Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing

Published by Wiley
Online ISSN: 1520-6564
Publications
Article
Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers' self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other's driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label's drunk driving message on taking actions to avert another's driving under the influence was tested in a structural equation modeling framework. For males and females, in structural models with drinking and handling of alcoholic beverages potentially affecting both message recall and intervening, the predicted relationships were found between message recall and actions to deter another's drinking driving. This finding suggests that an important preventive effect of the alcohol warning label may be to legitimate collateral's attempts to avert another's drunk driving.
 
Article
The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers' perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement.
 
Conference Paper
Designing effective electronic information systems to support search and retrieval in real world applications is a complex and challenging endeavour. Advances in computer technology must be integrated with a comprehensive understanding of the information seeking and synthesis behaviour in the context of information use. The focus of this research is on developing an understanding of user categories, background, their information seeking goals, electronic information systems they use, and strategies they bring into play during the information search process in a corporate environment. Our research methodology integrates field studies, cognitive modeling and analysis, computational model implementation, and design application. The article describes the field study and the results of the cognitive modeling phase of our ongoing research on human centered systems design
 
Article
Process of globalisation defines the new frontiers, leaving more importance to the territory. In the context of a rapidly changing international environment it is of no small importance to ask some question about the present situation in the bordering regions, their foreseeable evolution, both short- and long-term, and the economic and social consequences liable to results, considering their geographical and demographic situation, and their structures of activity. The redrawing of old national territories no longer seems to be the product of diplomacy and, in particular, wars; henceforth, it would appear to depend upon industrial economics. This is especially significant in the case of “Neisse” Euroregion located on Polish-Czech-German borders. Here are, at the present time, the chances of reviving a localized productive system that would give life to new forms of interregional co-operation. The aim of this article is to offer a reflection on the relevance of the marshallian district concept in the analysis of this interregional co-operation. The marshallian industrial district is based on the external economies of agglomerations and the economics of urbanisation, and this kind of development we can see today in Poland. The study of localized productive systems must be thorough and multidisciplinary and carried out through fieldwork. The aim is to understand how work, relationships and culture as well as material and immaterial infrastructures that give a place its original identity within the international division of labour regenerate in locally coherent forms. Regional production system grouped together on spatial level and integrated company networks at the regional level could serve to create local hubs of competition in Central and Eastern Europe.
 
Article
This article shows the results of research regarding the importance and the role of human factors in quality management in production enterprises. In creating the concept of systematizations of human factors in quality management an anthropocentrism rule was accepted and resulting from it a category of life quality. Acceptance of this rule led to a multiaspect and comprehensive approach to human factors in quality management. An interpretation of the notion of quality was made, adequate to needs, goals, and requirements of a human. Additionally, a cybernetic model of quality management system was elaborated. Human factors was exhibited in the manager's and executor's roles in quality management systems in enterprise as well as to the roles of creators, producers, and users (customers) in product life cycles. An existence of human factors in ISO norms regarding quality management, work safety, and hygiene management and environment management was also shown. The objective of this article is a comprehensive identification and systematization of aspects of human factors in quality management. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival, and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. Knowledge management embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings. Knowledge is rapidly becoming the most important asset of virtually all organizations. Manufacturing is no exception. The ability to manage and exploit knowledge will be the main source of competitive advantage for the manufacturing industry of the future. In that role, knowledge management will improve production management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace.
 
