This paper explores case material to show the extent to which nonorganizational experiences of violence can shape subsequent behavior within organizations. The paper emphasizes examples where the extent of pathological behavior is easily observed, but the processes which surface are common mechanisms of ¿ordinary¿ human behavior and more attenuated experiences of violence within organizations operate similarly. These processes are discussed through the work of object-relations theorists, Julia Kristeva, and theorists of masculinity, claiming that bureaucracies seek to deny the emotional dimension of their behavior and decision-making which establishes emotion as an object phenomenon. Men are entangled in this web of societal and organizational denial, partly due to their traditional dominance in formal organizations. However, traditional symbolic associations between men and physical violence present a problematic contradiction, and societal, cultural and organizational arrangements tend to back and aid the psychodynamics of denial which deals with this contradiction by showing narcissistic and addictive responses. Finally, this paper contends that men in organizations need to come to terms with whatever is unacceptable to them and their experience so as to break this cycle on reproduction of dysfunctional behavior.
Majority-minority relations have historically taken the forms of elimination, segregation, fusion, assimilation, or pluralism. Cultural pluralism, which is the dominant ideology in the world today, is based upon the assumptions of tolerance on the part of the majority and a willingness to learn on the part of the minority. This process of learning is called acculturation. Modern theories of acculturation have tended to neglect the importance of individual differences in the process of adaptation. The socioanalytic model, based upon psychological role theory and studies of natural language, offers a model of acculturation which accounts for individual differences as well as situational factors which affect acculturation.
The relationships among sexual attitudes, sexual and contraceptive behavior, and responses to statements about sexual topics are explored using data obtained in the Sexual Opinion Survey concerning 772 women attending four midwestern U.S. universities in the period 1977-1979. "Associations generally occurred between the expression of more positive sexual attitudes and the reporting of behaviors and attitudes supportive of effective contraceptive activity."
This article discusses the potential impact of parental divorce on the lives of young adult offspring. Parental divorce may upset both social and psychological aspects of the transition to adulthood process. The family roles young adults are expected to assume could be altered by the break-up, as could opportunities for particular young adult pursuits, such as advanced education. Heightened adjustment problems also are likely to result, as divorce produces additional life changes during the highly transitional period of early adulthood. Qualitative data from an exploratory study of 39 college students, ages 18-23, illustrate many of the relevant issues. Suggestions for future research are provided.
The nature of the relationship between labor force participation and fertility is examined for 172 families comprising a marriage cohort. The results show that labor force participation and fertility are spuriously related in that they are under the common influence of sex-role norms, attitudes toward the wife working, and the value or importance of children for the spouses. Comparisons are made among social psychological models, wherein either the husband or wife provides information as they perceive their relationship, and a sociological model wherein group constructs are formed with the husband and wife acting as informants on the pattern of norms guiding their relation. A structural equation methodology is employed to better model measurement error and errors in equations simultaneously.
In this paper data from a sample of Ghanaian University students is used to test the cross-cultural validity of the hypothesis that jointness of the conjugal role relationship is associated with small family size norms and segregation with large family size norms (Hawthorn, 1971: 94). Approval of jointness and segregation is measured by means of an ordinal scale based upon responses to eight different statements about the division of labour, decision-making and finances. The data support the hypothesis as there is a significant correlation between attitudes to family size and jointness of the conjugal relationship.
This study deepens our theoretical and practical understanding of work-family balance, defined as the 'accomplishment of role-related expectations that are negotiated and shared between an individual and his/her role-related partners in the work and family domains' (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007: 458). We develop a new measure of work-family balance and establish discriminant validity between it, work-family conflict, and work-family enrichment. Further, we examine the relationship of work-family balance with six key work and family outcomes. Results suggest that balance explains variance beyond that explained by traditional measures of conflict and enrichment for five of six outcomes tested: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, family satisfaction, family performance, and family functioning. We conclude with a discussion of the applications of our work.
Guidelines for developing effective programs of mass persuasion were provided. These guidelines were derived from the findings of studies, undertaken by the Division of Program Surveys of the Department of Agriculture for the War Finance Division of the U.S. Treasury Department, for the purpose of evaluating the U.S. Government's efforts to promote the sale of war bonds during the 2nd World War. The evaluation studies demonstrated how difficult it was to induce mass behavioral changes. Effective programs of mass persuasion must 1) change the cognitive structures of individuals; 2) change the motivational structures of individuals; and 3) activate new forms of behavior. In order to promote cognitive change it is necessary to insure that the sense organs receive the media messages and that the messages are relatively compatible with the existing cognitive structures of the individuals receiving the messages. If the messages are too deviant, they will be rejected or distorted by the receiver. To promote individuals toward a specific action, the individuals must be convinced that the action, being induced, will lead to the fulfillment of personal goals; however, even motivated persons frequently fail to perform the actual behavioral patterns which is being promoted. Individuals must also be provided with a specific path of action and a specific time for action. Only if all 3 of these processual changes are induced will a program of mass persuasion effectively accomplish its goal.
