A frontier of leadership development is examined involving the respective roles of levels-of-analysis and identity in constructing an integrated development system. An approach is described in which individual and relational leadership identities are the focus of developmental efforts at lower organizational levels (e.g., individual contributor and first-level supervisor) but collective identities become the focus at higher levels (e.g., general manager and above). The separate areas of levels-of-analysis and leader identities are first discussed in terms of their respective relevance to leadership development. These are then discussed jointly in elaborating on a proposed development approach that integrates across organizational levels as well as levels of development (i.e., leader development and leadership development). In developing collective leadership identities, processes that involve participants in engaging across boundaries (functional, hierarchical, geographical) are recommended.
This review takes an evolutionary and chronological perspective on the development of strategic human resource management (SHRM) literature. We divide this body of work into seven themes that reflect the directions and trends researchers have taken over approximately thirty years of research. During this time the field took shape, developed rich conceptual foundations, and matured into a domain that has substantial influence on research activities in HR and related management disciplines. We trace how the field has evolved to its current state, articulate many of the major findings and contributions, and discuss how we believe it will evolve in the future. This approach contributes to the field of SHRM by synthesizing work in this domain and by highlighting areas of research focus that have received perhaps enough attention, as well as areas of research focus that, while promising, have remained largely unexamined.
The industrial relations (IR) literature has changed notably from the early 1960s until the late 1990s. Yet it has retained an externalist flavor — a sense that the key variables determining outcomes are often outside the control of firm-level actors. However, the kind of externalism found in the modern IR literature differs notably from that of the past. Externalism today is seen as labor market and personal variables — often in an econometric formulation — rather than grand social forces. Generally, the IR literature has moved toward sophisticated empiricism and toward a labor economics paradigm. To the extent that the older grand themes remain, they are more likely to be found in IR books rather than in academic journals. Human resource (HR) academics and practitioners can nonetheless benefit from the IR approach, even though the tyranny of tenure review has made journal articles in IR less readable. The IR literature emphasizes that labor–market forces, sometimes stemming from product and financial markets, matter to HR outcomes. And it regards conflict more as a source of information rather than just a cause of lost productivity.
This article explores the emergence of virtual HR in organizations as a response to the increased presence of external structural options to perform HR services as well as the growing sophistication of information technologies. We examine the motives that are encouraging HR managers to implement these virtual arrangement and, drawing from transaction cost economics and the resource-based view of the firm, we present an architectural framework that can be used to understand and map the underlying structure of virtual HR. Theoretical and research implications are discussed throughout the article.
This article argues that assumptions surrounding 360° ratings should be examined; most notably, the assumptions that different rating sources have relatively unique perspectives on performance and multiple rating sources provide incremental validity over the individual sources. Studies generally support the first assumption, although reasons for interrater disagreement across different organizational levels are not clear. Two research directions are suggested for learning more about why different organizational levels tend to disagree in their ratings and thus how to improve interpretation of 360° ratings. Regarding the second assumption, it is argued we might resurrect the hypothesis that low-to-moderate across organizational level interrater agreement is actually a positive result, reflecting different levels' raters each making reasonably valid performance judgments but on partially different aspects of job performance. Three approaches to testing this hypothesis are offered.
Methodological studies have materially altered thinking about the nature of absence variables. Because of this research, the research community is now aware that absence variables frequently follow irregular data distributions [J. Appl. Psychol. 66 (1981) 574; J. Appl. Psychol. 74 (1989) 300]. Researchers have also been made aware that the reliability of absence metrics depends on the way the measures are configured [Pers. Psychol. 24 (1971) 463; J. Appl. Psychol. 66 (1981) 574]. What has received less attention are research design decisions (i.e., procedural and operational) impacting the psychometric properties of absenteeism variables. The current discussion focuses on the operational and methodological decisions researchers make that impact the measurement properties of absence variables.