Article
We describe a survey of the use and effectiveness of 12 manufacturing practices. The survey was administered to a random, stratified sample of companies with 150 or more employees in the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and Switzerland, yielding a total sample of 898 companies. We report findings on the extent of use of the practices, when they were introduced, their predicted future use, their effectiveness, and the correlates of their use and effectiveness. The data are examined for differences by country of location and country of ownership, as well as by industrial sector. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The aim of this article is to point out some flaws in the mathematical programming model proposed by Tamer Eren [Human and Machine Effects in a Just-In-Time Scheduling Problem, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 19(4), 294–299 (2009)]. Ignoring these flaws may cause unexpected computational results. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The current study sought to investigate and analyze citation-based trends in the field of human factors and ergonomics over a relatively long period of time. Journals were selected from the Ergonomics Journal List (EJL), originally formulated by Dul and Karwowski in 2004. Data were extracted from the Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports via a custom order in 2008. Various bibliometric indicators were examined and analyzed, including total citation counts, cited half-lives, immediacy indices, and journal impact factors. Overall, the results suggest that, although citation counts have increased in recent years, trends were less clear regarding cited half-lives and immediacy indices. Impact factors rose over time, however, with individual journals increasing their scores between 200% and 613%, with an overall increase of 416% for the EJL between 1975 and 2007. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
This article describes economical and sociotechnical changes in a factory workshop during 1988–1994. A large FMS project was realized during the first 2 years. The project was finished on schedule. The project was designed and carried out in a participative manner involving all the personnel in the development groups. The follow-up study shows that the goals concerning the productivity of the workshop and the well-being of the personnel were mainly achieved. There were two main phases in the development: a quick and profound change during the first 2 years, and a more stable, “freezing” phase after it. Challenges, problems, and hindrances to make the development continuous are also discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
Ergonomics journals and journals related to the field of ergonomics were ranked according to a method developed by Dul and Karwowski (2004) to create the Ergonomics Journal List 2005 (EJL2005). The EJL2005 was compared with the EJL2004. The rankings of the best ergonomics journals in EJL2005 were compared with the rankings based on perceived journal quality from a survey among 130 certified European ergonomists. The results show that in the EJL2005, the six primary ergonomics journals are the same as in the EJL2004, although some journals changed position. Eleven new journals showed up in the list of 61 related journals (non-ergonomics journals that regularly publish ergonomics articles). The total number of ergonomics articles in these journals increased from 605 in the EJL2004 to 623 in the EJL2005. There was a high congruence between the ranking of ergonomics journals in the EJL2005 and rankings based on perceived journal quality (Pearson r = 0.90). © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 327–332, 2005.
 
Article
Since 1918, hand–arm vibration (HAV) exposure, principally from but not limited to vibrating power tools and processes, affects some 1.5 to 2 million regularly exposed U.S. workers and many more worldwide. These HAV exposures usually lead to an irreversible disease of the fingers/hands called hand–arm vibration syndrome whose prevalence is as high as 50% in exposed worker populations. HAVS results not only in hand–arm deterioration, but invariably job loss. To help combat the mounting HAV problem, domestic and international consensus HAV exposure standards were developed and promulgated in the early 1980s; but for the first time, the European Union in 2005 passed into law exposure standards for both HAV and whole-body vibration. In response, in 2006 in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) developed, replaced, and promulgated its 1986 HAV exposure standard S3.34 with a completely revised HAV standard—S2.70-2006—thus ushering in new profound implications for power tool users and tool manufacturers and countless related manufacturing operations throughout the United States. The background, salient aspects, safety and health, and manufacturing implications of this new ANSI S2.70 HAV standard are discussed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The article presents a new concept of combining the three dimensions (3D) of a person's manipulation space. The data concern information about the reach of the arms and biomechanical data about limiting the load of a disabled person sitting in a wheelchair. Measurement data were acquired empirically, on original measuring station. The data included, respectively, arms’ reach (static and dynamic) or, alternatively, measurements of limiting forces. The obtained data were processed into virtual 3D surfaces of arms’ reach and forces. These surfaces provide the required graphic model of anthropotechnical and biomechanical data. Developed model was utilized to perform a virtual analysis of the accessibility of a disabled person to technical means: in a market sale space and in the ergonomic analysis into the space of a personal car. The presented method of 3D graphic modeling of anthropometrical and biomechanical data can be universally applied in ergonomic designing of work stations not only for disabled persons. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Nowadays, companies have not only the challenge of developing systems for quality management, but also others of promoting and assuring the improvement of quality. Personnel participation becomes the key for quality system survival and improvement in the long term. This article contains the basis of a methodology that, within the framework of the ISO 9001:2000 standard and based on an Improvement Teams Program, contributes to quality management system maintenance on the way to excellence. The main target of this methodology is the small to medium-sized enterprise. This methodology is illustrated with a brief description of its application in a leading Spanish company in the textile-fashion-clothing industry. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 14: 221–237, 2004.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to provide information on physical work capacity during arm and shoulder lifting at various shoulder flexion and ad/abduction angles. We measured the maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) in 20 male participants during controlled one-arm lifting. The lifting involved upward motion of the scapula at various shoulder angles. Simultaneously, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 shoulder muscles and psychophysical workload were also recorded. The various measurements were compared to provide a multidimensional assessment of the physical work capacity of the shoulder at various working angles. In particular, 90 and 120 degrees of flexion, 30 degrees of adduction, and 90 degrees of abduction were found to be the most vulnerable angles based on the measured MVCs. The average root mean square value of the EMG increased most significantly at 90 to 150 degrees of flexion and at 30 and 60 degrees of abduction. Slightly different measurements were compared to validate the results. In addition, a 3-D static biomechanical model was used to show whether the estimated shoulder workload matched the measured physical capacity of the shoulder. In conclusion, these results may help ergonomists to identify shoulder angles associated with a relatively high risk of injury, and to match the workload with the physical capacity of the shoulder. Task-specific information on shoulder work capacity is needed in the manufacturing and shipbuilding industries to protect workers from acute injuries and cumulative trauma disorders of the shoulder. Experimental results provide various data on shoulder work capacity during realistic multijoint arm and shoulder lifting, and should help lead to improvements in workplace ergonomic design. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 13: 153–163, 2003.
 