The relationship between a married woman's life expectancy and the occupation of her husband is explored using official data for the United Kingdom for 1959-1963 and 1970-1972. The author notes that not only are there large and specific effects of employees' occupations on life expectancy and mortality rates, but that these mortality differentials also affect the spouses of those in high-risk occupations. It is suggested that such occupational risks are transmitted via the domestic psychological environment to the married women concerned, and thus the males' job risks affect the life expectancy of both partners.
"In this paper a model to predict the cumulative divorce trajectory of marriage cohorts has been developed on the assumption that the distribution of the lengths of exposure to marriage of a marriage cohort is lognormal. It is found that on the basis of recently published data [for the United States for the period 1949-1958] the model provides a good fit to cohort divorce trajectories and compares favorably with previously published models on the same subject."
This study examined marital violence among Israeli Jews. Data were obtained from a sample of 161 women who gave birth at Soroka Medical Center in the Negev region of Israel in 1992. The literature reveals that Jewish families tolerate domestic violence if an "evil" woman refuses housework or shows no respect for her husband. It is believed that Jews do not beat their wives. This study explored the degree to which women accept as legitimate the gender division of authority and use of power. It is posited that women in violent marriages (VMs) tend to accept the traditional division of labor and authority and hold more tolerant attitudes toward VMs. It is posited that VMs may be less egalitarian and democratic. VMs may be maintained if women are emotionally dependent on husbands, have a lower self-image, and perceive their husbands more positively. The questionnaire asked about social background and resources, attitudes toward marital power and violence, power relations, self-image, conflict solving, and women's emotional dependency. 18% had 1 domestic violent episode. 8 factors explained 56% of the difference between VMs and non-VMs and 90% of the cases. Husbands tried to avoid conflict. Wives fought for their interests and used external resources when conflict occurred. Husbands were reluctant to share power. There were 2 distinct patterns: the battered women syndrome and the struggle for power. Marital conflict was associated, as in the American literature, with economic hardship, lack of collectiveness in the dyad, and the form of conflict solving tactics used by both spouses. Women in VMs had different attitudes toward husband control and were emotionally dependent on their husbands.
A number of studies dealing with subunits and total organizations have confirmed the relationship between large group size and increase in conflict and disputes together with decrease in morale, cohesiveness, and consensus. The question arises: Are the theoretical implications, empirical findings, and hypotheses for subgroups and total organizations generalizable to larger social systems? The size-conflict hypothesis is examined in relationship to the population size of nations and the magnitude of intranation and internation conflict. The results of the study show that the propositions formed at one level of analysis can be employed successfully at another level.
This article examines perspectives on employer work-life initiatives as potential organizational change phenomena. Work-life initiatives address two main organizational challenges: structural (flexible job design, human resource policies) and cultural (supportive supervisors, climate) factors. While work-life initiatives serve a purpose in highlighting the need for organizational adaptation to changing relationships between work, family, and personal life, we argue they usually are marginalized rather than mainstreamed into organizational systems. We note mixed consequences of work-life initiatives for individuals and organizations.While they may enable employees to manage work and caregiving, they can increase work intensification and perpetuate stereotypes of ideal workers. In order to advance the field, organizations and scholars need to frame both structural and cultural work-life changes as part of the core employment systems to enhance organizational effectiveness and not just as strategies to support disadvantaged, non-ideal workers. We conclude with an overview of the articles in this special issue.
This paper takes individuals as rationaleconomic decision makers but ones operating withinwell-defined groups not just today but into the futurewhen a reputation for fair dealing will be ofsignificance. The paper explores the functional advantageswhich might accrue from group membership in suchcircumstances. As social science makes clear, mostgroups come into being for social and cultural reasonsindependent of any obvious immediate economic advantage.For this reason, this paper is exploratory of theboundary between economic reasoning and that of othersocial sciences. It explores the bridge toofar, cited by Loveridge in the 1993 special editionof this journal. This is a metaphor for the possibilityof a meaningful connector between social psychologicaland economic reasoning. This paper tentatively looks into the relationships that might beestablished between the specific economic analysiscovered by this paper and that deployed in other socialsciences. In essence, the paper suggests that bothreputational and informational benefits arise from groupbehavior. These benefits accrue to both its members andothers. By extension it is argued that similaradvantages can accrue to families ofproducts in marketing. In both cases, reputationallinkage serves as a commitment device(Schelling, 1960) with ensuing benefits to all membersof the group or product family. These relationships areseen to mediate the reputational guarantees given to consumers.