It is argued that great strides have been made in absenteeism research, in part due to the wide diversity of research methods that have been employed to study the phenomenon. The inherent difficulties in studying a complex, low base rate behavior with negative connotations have stimulated methodological diversity. In addition, methodological diversity has expanded as a wide variety of academic and professional disciplines has become interested in absenteeism. Variations in research designs, data sources, and the treatment of time are discussed, and examples are provided of how these variations enhance the understanding of absence. The article concludes with an illustration of the synergy of complementary methods when they are used to investigate a particular research question. The impact of social influence on absence and gender differences in absenteeism are used as cases in point.
We examine the merits of studying absence and attendance behaviors across multiple settings. In this approach, we connect consistent, between-person variance to dispositional influences and contextual, within-person variance to social influences. Using definitions of absence and lateness that focus on how these behaviors violate social expectations, we found that self-reported absenteeism at 11 different settings yielded a consistency estimate comparable to many measures of work-related constructs (coefficient α=.62). Self-reported lateness yielded even greater consistency (α=.76). Supplementary evidence using archival records of attendance and performance showed that response biases were unlikely sources of all of the apparent absence and lateness “proneness.” Self-monitoring was unrelated to overall levels of absence or lateness, but was weakly related to modulation of absence and lateness rates across settings (r's=.14 and .10, respectively). Perceived social expectations were correlated at the idiographic level with absence and lateness patterns across the 11 settings (median r's=−.30 and −.17, respectively). Findings are discussed in terms of how different research strategies partition and highlight different components of variance in absenteeism behavior.
The potential impact of employee abuses of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 on employer judgements and behaviors is explored. A model depicting the process underlying managerial judgments about employee requests for accommodation is presented. It is proposed that individuals will attribute accommodation requests to disability or to a motive to deceive. This attribution process impacts perceptions of the degree of reasonableness of an accommodation. Attributions to deception and perceptions of unreasonableness of an accommodation request will contribute to perceived violations of the employer-employee psychological contract. This private judgment process will culminate in the short term and public judgment of whether accommodation will be made. In the longer run, violations of the psychological contract will impact the quality of the manager and employee relationship and increase the manager's tendency to attribute accommodation requests to a motive to deceive.
Few measures available to us show as much promise, for as many applications, as background data, or biodata measures. It is open to question, however, whether current work in the area of background data measures will live up to the technique's promise as a vehicle for understanding people and their careers. In this article, I argue that many of the problems evident in the background data literature may be traced to a failure to attend to the fundamental principles of construct validation. Subsequently, the major aspects of construct validity are examined with reference to their pertinence in the development and application of background data measures. It is argued that a more flexible, substantively oriented approach to the development and application of background data measures is called for.
Over 4300 articles published in four HR-focused journals over a 20-year period of time were content analyzed according to topic area (indicator of interest area) and journal orientation (HR research versus HR practice). Analyses suggest that there were numerous interest area gaps between HR professionals and academics and that the magnitude of those gaps varied across topic areas. The gap regarding Compensation & Rewards was consistently large, with the interests of professionals far exceeding that of academics for the entire 20 years of analysis (approximately 14% of all articles in the professional journals, versus approximately 2% of all articles published in the academic journals). In contrast, the gap regarding OB & Motivation-related topics was consistently large with more than 16% of all articles in the academic journals on this topic, compared to less than 4% of all articles in the professional journals. These findings, along with suggestions for better understanding and closing the gap, are discussed.
As U.S. businesses shift from individual rewards toward more aggregated pay systems, they must address the issue of reward allocation within groups. Specifically, should aggregate rewards be allocated equally to all group members, or should individual contributions be recognized? In this paper, the multiprinciple view of distributive justice is used as a starting point to predict employee reactions to different allocation methods. Propositions for future research that could facilitate the implementation of alternative pay plans are offered.
