. Presenting the high threshold makes people believe that herd immunity is harder to reach (on average about half a step on a seven-point scale), compared to the low threshold. Yet at the same time, people also believe that a higher number of the population will get vaccinated (on average about 3.3% more of the population). Since these beliefs affect willingness to vaccinate in opposite directions, some individuals are encouraged and others discouraged depending on the threshold presented. Specifically, in mediation analysis, the high threshold indirectly increases vaccination willingness through the belief that many others will get vaccinated (B = 0.027, p = 0.003). At the same time, the high threshold also decreases vaccination willingness through the belief that the threshold goal is less attainable (B = −0.053, p < 0.001) compared to the low threshold condition. This has consequences for ongoing COVID-19 vaccination and future vaccination campaigns. One message may not fit all, as different groups can be encouraged or discouraged from vaccination.
Average abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns trends
Trend of AARs and CARs for the event window (t−5–t+5 days).
Descriptive statistics.
Results of robustness tests.
Results of the mechanism test.
This paper investigates the role of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance in stock prices during the market financial crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We use the Chinese listed company data as the bases for adopting an event-study method to identify the impact of ESG performance on cumulative abnormal returns. Empirical results suggest that ESG performance significantly increases firms’ cumulative abnormal returns and has asymmetric effects during the pandemic. Our results are robust to various robustness checks that consider the replacement of event window period, ESG measurement, adding other control variables, and sample exclusion of Hubei Province. We further find that reputation and insurance effects are important mechanisms through which ESG performance influences stock prices. Lastly, heterogeneous analyses show that ESG effects are considerably pronounced among firms with low human capital and bad image and in high-impact regions.
The TDP taxonomy
The included SSIMs are typically conceived as antagonistic (a). The technocratic model assigns a strong decision authority to science (b). The decisionist model assigns the main decision authority to society (c). In the pragmatist model, the decision authority is co-produced in an iterative exchange between science and society.
The conceptual space
Taxonomic SSIMs are used as boundary cases. Real-world assumptions are defined by their conceptual distance/proximity to the boundary cases. Real-world actors will typically hold several relevant assumptions. The totality of an actor's assumptions makes up the actor’s non-taxonomic SSIM.
Mapping of actor assumptions in the conceptual space
Assumptions are identified by determining the actors’ acceptance of each taxonomic SSIM in each thematic dimension, e.g. on a Likert scale (a–c). Convergences and differences between actors are assessed by comparing the position of the actors’ non-taxonomic SSIMs in the conceptual space.
What is the appropriate place for science in society? Despite the vast literature on the subject, the science–society relation remains a disputed issue. A major reason is that, when we are asking about the right place of science in society, we are actually asking a range of interrelated and hard-to-answer individual questions. These questions include the role of social values in the research process, the neutrality of science in policy, the interplay between evidence and decision-making, and many others. A sensible way to organize these questions—and the set of potential answers—are science–society interaction models (SSIMs). SSIMs reduce the complexity of the science–society relation and provide generic templates for interactions between scientists and non-scientists. However, SSIMs are often used in an unproductive way, namely as antagonistic camps or as representations of real-world actors’ beliefs. Focusing on the popular distinction between technocratic, decisionist, and pragmatist models, this paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of SSIMs. It argues that SSIMs should not, as is often done in the science–society literature, be understood as antagonistic camps or representations of actor beliefs, but as ideal types and heuristics. Building on this interpretation, this paper presents tentative ideas for a reflexive tool that real-world actors can use to assess their fundamental assumptions about science and society.
Illustrating both the process of anti and pro-environment mobilisation online and the formation of digital identities through tweets.
