Human Resource Development Review

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 1534-4843
Publications
The concept of critical reflection is central to many theories of higher-level learning. In this editorial I first discuss the different conceptualizations of critical reflection by using Brookfield’s distinction between the four traditions of ideology critique, psychotherapy, analytic philosophy and logic, and pragmatist constructivism, adding a fifth and a sixth tradition, the traditions of organizational learning and qualitative social science. Most theories on critical reflection do not pay attention to the impact of emotions on learning or emphasize the importance of controlling emotions. Most models approach higher-level learning mainly as an individual and cognitive, instead of an interactive, dialogical action, although we know that feedback from others is generally considered to be necessary for learning to occur. Conceptualizations of higher-level learning tend to ignore the role of the unconscious in directing our interpretations and meaning-making in unpredictable ways. Conceptualizations of higher-level learning reflect a variety of ideals for learning that are informed by different theoretical traditions. In this editorial I have argued that a separation between higher- and lower level learning, where higher learning refers to more rational learning, is artificial and does not do justice to the quality of everyday ways of learning and thinking, which may have the characteristics of complex blends of doing and learning, implicit and explicit learning, active and passive learning, and reflection and action (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Newcomer adjustment, the process an individual goes through within the first year at a new organization, can be a challenging transition for traditionally aged recent college graduates. Unsuccessful adjustment can have profound negative consequences for young adults, organizations, and undergraduate institutions. Gaps exist in the human resource development (HRD) and undergraduate education literature leaving practitioners in both fields unsure of how to address this problem. Research regarding individual psychological capital (PsyCap) and proactive behaviors offer new perspectives that enhance understanding of newcomer adjustment and guide practice. In this integrative literature review we present a synthesis of research demonstrating positive interrelationships among PsyCap, proactive behaviors, and newcomer adjustment outcomes such as job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Based on the outcomes we offer a model of newcomer adjustment that can guide researchers and practitioners in HRD and undergraduate education in working together to promote successful newcomer adjustment among recent college graduates.
 
Summary of Conceptual Framework  
In this conceptual article, the literature on expatriate social network and its relationships to adjustment and performance in overseas assignments have been reviewed exhaustively. By identifying some gaps and inconsistencies found in the literature, a typology of research on expatriate network explanations has been proposed based on whether the aim is to explain performance variation or adaptation to local practices and norms, and also whether their explanatory mechanism is based on the structure or resources of the network. Specific propositions for each of the four resulting approaches have been developed. It has also been recommended that future researchers should study antecedents of social network structure because of their relevance to HRD interventions. The implications for HRD research and practice have been discussed at the end.
 
Important cultural differences create the need for expatriates who are culturally intelligent. This article presents and explores a framework of expatriates’ cross-cultural adjustment to advance conceptual understanding and practical applications for cross-cultural approaches to the development of expatriates in multinational corporations and cross-border organizations. Drawing on a diversified literature pertinent to expatriation, cultural intelligence (CQ), and the effects of cultural distance (CD), it is argued that there will be a significant difference in business expatriates on reciprocal transfers in terms of the extent of their socio- and psycho-cultural adjustment, and that CD will moderate the relationship between CQ and expatriate adjustment, such that the relationship between CQ and adjustment is stronger when the direction of cultural flow is from a less authoritarian cultural context to a more authoritarian cultural environment. The proposed framework extends previous CQ and adjustment models and provides guidance for international HRD research on expatriate development, through integrating multiple processes to aid expatriates and HRD practitioners in training for better adjustment on overseas assignments.
 
Issues related to human resource development (HRD) and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people such as workplace inclusion, employee affinity groups, and LGBT-specific diversity initiatives are being addressed in organizations more often now than ever before. This article explores the existing literature on LGBT issues in HRD and adult education through a systemic review to determine what research exists and what future directions are necessary. This review revealed a small core of research related to these issues. Existing work is mainly conceptual, and there is a lack of quantitative work. Topics of focus are related to organizational change and diversity efforts, with very little research on HR policy, career development, and workplace education. Key findings include that HR professionals have primarily served in a reactive role, rather than leading on these issues.
 
