Human Resources for Health

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Background In the quest to ensure that quality healthcare is provided to all citizens through building healthcare worker capacity and extending reach for expert services, Zambia’s Ministry of Health (MoH) in collaboration with its partners PEPFAR through the CDC and HRSA, began to implement the Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) tele-mentoring program across the country through the Health Workers for the 21st Century (HW21) Project and University Teaching Hospital HIV/AIDS Project (UTH-HAP). This ECHO tele-mentoring approach was deemed pivotal in helping to improve the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) service delivery capacity of health care workers. Method The study used a mixed method, retrospective program evaluation to examine ECHO participants’ performance in the management of HIV/AIDS patients in all the 10 provinces of Zambia. Case presentation A phenomenological design was applied in order to elicit common experiences of ECHO users through focus group discussions using semi-structured facilitation guides in four provinces (Eastern, Lusaka, Southern and Western) implementing ECHO tele-mentoring approach. These provinces were purposively selected for this study. From which, only participants that had a monthly frequency of ECHO attendance of ten (10) and above were selected. The participants were purposively selected based on the type of cadre as well as facility type so that the final sample consisted of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Medical Licentiates, Pharmacy and Laboratory Personnel. All sessions were audio recorded and transcribed by the data collectors. A thematic content analysis approach was adopted for analyzing content of the interview's transcripts. Results Enhanced knowledge and skills of participants on HIV/TB improved by 46/70 (65.7%) in all provinces, while 47/70 (67.1%) of the participants reported that ECHO improved their clinical practice. Further, 12/70 (17.1%) of participants in all provinces reported that presenter/presentation characteristics facilitated ECHO implementation and participation. While, 15/70(21.4%) of the participants reported that ownership of the program had contributed to ECHO implementation and participation. Coordination, another enabler accounted for 14/70 (20%). Inclusiveness was reported as a barrier by 16/70 (22.8%) of the participants while 6/70 (8.6%) of them reported attitudes as a barrier (8.6%) to ECHO participation. In addition, 34/70 (48.6%) reported poor connectivity as a barrier to ECHO implementation and participation while 8/70 (11.5%) of the participants reported that the lack of ownership of the ECHO program was a barrier. 22/70 (31.4%) reported that increased workload was also a barrier to the program’s implementation. Conclusion Consistent with its logical pathway model, healthcare providers’ participation in ECHO sessions and onsite mentorship contributed to improved knowledge on HIV/TB among health care providers and patient health outcomes. In addition, barriers to ECHO implementation were intrinsic to the program its self, such as coordination, presenter and presentation characteristics other barriers were extrinsic to the program such as poor connectivity, poor infrastructure in health facilities and negative attitudes towards ECHO. Improving on intrinsic factors and mitigating extrinsic factors may help improve ECHO outcomes and scale-up plans.
PRISMA Flowchart of studies included in the systematic review
Background Health practitioner regulators throughout the world use continuing professional development (CPD) standards to ensure that registrants maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge, expertise and competence. As the CPD standard for most regulated health professions in Australia are currently under review, it is timely that an appraisal of the evidence be undertaken. Methods A systematic review was conducted using major databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and CINAHL), search engines and grey literature for evidence published between 2015 and April 2022. Publications included in the review were assessed against the relevant CASP checklist for quantitative studies and the McMaster University checklist for qualitative studies. Results The search yielded 87 abstracts of which 37 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. The evidence showed that mandatory CPD requirements are a strong motivational factor for their completion and improves practitioners’ knowledge and behaviour. CPD that is more interactive is most effective and e-learning is as effective as face-to-face CPD. There is no direct evidence to suggest the optimal quantity of CPD, although there was some evidence that complex or infrequently used skills deteriorate between 4 months to a year after training, depending on the task. Conclusions CPD is most effective when it is interactive, uses a variety of methods and is delivered in a sequence involving multiple exposures over a period of time that is focused on outcomes considered important by practitioners. Although there is no optimal quantity of CPD, there is evidence that complex skills may require more frequent CPD.
Background Although Saudi Arabia is a common destination to which nurses and doctors migrate, few studies have explored the pull factors attracting them to work in the Middle East and Saudi Arabia. This qualitative study explores the pull factors drawing nurses and doctors to work in Saudi Arabian hospitals. Methods The study utilized a qualitative approach with focus groups. The participants included 83 doctors and nurses at two government hospitals. Results Five themes (rewards, job entry requirements, religion, influence of family and friends, and changing work environments) were identified based on the 10 focus group sessions. Conclusion Moving forward, health managers should proactively plan the state of healthcare as the need for migrant healthcare workers changes.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to worldwide health service disruptions, due mainly to insufficient staff availability. To gain insight into policy responses and engage with policy-makers, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a global approach to assess and measure the impact of COVID-19 on the health workforce. As part of this, WHO, together with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), supported an impact analysis of COVID-19 on health workers and policy responses, through country case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods We sought to identify lessons learned from policies on human resources for health (HRH) during health emergencies, to improve HRH readiness. First, we performed a rapid literature review for information-gathering. Second, we used the WHO interim guidance and impact measurement framework for COVID-19 and HRH to systematically organize that information. Finally, we used the Health Labour Market Framework to guide the content analysis on COVID-19 response in eight LAC countries and identify lessons learned to improve HRH readiness. Results Planning and implementing the COVID-19 response required strengthening HRH governance and HRH data and information systems. The results suggest two main aspects for HRH governance crucial to enabling an agile response: (1) aligning objectives among ministries to define and produce regulation and policy actions; and (2) agreeing on the strategy for HRH management between the public and private sectors, and between central and local governments. We identified three areas for improvement: (a) HRH information systems; (b) methodologies to estimate HRH needs; and (c) teams to analyse information for decision-making. Three key actions were identified during countries monitored, reviewed, and updated their response stages: (i) strengthening response through primary health care; (ii); planning HRH needs to implement the vaccination plan; and (iii) securing long-term HRH availability. Conclusion Countries coordinated and articulated with different stakeholders to align objectives, allocate resources, and agree on policy actions to implement the COVID-19 response. Data and information for HRH preparedness and implementation were key in enabling an agile COVID-19 response and are key areas to explore for improved pandemic preparedness.
PRISMA diagram
Bubble plot showing factors associated with missed nursing care and the individual studies which reported these factors, their quality (The larger the bubble the higher the study quality), p values and direction of association (direct or inverse relationship with missed nursing care). Diagram contains factors that were reported by 4 or more studies. Inverse association means that both the risk factor and missed nursing care go in different directions, for example, higher levels of the factor are associated with less missed nursing care and vice versa. Direct association means both the level of missed nursing care and the factor go in the same direction. @ Gender, all studies report male nurses having greater levels of missed nursing care, except for bubble 11 which reported female nurses as having higher levels. * Type of hospital, greater missed nursing care in public hospitals than private hospitals (Bubble 2 and 15), less in tertiary and specialized care (Bubble 11), less in smaller than larger hospitals (Bubble 17). % Type of ward/unit, greater missed nursing care in surgical than medical wards (Bubble 7), greater levels in general than critical care wards (Bubble 2 and 3), less in closed units—Intensive care, hemato-oncology, bone marrow transplant units (Bubble 16). ^ Later shifts such as night or evening associated with greater missed nursing care than day shifts
Background Missed nursing care undermines nursing standards of care and minimising this phenomenon is crucial to maintaining adequate patient safety and the quality of patient care. The concept is a neglected aspect of human resource for health thinking, and it remains understudied in low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) settings which have 90% of the global nursing workforce shortages. Our objective in this review was to document the prevalence of missed nursing care in LMIC, identify the categories of nursing care that are most missed and summarise the reasons for this. Methods We conducted a systematic review searching Medline, Embase, Global Health, WHO Global index medicus and CINAHL from their inception up until August 2021. Publications were included if they were conducted in an LMIC and reported on any combination of categories, reasons and factors associated with missed nursing care within in-patient settings. We assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Results Thirty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies were mainly cross-sectional, from upper middle-income settings and mostly relied on nurses’ self-report of missed nursing care. The measurement tools used, and their reporting were inconsistent across the literature. Nursing care most frequently missed were non-clinical nursing activities including those of comfort and communication. Inadequate personnel numbers were the most important reasons given for missed care. Conclusions Missed nursing care is reported for all key nursing task areas threatening care quality and safety. Data suggest nurses prioritise technical activities with more non-clinical activities missed, this undermines holistic nursing care. Improving staffing levels seems a key intervention potentially including sharing of less skilled activities. More research on missed nursing care and interventions to tackle it to improve quality and safety is needed in LMIC. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021286897.