The increasing popularity of Twitter as a medium for sharing and debating scientific information brings forth questions about the type of narratives emerging around environmental/climate change and global warming. This article maps the landscape of narratives of how Twitter is used to communicate about environmental issues in Turkey. It displays how these actors can play a crucial role in constructing and/or de-constructing such crisis. I show how Twitter users in Turkey, use such medium to strengthen their own and the public’s awareness on global warming or to deny all together create a counter narrative and how certain frames that promote scepticism about environmental change are broadly disseminated by using certain emotional context. The analyses of the 1295 tweets collected using a random week sample displayed users who are sceptical about the Turkish government taking a more active stance toward climate change whereas the users supporting the government in general where more preoccupied with hoax arguments that in return may compromise trust in scientific authorities. The analysis combines thematic analysis of tweets and coding. I conclude the paper by conversing the significance of studying Twitter as a communicative platform that provides rich information displaying the existing dynamics.
The construction industry occupies a high proportion of the global economy. However, with the energy consumption of construction enterprises, it still brings a series of serious environmental problems. Construction enterprises should take active green development behavior to respond. Based on enterprises' green development behavior, this paper explores the influencing factors of green development behavior adopted by construction enterprises in China. Through literature analysis, this paper identifies that construction enterprises' adoption of green development behaviors is influenced by technological, organizational and environmental factors. Then this paper constructs an index system of the influencing factors of green development behaviors adopted by enterprises. According to the data of construction enterprises from 2000 to 2020 of National Bureau of Statistics, an artificial neural network is used to construct the prediction model of influencing factors of green development behavior adopted by construction enterprises. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Construction enterprises' adoption of green development behavior shows an upward trend over time. (2) Market share of construction enterprises is the most important factor to promote construction enterprises' adoption of green development behavior. (3) The prediction model of influencing factors constructed in this paper is verified to be effective by the technology-organization-environment framework. This paper provides a reference for construction enterprises and the government to promote enterprises to adopt green development behavior, which is beneficial for construction enterprises to achieve green development faster.
Theory of change illustrating pathways to women's economic empowerment.
Worldwide, there is a wide gap between what women can contribute to the economy and what they actually contribute. One of the main barriers to women’s engagement in the labor market and productivity at work is the societal expectation that they should take care of their children in addition to meeting the demands of employment. Furthermore, those in informal employment face difficulties due to long working hours and environments that are not appropriate for childcare. To address this, Kidogo runs an innovative “Hub & Spoke” model for low-income communities. Here, we present a study protocol aimed at evaluating whether the provision of quality childcare opportunities for working women through the Kidogo model is feasible and acceptable and whether it contributes to improvements in their incomes and productivity at work. The study reported in this protocol which is currently ongoing, employed a quasi-experimental design with two study arms: primary caregivers who use childcare services were recruited into the intervention ( n = 170) and comparison groups ( n = 170). Both groups are being followed up for one year. We are using a mixed-methods approach. Appropriate statistical methods including a difference-in-differences (DID) estimator will be used to analyze the effects of the intervention. We expect that the intervention will improve the quality of childcare services which in turn will improve the incomes of the center providers. We expect that providing improved childcare services will enhance women’s economic empowerment. Trial registration: PACTR202107762759962.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact relationship between the golf simulation industry and economic growth in Korea using impulse response and variance decomposition of Structural Vector Auto-regressive model (SVAR) based on data from 2000 to 2020. The impulse response results show that under the short-term constraint, there is a strong correlation between the golf simulation industry, sports industry investment and labor population, while the interaction between the golf simulation industry, sports industry investment and economic growth is weak, and the trend of their influence is somewhat uncertain under the effect of economic growth. In contrast, there is a unidirectional positive influence effect between the golf simulation industry, sports industry investment, labor population and economic growth under the long-term constraint. However, the difference from short-term constraints is that the long-term shock effect is less volatile with a poorer influence effect, thus leading to the weaker interaction between them. The structural variance decomposition shows that the impact path of the economic effect of the golf simulation industry is the same for both long-term and short-term effects, which indicates that the golf simulation industry, labor population, and sports industry investment all have a positive contribution on economic growth.