Article
Absenteeism among manual workers is without doubt one of the most significant factors that affect the functioning of assembly lines. It is a widely held view that high levels of absenteeism have negative repercussions on the quality and costs of operations. According to the scientific theory of work, workers who temporarily stand in for their absent colleagues affect production quality levels because of a lack of work specialization and experience. However, new and sophisticated automation can eliminate the effect of absenteeism on assembly line production. This article gathered more than 960,000 products produced by different levels of absenteeism. The effects of absenteeism on the quality of products in assembly lines over the course of one year were analyzed. In contrast to established thinking, the empirical evidence presented here confirms that absenteeism does not always produce problems in the quality of products. This evidence can be explained by the need for specialization among manual workers has been reduced by the invention of more sophisticated and specialized machinery. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
With a knowledge-based economy emerging, knowledge and innovations have been the core elements of organizations' competitive advantages. Universities, institutes, and enterprises can reach the goal of advantage complement and innovation cooperation by establishing a research and development (R&D) alliance lab. This article focuses on an industry–academy R&D alliance lab, analyzes its motivations and impacting factors, and discusses its cooperative mechanisms. The alliance lab of Tsinghua-Sohu Search Technology is studied as a typical case to provide a reference for industry–academy alliance R&D labs in terms of cooperative mechanisms. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Background Mason tenders are involved in semi- and unskilled work in support of bricklayers and block layers. Their work consists of manually transporting building materials and equipment, supplying individual brick/block layers with materials, and mixing and stocking mortar. Objective The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the current availability and acceptability of reduced-weight Portland cement bags among mason contractors, cement suppliers, and manufacturers as a vehicle to decrease the exposure of mason tenders to physical risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods Forty-six producers, suppliers, and contractors that use Portland cement bags were used in this observational exploratory study. A questionnaire was administrated over the phone and data were collected regarding availability, practice of use, and preferences between full- and reduced-weight Portland cement bags. Results Only 17% of the companies produce/supply/use the reduced-weight cement bags. The main factors mentioned by the companies that influence the nonuse of small bags are reduced demand; increased cost; storage, shipping, and handling difficulty; special equipment requirements; and special packaging. Only 11% of companies interviewed are aware of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting recommendations that the maximum lifted weight should be 51 lb. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that reduced cement bags may not be in wide use by producers/suppliers/users of Portland cement. A full-scale study is recommended to confirm these practices and find ways to significantly reduce the risk to which masonry workers are exposed. Application The potential application of this study can be the development of new guidelines regarding the production/supplying/usage of 47 lb cement bags.
 
Ranges of upper-extremity motions: (a) arm, (b) forearm, (c) hand, and (d) index finger.
MAFs of Upper-Extremity Motions
ANOVA Table for MAF
Average work pulses when working at MAF (low and high forces = 9.8 and 39.2 N for arm, forearm, and hand motions and 2.45 and 9.8 N for index finger motion).
ANOVA Table for Work Pulse
Article
The present study examined the maximum acceptable frequencies (MAFs; motions/min) of upper-extremity motions in the sagittal plane at different forces. A dumbbell of 9.8 or 39.2 N was rotated by the arm about the shoulder, the forearm about the elbow, and the hand about the wrist; a dynamometer was pressed to 2.45 or 9.8 N by the index finger. Seventeen right-handed Korean men in their 20s without any history of musculoskeletal disorders received 1 hour of individual training and conducted each upper-extremity task for 30 minutes a day, assuming they were on an incentive basis. The participants determined their MAFs for 8 hours of work by the self-adjustment method, and work pulse (change in heart rate; beats per minute [bpm]) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. For a limited set of conditions, the reproducibility of the MAF experimental protocol was found satisfactory (r = 0.97; interclass correlation coefficient > 0.95). The average MAFs of arm, forearm, hand, and index finger motions were 24, 45, 56, and 128 at their low force level and 9, 20, 30, and 66 at their high force level. The average work pulses of arm, forearm, and hand motions were 3.0, 2.1, and 1.5 times that of index finger motion (4.2 bpm at their low force level and 5.7 bpm at their high force level). The maximum average RPEs at the upper-extremity regions ranged from 2.1 (weak) to 3.1 (moderate) in Borg's CR-10 scale. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Systemic thinking aims to develop a common language that makes it possible for scientists of different disciplines and technologies to communicate with one another. The specific methodology of systemic thinking is a means of tackling complex, interrelated problems by applying a holistic approach that focuses on the interrelation of individual aspects. In this article, an attempt is made to show the impact of systemic thinking in different areas of science and technology. In particular, the authors argue that a multidisciplinary, systemic approach can play an important role in developing a general theory of safety science. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 13: 231–242, 2003.
 