Study selection process
Conceptual framework of rural pipeline programmes implementation in sub-Saharan Africa
Distribution of rural pipeline studies aiming to increase the availability of health professionals in rural sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2021
Introduction Rural pipeline approach has recently gain prominent recognition in improving the availability of health workers in hard-to-reach areas such as rural and poor regions. Understanding implications for its successful implementation is important to guide health policy and decision-makers in Sub-Saharan Africa. This review aims to synthesize the evidence on rural pipeline implementation and impacts in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a scoping review using Joanna Briggs Institute guidebook. We searched in PubMed and Google scholar databases and the grey literature. We conducted a thematic analysis to assess the studies. Data were reported following the PRISMA extension for Scoping reviews guidelines. Results Of the 443 references identified through database searching, 22 met the inclusion criteria. Rural pipeline pillars that generated impacts included ensuring that more rural students are selected into programmes; developing a curriculum oriented towards rural health and rural exposure during training; curriculum oriented to rural health delivery; and ensuring retention of health workers in rural areas through educational and professional support. These impacts varied from one pillar to another and included: increased in number of rural health practitioners; reduction in communication barriers between healthcare providers and community members; changes in household economic and social circumstances especially for students from poor family; improvement of health services quality; improved health education and promotion within rural communities; and motivation of community members to enrol their children in school. However, implementation of rural pipeline resulted in some unintended impacts such as perceived workload increased by trainee’s supervisors; increased job absenteeism among senior health providers; patients’ discomfort of being attended by students; perceived poor quality care provided by students which influenced health facilities attendance. Facilitating factors of rural pipeline implementation included: availability of learning infrastructures in rural areas; ensuring students’ accommodation and safety; setting no age restriction for students applying for rural medical schools; and appropriate academic capacity-building programmes for medical students. Implementation challenges included poor preparation of rural health training schools’ candidates; tuition fees payment; limited access to rural health facilities for students training; inadequate living and working conditions; and perceived discrimination of rural health workers. Conclusion This review advocates for combined implementation of rural pipeline pillars, taking into account the specificity of country context. Policy and decision-makers in sub-Saharan Africa should extend rural training programmes to involve nurses, midwives and other allied health professionals. Decision-makers in sub-Saharan Africa should also commit more for improving rural living and working environments to facilitate the implementation of rural health workforce development programmes.
Background COVID-19 has created unprecedented challenges for health systems worldwide. Since the confirmation of the first COVID-19 case in Ghana in March 2020 Ghanian health workers have reported fear, stress, and low perceived preparedness to respond to COVID-19, with those who had not received adequate training at highest risk. Accordingly, the Paediatric Nursing Education Partnership COVID-19 Response project designed, implemented, and evaluated four open-access continuing professional development courses related to the pandemic, delivered through a two-pronged approach: e-learning and in-person. Methods This manuscript presents an evaluation of the project's implementation and outcomes using data for a subset of Ghanaian health workers (n = 9966) who have taken the courses. Two questions were answered: first, the extent to which the design and implementation of this two-pronged strategy was successful and, second, outcomes associated with strengthening the capacity of health workers to respond to COVID-19. The methodology involved quantitative and qualitative survey data analysis and ongoing stakeholder consultation to interpret the results. Results Judged against the success criteria (reach, relevance, and efficiency) the implementation of the strategy was successful. The e-learning component reached 9250 health workers in 6 months. The in-person component took considerably more resources than e-learning but provided hands-on learning to 716 health workers who were more likely to experience barriers to accessing e-learning due to challenges around internet connectivity, or institutional capacity to offer training. After taking the courses, health workers' capacities (addressing misinformation, supporting individuals experiencing effects of the virus, recommending the vaccine, course-specific knowledge, and comfort with e-learning) improved. The effect size, however, varied depending on the course and the variable measured. Overall, participants were satisfied with the courses and found them relevant to their well-being and profession. An area for improvement was refining the content-to-delivery time ratio of the in-person course. Unstable internet connectivity and the high upfront cost of data to access and complete the course online were identified as barriers to e-learning. Conclusions A two-pronged delivery approach leveraged distinct strengths of respective e-learning and in-person strategies to contribute to a successful continuing professional development initiative in the context of COVID-19.
Estimates of shortages (in million) of health worker by 2030 at different health workers–population density thresholds per 10 000 population. Sources: NHWA 2018; PLFS 2018-2019 and Census of India 2011. Note: With an assumed, doctors:nurses/midwives ratio of 1:2
Strategy 4 and required investment (in billion) to overcome doctor’s shortages by 2030, using government colleges and including AYUSH practitioners^. Note: *Investment required to overcome annual shortages, estimated after adopting scenario 1 (Strategy 4)-Including 50% of medically qualified health professionals who are not part of health workforce (0.19 million doctors) to the total shortages by 2030; **Investment required to overcome annual shortages estimated including 0.51 AYUSH practitioners to the total shortages by 2030; ^Doctors: Required production per annum for a duration of 4 years (Total required production/4), investment estimates includes cost of seats expansion (INR 10 million per seat) in existing (/proposed) colleges and cost of opening new institutions (INR 3 000 million per institution); ^^with seat expansion by 22 seats per institution (no new colleges required)
Projected estimates of size and density of HRH, by 2030
Background COVID-19 has reinforced the importance of having a sufficient, well-distributed and competent health workforce. In addition to improving health outcomes, increased investment in health has the potential to generate employment, increase labour productivity and foster economic growth. We estimate the required investment for increasing the production of the health workforce in India for achieving the UHC/SDGs. Methods We used data from National Health Workforce Account 2018, Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018–19, population projection of Census of India, and government documents and reports. We distinguish between total stock of health professionals and active health workforce. We estimated current shortages in the health workforce using WHO and ILO recommended health worker:population ratio thresholds and extrapolated the supply of health workforce till 2030, using a range of scenarios of production of doctors and nurses/midwives. Using unit costs of opening a new medical college/nursing institute, we estimated the required levels of investment to bridge the potential gap in the health workforce. Results To meet the threshold of 34.5 skilled health workers per 10 000 population, there will be a shortfall of 0.16 million doctors and 0.65 million nurses/midwives in the total stock and 0.57 million doctors and 1.98 million nurses/midwives in active health workforce by the year 2030. The shortages are higher when compared with a higher threshold of 44.5 health workers per 10 000 population. The estimated investment for the required increase in the production of health workforce ranges from INR 523 billion to 2 580 billion for doctors and INR 1 096 billion for nurses/midwives. Such investment during 2021–2025 has the potential of an additional employment generation within the health sector to the tune of 5.4 million and to contribute to national income to the extent of INR 3 429 billion annually. Conclusion India needs to significantly increase the production of doctors and nurses/midwives through investing in opening up new medical colleges. Nursing sector should be prioritized to encourage talents to join nursing profession and provide quality education. India needs to set up a benchmark for skill-mix ratio and provide attractive employment opportunities in the health sector to increase the demand and absorb the new graduates.
Background Mother–infant care (MIC) helpers have become an indispensable part in hospital services. In order to stabilize the MIC workforce, it is essential for administrators to have a solid understanding of what may influence occupational wellbeing. This article aims to explore how demographic characteristics and psychological contract affect occupational wellbeing among MIC helpers in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods This is a quantitative, cross-sectional study with MIC helpers in obstetrics from 20 hospitals in Zhejiang Province. A questionnaire including demographic data, a psychological contract scale and an occupational wellbeing scale was used in this study. Multiple linear regression was conducted to investigate the relationships between demographic characteristics, psychological contract and occupational wellbeing. Results This study surveyed 260 MIC helpers and found out the mean score of the psychological contract was 4.38 and the mean score of the occupational wellbeing was 4.01. Monthly income and psychological contract were significant predictors of occupational wellbeing (F = 142.167, p < 0.001), which explained 62.1% of the total amount of variance in occupational wellbeing. Psychological contract was the most important predictor of occupational wellbeing. Conclusions Administrators should pay attention to the effect of psychological contract on occupational wellbeing of the MIC helpers in China. Focusing on the inner needs should be considered as a strategy for stabilizing the team.
Distribution of undergraduate and second speciality programmes by region. A Undergraduate programmes by region. B Second speciality programmes by region
Background This study aims to describe the training offered and the availability of professionals required by the Ministry of Health for mental health problems management in the community. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on the training offered in mental health in Peruvian universities. A search for programs was conducted using the University Information System database and universities' websites, as well as using the Ministry of Health's database on health personnel and data on the number of enrolled and current students provided by the University Information System database and the Transparency section of the universities. Results There were 214 undergraduate, 55 specialty and 7 subspecialty programmes, of which 39%, 47% and 100%, respectively, were offered in the capital city. The duration ranged from 5 to 7 years for undergraduate programs and from 1 to 3 years for subspecialty and second specialty programs. The cost of undergraduate programs ranged from free of charge up to USD 6863.75 for the first semester of study. Second specialty programs ranged from 720 up to 11 986 USD and subspecialty programs ranged from 2267 up to 9138 USD, with medicine being the most expensive. On the other hand, there are a greater number of psychology students (n = 78 781) pursuing undergraduate studies than working professionals (n = 5368), while in the second specialty of psychiatry there are far fewer students pursuing the specialty (n = 67) than working professionals (n = 454). Conclusions The problem of professional training in mental health requires that the institutions involved in health and education develop policies to decentralize programs, communicate the demand for professionals in certain areas, make them accessible to the low-income population, respond to mental health problems and guarantee their quality. On the other hand, regarding the low number of mental health personnel working, it is suggested to increase the mental health budget to generate more mental health services and employment.