The purpose of this article is to explore thespecific affective organization of personal meanings inmidlife crisis in men. Midlife crisis is described as aprocess of intensive transition of the self including the reinterpretation of timeperspective, reevaluation of life values and goals,confrontation with death as a personal event in thefuture, and planning of the second half of life.Personal meanings referring to past, present, and future wereinvestigated using a self-confrontation method that issensitive to the affective properties of individualexperiences. The intensity of midlife crisis wasinvestigated by means of a Midlife Crisis Scale in a sampleof 104 men in Poland. Three groups, one high in midlifecrisis (N = 27), one medium (N = 37), and one low inmidlife crisis (N = 40) were compared. It was found that the high crisis group had a lower level ofaffect referring to self-enhancement, a lower level ofpositive affect, and a higher level of negative affectthan both other groups. Moreover, time perspective played a differential role in the organizationof the self: in an intragroup comparison of the mostinfluential personal meanings, the high crisis groupshowed a higher level of negative affect than positive affect for personal meanings referring to thefuture, but not for personal meanings referring to thepast and the present. The relevance of affectiveorganization for midlife crisis is discussed.
Using a longitudinal sample of medicaltechnologists (MTs) this study found, after controllingfor prior overall job satisfaction, individualdifference, and organization-level variables, that taskresponsibilities and employee performance appraisal satisfactionsignificantly affected subsequent overall MT jobsatisfaction. Overall job satisfaction significantlydeclined for repeat-respondents over the 4-year period. Data also suggested that the impact of taskresponsibilities on overall job satisfaction candissipate over time, and that the supervisor's role inaffecting employee job satisfaction is important.Results and limitations are discussed.
This paper argues that an organizationaldiscourse on consumerism is replacing a prior discourseof dependency. This discourse encourages, and isencouraged by, economic rationales for behavior and ismarked by the collapse of many complex societal rolesinto the simpler category of customer.Moreover, practices emergent from consumerism andeconomic rationalism often act as organizational andsocial defences against anxieties about theuncertainties and changes occurring in a worldincreasingly dominated by global markets where thecustomer is sovereign. Six workinghypotheses are proposed to explain the operation of these new socialdefences. Evidence in support of these hypotheses comesfrom collaborative action research projects in which theauthor is involved. The argument moves toward a consideration of the new consumerprovider pair which, it is proposed, has becomea major signifier within the consumer discourse andwhich might be considered as a transitional pair indealing with widespread organizationalchange.
In this contribution, we focus on the results of the Belgian Trend Study. The intention of this study was to examine the prevalence of new production concepts within the widest possible range of companies in the automative, the machine tool, the chemical, and the clothing industries. The Trend Study aimed to answer the following questions: is the Taylorist division of labor a thing of the past? What are the alternatives? Are shifts in the division of labor accompanied by another type of personnel policy, and do traditional industrial relations have to make way for this new approach? The methodological concept used had to guarantee that the findings at the level of each industry could be generalized. Though the picture emerging from the empirical data collected in the four industrial sectors is inevitably diverse, the data make it possible merely to suggest a neo- rather than a post-Taylorist or -Fordist concept.
This study sought to examine self-reportedemotional and behavioral correlates of money pathology,defined as inappropriate behavior with respect to moneyand associated material goods. In all, 267 British adult subjects completed a battery ofquestionnaires including Rubinstein's (1981) extensivePsychology Today survey on money and Forman's ipsativemeasures that describe five Money Pathology Scales(miser, spendthrift, tycoon, bargain hunter, gambler),an overall pathology scale combining the five and hisshort moneysanity measure. The former measure was factoranalyzed and selected factor scores regressed on to the moneysanity measure along withdemographic measures in order to attempt to establishwhich individual difference factors best predicted thedifferent types of money pathology. Thus females were more extravagant, prone to depression, but lesslikely to take moral risks for money, while richer, moreright-wing people tended to be more materialistic. Thosewith overall less money sanity tended more to believe luck and dishonesty were moreimportant in making money; were self-denying andeconomically pessimistic, and had powerful negativeemotions like anger and anxiety around money. Multiple regressions on to the money types showed thatbetween 15 and 30% of the variance could be explainedand accounted for, by the selected independent variables(demographic, religious and political belief, illness, and more general attitudes towardwealth). Demographic variables like age, and negativeemotions about money were consistent predictors of moneypathology. Results are discussed in terms of the small, but growing literature on the psychologyof money (Furnham, 1997; Furnham & Argyle,1998).