Article
Labor inspectors investigate accidents to identify possible accident causes, initiate prosecution, and plan future accident prevention. The Method of Investigation for Labor Inspectors (MILI) was designed to help them to identify workplace and organizational factors in addition to immediate factors and legal breaches. The present study analyzes the impact of workplace (work design and provision of unsafe equipment) and organizational factors (training and employee involvement) on accident causation and validates MILI on real accident cases. Accident data from the manufacturing sector are analyzed with LISREL structural equation modeling. Results confirm the relationship between work design and training as well as between provision of unsafe equipment and employee involvement. The present study provides evidence that MILI is a structured accident investigation method allowing multiple accident causation factors to be revealed and that it could help all interested parts (not only labor inspectors, but companies as well) to thoroughly investigate occupational accidents. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Accurate data about accident costs motivate top managers to improve safety in production. The problem has been, however, to specify costs reliably and easily. This article presents the computer-aided module for calculating accident costs in the TATU-Safety Information System developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. The module computes the direct costs and company-controlled total costs of accidents. The calculation is based on the accident consequence tree (ACT) method. The software provides information about accident costs to motivate accident prevention. The authors explain the system design of the software and its use in cost calculation. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
Accident risks in automated production systems occur mainly during system disturbance. However, few studies have dealt with this issue. We were able to investigate it by studying accident risks during the recovery of incidents occurring in the running of an automated bread production system in an industrial bakery. This problem was examined through worker interviews. The main results indicate that the accident risks associated with system disturbance are due to accessibility problems and the need to operate quickly to avoid production shutdowns or material damage. Different solutions have been implemented to reduce the disturbances and accident risks. The development of these solutions seems related to the managers' and operators' concepts of what constitutes a disturbance. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The use of new technology does not systematically eliminate industrial hazards. However, these can be limited if new equipment is adopted and implemented within the context of a strategic management of prevention—an approach specifically applied within the framework of this study toward the adoption and implementation of new technology. This approach can be defined as the integration of the following four dimensions: technological capabilities and resources, organizational capabilities, decision-making processes, and both perceived and registered strategic benefits. This article describes the choices and conditions under which the introduction of new technologies can help in the prevention of occupational injuries. It delimits grounds for testing the following two hypotheses: (1) that companies who are effective in terms of occupational health and safety (OHS) outperform economically those that are not; and (2) that OSH-effective companies adopt more new technologies than other companies. Data were provided by a sample of 140 businesses in the sector of metal products manufacturing. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
This article explains how some concepts of nonlinear dynamics—attractors, bifurcations, catastrophes, chaos, and self-organization—contribute to the explanation of deterministic processes in occupational accidents. Empirical results from factory, transportation, and health care settings are compared. The complex dynamics of chaos and self-organization have recently become more important as work systems themselves have become more complex. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 13: 293–304, 2003.
 