In the past decade, there has been an increase in the studies on employee turnover in Nigeria. The spate of studies is suggestive that employees are not very committed to their jobs in most organisations. Nevertheless, the unemployment rate poses a big constraint to the mobility of labour and thus increases the possibility of disguised commitment. To this end, this study sought to ascertain the major determinants of employee commitment in business organisations. The specific objectives were to investigate the extent to which stunted mobility, extrinsic motivators, intrinsic motivators and organisational climate influence employee commitment, as well as the extent to which respondents’ perception of employees’ commitment relates to socio-demographic variables like age, gender and educational qualification. The population of sthe study consisted of employees of seven multinational companies in Edo, Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers states of Nigeria. The study employed the survey design with a questionnaire serving as the research instrument. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that stunted mobility, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation and organisational climate are significant motivators of employee commitment. Respondents’ perceptions did not vary with demographic variables.
Ultra-conservative, ultra-Orthodox, nationalist and xenophobic, advocating “family, nation, Christian faith and liberty”, the party Alianța pentru Uniunea Românilor (henceforth AUR— which translates as “GOLD” in Romanian) [Alliance for the Unity of Romanians] campaigned in an insidious manner, both in social media and in the poorer rural areas of Romania, gathering a momentum that few could foresee in the 2020 elections. It is in the hands of discourse experts to deconstruct such hate speeches and warn both policymakers and the general population against allowing them to proliferate in the public sphere. Accordingly, drawing on the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA), this paper aims to analyse samples of a speech of one of the leaders/ideologists of AUR, comparing them with the inflammatory discourse that paved the way to the Legionaries’ coming to power in 1940.
A concealable stigmatised identity (CSI) is any identity that can be hidden but, if revealed, can be potentially socially devaluing (e.g., sexual minority). Those living with a CSI have opportunities to disclose their identities to friends and family members or within professional contexts. According to the disclosure processes model, people adopt either approach-oriented or avoidance-oriented goals when self disclosing. The current study sought to identify how antecedent goals and relationship context are embodied in the dynamics of unintentional behaviours during disclosure. Participants simulated a disclosure event to both close other and professional other targets and were primed with either approach or avoidance-motivations. Postural activity and language were analysed using detrended fluctuation analysis and recurrence quantification analysis. Results revealed that the movement dynamics of participants who were motivated by approach goals exhibited more complex and flexible behaviour compared to those who were motivated by avoidance goals. In addition, there was more recurrent word use towards close others compared to professional others. These results support the supposition of the disclosure processes model that approach-avoidance motivation impacts behaviour and sheds light on the functional differences between relationship contexts on a CSI disclosure experience.
The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique context and opportunity to investigate changes in healthcare professional perceptions towards the adoption of novel medical technologies, such as point-of-care technologies (POCTs). POCTs are a nascent technology that has experienced rapid growth as a result of COVID-19 due to their ability to increase healthcare accessibility via near-patient delivery, including at-home. We surveyed healthcare professionals before and during COVID-19 to explore whether the pandemic altered their perceptions about the usefulness of POCTs. Our network analysis method provided a structure for understanding this changing phenomenon. We uncovered that POCTs are not only useful for diagnosing COVID-19, but healthcare professionals also perceive them as increasingly important for diagnosing other diseases, such as cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, and metabolic diseases. Healthcare professionals also viewed POCTs as facilitating the humanization of epidemiology by improving disease management/monitoring and strengthening the clinician-patient relationship. As the accuracy and integration of these technologies into mainstream healthcare delivery improves, hurdles to their adoption dissipate, thereby encouraging healthcare professionals to rely upon them more frequently to diagnose, manage, and monitor diseases. The technological advances made in POCTs during COVID-19, combined with shifting positive perceptions of their utility by healthcare professionals, may better prepare us for the next pandemic.