Adults with limited education and skills—those who lack the education and skills needed for full participation in U.S. culture and economy—are increasing in numbers. However, the knowledge base addressing this population and their educational needs is fragmented across the literature of several disciplines. A comprehensive review and critique of the literature on adults with limited education and skills have not been done. This study fills this void by reviewing literature from five streams of research that address this population and synthesizing it into a framework that offers an integrated perspective on the topic. Implications for human resource development and an agenda for further research are discussed.
 
Learning principles of affiliative leadership
We argue that improvisational theatre training creates a compelling experience of co-creation through interaction and, as such, can be used to build a distinctive kind of leadership skills. Theories of leadership as relational, collaborative or shared are in pointed contrast to traditional notions of an individual “hero leader” who possesses the required answers, and whom others follow. Corresponding thinking on how to develop these newer forms has, to date, been relatively rare. In this article, we draw on recent research to identify three core principles for learning affiliative leadership. We then apply literature on improvisational theatre and its main skill areas to build a model of developing affiliative leadership, and illustrate the model through an improvisation workshop in which participants learn the skills and principles that it sets out. The model and workshop may serve as useful tools for those searching for methods to develop leadership in contemporary organizations.
 
Engagement has been defined in a variety of ways. Engagement in the workplace generally is viewed as a positive, fulfilling, affective-motivational state of work-related well-being. Due to its structural relationship between antecedents (e.g., job resources and personal resources) and consequences (e.g., performance and turnover intention), work engagement has been receiving considerable attention from both scholars and practitioners in the fields of human resource development (HRD), organization development (OD), psychology, and business. In spite of this popularity, there is a scarcity of empirical research on work engagement in the academic literature. The relationship between work engagement and performance, in particular, is deserving of attention given our field’s focus on performance improvement. In this article, we review and analyze relevant research and then propose a research agenda to guide future research on this topic. Conclusions and implications for HRD and OD are discussed.
 
The topic of engagement has developed into a current trend in emerging and explorative research within the field of Human Resource Development. The maturation and swiftness at which the construct is emerging is a testament to the serious research scholars are undertaking, as well as the popularity of the construct in practice throughout a myriad of organizations. This article is a reaction to the preceding article (Kim, Kolb, and Kim, 2013), which seeks to investigate the relation between work engagement and performance utilizing a review of empirical literature. This reaction considers the findings espoused by Kim et al (2013) and suggests further thematic observations on the reported conclusions. Several recommendations for research and practice are suggested for further consideration.
 
In an attempt to inform how to approach nanotechnology vocational education training (nanoVET), this article briefly discusses the history of the development of vocational education training (VET) in the United States during the past century. The history of nanotechnology development and the current advances in this emerging field are discussed in the context of workforce development and the challenges it poses to human resource development (HRD) professionals. Concerned with the lack of educators and educational policy experts in the dialogue on nanotechnology and the need for multi-, trans-, and inter-disciplinary employability skills curricula for nanotechnology, this article argues for a different approach to VET that endorses the democratic ideals proposed by Dewey, in preparing students for challenges in nanotechnology careers. The article argues that the multi-, trans-, and inter-disciplinary nature of nanotechnology require that nanoVET should be guided by history and be modeled within the comprehensive democratic approach advanced by Dewey. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications for HRD practice, research, and theory.
 
This article offers a conceptual discussion of a series of qualitative and quantitative research endeavors that share common underpinnings and purpose. The article demonstrates several commonalities between approaches with the hope of encouraging readers to allow research questions to guide methodological choices and avoid overemphasizing division between research paradigms. The current work offers an extension of ideas previously published in Human Resource Development Review (Newman & Hitchcock, 2011) to address a call to explore aspects of theory-building in the context of research methods (Reio, 2010). Specific ideas discussed here focus on commonalities between quantitative and qualitative work when dealing with the broad notion of generalization, and include connections between transferability, probabilistic generalization, naturalistic generalization, and external validity; commonalities between multiple (or collective) case studies and meta-analyses; and phenomenological perspectives and probability.
 