Electronic human resource (eHR) systems are being used with increasing frequency in organizations. However, there is relatively little research on factors that influence the degree to which they result in functional versus dysfunctional consequences for individuals and organizations. Thus, the major purposes of this article are to: (a) present a model that relates a number of antecedents to such consequences, (b) describe the impact of individual and eHR system characteristics on four important eHR-related variables (i.e., information flows, social interactions, perceived control, and system acceptance), (c) offer a set of hypotheses that can be used to guide research on eHR systems, and (d) advance recommendations for the design of such systems.
The cultural diversity of U.S. organizations is increasing rapidly. In spite of this, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact that the increase in diversity may have on (a) the acceptance of human resource management processes and practices (e.g., recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, and compensation and benefits) by individuals and (b) the effectiveness of such processes and practices. Thus, we consider the moderating effects of both individual culture and organizational culture on relations between (a) human resource management processes and practices and (b) the acceptance and effectiveness of such processes and practices. In addition, we offer recommendations for both research and practice.
Despite the widespread use of eHR systems, surveys show that there may be a number of problems associated with their design and implementation [CedarCrestone (2007). CedarCrestone 2007–2008 HR systems survey: HR technologies, service delivery approaches, and metrics. Available at www.cedarcrestone.com/research.php. Retrieved July, 2008]. In an effort to overcome these problems we expanded the model of eHR acceptance and effectiveness developed by Stone, Stone-Romero, & Lukaszewski [Stone, D. L., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Lukaszewski, K. (2006). Factors affecting the acceptance and effectiveness of electronic human resource systems. Human Resources Management Review, 16, 229-244]. The expanded model provides a more detailed discussion of the communication processes underlying these systems including the effects of media and message characteristics. In addition, we offer a number of testable hypotheses based on the model that can be used to guide future research on eHR systems.
With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers are now required to provide reasonable accommodations for qualified individuals with disabilities. Although the practice of accommodating applicants or employees is not new, accommodation for disabled individuals has shifted the thinking about accommodation and our perceptions and reactions to such practices. In this article, four major factors that contribute to workplace reactions to accommodation are discussed: (1) rationale for the accommodation, (2) the nature of the accommodation, (3) whether the accommodation is organization, employee or jointly initiated, and (4) the characteristics of the target or person being accommodated. A general framework is presented depicting how these variables combine to influence workplace reactions to accommodation. Research from managerial, social psychological and rehabilitation literatures is reviewed and integrated.
This paper explores the issue of corporate accountability for social injustice. We divide our discussion into three major parts. First, we discuss the current understanding of large organizations manifested in the prevailing legal and cultural climate. We argue that organizations are often treated as a type of juristic person. As such, they have not only certain rights, but also certain responsibilities to the larger society. For this reason, accountability for corporate actions is of major importance. In the second section, we review the psychological processes by which individuals come to attribute responsibility. In accordance with Fairness Theory, we suggest that there are three central issues to consider when attributing responsibility to organizations for unjust acts. Organizations are held accountable when an alternative state would have been better than a current situation, when the firm could have feasibly avoided creating the negative conditions, and when the harm should never have taken place (i.e., it violated ethical and moral standards). Finally, in the third section of the paper, we elaborate and discuss several organizational tactics for addressing an accusation of accountability. These include both short-term, single-loop tactics, as well as long-term, double-loop tactics.