Model results in terms of technology’s quality as a function of generation
We run 1000 simulations of 1000 generations for each model and averaged the technology’s quality between simulations. Common parameter values for all models: n = 2, θ = 5, βimprove = 1.2, βdeteriorate = 0.8. A Model with refinement only, limit(tech) = 2. B Model with refinement only, where each model has a different limit: top left: limit(tech) = 2 (same as A); top right: limit(tech) = 5; bottom left: limit(tech) = 10; bottom right: limit(tech) = 20. C Model with refinement and innovation, limit(tech) = 2, pinnovation = 0.01. The black dashed horizontal line represents the maximal value the technology may take accounting for the parameters and ten innovations (an innovation every 100 generations; pinnovation = 0.01). D Results from the synthesis (for more information, see supplementary material S3Synthesis), mean score as a function of generation.
Model results for single simulation run and impact of ToM
We run 1 simulation of 1000 generations for each social-learning form. Parameter values for all models: limit(tech) = 2 n = 2, θ = 5, βimprove = 1.2, βdeteriorate = 0.8. We manually set innovations to occur once every 200 generations. A Model results in terms of technology's quality as a function of generation for a specific single simulation run where all three social-learning forms reach the optimized-technology level after each innovation. B Example of different model results in terms of technology's quality as a function of generation for multiple specific single simulation runs. C Model results in terms of technology’s quality as a function of generation. We run 1000 simulations of 1000 generations for both models and averaged the technology’s quality in-between simulations. Parameter values for both models: limit(tech) = 2 n = 2, θ = 5, βimprove = 1.2, βdeteriorate = 0.8 and pinnovation = 0.01. D Impact of ToM as a function of generation. We compare C model technology’s quality. The impact of ToM is calculated as follows: impact=qualityTwithToM−qualityTwithoutToMqualityTwithoutToM*100\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$impact = \frac{{quality\left( T \right)\,with\,ToM - quality\left( T \right)\,without\,ToM}}{{quality\left( T \right)\,without\,ToM}} \ast 100$$\end{document}.
Our technologies have never ceased to evolve, allowing our lineage to expand its habitat all over the Earth, and even to explore space. This phenomenon, called cumulative technological culture (CTC), has been studied extensively, notably using mathematical and computational models. However, the cognitive capacities needed for the emergence and maintenance of CTC remain largely unknown. In the literature, the focus is put on the distinctive ability of humans to imitate, with an emphasis on our unique social skills underlying it, namely theory of mind (ToM). A recent alternative view, called the technical-reasoning hypothesis, proposes that our unique ability to understand the physical world (i.e., technical reasoning; TR) might also play a critical role in CTC. Here, we propose a simple model, based on the micro-society paradigm, that integrates these two hypotheses. The model is composed of a simple environment with only one technology that is transmitted between generations of individuals. These individuals have two cognitive skills: ToM and TR, and can learn in different social-learning conditions to improve the technology. The results of the model show that TR can support both the transmission of information and the modification of the technology, and that ToM is not necessary for the emergence of CTC although it allows a faster growth rate.
This paper focuses on migrants and migration in the context of the Czech Republic, an ethnically and nationally homogeneous country without significant migration experience. Despite this fact, the issue of migration became very prominent in 2015 and has been an integral part of Czech political and public discourse since then. Although the topic has attracted scholarly interest, but the reflection on migrant images held by citizens has been omitted. To fill this gap, first, we conducted a quantitative computer-assisted content analysis of the main Czech media (2015-2018) to investigate how important the issue of migration was and in what context migrants and migration were discussed in the media. We then conducted a series of focus groups with Czech citizens to answer not only how they perceived migrants and migration in general, but also how they perceived the (quality of) media coverage of this issue. The findings offer insight into patterns of media consumption: Our respondents were well aware that media representation of the topic is exaggerated and does not include all possible points of view. The prevailing perception was that the mostly negative media representation was fixated on the image of a migrant coming from the Middle East, most likely to be a terrorist who is not going to adapt to a “normal” life in the Czech Republic. Indeed, the very term migrant is mainly associated with someone who, according to the mental projections of the respondents, is “different” at first sight, fails to fit in and integrate into the majority society, does not look for work thus becoming dependent on the social system of the host country. In other words, for Czechs, people who come to settle and work are excluded from the socially constructed category of migrants.