This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities, and to uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of international assignments. International assignments very clearly serve as a function of HRD because they provide grooming for the most senior management positions in corporations. However, there is little to no research or exploration of the multiple considerations faced by lesbians who seek and engage in international assignments.
 
Integrated human resource development (HRD): integration of supply chain management (SCM), social responsibility (sustainability), and HRD
We integrate concepts of social responsibility and supply chain management with human resource development. Previous research has taken a more narrow view, restricted to bridging two of these three disciplines, and focused only on a one-way exchange. We seek a new way of thinking about human resources for supply chains, incorporating social responsibility and sustainability into a flexible model that allows organizations to respond quickly to changing conditions while attending to the “people factors” in supply chains. We provide practical examples demonstrating the need for the integration we propose. As such, our contribution not only provides valuable cross-functional insight but importantly suggests a novel approach to human resource development for supply chains.
 
Peter Kuchinke has written a powerful and relevant article that should generate much discussion in the human resource development (HRD) community. The focus of Kuchinke's paper is the question of whether HRD academic programs should emulate the value preference of business schools or march to a different drum. In this response, the author argues that the reverse is happening. Business schools are moving to emulate the value preferences of HRD. Given the demands of the marketplace, HRD programs and business schools need to work together. The author challenges the HRD community to be business partners rather than external critics.
 
Conversations about leadership that primarily consider dominant identity groups (e.g., White people, heterosexuals, men, the able-bodied, etc.) may be less productive than those that think about leadership from the perspective of the diverse groups of people that make up our workforces. HRD’s history is gendered and has demonstrated reluctance to discuss topics critically oriented toward individuals with minority-status identities. Presently lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity has not been addressed in the HRD leadership literature. Utilizing prior HRD leadership literature synthesized via an integrative literature review method, a popular ally development model, and six strategies for being critical in HRD, the purpose of this article is to synthesize an LGB-inclusive definition of leadership in HRD.
 
This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be learned and internalized as a result of work-based interpretive interactions, and this learning process constitutes an important part of organizational learning. Therefore, to help the organization develop an ethical culture, HRD needs to play a key role in several interrelated activities which include: culture change efforts, focused on the creation of conditions, conducive to ethical behaviors; creation of a dynamic program of ethical training for employees on all levels of the organization; and development of up-to-date codes of ethics.
 
This article reviews and critiques the literature on mentoring functions and roles in education and business to inform the use of mentoring as a developmental tool in both fields. Specifically, in an effort to expand the current notions of the different mentor roles, this review synthesizes studies exploring teacher mentoring in schools and organizational mentoring in business settings to identify the varied ways in which mentors provide challenge and support to protégés. As the fields of education and business explore mentoring from different lenses, an integrative perspective as offered by this article is required to allow both fields learn from each other and to make mentoring research more inclusive of the diverse perspectives originating from multiple disciplines.
 
The work of the human resource development (HRD) practitioner is continuously evolving. Human resource development is now expected to make a strategic level contribution and contribute to individual and organizational effectiveness. Human resource development practitioners are increasingly required to network and build relationships to obtain support, resources, information, and knowledge. The accumulation of social capital is considered important in determining individual career success and role performance. Given the importance attached to the relationship-building dimension of HRD practitioners’ roles, we posit that those with access to valuable social capital will be more successful in their careers and role performance. We propose a model that incorporates network and content perspectives of social capital. We argue that various characteristics of the HRD practitioner’s network results in network benefits. These network benefits mediate the relationship between characteristics of the practitioner’s social capital and role and career outcomes. The article then highlights the implications of our model for HRD research and practice.
 
The nature of work, organizations, and careers has evolved significantly in the past decade. In the wake of these changes, career-development research and implementation have languished. This article addresses this dearth of discourse and practice from the perspective of human resource development (HRD). The authors suggest a framework for reintegrating career development into the HRD function and offer specific learning activities better suited to the needs of individuals and organizations in this turbulent environment. Recommendations for future action are provided.
 