Over the past several years, scholars have increased their attention to the phenomenon of accountability. These efforts come largely from social psychology, where accountability is viewed as a description of a category of causal factors of behavior in social settings. Indeed, the developments have been substantial, and studies have been fruitful. Undergirding these efforts are various conceptualizations of accountability which have elements in common, although they also have some points of difference and others of unclear connectedness. In an effort to provide a broad framework as a step toward a cogent theory of accountability, Frink and Klimoski [Frink, D. D., & Klimoski, R. J. (1998). Toward a theory of accountability in organizations and human resources management. In G. R. Ferris, (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 16, pp. 1–51). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press] advanced a role theory framework describing the accountability phenomenon. As a next step, this special edition of Human Resource Management Review (HRMR) brings together several authors with expertise in varied theoretical domains, and presents their views of how that framework may or may not be useful in examining their topic of expertise. As may be expected, the result is a creative and refreshing series of papers incorporating multiple levels of analysis and covering a spectrum of topics that are both novel for accountability perspectives as well as interesting and important for organizational scholarship and practice. This edition begins with this introduction piece which sets forth a synopsis of the Frink and Klimoski platform and then introduces the papers that comprise this edition.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the accountability trend and what this trend means for HR managers. We begin by defining performance measurement and its relationship to performance management and evaluation. We then discuss the legislative incentives behind federal performance measurement, such as the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), that are designed to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and accountability of taxpayer funded programs and how these initiatives affect HR programs. Following this, we review the implications for HR professionals and the fundamental concepts of performance measurement, including common performance measurement methodologies. Finally, we conclude by highlighting the challenges of implementing a performance management system, as well as lessons learned from agencies who have implemented performance measurement or management systems in the past.
According to Jones (1991) ethics influence judgments used to make decisions that are legal or morally acceptable to the larger community [Ethical decision-making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, vol. 16(2) (pp. 366–395).]. Poor ethical decision-making costs industry billions of dollars a year and damages the images of corporations. Thus, ethics is an organizational and managerial issue. This paper describes how ethical decision-making is a multi-dimensional process; one that includes the individual, the ethical issues and the organizational context. It then shows how organizations can use accountability mechanisms to help control organizational misconduct, such as enforced codes of ethics and the creation of a values-based organization with top management support and strong ethical social consensus.
This article presents interpersonal exchanges with leaders (LMX), team members (TMX) and organization (POS) as factors influencing the accountability process. It is argued that LMX influences perceived accountability developing in the inquiry stage. Variables inspired by the expectancy theory are introduced as moderators of the accountability–performance relationship, and LMX is argued to influence these moderators. In the accounting, judgment, and sanction stages, individuals are expected to account for their behaviors using the process and/or outcomes, based on the nature of their LMX. Finally, high-LMX members are expected to be favored in the judgment and sanctions stages. We also contend that accountability perceptions mediate the relationship between TMX, POS, and outcomes. In summary, relationships that individuals form in organizations influence accountability perceptions and subsequent outcomes.
Over the last half century there has been a great deal of interest in the role of personality in teams. In this article we review the theoretical and empirical research on this topic to summarize what we have learned and also to provide a foundation for future research necessary for application of this knowledge to human resource management decisions. We describe research that emphasizes both team- and individual-levels of analysis and theory, and we discuss recent efforts that attempt to bridge these two levels. We conclude by identifying several issues that should take precedence in research in order to advance our understanding of the role of personality in teams.Research Highlights► Team member personality influences team effectiveness through several pathways. ► Pathways involve individual-level, team-level, and cross-level relationships. ► Effects of member personality on team effectiveness can be substantial. ► Effects of member personality are strongest with behavioral and process criteria. ► Researchers need to examine additional traits, criteria, and linking mechanisms.
This article uses the resource-based view of the firm, along with other theoretical sources, to outline the basic elements of a theory of ‘human resource advantage’. It asks the question: how can firms build and defend competitive superiority through HR strategy across the phases of the typical industry life cycle? Human resources capable of yielding sustained advantage are those which meet tests of (1) rare value and (2) relative immobility and superior appropriability. While we can identify certain broad principles associated with human resource advantage, cycles of establishment, maturity and renewal in industries add important complexities. The article identifies situations in which we can be reasonably confident we understand the requirements for HR advantage and others where much more research is needed.
The public discussion of affirmative action appears to be complicated by disagreements regarding definitions and by the lack of a theoretical framework from which to begin to understand this complex public policy. The present review attempts to synthesize the available research into a model from which resistance to affirmative action can be understood. Within the model, resistance to affirmative action policies is viewed as influenced by two main categories of factors—the evaluator's perspective and the context in which the policy is embedded. Based on these categories, specific hypotheses are constructed regarding resistance. In addition, recommendations for enhancing acceptance of affirmative action are made based on the model and previous research.