This article attempts to study the language of happiness from a double perspective. First, the impact and relevance of sentiment words and expressions in self-reported descriptions of happiness are examined. Second, the sources of happiness that are mentioned in such descriptions are identified. A large sample of "happy moments" from the HappyDB corpus is processed employing advanced text analytics techniques. The sentiment analysis results reveal that positive lexical items have a limited role in the description of happy moments. For the second objective, unsupervised machine learning algorithms are used to extract and cluster keywords and manually label the resulting semantic classes. Results indicate that these classes, linguistically materialized in compact lexical families, accurately describe the sources of happiness, a result that is reinforced by our named entities analysis, which also reveals the important role that commercial products and services play as a source of happiness. Thus, this study attempts to provide methodological underpinnings for the automatic processing of self-reported happy moments, and contributes to a better understanding of the linguistic expression of happiness, with interdisciplinary implications for fields such as affective content analysis, sentiment analysis, and cultural, social and behavioural studies.
RT network
RT network (a) for English users and the corresponding word clouds (b) and Japanese counterparts (c, d). In a, the number of nodes is 47,135, and the number of edges is 241,370, while in c, the number of nodes is 12,017, and the number of edges is 62,132. Nodes represent users and links represent retweets, and colours correspond to clusters. The five biggest clusters were found in both networks: in a, Pro-Vax (9.17%), Left (Anti-Trump) (16.31%), Neutral (24.84%), Anti-Vax (12.23%), and Right (Pro-Trump) (12.18%); in c, Pro-Vax (18.6%), Left (16.02%) Anti-Vax (19.5%), Neutral (25.42%), and Right (10.86%). In the word clouds b and d, font size corresponds to keyword frequency, and font colour corresponds to their Tf-Idf values (i.e., word importance). In d, Japanese keywords are translated into English.
Tweet and reply activities between clusters
a Reply activities of each cluster in English tweets. Here, TW: tweets. RP: replies. TW includes normal tweets, RP, and RT. Reply rate (RP/TW) was significantly higher in the Anti-Vax cluster (χ² test: p < 0.001, illustrated in rad shades); b Ratio of inter-cluster replies per all replies from each cluster in English tweets; c and d are the Japanese counterparts.
Ratio of targeted clusters and popular accounts in inter-cluster replies
a Ratio of inter-cluster replies by source and target pairs in English; b Ratio of popular accounts (with the number of followers ≥10,000) in each targeted cluster. c and d are Japanese counterparts of a and b, respectively.
Toxicity scores
a Median toxicity scores of inner-cluster and inter-cluster replies from each cluster. The Anti-Vax's inter-cluster replies have a significantly higher toxicity score than its inner-cluster replies. The Left's inner-cluster replies have a significantly higher toxicity score than its inter-cluster replies. Both have p < 0.001 by Mann–Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction. b Boxplots represent the toxicity of the inter-cluster replies from each cluster. Each data point indicates the toxicity of a reply. Each median score is annotated in the boxes. Replies from the Anti-Vax cluster were significantly more toxic than ones from the Pro-Vax and Neutral clusters in both languages (***p < 0.001 by Mann–Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction). c The maximum toxicities that one received from Anti-Vax users. Each data point in the figure is the users who received the reply. The x-axis is the number of followers of the users, and the y-axis is the toxicity of the replies received. The correlation coefficients are d: 0.02 (p = 0.601), e: 0.198 (p < 0.001), h: 0.096 (p = 0.254), and 0.268 (p < 0.005). d, e, and f are Japanese counterparts of a, b, and c, respectively.
Comparison of emotions of inter-cluster replies
a for English and b for Japanese. The comparison is based on each feature using the Mann–Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction. The direction of the brackets indicates the cluster with the larger amount. ‘ < < < ’: p < 0.001, ‘ < < ’: p < 0.01, ‘ < ’: p < 0.05.