The relationships among mastery and frequency ofmanagerial behaviors, and subunit effectiveness havefrequently been confused. This study investigates bothmain and interactive effects. The results show that the interaction effect can often be thestrongest effect and that increasing frequency withoutimproving mastery can sometimes be detrimental.Furthermore, these results offer a possible explanation as to why research of managerial behavior hasbeen so inconclusive. In addition, the results questionpopular advice given often to managers. Finally, somerecommendations are made as to how management development could be made more effective basedon the results of this study.
In this article, the author explores the natureof contemporary organizational controls, the extent towhich they can be said to colonize employeesubjectivity, and the types of resistance which theygenerate. Labor process, psychoanalytic, critical theory,and Foucauldian perspectives are juxtaposed and a numberof similarities and divergences are noted. It is arguedthat many of these perspectives prematurely lament the end of employee recalcitrance andexaggerate the magnitude and totality of organizationalcontrols, generating over-managed and overcontrolledimages of individuals, organizations, and societies. It is proposed that a rapprochement ofpsychoanalytic and labor theory approaches can lead toan appreciation of unmanaged and unmanageable terrainsin organizations, in which human agency may berediscovered, neither as a class-conscious proletariat nor asa transcendental subject, but as a struggling, feeling,thinking, suffering subject, one capable of obeying anddisobeying, controlling and being controlled, losing control and escaping control, definingand redefining control for itself and forothers.
La finalité de notre article est de comprendre la nature et la diversité des relations intervenant dans le processus de diffusion interorganisationnelle des connaissances. Notre questionnement porte dans un premier temps sur la nature des dimensions de ces relations et dans un second temps sur leur diversité. L’intérêt est double : préciser et compléter la littérature sur les dimensions de ces relations d’une part et comprendre la diversité des relations à considérer dans le processus de diffusion des connaissances et l’influence de cette diversité sur les dimensions mises en exergue d’autre part. La synthèse de la littérature sur la diffusion des connaissances révèle deux conceptions épistémologiques distinctes : la diffusion peut être perçue comme le « déplacement » d’une connaissance statique et désincarnée ou bien comme la « transmission » d’une connaissance dynamique et énactée. Le fondement commun à ces deux perspectives est mis en exergue : il s’agit de la relation interindividuelle (ou interaction), nécessaire à toute diffusion des connaissances. Notre approche se fonde sur la compréhension des relations interindividuelles au sein d’un support particulier de diffusion des connaissances : les communautés de pratiques interorganisationnelles au sein du groupe EDF. La démarche adoptée tente d’éviter l’écueil de la réification de l’organisation en s’intéressant aux interactions entre les individus. Notre étude de cas, caractérisée par une triangulation et une collecte des données en deux phases sur une période de 9 mois, se base sur l’étude de cinq communautés de pratiques. Les travaux sur les communautés de pratiques révèlent l’existence de trois dimensions majeures dans la relation : es dimensions affective, identitaire et fonctionnelle. Nos résultats se concentrent autour de deux points majeurs. En premier lieu, nous confirmons les trois dimensions proposées dans la littérature,
In this paper, we propose that the locus oforganizational boundary activities has migrated from theorganization to the work unit level as enterprisesreengineer structures, increase the use ofcross-functional teams, cut organizational slack, and adoptadvanced information technologies. From an open systemsperspective, we examine how environmental andorganizational forces affect this migration process.Three types of boundary activity relevant for workunits are identified: buffering, spanning, and bringingup boundaries. A set of preliminary propositionsregarding relationships between environmental andorganizational changes and boundary activities is offered asa guide for future research.