From a career decision-making perspective, frustration may be an important catalyst for career change. Literature is discussed and used to develop propositions that present perceived frustration, not just as a state of discomfort but as an impetus for career change. Self-perception and achievement need are presented in relation to frustration to speculate about specific career decisions that might be enacted in a state of frustration. A framework is developed to represent career decisions based on proposed relationships. Implications are discussed for human resource development specialists, managers, and employees and suggestions are presented for conducting future research.
 
Nine Different Models of Collaborative Knowledge Creation Denoted by Process Stages, Foci, Levels, and Nature of Knowledge 
(continued) 
A Conceptual Model of Collaborative Knowledge Creation  
In open innovation teams, people from different organizations work together to develop new products, services, or markets. This organizational diversity can positively influence collaborative knowledge creation but can frustrate and obstruct the process as well. To increase the success rates of open innovation, it is vital to learn how individuals create knowledge in open innovation teams and the problems they face. However, HRD research on this topic is still lacking. This article reviews the literature in HRD, organizational, and learning sciences, describing how individuals interact when creating knowledge collaboratively, and gives an overview of the challenges with collaborative knowledge creation in open innovation teams. The article ends with a discussion and conclusion, and implications for further research.
 
National human resource development (NHRD) literature describes the importance of developing human resources at the national level and presents several models. These models are primarily concerned with the national contexts of developing and underdeveloped countries. In contrast, the NHRD models in the non-HRD literature focus primarily on developed countries. Both types of models describe NHRD strategies with little analytical attention to the larger societal context, which the authors argue has a deep influence on the trajectory of NHRD practices in developing countries. The authors traced the evolution of NHRD strategies through an in-depth analysis of two emerging economies—India and China. Through comparative analysis, this study identifies similarities and differences in the emergence of NHRD strategy and develops a model that provides an enriched perspective on the dynamic process of NHRD strategy development.
 
China Management Development System: An Overview NOTE: CPMRC = China Professional Managers Research Center; CIIPM = China Institute for Internationalizing Professional Managers; LAC = Leadership Assessment Center; MNC = multinational corporations.  
To advance an emerging frontier in human resource development (HRD) research, national HRD (NHRD), this study explored the subject by focusing on a key area of HRD, management development (MD) in the China context. Taking a system and holistic perspective, the study identified three critical challenges facing Chinese managers and China MD in the complex changing interactions of the broader social, economic, and institutional contexts. It examined current MD-related policies and practices at national, organizational, and individual levels. Our analysis of the findings indicated that although much effort was made at multiple levels for developing managers, China's approach to MD tended to be fragmented and lacked coherence. The study further offered critical implications for China MD practice and recent emerging NHRD research. In discussing future NHRD research directions, the study calls for HRD scholars to be mindful of the discipline and theory building in exploring new HRD research frontiers.
 
As a result of rapid changes in technology, much is discussed about the use of social media in branding, marketing, and in general corporate communications. The intensity with which social media tools—blogs, wikis, Twitter, instant messaging (IM) and Facebook, among others—have proliferated is staggering. Increasingly important is the role of social media tools as a way to enhance and advance workplace learning and knowledge management. To more accurately describe the purposes for which social media tools are utilized within organizations, we propose the term collaborative media. The clarity brought by this term serves to help HRD professionals within organizations adopt collaborative media tools as a workplace learning and knowledge management strategy and to attain organizational support for such tools at the highest level and capacity. Also discussed is the need for future research by HRD scholars that facilitates the role of collaborative media tools in workplace learning and knowledge management.
 
Through this article, we assert that given the individual-oriented literature on identity, and the fact that workplaces are increasingly becoming globalized, collective identities might struggle and run up against dominant, individualistic forms of identity-formation. This struggle may have serious implications for workplace practices, including workplace learning. Through our reflective analysis on various identity-formation theories, we argue for a reconfiguration of workplaces and workplace learning to consider collective perspectives on identity-formation so that work can be more relevant and responsive to the plural needs of workers. Such a move may create a workspace that validates and values workers’ identity-differences.
 