The anti-vaccine movement has gained traction in many countries since the COVID-19 pandemic began. However, their aggressive behaviour through replies on Twitter—a form of directed messaging that can be sent beyond follow-follower relationships—is less understood, and even less is known about the language use differences of this behaviour. We conducted a comparative study of anti-vaxxers’ aggressive behaviours by analysing a longitudinal dataset of COVID-19 tweets in English and Japanese. We found two common features across these languages. First, anti-vaxxers most actively transmit targeted messages or replies to users with different beliefs, especially to neutral accounts, with significantly toxic and negative language, and these replies are often directed to posts about vaccine operations. Second, influential users with many followers and verified accounts are more likely to receive the most toxic replies from the anti-vaxxers. However, pro-vaccine accounts with a few followers receive highly toxic replies in English, which is different from the Japanese case. These results provide insights into both language-dependent and independent countermeasures against anti-vaxxers’ aggressive behaviour.
The structure of quality positions
→ is a direct connection and ⇢ is an indirect connection.
This study aims to examine the relationship between various subcultures present in a higher education institution and the facilitation and realisation of academic quality criteria. Via a qualitative ethnographic approach consisting of in-depth interviews, observations and document analyses of a single higher education institution, it presents evidence of a type of subgroup (termed the quality subgroup) that has emerged in the targeted academic programmes. This quality subgroup has a positive impact on accomplishing academic quality criteria. In the same vein, the study highlights other types of subgroups that have a negative impact on such criteria. The findings underline a range of theoretical implications relating to organisational culture, subcultures and culture-quality theory and methodology. They also present a range of practical implications, most importantly, how the quality subgroup members work on quality standards and how they succeed in listing their academic programmes for academic accreditation. Finally, the findings of the study shed light on vital features and changes in the Saudi higher education institutions’ working environments (due to critical legal and social changes) that contribute to cultural studies and human resource practices in Saudi organisations. Such practical implications are argued to advance higher education institutions’ policies and management. A comprehensive discussion of the study theory and practical implications is included in the conclusion section.
Face similarity map depicting the distribution of face models and evaluators
A Protocol of the face evaluation task. After fixation, a face photo was presented for 0.5 s, and participants were asked to rate the trustworthiness of it. B Calculation of a 512-dimensional embedding vector for each face using the pretrained Deep Convolutional Neural Network (ArcFace). C Face dissimilarity distance (L2 distance) matrix for all face model-evaluator pairs. D A t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (tSNE) map compressing the 512 dimensions of the embedding vector of all participants into two dimensions.
Relationship between trustworthiness and face dissimilarity distance
The red line represents the face dissimilarity distance between the evaluator and face model when both were of the same sex, and the blue line represents the distance between the two when they were of opposite sexes.
Relationship between the trustworthiness score and the face dissimilarity distance from the average face for each sex
Datasets for A female and B male faces.
The appraisal of trustworthiness from facial appearance of a stranger is critical for successful social interaction. Although self-resemblance is considered a significant factor affecting the perception of trustworthiness, research is yet to be conducted on whether this theory is applicable to natural unfamiliar faces in real life. We examined this aspect by using a state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural network for face recognition to measure the facial similarity of a large sample of people with the evaluators. We found that the more they resembled the rater, the more trustworthy they were evaluated if they were of the same sex as the rater. Contrarily, when the stranger was of the opposite sex, self-resemblance did not affect trustworthiness ratings. These results demonstrate that self-resemblance is an important factor affecting our social judgments of especially same-sex people in real life.
Comparison of the perception of importance before and after the parasitological course
Students who had taken parasitology (n = 525) and those who had not (n = 518) were asked how importantly they perceived parasitology. The students were asked to rate the importance of parasitology on a four-point scale (4 = “very important” and 1 = “not important at all”).
Students' grades for whom parasitological lectures and practical training were offered.
Correlation coefficients between students' grade, level of understanding, and perception of the importance of parasitology.