of the systematic review and meta-analysis
PRISMA 2020 flow diagram
Meta-analysis of impact of COVID-19 on Health Worker Education. Random-effect meta-analyses of proportions reflecting the impact of the pandemic on health worker education. A Disruption of learning, redeployment, changes of career plans and potential prolongation of studies. B mental health effects of the pandemic on learners. Each analysis is depicted as a cyclic data marker; the horizontal lines indicate the 95% confidence intervals (CI). The “raw proportion (%)” is derived from simple weighted division. I² quantifies heterogeneity, which is statistically significant (p < 0.01) in all cases (metric omitted)
Meta-analysis of outcomes of policy responses. Random-effect meta-analyses of proportions reflecting the outcomes of policy and management responses in regard to the pandemic. A Learner and faculty perceptions on online and blended forms of learning. B Satisfaction with online assessments and volunteerism initiatives. Each analysis is depicted as a cyclic data marker; the horizontal lines indicate the 95% confidence intervals (CI). The “raw proportion (%)” is derived from simple weighted division. I² quantifies heterogeneity, which is statistically significant (p < 0.01) in all cases (metric omitted)
Background This systematic review and meta-analysis identified early evidence quantifying the disruption to the education of health workers by the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuing policy responses and their outcomes. Methods Following a pre-registered protocol and PRISMA/AMSTAR-2 guidelines, we systematically screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar from January 2020 to July 2022. We pooled proportion estimates via random-effects meta-analyses and explored subgroup differences by gender, occupational group, training stage, WHO regions/continents, and study end-year. We assessed risk of bias (Newcastle–Ottawa scale for observational studies, RοB2 for randomized controlled trials [RCT]) and rated evidence certainty using GRADE. Results Of the 171 489 publications screened, 2 249 were eligible, incorporating 2 212 observational studies and 37 RCTs, representing feedback from 1 109 818 learners and 22 204 faculty. The sample mostly consisted of undergraduates, medical doctors, and studies from institutions in Asia. Perceived training disruption was estimated at 71.1% (95% confidence interval 67.9–74.2) and learner redeployment at 29.2% (25.3–33.2). About one in three learners screened positive for anxiety (32.3%, 28.5–36.2), depression (32.0%, 27.9–36.2), burnout (38.8%, 33.4–44.3) or insomnia (30.9%, 20.8–41.9). Policy responses included shifting to online learning, innovations in assessment, COVID-19-specific courses, volunteerism, and measures for learner safety. For outcomes of policy responses, most of the literature related to perceptions and preferences. More than two-thirds of learners (75.9%, 74.2–77.7) were satisfied with online learning (postgraduates more than undergraduates), while faculty satisfaction rate was slightly lower (71.8%, 66.7–76.7). Learners preferred an in-person component: blended learning 56.0% (51.2–60.7), face-to-face 48.8% (45.4–52.1), and online-only 32.0% (29.3–34.8). They supported continuation of the virtual format as part of a blended system (68.1%, 64.6–71.5). Subgroup differences provided valuable insights despite not resolving the considerable heterogeneity. All outcomes were assessed as very-low-certainty evidence. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted health worker education, inflicting a substantial mental health burden on learners. Its impacts on career choices, volunteerism, pedagogical approaches and mental health of learners have implications for educational design, measures to protect and support learners, faculty and health workers, and workforce planning. Online learning may achieve learner satisfaction as part of a short-term solution or integrated into a blended model in the post-pandemic future.
Flow chart of studies selected for inclusion in the systematic review
Background Health practitioner regulators throughout the world use registration standards to define the requirements health practitioners need to meet for registration. These standards commonly include recency of practice (ROP) standards designed to ensure that registrants have sufficient recent practice in the scope in which they intend to work to practise safely. As the ROP registration standards for most National Boards are currently under review, it is timely that an appraisal of current evidence be carried out. Methods A systematic review was conducted using databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and CINAHL), search engines, and a review of grey literature published between 2015 and April 2022. Publications included in the review were assessed against the relevant CASP checklist for quantitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies. Results The search yielded 65 abstracts of which 12 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. Factors that appear to influence skills retention include the length of time away from practice, level of previous professional experience and age, as well as the complexity of the intervention. The review was unable to find a clear consensus on the period of elapsed time after which a competency assessment should be completed. Conclusions Factors that need to be taken into consideration in developing ROP standards include length of time away from practice, previous experience, age and the complexity of the intervention, however, there is a need for further research in this area.
Background Much has been written about the state and persistent lack of progress regarding gender equity and the commonly referenced phenomenon of a ‘leaking pipeline’. This framing focuses attention on the symptom of women leaving the workforce, rather than the well-documented contributing factors of hindered recognition, advancement, and financial opportunities. While attention shifts to identifying strategies and practices to address gender inequities, there is limited insight into the professional experiences of Canadian women, specifically in the female-dominated healthcare sector. Methods We conducted a survey of 420 women working across a range of roles within healthcare. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were calculated for each measure as appropriate. For each respondent, two composite Unconscious Bias (UCB) scores were created using a meaningful grouping approach. Results Our survey results highlight three key areas of focus to move from knowledge to action, including (1) identifying the resources, structural factors, and professional network elements that will enable a collective shift towards gender equity; (2) providing women with access to formal and informal opportunities to develop the strategic relational skills required for advancement; and (3) restructuring social environments to be more inclusive. Specifically, women identified that self-advocacy, confidence building, and negotiation skills were most important to support development and leadership advancement. Conclusions These insights provide systems and organizations with practical actions they can take to support women in the health workforce amid a time of considerable workforce pressure.
PRISMA Flow Diagram
Background Many high-income countries are heavily dependent on internationally trained doctors to staff their healthcare workforce. Over one-third of doctors practising in the UK received their primary medical qualification abroad. Simultaneously, an average of around 2.1% of doctors leave the UK medical workforce annually to go overseas. The aim of this study was to identify the drivers and barriers of international migration of doctors to and from the UK. Methods A scoping review was conducted. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC and BEI in January 2020 (updated October 2021). Grey literature and citation searching were also carried out. Empirical studies reporting on the drivers and barriers to the international migration of doctors to and from the UK published in the English language from 2009 to present were included. The drivers and barriers were coded in NVivo 12 building on an existing framework. Results 40 studies were included. 62% were quantitative, 18% were qualitative, 15% were mixed-methods and 5% were literature reviews. Migration into and out of the UK is determined by a variety of macro- (global and national factors), meso- (profession led factors) and micro-level (personal factors). Interestingly, many of the key drivers of migration to the UK were also factors driving migration from the UK, including: poor working conditions, employment opportunities, better training and development opportunities, better quality of life, desire for a life change and financial reasons. The barriers included stricter immigration policies, the registration process and short-term job contracts. Conclusions Our research contributes to the literature by providing a comprehensive up-to-date review of the drivers and barriers of migration to and from the UK. The decision for a doctor to migrate is multi-layered and is a complex balance between push/pull at macro-/meso-/micro-levels. To sustain the UK’s supply of overseas doctors, it is vital that migration policies take account of the drivers of migration particularly working conditions and active recruitment while addressing any potential barriers. Immigration policies to address the impact of Brexit and the COVID-19 pandemic on the migration of doctors to and from the UK will be particularly important in the immediate future. Trial registration PROSPERO CRD42020165748.
Introduction The reorganization of healthcare systems to face the COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns regarding psychological distress of healthcare workers, and training requirements of physician residents. Objective To assess the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, burnout and training schedules of residents. Methods Two independent cross-sectional studies (the first in November 2019 [control], the second in June 2020, during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic) enrolling physician residents from Brazil, using online surveys. In each of them, we collected demographic and training program data, and assessed depression, anxiety and burnout through PHQ-2, GAD-2 and MBI (2-item version) scales, respectively. We controlled confounding variables with logistic regression analysis. Results The COVID-19 cohort (n = 524) presented a briefer workload and had at least 1 day off per week more frequently, in relation to the control cohort (n = 1 419). The majority of residents (464/524, 89.5%) had a reduction in their duty hours, and believed they would need an extra training period after the end of the pandemic (399/524, 76.2%). The frequency of depression increased (46.0% vs. 58.8%, aOR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.32–2.05), anxiety did not change (56.5% vs. 56.5%, aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.99–1.55) and burnout decreased (37.0% vs. 26.1%, aOR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60–0.99). Sensitivity analysis did not change these results. Conclusion Mental distress is frequent among residents and associated with both training program and social environments. The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on training requirements should be specifically addressed by supervisors and policymakers, in a case-by-case basis. Psychological support must be provided to healthcare workers.
Impact of pandemic on capacity by gender
Impact of pandemic on capacity by funding type
Abstract Background The increased need for mental health and substance use health (MHSUH) services during the COVID-19 pandemic underscores the need to better understand workforce capacity. This study aimed to examine the pandemic’s impact on the capacity of MHSUH service providers and to understand reasons contributing to changes in availability or ability to provide services. Methods We conducted a mixed method study including a pan-Canadian survey of 2177 providers of MHSUH services and semi-structured interviews with 13 key informants. Survey participants answered questions about how the pandemic had changed their capacity to provide services, reasons for changes in capacity, and how their practice had during the pandemic. Thematic analysis of key informant interviews was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of the pandemic on the MHSUH workforce. Results Analyses of the survey data indicated that the pandemic has had diverse effects on the capacity of MHSUH workers to provide services: 43% indicated decreased, 24% indicated no change, and 33% indicated increased capacity. Logistic regression analyses showed that privately funded participants had 3.2 times greater odds of increased capacity (B = 1.17, p
Background Workplace violence (WPV) is considered a global problem, particularly in the health sector; however, no studies have assessed the national prevalence of WPV against emergency physicians and the associated factors in China. Methods A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 31 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities across China between July 2019 and September 2019. A total of 15 455 emergency physicians were selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on WPV and potential associated factors among emergency physicians. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify the predictors of WPV. Results A total of 14 848 emergency physicians responded effectively (effective response rate: 96.07%). Of the respondents, 90.40%, 51.45%, and 90.00% reported exposure to any type of WPV, physical or nonphysical violence in the preceding year, respectively. Verbal aggression (87.25%) was the most common form of violence, followed by threat (71.09%), physical assault (48.24%), verbal sexual harassment (38.13%), and sexual assault (19.37%). Patients’ families were the main perpetrators of these incidents. Unmet patient needs, taking drugs or drinking, and long waiting times were the main contributors to WPV. Physicians who were from low-developed regions, female, and without shift work were less likely to have experienced any type of WPV. Chinese emergency physicians who were from medium-developed regions, had a bachelor’s degree, worked in a higher level hospital, had a higher professional title, with lower incomes, had a history of hypertension or coronary heart disease, were smokers or drinkers, and worked in hospitals without preventive measures or training for WPV and not encouraging to report WPV were more likely to have experienced any type of WPV. The predictors of WPV varied in different types of WPV. Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of WPV against emergency physicians is high in China. Measures should be taken at the physicians, patients, hospital, and national levels to protect GPs from WPV; for example, improving physicians’ level of service and hospital’ reporting procedures. Creating a prevention strategy and providing a safer workplace environment for emergency physicians should be prioritized.