Scholars have largely overlooked philosopher Soren Kierkegaard’s thoughts on occupational, vocational, and work topics, although he did concern himself with occupational topics. This theoretical piece explores Kierkegaard’s concept of “leveling” (Nivelleringen), connecting it to human resource development (HRD) and organizational socialization processes, which are often conducted by HRD departments. Organizational socialization is important as it provides newcomers with functional and cultural information. Similar to the concept of leveling, however, organizational socialization can provide employees with taken-for-granted socially constructed definitions of the self. This article proposes expanding edification and capability for individuals in the workplace via Kierkegaardian indirect communication in HRD and organizational socialization practices.
 
Comparative Study Framework for HRD 
CHRD Research 
This article advocates a formal language approach for human resource development (HRD) theory building. To this end, it develops a theoretical framework for comparative HRD (CHRD) within the form of a formal language system. Through a review of existing HRD literature in comparative research, We generalize the research into three axioms of CHRD expressed to offer insight for future research in comparative realms with each axiom focusing on a particular comparative facet. Combining the axioms, we formally provide a definition of CHRD. We further derive implications for future HRD research and address related challenges in existing CHRD research.
 
Competency Framework of the Company
Competency Development Model
This article examines the competency approach to human resources management (HRM) in organizations through a review of literature and theories on the competency perspective. Building on previous theory and some empirical evidence, a new competency framework is developed. The main purpose of the article is to examine the effectiveness of the competency approach as a human resources strategy for promoting expected roles, skills, and behaviors in organizations. The article also examines potential challenges to implementing a competency approach to HRM in a special cultural context. This is provided by a case study in a multinational, fast-moving, consumer goods company in Turkey. One of the findings of the study is that there are challenges to implementing the competency approach due to the cultural differences between home and host countries. If properly designed, however, the competency approach can enhance selection, development, promotion, and reward processes to meet both individual and organizational needs.
 
As an alternative to traditional job analysis, the practice of competency modeling may be appealing to scholars and practitioners of human resource development (HRD) to serve as the foundation for many HRD activities. Among some of its advantages are a more explicit focus on performance and development that is aligned with organizational strategy, fuller integration with human resource systems, and a focus on broad work roles and functions instead of discrete jobs. Unfortunately, the use of competency models is often hindered as a result of conceptual ambiguity, a lack of methodological rigor in the development of such systems, and psychometric issues. The current integrative literature review seeks to clarify the practice of competency modeling within the context of HRD through a critical analysis of its foundations, conceptual and definitional issues, and potential barriers to use while providing the current state of the science and best practices.
 
This article argues that understandings of work learning within human resource development (HRD) theory can be fruitfully enriched by more fully incorporating practice-based perspectives. Three contemporary theories that analyze learning as a relation of individuals with and/or in activity are discussed: the participational perspective of situated cognition, the notion of expansion from cultural-historical activity theory, and the constructs of translation and mobilization presented by actor-network theory. These are not new to HRD, but this brings them together with published empirical workplace research, employing their constructs to highlight selected dynamics that may be useful tools for HRD theory development. One element in particular is read across the three theories: the dialectic of “flying” and “grounding,” or lines of discontinuity and continuity characterising work-learning. The argument is theory driven, drawing from HRD literature of work-learning and practice-based theories of social activity and knowledge production.
 
Drawing on a sociological analysis considering gender, this article explores how emotional intelligence (EI) abilities are socially constructed and valued. It presents a range of societal trends including “the future is female” to explore how both men and women are perceived and judged against symbolic representations of masculine and feminine when they perform gendered conceptions of EI. The article illuminates how women and men may be encouraged to take up feminine and masculine interpretations of EI skills but women fare less well. It then examines the effects of EI’s assessment and therapeutic methods in training and work-based use. It argues that these approaches are damaging to individuals when deployed in work environments where masculinized management resides as the dominant framework. Finally, the article discusses the findings in relation to HRD to reveal important theoretical guidelines for practice.
 