Most of the literature on HR activities and trust has presumed that employees' trust affects the success and effectiveness of HR activities. However, social exchange theory suggests an alternative and complementary notion—that HR activities affect the development of employee trust. Previous research and exchange-based theories, including organizational justice, leader-member exchange, spiral reinforcement and perceptions of organizational support, suggest hypotheses that need to be investigated in order to understand the relationship between HR activities and trust better and to design HR activities to build trust and improve organizational effectiveness.
This article describes how current job analysis methods can be used to incorporate the mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of (1990). First, terms in the ADA such as “qualified individuals with disabilities,” “essential functions,” and “reasonable accommodation” are discussed in reference to their implications for job analysis. Second, survey results gathered from individuals with disabilities are presented to suggest some ways job analysis can be used to identify essential functions and reasonable accommodations. Third, some general suggestions are offered for performing an ADA-appropriate job analysis. Finally, several current job analysis techniques chosen to be representative of the field are evaluated on three criteria: (a) whether the technique has an outcome versus a process focus, (b) whether the technique identifies essential functions, and (c) whether the technique identifies potential reasonable accommodations for a particular job. The job analysis techniques evaluated include: (a) Functional Job Analysis (FJA) (Fine 1988), (b) task analysis (e.g., CODAP, standard task analyses), (c) Threshold Traits Analysis (TTA) (Lopez et al. 1981), (d) the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (McCormick, Jeanneret, & Mecham 1972), and (e) the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) (Flanagan 1954).
In this article we adopt a multiple stakeholder approach to examine the impact of ADA on the selection process. Specifically, we dissect the selection process into its component steps and for each step identify the potential impediments to hiring the disabled. In addition, we discuss the intended effects of the ADA, and its implications for organizations and job applicants. We also offer suggestions for research on ADA and selection in order to stimulate additional research on the topic.
The process of cross-cultural adaptation is complex: first, because of its internal and external dynamics and, second, because of the number of relevant variables. Studies have associated scores of independent variables with adaptation outcomes. Yet this has had little effect on the overall understanding of the adaptation process. Adaptation theory has made little progress over the last decade. Most models are one-directional and without consideration of feedback loops. Various fields such as organization and leadership studies, economics and political science have applied ideas from chaos and complexity theory to gain additional insights. This article reviews concepts such as irreversibility, sensitivity to initial conditions and order through fluctuations and assesses their potential to help us better understand the dynamics of expatriate adaptation. It suggests that the field would benefit from a combination of action research, simulations, better quantitative measurement of adaptation outcomes and continued qualitative studies.
This paper represents a first step in understanding which factors influence the perceived equity of pay and benefits of expatriates from advanced industrialized nations (AINs) and developing countries (DCs). We explore this issue within the framework of equity theory. Specifically, we analyze and extend equity theory to non-North American contexts. This may help further our understanding of which factors expatriates use when comparing their input/outcome ratios to that of their referent others. We identify three potential factors and develop six propositions regarding how these factors will influence perceived inputs and outcome expectations of expatriates.
This article presents and develops a theoretical model (The Adaptive Response Model; ARM) that proposes how employees adapt to the organization following changes in organizational policies that are perceived as dissatisfying. The ARM combines several streams of theoretical and empirical research in IO-Psychology. It suggests that different type of employees (i.e., institutionalized stars, citizens, lone wolves, and apathetics) resort to different behaviors to adjust to dissatisfying events. Institutionalized stars tend to exercise voice, lone wolves tend to exit, citizens tend to accept, and apathetics tend to resort to alternative forms of withdrawal (e.g., lateness, absenteeism, and theft). Implications for the management of each employee type as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
Considerable international HRM literature focuses on training expatriates to increase cultural awareness and provide realistic previews of life and work in the host country, thereby increasing expatriate effectiveness and adjustment. This article emphasizes a complementary form of improving expatriate adjustment, namely, selection on individual differences resulting from the bicultural life experiences that individuals may bring with them to potential assignments. Parallel themes in literatures on biculturalism and on the knowledge, skills, abilities and other requirements (KSAOs) for expatriate effectiveness are discussed. A model integrating these bicultural life experiences/KSAOs and effects of other constructs on expatriate adjustment is proposed. Research and managerial implications follow.