Parasitic diseases continue to exist in many developing countries. In most cases, medical laboratory technologists (MLTs) detect parasitosis, which is then diagnosed and treated by medical doctors. However, parasitological education in medical schools has been declining, particularly in developed countries, leading to a decline in diagnostic ability. Therefore, the role of MLTs has become more critical. However, the current status of parasitology education in MLTs has not been investigated. In this study, a questionnaire survey of 93 schools and the students that are members of the Japanese association of medical technology and offer MLTs training programs was conducted. The educators were asked about the time and content of lectures and practical training, and the students were asked about their understanding of parasitology and the areas they found difficult. A series of χ2 distribution analyses were employed to analyze the data, and the Benjamini–Hochberg method was subsequently used to correct the p-values. This study included 62 out of 93 schools and 1043 students as participants. The results revealed a significant decrease in lecture hours in parasitology compared to 1994, and the trend that may continue in the future. In addition, after attending the lectures, students tended to disregard parasitology as a necessary subject. Pre-study interest was found to have an impact on post-study comprehension. This study is the first to report on the current status of parasitology education in MLTs parasitology training programs in parasite-free countries and can serve as a model for similar studies in other regions in the future.
Distribution of conversational strategies in Mulan-1 (N = 325)
*Totals do not equal 100% because there were three tag-questions for males and one for females.
Distribution of conversational strategies in Mulan-2 (N = 243)
*Total does not equal 100% because there was one tag-question for females.
Movies can implicitly promote social and ideological norms on a mass scale, making them powerful socialization agents, especially among children. However, Hollywood movies are no longer confined to the influence of American ideals, as media companies now have to consider the growing influence of markets such as China. With this in mind, we explore the portrayal of gender, power, and gendered roles across two versions of Disney’s Mulan (1998 and 2020). Specifically, we explore male-coded and female-coded characters’ talk for portrayals of gender and the enactment of assigned roles through conversational strategies and the content of talk. Findings indicate a subtle shift in the distribution of “dominant” discourse between the two versions, despite female-coded characters being framed as dutiful wives, brides-to-be, and/or mothers in both movies. Specifically, in Mulan 2020, male-coded characters are portrayed as more “feminine” through their talk, while female-coded characters—particularly Mulan and Xianniang—are portrayed as more “masculine”, further highlighting a recent trend for more nuanced portrayals of gender in Disney movies. Based on these results and others, we argue that the portrayal of gender in Mulan 2020, while still primarily associated with heteronormative roles in service of a patriarchal world, has undergone subtle changes that may reflect American and Chinese influences.
Meaningful collaborations between archaeologists and descendant communities and nations is a necessary component of archaeological practice in the 2020s and beyond. While calls for decolonising the social sciences and humanities have become a common refrain, practical methodologies for supplanting settler-colonial research practice have been less apparent. We detail how the development of independent radiocarbon-based chronologies in archaeology is one such substantive path forward. As a joint group of Indigenous and Euro-American and Euro-Canadian researchers, we outline how collaborative research agendas that privilege the knowledge and interests of descendant communities and include independent chronology building can be developed and achieved, securing mutual benefit and distributing authority in the construction of archaeologically derived Indigenous histories.
In the Niger Delta region, Multi National Oil Corporations have been massively involved in the production of crude oil since 1956 when Shell British Petroleum successfully discovered oil in commercial quantities at Oloibiri the present-day Bayelsa state. Ever since, Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Agip, Elf and Texaco had operated and continue to operate in the region on the basis of joint venture agreements with the federal government through the NNPC. After some decades of oil exploration and production in the region, the oil wealth has not translated into development in the region. Instead, it has caused environmental despoliation through dredging, construction of access canals to create paths to installations, oil spillages, gas flaring, oil well blowouts, and improper disposal of drilling mud, as well as pipeline leakages and vandalism.
Top-cited authors
Jabir Hussain Syed
  • COMSATS University Islamabad
M-Faheem Aslam
  • COMSATS University Islamabad
Mahwish Parveen
  • COMSATS University Islamabad
Tahir Mumtaz Awan
  • COMSATS University Islamabad
Aisha Kashif
  • COMSATS University Islamabad