Permanent employment, typical of industrial societies and bolstered by numerous social guaranties, has been declining in the past 2 decades. There has been a steady expansion of various forms of contingent work. The decomposition of traditional work is a logical consequence of the characteristic patterns of the knowledge-based economy. According to the logic of information technology, changeable modules are key characteristics of production processes and economic organizations. Each module leads a life of its own, with infinite combinatory possibilities. As a consequence, static and “safe” economic arrangements are replaced by dynamic and uncertain institutions. Employees (except for key personnel) become interchangeable, disposable, recallable, and transferable. Consequently, the portfolio of workers’ capabilities and knowledge should be adjusted to the requirements of changing workplaces. For companies, the return on investments in employees’ knowledge is uncertain; thus, contingent workers have to undertake, at least partly, the responsibility and costs of their own training.
 
Despite the growing body of literature focused on diversity management and its implications for career experiences and perceptions, team dynamics, customer service, and other dimensions of organizational performance, a significant gap remains. To address the gap, this article reviews the managing diversity literature published between January 2000 and December 2005 to identify the subset of the literature that examines the effectiveness of specific diversity interventions implemented in organizations. Only 38 such studies were identified. We conclude that the current evidence base provides limited guidance to human resource professionals as they design and implement diversity interventions. Each study identified in the review is categorized by research methodology and by type of intervention: diversity training and education; mentoring; and other organizational development interventions. Characteristics of effective interventions are identified. Gaps in the literature and areas for future research are described. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
 
The rapid on-going demographic shifts in workplaces present challenges to Human Resource Development (HRD) scholars and practitioners, creating a significant demand for diversity initiatives that help organizations harvest diversity. To address inconsistencies in diversity research results and limitations of current diversity intervening process theories, the authors propose an extended intervening process model (EIPM) from the perspective of how group processes underlie the linkage between diversity and performance. The model predicts both positive and negative effects of diversity depending on the intervening roles of group processes and moderation effects of research contextual factors. While extending the knowledge by incorporating three group processes simultaneously, this conceptualization can be regarded as the first theoretical framework that explains both positive and negative effects of diversity found in one study. Implications of the present framework for future research are discussed.
 
We offer our reflections on McLean’s reaction and critique of our original article in which we developed an NHRD strategy model building process through cross case country comparisons of China and India. We address five major themes raised by McLean – country selection, challenges facing India and China, Model development, cross country comparisons and, research methods in this article. These broad themes also highlight the many areas of NHRD research and practice that are generally underexplored or remain confusing. There is much work to do in this area. We found this scholarly exchange useful and important in two ways. McLean’s critique and our reflections strengthen exploration of existing NHRD research and practice. Further, this literature extends the potential contributions and implications of HRD at the national level.
 
Proposed nomological overlap of employee engagement and job satisfaction.
Proposed nomological overlap of employee engagement and job involvement.
Proposed nomological overlap of employee engagement and organizational commitment.
While research is emerging around the employee engagement construct, evolution is in early stages of development. Presently, some questions remain about how employee engagement differs from other well-researched and documented constructs such as job satisfaction, job involvement, and job commitment. Although such inquiry is seemingly academic in nature, the use of engagement in practice is gaining momentum, and debate remains healthy as to the utility and statistical validity of the engagement construct. To respond, developing clear lines of interpretation and coordination across varied disciplines seems prudent, but an essential first step is a context-specific, conceptual exploration of the construct of employee engagement in relation to other well-researched job attitude and organizational constructs in the literature. This article explores literature on employee engagement, job satisfaction, commitment, and involvement. Implications for organizational learning and workplace performance are examined in a human resource development (HRD) specific context.
 
Levels of analysis perform an important function in framing research and practice in human resource development (HRD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of HRD from the individual, organizational and community/societal levels of analysis. The paper highlights both the distinctiveness and usefulness of each level of analysis, identifies tensions within and between them, and outlines differences in underpinning assumptions, characteristics of HRD provision and delivery of HRD interventions. By adopting this approach, the paper draws attention to variations in meaning, intent, content and practice with implications for developing both the theory and practice of HRD.
 
Change is the basis for improving and expanding individual, group, and organizational effectiveness, performance, and learning. However, human resource development (HRD) has utilized and developed few empirically validated individual change models or theories. Because HRD is multidisciplinary in nature, it is important for researchers and practitioners to consider what models or theories others have to offer. One influential model from the health and medical field that has promising utility in HRD is the transtheoretical model (TTM) of individual change. The purpose of this article is to introduce this model and explore its application to HRD. This article uses Dubin's criteria for theory building as a general framework for discussing the TTM's background, components, related constructs, and limitations. In addition, it presents the implications of this theoretical model to HRD.
 