Mediating pathways in uptake of skilled birthing care
Background Expanding the health workforce to increase the availability of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) presents an opportunity to expand the power and well-being of frontline health workers. The role of the SBA holds enormous potential to transform the relationship between women, birthing caregivers, and the broader health care delivery system. This paper will present a novel approach to the community-based skilled birth attendant (SBA) role, the Skilled Health Entrepreneur (SHE) program implemented in rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. Case presentation The SHE model developed a public–private approach to developing and supporting a cadre of SBAs. The program focused on economic empowerment, skills building, and formal linkage to the health system for self-employed SBAs among women residents. The SHEs comprise a cadre of frontline health workers in remote, underserved areas with a stable strategy to earn adequate income and are likely to remain in practice in the area. The program design included capacity-building for the SHEs covering traditional techno-managerial training and supervision in programmatic skills and for developing their entrepreneurial skills, professional confidence, and individual decision-making. The program supported women from the community who were social peers of their clients and long-term residents of the community in becoming recognized, respected health workers linked to the public system and securing their livelihood while improving quality and access to maternal health services. This paper will describe the SHE program's design elements to enhance SHE empowerment in the context of discourse on social power and FLHWs. Conclusion The SHE model successfully established a private SBA cadre that improved birth outcomes and enhanced their social power and technical skills in challenging settings through the mainstream health system. Strengthening the agency, voice, and well-being of the SHEs has transformative potential. Designing SBA interventions that increase their power in their social context could expand their economic independence and reinforce positive gender and power norms in the community, addressing long-standing issues of poor remuneration, overburdened workloads, and poor retention. Witnessing the introduction of peer or near-peer women with well-respected, well-compensated roles among their neighbors can significantly expand the effectiveness of frontline health workers and offer a model for other women in their own lives.
Spatial distribution of healthcare facilities in Adamawa and Bauchi States
A radar plot showing healthcare workers’ knowledge of cholera interventions in Adamawa and Bauchi States, Nigeria
Healthcare workers' mean knowledge scores for cholera multi-stranded interventions in Adamawa and Bauchi States
Background Healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge of multi-stranded cholera interventions (including case management, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), surveillance/laboratory methods, coordination, and vaccination) is crucial to the implementation of these interventions in healthcare facilities, especially in conflict-affected settings where cholera burden is particularly high. We aimed to assess Nigerian HCWs’ knowledge of cholera interventions and identify the associated factors. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire with HCWs from 120 healthcare facilities in Adamawa and Bauchi States, North-East Nigeria. A knowledge score was created by assigning a point for each correct response. HCWs’ knowledge of cholera interventions, calculated as a score, was recoded for ease of interpretation as follows: 0–50 (low); 51–70 (moderate); ≥ 71 (high). Additionally, we defined the inadequacy of HCWs’ knowledge of cholera interventions based on a policy-relevant threshold of equal or lesser than 75 scores for an intervention. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with the adequacy of knowledge score. Results Overall, 490 HCWs participated in the study (254 in Adamawa and 236 in Bauchi), with a mean age of 35.5 years. HCWs’ knowledge score was high for surveillance/laboratory methods, moderate for case management, WASH, and vaccination, and low for coordination. HCWs’ knowledge of coordination improved with higher cadre, working in urban- or peri-urban-based healthcare facilities, and secondary education; cholera case management and vaccination knowledge improved with post-secondary education, working in Bauchi State and urban areas, previous training in cholera case management and response to a cholera outbreak—working in peri-urban areas had a negative effect. HCWs’ knowledge of surveillance/laboratory methods improved with a higher cadre, 1-year duration in current position, secondary or post-secondary education, previous training in cholera case management and response to a cholera outbreak. However, HCWs’ current position had both positive and negative impacts on their WASH knowledge. Conclusions HCWs in both study locations recorded a considerable knowledge of multi-stranded cholera interventions. While HCWs’ demographic characteristics appeared irrelevant in determining their knowledge of cholera interventions, geographic location and experiences from the current position, training and involvement in cholera outbreak response played a significant role.
Characteristics of physicians who participated in the study
Multivariate analysis of MPH misusers vs. non-users (forward method)
Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) and other stimulants may be misused, mainly as cognitive enhancers and recreational drugs. Data regarding misuse among medical residents are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and main reasons for methylphenidate (MPH) use and misuse among Israeli medical residents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we sent an online questionnaire to medical residents who had completed their first residency exam and specialists with up to 2 years of experience. We asked about the use of MPH before and during residency and attitudes toward the use of MPH as a cognitive enhancer. We also added the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) questionnaire, a validated tool used to screen for the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Users and misusers were classified based on self-report of use and formal ADHD diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with MPH misuse. Results: From March 2021 to August 2021, 370 physicians responded to our questionnaire (response rate 26.4%). Twenty-eight met the exclusion criteria and were not included. The respondents' average age was 36.5 years. Women comprised 63.5% of the respondents. Of the participants, 16.4% were classified as users and 35.1% as misusers. The prevalence of misusers was 45.6% among surgery and OB/GYN physicians, 39.4% among pediatricians and internists, and 24% among family physicians (P < 0.001). Misusers had a more liberal approach than others to MPH use as a cognitive enhancer. Factors associated with misuse of MPH included not being a native-born Israeli (OR-1.99, 95% CI 1.08, 3.67) and type of residency (OR-2.33, 95% CI 1.22, 4.44 and OR-4.08, 95% CI 2.06, 8.07 for pediatrics and internal medicine and surgery, respectively). Conclusion: Very high levels of MPH misuse during residency may be related to stress, long working hours, night shifts, and the academic burden of the residency period. We believe that our findings should be considered by healthcare policymakers as they make decisions regarding the conditions of medical residencies. The use of MPH as a cognitive enhancer should be further studied and discussed.
Statistical diagram of the moderated mediation model (n = 953). Covariates controlled (gender, age, marital status, and family yearly income) in the modeling analysis were found to be statistically insignificant, except for educational background which had a small positive influence on emotional exhaustion (β = 0.109, P = 0.041). 95% confidence intervals were in parentheses. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
Interaction plot under the different conditions of occupational commitment
Results of the moderated mediation model
Background Family doctors in rural China are the main force for primary health care, but the workforce has not been well stabilized in recent years. Surface acting is an emotional labor strategy with a disparity between inner feelings and emotional displays, provoking negative effects such as emotional exhaustion, occupational commitment reduction, and, consequently, increasing turnover rate. With the Conservation of Resources theory, this study explores how the surface acting of rural family doctors affects turnover intention through emotional exhaustion and investigates what role occupational commitment plays in this relationship. Methods With a valid response rate of 93.89%, 953 valid data were collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey in December 2021 in Shandong Province, China. Cronbach’s Alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to estimate reliability and construct validity, respectively. The PROCESS macro in SPSS was performed to analyze the mediating and moderated mediation effects of surface acting, emotional exhaustion, occupational commitment, and turnover intention. Results Reliability and validity indicated that the measurement instruments were acceptable. Surface acting had a direct positive effect on turnover intention ( β = 0.481, 95% CI [0.420, 0.543]). Emotional exhaustion partially mediated the effect of surface acting on turnover intention (indirect effect: 0.214, 95% CI [0.175, 0.256]). Occupational commitment moderated the effect of emotional exhaustion on turnover intention ( β = − 0.065, 95% CI [− 0.111, − 0.019]), and moderated the indirect effect of surface acting on turnover intention via emotional exhaustion (index of moderated mediation: − 0.035). Conclusions Emotional exhaustion partially mediates the relationship between surface acting and turnover intention among family doctors in rural China, and occupational commitment moderates the direct effect of emotional exhaustion on turnover intention and further moderates the mediating effect. Policymakers should pay more attention to the effects of emotional labor and emotional resource depletion on the stability of rural health human resources.
Growing complexity of migration and training pathways of health and care workers
The increasing complexity of the migration pathways of health and care workers is a critical consideration in the reporting requirements of international agreements designed to address their impacts. There are inherent challenges across these different agreements including reporting functions that are misaligned across different data collection tools, variable capacity of country respondents, and a lack of transparency or accountability in the reporting process. Moreover, reporting processes often neglect to recognize the broader intersectional gendered and racialized political economy of health and care worker migration. We argue for a more coordinated approach to the various international reporting requirements and processes that involve building capacity within countries to report on their domestic situation in response to these codes and conventions, and internationally to make such reporting result in more than simply the sum of their responses, but to reflect cross-national and transnational interactions and relationships. These strategies would better enable policy interventions along migration pathways that would more accurately recognize the growing complexity of health worker migration leading to more effective responses to mitigate its negative effects for migrants, source, destination, and transit countries. While recognizing the multiple layers of complexity, we nevertheless reaffirm the fact that countries still have an ethical responsibility to undertake health workforce planning in their countries that does not overly rely on the recruitment of migrant health and care workers.