This paper examines the literature and research on unions relevant to the effective adoption of High Performance Work Practices. It demonstrates that unions that have a cooperative relationship with management can play an important role in overcoming barriers to the effective adoption of practices that have been linked to organizational competitiveness through the development and application of human capital. In particular, unions have the unique advantage of delivering independent voice that cannot be substituted by management. Not only can unions make a contribution to organization competitiveness but they can also ensure that employees benefit from High Performance Work Practice adoption and in doing so secure their own relevance. The contribution that unions can make is inhibited by management and union's reluctance to engage in an integrative relationship and an institutional context that does not value unions. Organizations that want to capture the value that unions can add must move away from a pluralist model of autocratic management, hostile unions and adversarial industrial relations, beyond a unitarist model that sees no role for unions, to a cooperative partnership with unions that shares the gains of implementing High Performance Work Practices.
This article discusses issues affecting the advancement opportunities of persons with disabilities and strategies for overcoming barriers to advancement. Specifically, two major sources of treatment discrimination are identified: (1) individual factors (i.e., nature of the disability, stereotypes and stigma, multiple stigma and self-limiting behaviors) and (2) organizational factors (i.e., token status, outgroup status, perceptions of limited job-fit, lack of role models, lack of mentors, and lack of critical feedback). Strategies for overcoming these barriers and implications for human resource managers are discussed and include: diversity training, training for persons with disabilities, dealing with coworker resentment, accommodations, supervisor training, and mentoring/sponsorship programs. Implications for research on issues related to the advancement of persons with disabilities are also addressed.
In this paper I argue that standard treatments of job satisfaction have inappropriately defined satisfaction as affect and in so doing have obscured the differences among three separate, if related, constructs. These key constructs are overall evaluative judgments about jobs, affective experiences at work, and beliefs about jobs. I show that clearly separating these constructs is consistent with current, basic research and theory on attitudes as well as with current research and theory on “subjective well-being” (SWB). I also argue that the separation of the constructs can produce better criterion predictions than job satisfaction has by itself, suggests new areas of research that cannot be envisioned when satisfaction and affect are treated as equivalent constructs, and requires the development of new measurement systems.
The effects of task performance and contextual performance on turnover, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment were examined for two samples of Air Force mechanics. Supervisor ratings of task performance and contextual performance were obtained in 1992 (N=419) for one sample and in 1993 for the second sample (N=991). In both samples, task performance and contextual performance predicted turnover and job satisfaction in 1996. Task performance predicted reenlistment eligibility and promotion eligibility in the 1992 sample, but only reenlistment eligibility in the 1993 sample. Contextual performance only predicted promotion eligibility in the 1992 sample, but predicted both outcomes in the 1993 sample. Results support the distinction between task performance and contextual performance.
This paper presents a model of emotional intelligence and dispositional affectivity as moderators of workplace aggression. Particular attention is devoted to the mediating processes through which workers make behavioral choices resulting from perceived injustices primarily using the interpersonal and intrapersonal skills of “emotional intelligence” and dispositional affectivity. The model explores the five components of emotional intelligence, which include self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Building on the works of Goleman [Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.; Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.] and others, the model examines the individual's degree of emotional intelligence and the impact that these skills may have on the type of behavior exhibited after the perception of injustice. The model also examines the impact that dispositional affectivity has on behavioral choices as well. It is proposed that the specific behavior choice can result in adaptive/constructive behavior or maladaptive behavior, such as workplace aggression. We include research propositions and discuss managerial implications as well as recommendations for training, selection practices, counseling, and attributional training.