This study reviews systems theory and thinking (ST&T) as a foundational discipline or theory in human resource development (HRD) research and practice. Using systematic evidence review (SER) of the literature and mapping analysis of HRD curricula across some leading U.S. universities, disconnect between theory and practice of ST&T is discussed. The use of SER of the literature in HRD research is an important aspect of this study. The study recommended the incorporation of more ST&T courses into the HRD undergraduate and graduate curricula. Recommendations of how systems thinking can become more relevant to HRD research and practice are offered.
 
Role salience is a reflection of the importance and value that people attribute to the roles central to their lives and identities. One pivotal aspect of role salience is individual responsibilities to organizational roles. Role salience has meaningful implications for employees and organizations. Understanding and acknowledging the importance of holistic treatment of role salience has the potential to affect organizational policies, HRD practices, and, ultimately, employee learning and performance. In this study, findings from a systematic review of the role salience literature are reported. Following a search of four Human Resource Development (HRD) journals, the PsycINFO database, and the Academic Search Complete database, 67 articles and papers were identified for inclusion in the literature review. The authors argue that role salience research has implications for HRD professionals; however, role salience has largely been ignored in the HRD literature. The authors speculate on why role salience has not been common in HRD literature and ways in which role salience perspectives and related applications can benefit HRD, organizations, and individuals.
 
We construct the historical development of the term ‟human resource development‟ (HRD) within the United Kingdom (UK). We argue that HRD has been introduced and employed extensively by academics but not taken up with such enthusiasm by professionals and governments. We trace the development of the term and evaluate its use in these three distinct domains: academic, policy, and professional. This includes reference to multiple stakeholders, such as governments, employing organizations, academics and professional bodies, and their influences including national policy interventions and legislation shaping academic and professional practices and qualifications. We conclude that HRD as a concept and a term to describe an area of academic study and professional practice has had variable impact in different sites of practice.
 
Post-positivist methods are common in Human Resource Development (HRD) theory and research, however some argue that this perspective limits analysis, and there is opportunity for more alternative paradigmatic approaches in this discipline (Callahan, 2007; Deetz, 2001; Elliott & Turnbull, 2005; Fenwick, 2004; Githens, 2007; Lynham, 2000; Rigg, Stewart, Trehan, 2004, 2007; Sambrook, 2004, 2008; Stewart, 2007, Valentin, 2006). Structuration theory (ST) is a viable option, as it provides a means for organization analysis and initiation of change interventions, but does so from an alternate paradigm perspective. ST, formulated by Anthony Giddens (1984), provides a framework for understanding the interplay between individuals and organizations and how this interplay develops and provides opportunity for organizational change. The purpose of this article is to illuminate ST as an alternative approach to HRD that does not draw from the post-positivist tradition and provide suggestions for how one might apply this theory toward research.
 
We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the “science of science,” scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement of research impact. The integrative review of scientometric literature showed importance in evaluating HRD research and publications, including citation analysis, citing behavior analysis, and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) journal quality control process. We discuss three major implications for engaging HRD scholars in evaluating and assessing HRD research and scholarly communications for the quality control and self-regulation of HRD research.
 
Final Count of the Articles Reviewed on HRD and HRM.
Organizing System for Coding and Analysis.
A systematic review of literature on the relationship of human resources (HR) and organizational performance (OP) revealed a dearth of contribution from human resource development (HRD) in establishing the linkage. This linkage, which refers to the significant relationship between HRD and OP, is an important topic relevant to research and practice. The review utilized OP as the dependent variable to survey the state of human resource literature and thus, includes contributions from human resource management (HRM). The literature review revealed similarities and differences in the conceptualization of OP as a dependent variable between the two fields. On further analysis, the similarities and differences reveal convergence in specific areas of inquiry as well as emphasize the underlying differences in the philosophical assumptions of HRD and HRM. The independent contributions of HRD and HRM in establishing the HR–OP linkage also reflect the utilization of diverse research designs, methods of data collection, analysis, and findings. Both fields have focused on strategic contributions for improving organizational performance and are very much connected in practice. Much of the separation therefore, appears to be academic where competing views highlight a tension that exists in theory, research and what we know about effective HRD or HRM in practice.
 