A study into the relationships between candidateself-monitoring ability, interviewer perceptions ofcandidate personality, and interviewer outcome decisionsin the context of actual graduate recruitment interviews (n = 130) is presented. Detailedpsychometric norm data is also reported on the Lennoxand Wolfe (1984) revised Self-Monitoring (RS-M) scale,together with the results of confirmatory factoranalyses into the factor structure of this measure. Itwas found that candidate self-monitoring ability wasonly moderately and nonsignificantly related tointerviewer outcome evaluations, and thatself-monitoring was generally uncorrelated with thepositiveness of recruiter impressions of candidatepersonality. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed thata two correlated factor structure for the RS-M scale, inaccordance with the original authors' formulation,provided the most parsimonious fit. Norm data for theRS-M scale is reported for this sample of Britishgraduates, including item statistics, item to subscale,item to scale correlations, and internal reliabilitycoefficients. Implications for future research intocandidate impression management, self-monitoring,interviewer decision making, and the practicalimplications arising from these findings arediscussed.
Most discussions of interdisciplinary teamsassume that cross-functional teams are desirable.Critical analyses of the fundamental contradictionsinherent in bringing together professionals with diverse ideologies, interests, contingencies, andtechnologies are rare. Even less common are discussionsof the negative consequences of these contradictions forclients. Based on observations in an institution for youth-in-trouble, this paper argues thatthe control of clients is one key process underlyingconflicts and dilemmas in interdisciplinary teams; itbuilds a case against making the control of clients a negotiable contingency for teams. Given theuniversal nature of control mechanisms, those mostdirectly responsible for control have a superiorbargaining position because, in order to be effective,their control routines must be consistent. Althoughthese workers may yield to other treatment ideologiesregarding particular clients, the overall outcome is theenhancement of their interests. Moreover, the outcome of negotiations may generate confusionfor clients because of inconsistencies in theapplication of control mechanisms. Three strategies tominimize interprofessional negotiations regarding the control of clients are discussed: theformulation of clear boundaries between thoseresponsible for control and those who are not; theestablishment of policies to address conflicts betweencontrol and competing treatments; and, client determinationof differential levels of interprofessional coordinationand cooperation.
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the existence of particular types of psychological contracts. We take a feature-oriented approach towards psychological contracts, which allows more generalizability across settings than content-oriented assessments. In defining the types of psychological contracts, we rely on 10 dimensions that indicate the employees' expected entitlements as well as their expected obligations towards their employer. We assess the existence of types of psychological contracts based upon an economy-wide, representative sample. The analysis indicates the existence of six types of psychological contracts, all having different patterns of mutual expectations: an instrumental psychological contract, a weak psychological contract, a loyal psychological contract, an unattached psychological contract, an investing psychological contract and a strong psychological contract. Based on the profiles of the six types and its number of respondents, we conclude that the so-called transformation from traditional employment relationships towards 'new deals' is restricted to a very small group of young and highly educated professionals and managers.
Over the past two decades, several newperspectives have emerged in the physical and naturalsciences and are collectively referred to as thecomplexity sciences. Insights from these emergingperspectives have implications that merit consideration fordevelopments and extensions of existing work at themetatheoretical, theoretical, and methodological levelsin organization theory. The purpose of this manuscript is to: (a) provide an overview of thecomplexity sciences, (b) provide a justification andrationale for their inclusion into the social sciences,and (c) review the current organizational literaturewhich utilizes and applies concepts from thecomplexity sciences to organizationalphenomena.
This paper proposes a metatheory of workmotivation incorporating theories of self-concept thathave been proposed in the sociological and psychologicalliteratures. Traditional theories of work motivation are reviewed, and the self-concept-basedsources of motivation are presented. How theself-concept influences behavior in organizations isexplained and used to develop a metatheory ofmotivational sources. Both research and managerial implications ofthe model are presented.
Supporters of the contact hypothesis have arguedthat positive intergroup contact is facilitated whenparticipants have equal status with one another.However, the exact dimensions of equal status are often unclear, having been defined variously as equaloccupational status, having close friends of anotherrace, or having equal roles in the contact situation.This paper argues that cultural differences between groups must be taken into account, particularlywhen intergroup contact occurs in formal conflictresolution exercises. Non-Western participants will beat a disadvantage when attempting to find common ground with Western participants in conflictresolution exercises based on Western culturalpractices. Based on a 6-year participant observationstudy of a Palestinian-Jewish dialogue group, this paper argues that familiarity and expertise in usingthe culture-based rules of interaction play an importantbut often subtle role in intergroup conflict resolution.Participants must have some basic equality in their ability to function within thedominant culture.