In this manuscript, individual participative goal setting (PGS) is placed within the theoretical foundation of social cognitive theory (SCT). Based on this foundation, a cognitive-based self-leadership approach is suggested as a mechanism to enhance the PGS process and to achieve effective participation behavior. Propositions are described to serve as catalysts for empirically testing the applicability of self-leadership to goal-setting process.
While many studies suggest that companies use temporary agency work only as a short-term instrument to adjust the workforce in line with demand, recent research has pointed to new developments in employers' use of temporary agency work. Studies have highlighted the development of increasing long-term contractual relationships between temporary work agencies and client companies in countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and the US. What is missing in the current debate so far are insights on how temporary work agencies are responding to new expectations by client companies. Therefore, possible strategies are analyzed with special regard to the design of Human Resource Management instruments in temporary work agencies. Although the Human Resource Management is the core competency of temporary work agencies, surprisingly little attention in the academic literature has been paid to the question how Human Resource Management should be structured in order to support the adopted strategies by the agencies. This will be analyzed in the paper with a special focus on the situation in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, developing propositions for further research and a comprehensive research agenda for international comparative studies.
While there are over 7 million telecommuters in the U.S. today, there has been little empirical research and virtually no theoretical work on telecommuting. Drawing from the literatures on contingent employment, job design and social isolation, this article presents a theoretical framework for understanding how different constellations of telecommuting arrangements and job characteristics lead to different patterns of employee attitudes and behaviors. After presenting a series of propositions, the article concludes with suggestions for the empirical testing of these propositions and a discussion of the implications for management practice.
In this paper, we take a behavioral integration perspective [Strategy Leadersh. 25 (1997) 24] in articulating the process through which new venture performance may be explained. In so doing, we integrate concepts from entrepreneurship, top management teams (TMT), group process, and leadership research and propose an input–process–output model for examining new venture TMT (NVTMT) and new venture performance. More specifically, shared leadership is conceptualized as an important antecedent of our process variables—cohesion and collective vision—which in turn are conceptualized as being positively and reciprocally related and important antecedents of new venture performance. Our model also proposes several moderators that may change the relationships in the model.
Most applications of utility analysis in Human Resource Management have focussed upon only one outcome of a selection system-the value of job performance in dollars. Multi-attribute utility (MAU) analysis allows decision makers to incorporate multiple outcomes into their analytic decisions. MAU also increases the participation of decision makers in the utility analysis process by asking them what factors to consider, how to measure the factors, and what functions should be used to combine them. This manuscript outlines the steps necessary to conduct MAU analysis and delineates research issues that arise from using a MAU approach. Based on these issues, we suggest systematic research questions and directional hypotheses which will improve our understanding and implementation of MAU procedures in organizations. The topics, derived from utility analytic and groups research literatures, include contrasting single attribute utility analysis with MAU, examining the effect of MAU on decision maker attitudes, the ability of MAU to explicate managerial policies, and improving existing MAU approaches using results from the group research literature.
Researchers that have used agency theory predictions of monitoring and incentive alignment that focus solely on principal–agent relationships at the organizational level have been unable to rationalize the use and design of stock options within organizations. In the early 1990s, stock options were virtually free, but eventually, organizations were required to disclose the value of the options in the footnotes of their financial statements. This imperative ignited a battle between agents (and their advocates) who opposed the formal accounting of options and shareholders (and their advocates) who changed their opinions about options over time. In this article, we develop a model to explain how the varying pressures across the various stages of institutionalization cannot only explain how principals and agents are influenced by the institutional environment in making options compensation decisions, but also when and how these parties will shape institutional contexts at the field level to encourage, perpetuate, or delegitimate the stock option arrangements that these actors prefer.