Lorenz curve of doctor density and GPP per capita at provincial level in 2017
Lorenz curve of doctor density and GPP per capita at provincial level in 2021
Doctor to 1000 population ratio and Gross Provincial Products (GPP) of 76 provinces in 2017
One-way ANOVA to analyze the changes of doctor per 1,000 population ratio in 2017 and 2021
Background Equitable geographic distribution of doctors is crucial for the provision of an accessible and efficient health service system. This study aimed to assess the effects of doctor allocation by the Thai Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in relation to equity distribution. Methods This descriptive study compared secondary data on the number of doctors, gross provincial products (GPP), and populations of 76 Thai provinces for the years 2017 and 2021. The ratio of doctors to 1000 population was used to measure the spatial distribution of doctors by province. Lorenz curves and the Gini coefficient were used to determine the equity of doctor distribution. Results The results showed that the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.191 in 2017 to 0.03 in 2021 indicating that the equitable distribution of doctors improved after the MoPH commenced allocating newly graduated doctors according to health utilization in 2017. Compared to 2017, the percentage changes in the number of doctors were higher in provinces with lower doctor densities and in provinces with higher GPPs. Conclusion The equitable distribution of doctors in Thailand was affected by two main causes: the allocation of newly graduated doctors by the MoPH and the turnover rate of existing doctors.
Course completion and drop-out rates for pre-service medical students in New Zealand (2014–2020)
Course completion and drop-out rates for pre-service medical students in Australia (2014–2020)
Course completion and drop-out rates of pre-service medical students in Nigeria (2015–2020)
Introduction The “Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030” was adopted by the 69th World Health Assembly. Among its objectives is the strengthening of data on human resources for health, to inform evidence-based policy decisions. These data include the course completion and drop-out rates, to inform mechanisms that support recruitment and retention. Objective This paper sought to evaluate trends in course completion and drop-out rates of health workforce students. However, original data were only obtained for pre-service medical students, but no other health worker occupational groups. Methods A mixed method approach was employed to obtain data presented in this paper. A structured questionnaire was sent out to targeted medical training institutions, regulatory bodies, and National Medical Associations, supplemented by a web and literature search for existing studies or data reports. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2010. Results Eight previously published studies were identified originating from six countries, with course completion rates ranging from 84% in Pakistan to 98.6% in the United States of America, while the drop-out rates ranged from 1.4% in the United States of America to 16% in Pakistan. An analysis of pre-service medical students in Australia and New Zealand, revealed average course completion rates of 93.3% and 96.9%, respectively, and average drop-out rates of 6.7% and 3.1%, respectively. An analysis of pre-service medical students from Nigeria, revealed an average course completion rate of 88.3%, and an average drop-out rate of 11.7%. Data were not readily available for most countries targeted during the research, either because of lack of existing mechanisms for collation of required data or restrictions making such data publicly unavailable and inaccessible. Conclusions Drop-out rate for pre-service medical students varies across countries with some countries recording higher drop-out rates, which raise significant concerns about the capacity of such countries to scale up production of human resources for health. Data that monitor both course completion and drop-out rates, and seek to provide insight into reasons for observed numbers, can inform mechanisms to address the causes of course drop-out and support student retention.
Abbreviations AHPRA: Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency; COAG: Council of Australian Governments; ED: Emergency Department; EN: Enrolled nurse; EPS: Expanded pharmacy services; Govt.: Government; MBA: Medical Board of Australia; NP: Nurse Practitioner; NMBA: Nursing and Midwifery Board; NRAS: National Registration and Accreditation; Scheme OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; QH: Queensland Health; QLD: Queensland; QNU: Queensland Nurses Union; PHCO: Primary health care organisation; PHCOs: Primary health care organisations; RN: Registered nurse; SCOP: Scope of practice; UHCW: Unregulated health care workers.
Introduction A well-functioning health system delivers quality services to all people when and where they need them. To help navigate the complex realm of patient care, it is essential that health care professions have a thorough understanding of their scope of practice. However, a lack of uniformity regarding scope of practice across the regulated health professions in Australia currently exists. This has led to ambiguity about what comprises scope of practice in some health care professions in the region. Objective The objective of this review was to explore the literature on the factors that influence scope of practice of the five largest health care professions in Australia. Methods This study employed scoping review methodology to document the current state of the literature on factors that influence scope of practice of the five largest health care professions in Australia. The search was conducted using the following databases: AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, EMBASE ( Excerpta Medica Database), MANTIS (Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System), MEDLINE, PubMed, and SCOPUS. Additional data sources were searched from Google and ProQuest. Results A total of 12 771 publications were identified from the literature search. Twenty-three documents fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Eight factors were identified across three professions (nursing & midwifery, pharmacy and physiotherapy) that influenced scope of practice: education, competency, professional identity, role confusion, legislation and regulatory policies, organisational structures, financial factors, and professional and personal factors. Conclusion The results of this study will inform a range of stakeholders including the private and public arms of the healthcare system, educators, employers, funding bodies, policymakers and practitioners about the factors that influence scope of practice of health professions in Australia.
Trend of COVID-19 deaths in healthcare workers compared to the general Peruvian population
Non-occupational, occupational, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of healthcare workers infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Peru
Background Peru has some of the worst outcomes worldwide as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; it is presumed that this has also affected healthcare workers. This study aimed to establish whether occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for possible reinfection, hospitalization, and mortality from COVID-19 in cohorts of Peruvian healthcare workers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Healthcare workers who presented SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1, 2020, and August 6, 2021, were included. Occupational cohorts were reconstructed from the following sources of information: National Epidemiological Surveillance System, molecular tests (NETLAB), results of serology and antigen tests (SICOVID-19), National Registry of Health Personnel (INFORHUS), and National Information System of Deaths (SINADEF). The incidence of probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 was obtained in the cohorts of technicians and health assistants, nursing staff, midwives, dentists, doctors, and other healthcare workers. We evaluated whether the occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 using log-binomial and probit binomial models, obtaining the adjusted relative risk (RRAJ). Results 90,398 healthcare workers were included in the study. Most cases were seen in technicians and health assistants (38.6%), and nursing staff (25.6%). 8.1% required hospitalization, 1.7% died from COVID-19, and 1.8% had probable reinfection. A similar incidence of probable reinfection was found in the six cohorts (1.7–1.9%). Doctors had a higher incidence of hospitalization (13.2%) and death (2.6%); however, they were also those who presented greater susceptibility linked to non-occupational variables (age and comorbidities). The multivariate analysis found that doctors (RRAJ = 1.720; CI 95: 1.569–1.886) had a higher risk of hospitalization and that the occupation of technician and health assistant was the only one that constituted a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19 (RRAJ = 1.256; 95% CI: 1.043–1.512). Conclusions Peruvian technicians and health assistants would have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 than other healthcare workers, while doctors have a higher incidence of death probably linked to the high frequency of non-occupational risk factors. Doctors present a higher risk of hospitalization independent of comorbidities and age; likewise, all occupations show a similar risk of probable reinfection.
Physician’s response by geopolitical zone and state of practice in Nigeria
Physician’s work satisfaction and willingness to continue practice in Nigeria
Preferred emigration destinations of physicians unwilling to continue practice in Nigeria. *Singapore, Belgium, France, Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, Japan, Kuwait, Seychelles, China, Sweden, and Jamaica; **Multiple responses
Background Adequate Human Resources for Health is indispensable to achieving Universal Health Coverage and physicians play a leading role. Nigeria with low physician–population ratio, is experiencing massive exodus of physicians. This study investigated emigration intention of physicians, the factors influencing it and discussed the implications to guide policy formulation and reforms, curtail the trend and safeguard the country’s health system. Methods Through cross-sectional survey, 913 physicians from 37 States were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire using Google form shared via WhatsApp and Telegram forums of Nigeria Medical Association. Data were analysed with IBM-SPSS version-25 and charts were created with Microsoft-Excel. Chi-square and multiple regression tests were done with p -value set at 0.05. Results The mean age of respondents is 37.6 ± 7.9 years; majority of them are males (63.2%), married (75.5%) with postgraduate qualifications (54.1%) and working in public health facilities (85.4%). Whereas 13% and 19.3% are, respectively, satisfied with their work and willing to continue practice in Nigeria, 43.9% want to emigrate and 36.8% are undecided about future location of their practice. The commonest reasons for emigration are poor remuneration (91.3%), rising insecurity (79.8%) and inadequate diagnostic facilities (61.8%). Physicians working in public health facilities are 2.5 times less satisfied than their counterparts in non-public sector (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3–0.8). Physicians in their thirties, forties and fifties are 3.5 (95% CI = 1.5–8.0), 5.5 (95% CI = 2.1–14.5) and 13.8 (95% CI = 3.9–49.3) times, respectively, more willing to retain practice in Nigeria than those younger and those satisfied with their work are 4.7 (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.9–7.4) times more willing to practice in Nigeria than those not satisfied. Conclusion Majority of Nigerian physicians want to emigrate for professional practice and top among the push factors are poor remuneration, rising insecurity and inadequate diagnostic facilities. The observed trend portends danger to the country’s health system due to the foreseeable negative consequences of physician deficit to the system. We recommend upward review of physician remuneration, a root cause analysis of insecurity to determine workable preventive measures and increased funding of the health sector to improve the diagnostic infrastructure, retain physicians and save the health system from imminent collapse.