This article is a response to the preceding article (Alagaraja & Wang, 2012) on developing a National Human Resource Development Strategy Model. While the article makes significant contributions to the body of literature on National Human Resource Development, there are some limitations to the article, including the selection of the two countries of India and China; unaddressed challenges in these two countries; an imprecise application of the concept of a model; the attempt to create a model based on only two countries; the databases used for the literature review; and the inadequacy of the model developed in the article. Several recommendations for future research are also proposed.
 
Relocation, an intraorganizational geographical transfer, can be used for human resource development (HRD) because of the positive developmental effects it can induce. It is, thus, important for HRD professionals to understand the implications of relocation to ensure it is used appropriately and effectively as an HRD technique. Research on relocation is abundant but presently lacks integration. This article introduces the Four-Factor Taxonomy of Relocation Outcomes, which summarizes, organizes, and guides research in this area. The taxonomy provides researchers with four dimensions along which to consistently classify relocation outcomes: valence (positive vs. negative), duration (length of effect), magnitude (strength of effect), and quality (type of effect). The article concludes with a discussion of implications for HRD practitioners and researchers.
 
We present a systematic review of 48 studies conducted between March 2020 and March 2022 that examined work-life balance (WLB) among those who worked from home. We propose a conceptual framework that organizes the antecedents and outcomes of WLB based on resource loss and gain. Resource loss occurred when employees faced stressors such as perceived work intensity, workspace limitations, technostress, professional isolation, work interdependence, housework intensity, care work intensity, and emotional demands. Resource gain was likely when employees were supported by resources such as work supervisors and family members, received job autonomy, and were personally adaptable. Our findings have resonance for remote work contexts beyond the pandemic by seeking patterns across the literature that examined WLB while working from home. We contextualize antecedents and outcomes of WLB and suggest stressors and resources that impact WLB are dynamically related. Our review informs HRD practitioners as they manage the post-pandemic remote work.
 
I deconstruct the body of literature that frames education and learning in Democratic Kampuchea (DK), 1975-1979. This historical analysis posits that new alternative interpretations can arise when viewing learning under Pol Pot’s DK through a human resource development (HRD) lens. The paucity of research or the lack of HRD perspectives on genocidal situations is concerning. An HRD focus as this paper demonstrates will reveal insightful information on the whys and hows the Khmer Rouge (KR) learned. Learning designs contrived for Khmer learners connote an employee-work relationship (forced labor); hence, why the need for an HRD interpretation of these learning events. Many DK scholars assert that education under the KR was unorganized, inconsistent, and without planning. My deconstruction of the DK historical record will call these views into question. When reviewing the historical record through an HRD lens, KR educational initiatives made sense within the context of the madness they perpetrated.
 
In celebrating HRDR’s 20 years of publication, this study aims to shed light on research trends in the journal and future research needs by examining 10 years of publications from a structural perspective. We used three complementary computational methods to find major research trends and themes including keyword network analysis, topic modeling, and bibliographic coupling. This paper presents the findings on the research themes, structural coherence, and semantic relevance based on clusters formed by normalized distance measures. Connectivity, co-appearances, and citations are important forms of scholarly communication that represent the body of knowledge in the field. Our findings indicate that research topics greatly expanded beyond the early HRD research topics of learning and development to include various topics related to diversity, critical HRD, and equity issues in organizations and society. We also examined the author-institution-keywords affiliation network and the authors-collaboration network to suggest how scholars can collaborate more in the future.
 
Top-cited authors
Baek-Kyoo Joo
  • Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
Woocheol Kim
  • Korea University of Technology and Education
Brad Shuck
  • University of Louisville
Tonette S Rocco
  • Florida International University
Zach Mercurio
  • Colorado State University