We introduce the concept that internal organizational agents who negotiate starting salary packages with job applicants may not always act in the organization's best interests. To gain an understanding of what motivates the internal agent toward assuming a particular role, we use expectancy theory, agency theory and concepts from the negotiations literature. We describe the roles that agents may assume, identify factors that impact agents' motivation, and formulate propositions to help identify which role an agent is likely to enact in starting salary negotiations. We form propositions as to how these roles are likely to impact final negotiation outcomes of probability of hiring, salary size, and applicant satisfaction and discuss strategies for ensuring agents are motivated to enact a role that meets organizational objectives.
While immigration has continued to change demographic patterns in the United States and other countries, there has been little theory and research on the psychological processes underlying immigrants' adjustment to new careers. This article models the stress immigrants' experience from the demands, opportunities, and constraints they encounter as they embark on careers in their host country and the role that social support plays in facilitating acculturation. Immigrants' intercultural effectiveness, coping skills, and career motivation are considered as important moderators between acculturation stress and career outcomes. Directions for future research on the career dynamics on immigrants are discussed.
Stock options have become a popular means to link CEO compensation with performance. However, because stock prices are systematically driven by market movements, CEO compensation resulting from stock options may be more dependent on market conditions rather than the firm's performance. This article offers a proposal for the use of stock options that would provide compensation based on the abnormal performance of the firm, rather than stock market conditions. Since the value of these modified options would be more sensitive to the relative performance of firms, they would more effectively link CEO compensation with performance.
Strategic human resource management addresses the need to create vertical linkages of human resource management (HRM) attributes with corporate strategy as well as horizontal linkages that integrate practices among HRM functions. Most models commonly focus on either vertical or horizontal linkages. This paper utilizes three categories of person–environment fit to create both vertical and horizontal linkages. Based on a strategic contingency framework, it demonstrates how person–environment fit relates to organizational competencies that supports corporate strategy. Furthermore, it demonstrates how person–environment fit can be used to promote internal alignment of HRM practices. Implications of this approach to strategic human resource management are then discussed.
In this paper, we discuss the experiences that women and minorities encounter in organizational settings that result in frustration and discontent with corporate life and their opportunities for advancement. We suggest that such experiences push many of these individuals out of organizations, attracting them to entrepreneurship as an alternate route to both personal and professional success. Our discussion includes an examination of the issues that give rise to these experiences and a consideration of how entrepreneurship appears to provide a solution to them. It also identifies some of the potential pitfalls of entrepreneurship for women and minorities. In our concluding comments, we urge organizations to recognize the unique problems women and minorities face and the necessity of addressing these problems if they are to retain these potentially valuable members of the workforce.
The currently accepted model of employee staffing is grounded in traditional principles of industrial psychology which stem from concepts associated with a view of organizations as machines. This perspective is incompatible with modern organizations that are frequently structured around networks and teams rather than around individuals performing jobs. A new staffing model based on the notion of organizing through emergent relationships is developed to explain how modern organizations select new members and develop agreements that define their roles. This model acknowledges the fact that individual roles emerge around idiosyncratic characteristics of individuals and can not be adequately defined through prehire job analysis. Implications of this model for research are discussed.
The dramatic changes of the past 25 years in the nature and conditions of work, including the globalization of organizations and the introduction of a strategic as opposed to employee-centered conception of HR have impacted the ways in which moral problems are manifested. But the paradigmatic forms taken by those problems, the character traits and motives needed to recognize them as such, the ethical reasoning used to address them, as well as the substance of the ethical principles on which such reasoning is based are all essentially unaffected and still pertain. Also discussed are distinctions among the variety of behaviors constituting the moral domain (incivility, intentional anti-organizational acts, and ethical failings); micro-versus macro-conceptualizations of “business ethics”; and formalistic versus principled mechanisms for promoting ethical organizational behavior. Viewed as critical is moral leadership from senior executives in creating salient ethical organizational cultures and climates.