Socio demographic and occupational characteristics of study participants (n = 101)
Types of perpetrators reported by study participants (n = 101)
Risk categories of Psychosocial Safety Climate score among study participants (n = 101). PSC Psychosocial Safety Climate
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among study participants (n = 101)
Background Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is a common occurrence worldwide, especially among young physicians and medical residents. This study aimed to explore the negative health impacts of WPV among medical residents in Egypt, and their perception regarding how safe it is to report violence. Purpose To investigate the prevalence of WPV among medical residents, its possible negative health impacts, specifically on sleep quality and mental health, and the perceived workplace safety climate. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytic study, using a convenience sample through an online questionnaire. An abuse index was calculated, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and sleep quality were collected from the reported outcomes. Results The study sample included 101 residents (86.1% females). The most common reported form of abuse was verbal abuse, with the most common reported perpetrators being senior staff members (59.4%). About 86% of participants were classified as poor sleepers, while 59.4% had GAD, and there were significant positive correlations between GAD and Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores with the abuse index. More than one third (35.6%) of residents reported a very high-risk Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) score, and 31.6% of them either strongly agreed or agreed that reporting a sexual harassment claim would be dangerous. Conclusion Workplace violence is common among Egyptian medical residents, with a significant negative impact on sleep quality and a rising risk of GAD. The promotion of a safe workplace environment is essential in protecting the health and wellbeing of medical residents.
Background: Discrimination against hospital staff based on ascribed features is prevalent in healthcare systems worldwide. Detrimental effects on health and quality of patient care have been shown. Our study aims to describe and analyse the discrimination experiences of both physicians and nurses, specifically for the German hospital context. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey on observed and personally experienced discrimination at work addressed staff from 22 hospitals of two organizations in Germany. Sociodemographic and occupational as well as institutional characteristics served as independent variables. In multivariable analyses, block- and stepwise logistic regressions were calculated for the two dependent variables (witness and victim of discrimination). Sensitivity analyses with imputed data for missings were performed. Results: N = 800 healthcare professionals (n = 243 physicians, n = 557 nurses; response rate: 5.9%) participated in the survey. 305 respondents (38.1%) were witnesses of discrimination, while 108 respondents (13.5%) were victims of discrimination in their wards. Reasons for observed discriminatory acts were predominantly attributed to the ethnicity of the person concerned, their appearance and language, whereas personally affected staff most frequently cited gender as a reason, followed by ethnicity, and physical appearance. In multivariable models, cultural competence significantly increased the likelihood of witnessing discrimination (β = .575; p = .037). In terms of the likelihood of being a victim of discrimination, in addition to cultural competence (β = 2.838; p = < .001), the interaction of the effects of gender and professional group was statistically significant (β = .280; p = .010). Conclusions: Given the extent of experienced and observed discrimination, appropriate institutional responses are needed. Further research on discriminatory structures in the German-speaking health care system should focus on discrimination at the intersection of ethnicity, gender and occupation.
Impact logic model and scorecard
MPA survey: participants by role
Background A regional Australian Primary Health Network (PHN) has been subsidising administrative staff from local general practices to undertake the Medical Practice Assisting (MPA) course as part of its MPA Program. The MPA Program aimed to upskill administrative staff to undertake clinical tasks and fill in for busy or absent Practice Nurses (PNs), freeing up PNs to increase revenue-generating activity, avoiding casual replacement staff wages, and increasing patient throughput. An impact assessment was undertaken to evaluate the impact and estimate the economic costs of the MPA program to the PHN, general practices, and students to inform future uptake of the intervention. Methods The Framework to Assess the Impact of Translational Health Research (FAIT) was utilised. Originally designed to assess the impact of health research, this was its first application to a health services project. FAIT combines three validated methods of impact assessment—Payback, economic analysis and narratives underpinned by a program logic model. Quantified metrics describe the impacts of the program within various “domains of benefit”, the economic model costs the intervention and monetises potential consequences, and the narrative tells the story of the MPA Program and the difference it has made. Data were collected via online surveys from general practitioners (GPs), PNs, practice managers; MPA graduates and PHN staff were interviewed by phone and on Zoom. Results FAIT was effective in evidencing the impacts and economic viability of the MPA Program. GPs and PNs reported greater work satisfaction, PNs reported less stress and reduced workloads and MPA graduates reported higher job satisfaction and greater confidence performing a range of clinical skills. MPA Program economic costs for general practices during candidature, and 12 month post-graduation was estimated at $69,756. With effective re-integration planning, this investment was recoverable within 12 months through increased revenue for practices. Graduates paid appropriately for their new skills also recouped their investment within 24 months. Conclusion Utilisation of MPA graduates varied substantially between practices and COVID-19 impacted on their utilisation. More strategic reintegration of the MPA graduate back into the practice to most effectively utilise their new skillset could optimise potential benefits realised by participating practices.
Reasons why clinicians and service managers did not implement guidance to inform telehealth consultations
a Presence of ambiguity in service guidance according to clinicians and managers; b Lack of information on certain areas in service guidance according to clinicians and managers
Areas of telehealth guidance which are ambiguous or lack information according to clinicians and managers
a Telehealth aspects on which telehealth guidance provides advice according to clinicians; b Telehealth aspects on which current telehealth guidance provides advice according to managers
a Telehealth aspects on which clinicians received training; b Telehealth aspects on which AHP service staff received training according to managers
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rapid shift to remote consultations. United Kingdom (UK) NHS Allied Health Professional (AHP) services may have been unprepared for telehealth implementation. This study explored these services’ organisational readiness regarding telehealth guidelines implementation and staff training. Methods A cross-sectional online survey exploring available telehealth guidelines and staff training was distributed among UK AHPs and AHP service managers between May and June 2021. Results 658 participants answered the survey (119 managers and 539 clinicians). Most services, in which telehealth was in place, had implemented telehealth guidelines (clinicians, 64%; managers, 82%), with most guidelines produced by the NHS staff who use them for their consultations. Most clinicians reported that guidelines had ambiguous areas (e.g., regarding protection from litigation and dealing with emergencies), whereas most managers reported the opposite opinion. Guidelines most frequently reported on appropriate telehealth technology and environment for staff and patients, while recommended consultation length and how to conduct telehealth with certain population groups were least reported. Clinicians lacked training in most telehealth aspects, while managers reported that staff training focused on telehealth software and hardware. For both clinicians and managers, training is needed on how to deal with emergencies during telehealth. Conclusions UK NHS AHP services are not fully equipped with clear and comprehensive guidelines and the skills to deliver telehealth. Vulnerable people are excluded from current guidelines, which may widen health inequalities and hinder the success of the NHS digital transformation. The absence of national guidelines highlights the need for uniform AHP telehealth guidelines.
Background Inadequate leadership capacity compounds the world's workforce lack of preparedness for outbreaks of all sizes, as illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Traditional human resources for health (HRH) leadership has focused on determining the health workforce requirements, often failing to fully consider the unpredictability associated with issues such as public health emergencies (PHE). Main arguments The current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that policy-making and relevant leadership have to be effective under conditions of ethical uncertainty and with inconclusive evidence. The forces at work in health labor markets (HLM) entail leadership that bridges across sectors and all levels of the health systems. Developing and applying leadership competencies must then be understood from a systemic as well as an individual perspective. To address the challenges described and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030, countries need to develop effective HRH leaderships relevant to the complexity of HLM in the most diverse contexts, including acute surge events during PHE. In complex and rapidly changing contexts, such as PHE, leadership needs to be attentive, nimble, adaptive, action oriented, transformative, accountable and provided throughout the system, i.e., authentic, distributed and participatory. This type of leadership is particularly important, as it can contribute to complex organizational changes as required in surge events associated with PHE, even in in the absence of formal management plans, roles, and structures. To deal with the uncertainty it needs agile tools that may allow prompt human resources impact assessments. Conclusions The complexity of PHE requires transformative, authentic, distributed and participatory leadership of HRH. The unpredictable aspects of the dynamics of the HLM during PHE require the need to rethink, adapt and operationalize appropriate tools, such as HRH impact assessment tools, to redirect workforce operations rapidly and with precision.
Systematic reviews cling to the doctrine that science has an updating databank and attempt to identify all available evidence by featured eligibility criteria to find the answer to a unique scientific question. Therefore, to reach this aim, these researches should use a wise method and comprehensive search strategy, as they are widely used to guide clinical and political decisions and the establishment of future researches. We would like to appreciate Jenny Carè, Amie Steel, and Jon Wardle for the valuable article “Stakeholder attitudes to the regulation of traditional and complementary medicine professions: a systematic review”. Some important missed search terms in the field of traditional medicine names and traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) regulation concepts were discussed in the article.
Despite increasing evidence of the challenges affecting Community Health Workers (CHWs) such as those related to training, supportive supervision and remuneration, there is a need to explore concerns and challenges from the perspective of CHWs themselves. This commentary highlights some of the contested and unexplored notions of challenges affecting CHWs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) informed by the Silences Framework. This framework defines experiences that are under-explored, misunderstood or difficult to share because of the often invisible power relations within communities, but also in setting the research agenda. These challenges include the heavy workload imposed by several stakeholders, dealing with religious and cultural practices, and gendered barriers of care. The workload of CHWs is a major source of stress and anxiety as they have to balance both government and other stakeholders’ agendas to deliver interventions with their own need to provide for their families for those whose work is unpaid. The tensions of CHWs carrying out their work among members of the community whose religious or cultural beliefs are different from theirs also needs to be considered. Gender issues are an impediment to the work of CHWs, particularly with community members of the opposite sex around sensitive health issues. Lastly, CHWs have found themselves victims of domestic suspicion while fulfilling their duties in communities, such as when seen having conversations with spouses of other individuals in the community. Solutions to these challenges need to be co-produced with CHWs to both to strengthen their relationship with the communities they serve and shape more sustainable interventions for delivery of healthcare in LMICs.