What conflict resolution mechanisms dodemocratic worker cooperatives generate and to whatextent could these mechanisms be called democratic? Thiscase study tries to address these questions by examining both conflict and conflict resolution in ademocratic organization, a 66-year-old taxi cooperative.The conflicts presented stem from three main sources:ethnic origin, local division of labor, andclass affiliation. These conflicts are resolvedthrough different processes, ranging from a joke-tellingritual to a formal tribunal composed of elected judges.Discussion centers on unique aspects of conflict resolution in a democratic worker cooperativeand their implications for studies of conflictresolution in nondemocratic firms.
Research literature on job performance from bothmanagement oriented and industrial relations/sociologyof work models is synthesized to produce a morecomprehensive understanding of how supervisors manage employee performance problems. Two assumptionsare derived from the synthesis: (1) employees are activein accepting and resisting definitions of performanceissues made by supervisor; (2) informal interactions regarding the interpretation of performanceissues are pivotal in understanding how performanceproblems are resolved. In a study of university librarysupervisors we focus on the informal exchanges and characterize them as negotiations over thedefinition of job performance. We report results from aqualitative study of supervisors' interactions withemployees identified as having performance problems. Three types of interactions in informalnegotiations are found. We label the supervisors'interpretations of their interactions with employees asconformist, confrontational, or rebellious, designating how supervisors enact their role as agents ofthe organization.
The traditional formulation of symbols asbundles of meaning has supported manyfine-grained analyses of organizational culture.However, it tends to obscure deeper psychodynamicelements that are essential to shaping how culture forms,develops, and dies. This paper adapts the idea ofholding environment from Winnicott, Kegan,and others to sketch the potential contribution of such a psychodynamic perspective. An illustrativecase is presented to support the argument.
The study is a case study of managerial identity work, based on an in-depth case of a senior manager and the organizational context in which she works. The paper addresses the interplay between organizational discourses, role expectations, narrative self-identity and identity work. Identity is conceptualized in processual terms as identity work and struggle. The paper illuminates fragmentation as well as integration in the interplay between organizational discourses and identity. It aims to contribute to a processual oriented identity theory and to the methodology of identity studies through showing the advantage of a multi-level intensive study.
According to the advocates of a "Generalized Darwinism" (GD), the three core Darwinian principles of variation, selection and retention (or inheritance) can be used as a general framework for the development of theories explaining evolutionary processes in the socioeconomic domain. Even though these are originally biological terms, GD argues that they can be re-defined in such a way as to abstract from biological particulars. We argue that this approach does not only risk to misguide positive theory development, but that it may also impede the construction of a coherent evolutionary approach to "policy implications". This is shown with respect to the positive, instrumental and normative theories such an approach is supposed to be based upon.
Economists often play crucial roles in designing and implementing public policies; thus it is of importance to better understand the values that underlie their decisions. We explore the value hierarchies of economists in four studies: The first two studies examine whether value differences exist between students of economics and other social sciences students. The final two studies examine how value priorities important to economics students relate to identification with the organization and work orientation. Taken together, our findings indicate that economists have a distinctive pattern of value priorities that may affect their work-related perceptions and attitudes and hence impact their policy decisions and recommendations.
This study tracked the leadership development of236 male cadets from matriculation through graduation ata military college. Cognitive ability, physical fitness,prior influence experiences, and self-esteem measured in Year 1 were relevant to predictingthose who assumed formal leadership positions in Year 4.Physical fitness and prior influence experiencesmeasured when cadets entered the college predicted leader effectiveness rated in their fourthyear. Stress tolerance and moral reasoning levels didnot predict leader emergence or effectiveness, thoughthe set of individual difference measures significantly predicted emergence and effectiveness. Physicalfitness levels and moral reasoning increased over timefor all cadets, though surprisingly, levels ofself-esteem and stress tolerance did not increase over time. Overall the study demonstrated thatleadership effectiveness and emergence could bepredicted from early measures of individualdifferences.
Team reflexivity, or the extent to which teams reflect upon and modify their functioning, has been identified as a key factor in the effectiveness of work teams. As yet, however, little is known about the factors that play a role in enhancing team reflexivity, and it is thus important to develop theorizing around the determinants of reflexivity. From an applied perspective, leadership is a very relevant factor. The current study is a first step in the development of such a theory, and addresses this important gap in our understanding of team reflexivity by focusing on the role of leader behavior. We examined the extent to which transformational leadership influences team reflexivity and, in turn, team performance in a field study conducted among 32 intact work teams from nine organizations. Team members rated reflexivity and leadership, while external managers rated team performance. We hypothesized and tested a mediational model proposing that transformational leadership is related to the adoption of a shared vision by the team. This in turn relates to team reflexivity, which leads to higher team performance. Results support this model.