Distribution of technically efficient district hospitals from 2014/15 to 2016/17
CRS and VRS technical efficiency based on the catchment population
Descriptive statistics of input, output and exploratory variables
Background District hospitals are crucial in supporting primary health care and serve as a gateway to more specialist care through a referral system. Majority of South Africans access health care services through the public sector district health system. Given the enormous task assigned to the public district hospital within the country, this study examined factors influencing their technical efficiency. Method Data were collected for 38 public district hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province from 2014/15 to 2016/17. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to determine the technical efficiency of the hospitals, adopting both the constant return to scale (CRS) and variable return to scale (VRS) models. Tobit regression model was used to determine factors related to the technical efficiency of the district hospitals. Results This study showed that a significant proportion of the district hospitals were technically inefficient. The Tobit regression model identified catchment population, the proportion of inpatients treated per medical personnel, the proportion of inpatients treated per nursing personnel and expenditure per patient day equivalent as factors influencing technical efficiency of the district hospitals. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that the technical efficiency of the district hospitals can be enhanced through an effective referral system and improved peoples’ health-seeking behaviour. In addition, a standard mix of clinical staff toward efficient service delivery and periodic cost analysis of health services with the view to saving cost and maintaining the quality of health care should be considered.
Classification of the sample into groups by job strain, following Karasek [36]
Burnout and resilience by job stress group. Mean plots a emotional exhaustion; b depersonalization; c personal realization; d resilience
Structural equation model. Standardized parameters are shown. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. [JCQ_PD = psychological demands; JCQ_JC = job control; ER_F1 = personal competence; ER_F2 = acceptance of self and life; MBI_EE = emotional exhaustion; MBI_DE = depersonalization; MBI_PR = personal realization.]
Background Nurses are frequently exposed to chronic stress in the workplace generating harmful effects such as job strain and burnout. On the contrary, resilience has been shown to be a beneficial variable. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between dimensions of the Job Demand Control-Support model, resilience and burnout in nurses, and examine the mediating role of resilience between job strain and burnout. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Active nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September, 2020. With snowball sampling, 1013 nurses, with a mean age of 34.71, filled out the Job Content Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Resilience Scale. Results The results showed the existence of four groups of professionals based on job strain. The nurses in the “High Strain” group (high demands and low control) showed higher scores in emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while those in the “Active Job” group scored higher in personal realization and resilience. The findings showed that job strain affects burnout in nurses, and this effect is mediated by resilience. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that a high level of resilience could exert a fundamental role in ensuring well-being and proper job performance by nurses. Nursing managers should see to the personable variables or competencies that provide and favor an opportunity for nurses to widen and improve their practice, in pursuance of satisfying and responding better to people’s needs and the systems they work for.
Mean annual wage by percent female among health and non-health policy researchers, according to policy domain
Percentage distribution by place of work among health and non-health policy researchers, according to policy domain
Female‒male wage gap by percent female among health and non-health policy researchers, according to policy domain
Background Gendered challenges have been shown to persist among health practitioners in countries at all levels of development. Less is known about non-clinical professionals, that is, those who do not deliver services directly but are essential to health systems performance, such as health policy researchers. This national observational study examined gender occupational segregation and wage gaps in the Canadian health policy research workforce using a cross-domain comparative labour market analysis approach. Methods Sourcing data from the 2016 population census, we applied linear regression and Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition techniques to assess wage differentials by sex, traditional human capital measures (e.g., age, education, place of work), and social identity variables intersecting with gender (household head, childcare, migrant status) among health policy researchers aged 25–54. We compared the gender composition and wage gap with seven non-health policy and programme domains, as mapped under the national occupational classification by similarity in the types of work performed. Results The health policy research workforce (N = 19 955) was characterized by gender segregation: 74% women, compared with 58% women among non-health policy research occupations (N = 102 555). Women health policy researchers earned on average 4.8% (95% CI 1.5‒8.0%) less than men after adjusting for other professional and personal variables. This gap was wider than among education policy researchers with similar gender composition (75% women; adjusted wage gap of 2.6%). Wages among health policy researchers were 21.1% (95% CI 19.4‒22.8%) lower than their counterparts in the male-dominated economics policy domain, all else being equal. Overall, women’s earnings averaged 3.2% lower than men’s due to factors that remained unexplained by policy domain or other measured predictors. Conclusions This investigation found that the gender inequalities already widely seen among clinical practitioners are replicated among health policy researchers, potentially hindering the competitiveness of the health sector for attracting and retaining talent. Our findings suggest intersectoral actions are necessary to tackle wage gaps and devaluation of female-dominated health professions. Accountability for gender equity in health must extend to the professionals tasked with conducting equity-informative health policy research.
Influence of other doctors in the hospital in encouraging doctors undergoing training programmes to migrate abroad
Background: Emigration of Nigerian doctors, including those undergoing training, to the developed countries in Europe and Americas has reached an alarming rate. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence, pattern, and determinants of migration intention among doctors undergoing residency and internship training programmes in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti state, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collected from 182 doctors undergoing residency and internship training at the two tertiary hospitals. An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on migration intention among the eligible respondents. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done. The level of significance was determined at p-value < 0.05. Results: Majority (53.9%) of doctors undergoing training were between 30-39 years, and the mean age was 33.2 ± 5.7 years, male respondents were 68.1%, and 53.8% of the respondents were married. The proportion of doctors undergoing training who had the intention to migrate abroad to practice was 74.2%. A higher proportion of the internship trainees, 79.5%, intended to migrate abroad to practice while the proportion among the resident doctors, was 70.6%. Among the respondents who intended to migrate abroad to practice, 85(63%) intend to migrate abroad within the next 2 years, while the preferred countries of destination were the United Kingdom 65(48.2%), Canada 29 (21.5%), Australia 20 (14.8%) and the United States 18(13.3%). Seventy percent of respondents who intend to migrate abroad had started working on implementation of their intention to migrate abroad. The majority of the junior resident doctors, 56(72.7%), intend to migrate abroad compared with the senior resident doctors, 21(27.3%), (χ2 = 14.039; p < 0.001). The determinants of migration intention are the stage of residency training and level of job satisfaction. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of migration intention among the doctors undergoing training in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, with the majority already working on their plans to migrate abroad. Doctors undergoing training who are satisfied with their job and those who are in the senior stage of residency training programme are less inclined to migrate abroad. Recommendations: The hospital management in the tertiary hospitals should develop retention strategies for human resources for health, especially doctors undergoing training in their establishment, to avert the possible problems of dearth of specialists in the tertiary health facilities. Also, necessary support should be provided for the residency training programme in the tertiary health institutions to make transition from junior to senior residency stage less strenuous.
Human resource needs and costs for the provision of PrEP in primary care clinics in Eswatini. N = 284
Background The global expansion of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) includes health systems that face a shortage of skilled health care workers (HCWs). We estimated the human resource needs and costs for providing PrEP in nurse-led primary care clinics in Eswatini. Furthermore, we assessed potential cost savings from task sharing between nurses and other HCW cadres. Methods We conducted a time-and-motion and costing study in a PrEP demonstration project between August 2017 and January 2019. A form for recording time and performed activities (“motion”) was filled by HCWs of six primary care clinics. To estimate the human resource needs for specific PrEP activities, we allocated recorded times to performed PrEP activities using linear regression with and without adjusting for a workflow interruption, that is, if a client was seen by different HCWs or by the same HCW at different times. We assessed a base case in which a nurse provides all PrEP activities and five task shifting scenarios, of which four include workflow interruptions due to task sharing between different HCW cadres. Results On average, PrEP initiation required 29 min (95% CI 25–32) of HCW time and PrEP follow-up 16 min (95% CI 14–18). The HCW time cost $4.55 (uncertainty interval [UI] 1.52–9.69) for PrEP initiation and $2.54 (UI 1.07–4.64) for PrEP follow-up when all activities were performed by a nurse. Time costs were $2.30–4.25 (UI 0.62–9.19) for PrEP initiation and $1.06–2.60 (UI 0.30–5.44) for PrEP follow-up when nurses shared tasks with HCWs from lower cadres. Interruptions of the workflow added, on average, 3.4 min (95% CI 0.69–6.0) to the time HCWs needed for a given number of PrEP activities. The cost of an interrupted workflow was estimated at $0.048–0.87 (UI 0.0098–1.63) depending on whose time need increased. Conclusions A global shortage of skilled HCWs could slow the expansion of PrEP. Task shifting to lower-cadre HCW in nurse-led PrEP provision can free up nurse time and reduce the cost of PrEP provision even if interruptions associated with task sharing increase the overall human resource need.
Overlap between areas covered by health facilities and Community Health Workers
Children 0–59 months without geographical access to a health provider
Children 0–59 months not covered by active screening for severe acute malnutrition
Background In 2015, the Ministry of Health in Mali included the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) into the package of activities of the integrated Community Case Management (iCCM). This paper aims to analyze the impact of including community health workers (CHWs) as treatment providers outside the Health Facilities (HFs) on the coverage of SAM treatment when scaling up the intervention in the three largest districts of the Kayes Region in Mali. Methods A baseline coverage assessment was conducted in August 2017 in the three districts before the CHWs started treating SAM. The end-line assessment was conducted one year later, in August 2018. Coverage was assessed by the standardized methodology called Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC). The primary outcome was treatment coverage and other variables evaluated were the geographical distribution of the HFs, CHW’s sites and overlapping between both health providers, the estimation of children with geographical access to health care and the estimation of children screened for acute malnutrition in their communities. Results Treatment coverage increased in Kayes (28.7–57.1%) and Bafoulabé (20.4–61.1%) but did not in Kita (28.4–28.5%). The decentralization of treatment has not had the same impact on coverage in all districts, with significant differences. The geospatial analyses showed that Kita had a high proportion of overlap between HFs and/or CHWs 48.7% (39.2–58.2), a high proportion of children without geographical access to health care 70.4% (70.1–70.6), and a high proportion of children not screened for SAM in their communities 52.2% (51.9–52.5). Conclusions Working with CHWs in SAM increases treatment coverage, but other critical aspects need to be considered by policymakers if this intervention model is intended to be scaled up at the country level. To improve families’ access to nutritional health care, before establishing decentralized treatment in a whole region it must be considered the geographical location of CHWs. This previous assessment will avoid overlap among health providers and ensure the coverage of all unserved areas according to their population densities need. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry with ID 1990746.
Background As the 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 (GSHRH) outlines, health systems can only function with health workforce (HWF). Bangladesh is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) hence a comprehensive understanding of the existing HWF was deemed necessary informing policy and funding decisions to the health system. Methods The health labour market analysis (HLMA) framework for UHC cited in the GSHRH was adopted to analyse the supply, need and demand of all health workers in Bangladesh. Government’s information systems provided data to document the public sector HWF. A national-level assessment (2019) based on a country representative sample of 133 geographical units, served to estimate the composition and distribution of the private sector HWF. Descriptive statistics served to characterize the formal and informal HWF. Results The density of doctors, nurses and midwives in Bangladesh was only 9.9 per 10 000 population, well below the indicative sustainable development goals index threshold of 44.5 outlined in the GSHRH. Considering all HWFs in Bangladesh, the estimated total density was 49 per 10 000 population. However, one-third of all HWFs did not hold recognized roles and their competencies were unknown, taking only qualified and recognized HWFs into account results in an estimated density 33.2. With an estimate 75 nurses per 100 doctors in Bangladesh, the second area, where policy attention appears to be warranted is on the competencies and skill-mix. Thirdly, an estimated 82% of all HWFs work in the private sector necessitates adequate oversight for patient safety. Finally, a high proportion of unfilled positions in the public sector, especially in rural areas where 67% of the population lives, account only 11% of doctors and nurses. Conclusion Bangladesh is making progress on many of the milestones of the GSHRH, notably, the establishment of the HWF unit and reporting through the national health workforce accounts. However, particular investment on strengthening the intersectoral HWF coordination across sectors; regulation for assurance of patient safety and adequate oversight of the private sector; establishing accreditation mechanisms for training institutions; and halving inequalities in access to a qualified HWF are important towards advancing UHC in Bangladesh.
Background The physical job demands of hospital nurses are known to be very high. Although many studies have measured the physical activities of nurses subjectively using questionnaires, it remains necessary to quantify and measure nurses’ physical activity at work using objective indicators. This study was conducted to address this gap in the literature by analyzing nurses’ physical activity using both objective measurements and subjective perceptions. The number of steps, distance traveled, and actual work hours were measured during work, and the influence of related factors was analyzed. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, survey and activity tracking data were collected from nurses who worked in three shifts in two tertiary hospitals located in the capital region of South Korea. The participants comprised 117 nurses working in four different units (medical ward, surgical ward, intensive care unit, emergency room), and data from 351 shifts were used in the final analysis. Between-group differences in the main variables were analyzed using the t-test, the Mann–Whitney test, analysis of variance, or the Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. The relationships were examined through multiple linear regression analysis. Results The average number of steps and distance traveled were greatest for nurses working in the emergency room, followed by the intensive care unit, surgical ward, and medical ward (in descending order). Younger nurses and those with shorter unit experience tended to have the greatest number of steps and distance traveled. Conclusion Using activity trackers, this study derived physical activity measures such as number of steps and distance traveled, enabling an objective examination of physical activity during shifts. Nurses’ level of physical activity differed depending on the type of nursing unit, nurses’ age, and unit experience. These results suggest the need for support programs that are specific to the job demands of specific nursing units.
Pharmacists pyramid in 1994 (a) and 2019 (b)
a Rate of change in newly registered pharmacists (left axis), the professional programme and bachelor programme number (right axis). b Average of newly registered pharmacists entering the workforce per annum
Access to pharmacy programmes per 1000 potential students and density of pharmacy workforce per 10 000 population across islands
Trends in newly registered pharmacists' gender since 1955
Pharmacist age distribution across the sector of practice
Background Pharmacists play a fundamental role in healthcare systems and achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) through quality primary healthcare service provision. While the World Health Organization (WHO) forecasts a global shortage of health workforce by 2030, mainly affecting low- and middle-income nations (LMICs), limited published literature is found regarding pharmacy workforce capacity in LMICs, including Indonesia. This paper aims to analyse pharmacists’ capacity in Indonesia to identify emerging workforce planning gaps for future workforce planning and policies in Indonesia. Method Several data sources were accessed, including a database from the National Pharmacy Committee and the professional leadership body in Indonesia. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages, and mean), correlational and time-series analysis using curve estimation were conducted. Secondary data on the number of programmes, pharmacy students, pharmacy workforce (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) per province were obtained from the Ministry websites and reports. Result There were a total of 77 191 registered pharmacists in Indonesia in 2019. The pharmacists’ pyramid showed a youth bulge as a general indication of market expansion in the education sector correlating to the pharmacy programme’s number and size. There was a variation in pharmacy workforce density and access to pharmacy programmes across islands, which also were strongly correlated. Forecasting estimates that by 2030, women will represent around 86% of pharmacists in Indonesia. More female pharmacists were found working in the hospital and primary healthcare (providing direct services to patients) than male pharmacists. Younger pharmacists worked in the industrial sector, while older pharmacists worked in governmental and educational institutions. Conclusion This study signposted workforce planning gaps for policy development in Indonesia, including a need to develop structured training to support early career pharmacists in their practice. There is also a need for better access to professional development programmes designed to support female pharmacists return to the regulated workforce following career breaks. National policy to promote equitable distribution and retention of pharmacists is recommended.
Modified PRISMA flow diagram
Study characteristics and findings from included studies
Background Globally, the health workforce has long suffered from labour shortages. This has been exacerbated by the workload increase caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Major collapses in healthcare systems across the world during the peak of the pandemic led to calls for strategies to alleviate the increasing job attrition problem within the healthcare sector. This turnover may worsen given the overwhelming pressures experienced by the health workforce during the pandemic, and proactive measures should be taken to retain healthcare workers. This review aims to examine the factors affecting turnover intention among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A mixed studies systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 2020 to March 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical Appraisal Tools and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018 were applied by two independent researchers to critically appraise the methodological quality. Findings were synthesised using a convergent integrated approach and categorised thematically. Results Forty-three studies, including 39 quantitative, two qualitative and two mixed methods studies were included in this review. Eighteen were conducted in the Middle East, ten in the Americas, nine in the Asia–Pacific region and six in Europe. Nurses ( n = 35) were included in the majority of the studies, while physicians ( n = 13), allied health workers ( n = 11) and healthcare administrative or management staff ( n = 7) were included in a smaller proportion. Five themes emerged from the data synthesis: (1) fear of COVID-19 exposure, (2) psychological responses to stress, (3) socio-demographic characteristics, (4) adverse working conditions, and (5) organisational support. Conclusions A wide range of factors influence healthcare workers’ turnover intention in times of pandemic. Future research should be more focused on specific factors, such as working conditions or burnout, and specific vulnerable groups, including migrant healthcare workers and healthcare profession minorities, to aid policymakers in adopting strategies to support and incentivise them to retain them in their healthcare jobs.
PRISMA [20] diagram for PAs
PRISMA [20] diagram for ANPs
Background Mid-level practitioners (MLPs), including physician associates (PAs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs), have emerged to address workforce shortages in the UK and perform specific roles in relation to population needs. This has resulted in new ways of working and changes to established professional hierarchies. We conducted a study to investigate the career development, competencies, effectiveness, perceptions, and regulation of PAs and ANPs, with the aim of understanding ways to effectively integrate MLPs into the NHS workforce. Methods We conducted a systematic scoping review following PRISMA guidelines. Embase, Medline, the Cochrane database, Pubmed, and CINAHL databases were searched, using terms relating to PAs and ANPs in the UK. A total of 128 studies (60 on PAs and 68 on ANPs) were included in the final analysis. A narrative synthesis, guided by the pre-defined themes and emerging themes, was conducted to bring together the findings. Results PAs are educated on a medical model with basic medical skills but lack formal professional regulation and do not have prescribing rights. ANPs are educated on a nurse model with enhanced skills that depend on roles within specific specialities, and their governance is mostly employer-led. PAs are primarily employed in secondary care. ANPs are employed widely in both primary and secondary care. No defined career progression exists for PAs. In contrast, becoming an ANP is a form of career progression within nursing. Both roles were regarded as cost-effective in comparison to doctors performing simple tasks. PAs were less understood compared to ANPs and received a mixed reception from colleagues, which sometimes undermined their professional identity, whereas ANPs were mostly welcomed by colleagues. Conclusions Potential ways to better integrate PAs and ANPs into the NHS workforce include further initiatives by regulatory bodies and the NHS to create more awareness and clearer role definitions for MLPs, outline potential for career progression, offer transparency with regard to remuneration, and introduction of prescribing rights. Future research might include more cadres of MLPs and explore the international literature.
Top-cited authors
Gilles Dussault
  • Universidade NOVA de Lisboa
Mario Roberto Dal Poz
  • Rio de Janeiro State University
Marjolein Dieleman
  • KIT Royal Tropical/Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Tim Martineau
  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Marko Vujicic
  • American Dental Association