Article
Nowadays, electric power is the most commonly used form of energy and is an important part of everyday life. The violation of the rules of use of electricity implies material damages, human injuries, and, unfortunately, very often, loss of life. According to the international statistics, electric accidents are the most fatal among the other kinds of accidents. This particularity is also confirmed for Greece. The present article is an assessment of the electrocutions that happened between 1992 and 1996 to workers in the power industry of Greece. Specifically, data concerning the occupational characteristics of the injured person, the time at which the accident occurred, and its consequences are presented and discussed. The calculation of the accident frequency rate per 1,000 workers, with special attention to fatal accidents, is proposed. Also, the structure of an information system for accidents is proposed. With its simultaneous connection to the central computer of the company, the information system can calculate the frequency and severity rates per workplace, per group, and per specialty of workers. Also, it characterizes the workers according to the occupational risk they are running. REFERENCES reference 1: Stamatia S. Pisimisi and Maria G. Ioannides, «Human factors and prevention of falls from height at construction sites», International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL, USA , 2006, 2nd Edition, p. 2650 – 2655 . http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9780849375477.ch515 reference 2: Timothy R. Driscoll, James E. Harrison, Clare Bradley, Rachel S. Newson, «The Role of Design Issues in Work-Related Fatal Injury in Australia», Journal of Safety Research, 2008, Vol. 39, Issue 2, p. 209–214 . www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/PTD/pdfs/Driscoll.pdf . http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/286/DesignIssues_WorkRelatedSeriousInjuries_2005_PDF.pdf reference 3: Chong-Cheng Yang, «Contributing factors of work-related electrical fatalities», Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, June 2008 . http://pc01.lib.ntust.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search-c/view_etd?URN=etd-0701108-123841 . http://140.118.33.1/ETD-db/ETD-search/view_etd?URN=etd-0701108-123841 reference 4: Benjamin E. Bella, «Analysis of continuous hours of work within electric distribution cooperatives», University of Wisconsin-Stout, Thesis at MS Technology Management Research, Fall 2011, pp. 72 • http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2011/2011bellab.pdf reference 5: Maria G. Ioannides and Peter J. Papadopoulos, «Electric Field Prediction for a Human Body-Electric Machine System», International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 2004, Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 87-100 • http://www.ciop.pl/8669 reference 6: Μπάκα Αικατερίνη, «Ανάπτυξη συστήματος προστασίας των εργαζομένων από ηλεκτροπληξία», Διδακτορική Διατριβή, ΕΜΠ, Αθήνα, Φεβρουάριος 2015, σελ. 71 (Aikaterini Baka, «Developing of system protection against workers’ electric shock», Ph.D. Τhesis, National Technical University of Athens, 2015, p. 71) • http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:maJUwt_7lWMJ:artemis-new.cslab.ece.ntua.gr:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/7612+&cd=1&hl=el&ct=clnk&gl=gr reference 7: Kuo Tsung-Min, «Scenario Analysis and Prevention of Construction Related Electrical Shock Harzards», Thesis at National Taipei University of Technology, 11-05-2015 Taipei, Taiwan • http://ir.lib.ntut.edu.tw/wSite/ct?ctNode=447&mp=ntut&xItem=63189 reference 8: P. Batra, «The occupational safety and health conditions in the collective labour agreements. The case of the Greek electric power industry», Proc. of the EUROPES 2004 Conference, Rhodes, Greece, June 2004, p. 595–598. . http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx?PaperID=18030&reason=500 reference 9: TR Driscoll, ELMATOM Pty Ltd, JE Harrison, C Bradley, RS Newson, Research Centre for Injury Studies, Flinders University in Adelaide, «Design issues in work-related serious injuries», Australian Government – Department of Employment and Workplace Relations – Office of the Australian Safety and Compensation Council, November 2005, Australia, p. 39 • http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/286/DesignIssues_WorkRelatedSeriousInjuries_2005_PDF.pdf reference 10: Luís Geraldo Gomes da Silva, «Acidentes De Trabalho Fatais Na Geração, Transmissão E Distribuição De Energia Elétrica (Brasil)», Anais do X Seminário do Trabalho, «Trabalho, Crise e Políticas Sociais na América Latina», 23-25 de maio de 2016 – UNESP/Marília, Brasil, p. 907-922. • http://www.canal6.com.br/x_sem2016/artigos/7A-09.pdf • http://www.canal6.com.br/x_sem2016/Anais_X_Seminario_Trabalho_2016.pdf
 
Article
The study was conducted at 16 wood-processing companies in southern Finland. The companies involved were selected according to the following criteria: (a) 8 companies were to have an accident rate that was clearly below the average rate for the wood-processing industry in the period 1985–1989, and 8 companies a rate clearly higher than the average; and (b) the companies were to form pairs engaged in the same type of activity and exhibiting different rates. Companies were divided into 2 groups. Two sawmills, 1 parquet, and 1 plywood factory with a low accident rate and 4 similar factories with a high rate were selected as “experiment companies” and received advice aimed at improving their work environment and safety activities. Eight similar companies were selected as a control group and received no advice. This study attempted to ascertain the effects of such advice on the work environment, safety activities, and occupational accidents. In addition, differences in the safety of the work environment, in safety activities, and in occupational accidents were studied in companies with a low accident rate as compared with the situation in companies with a high rate. Work environment and safety activities showed a statistically significant correlation with accident rate. The better the situation, the lower the accident rate. In the companies with a low accident rate, the work environment and safety activities were also better than in the companies with a high rate. In the period 1989–1994, the drop in the accident rate at the experiment companies was greater—to a statistically significant extent—than it was in the control group or in the wood-processing industry as a whole. In cases where advice was given to the experiment companies with the aim of preventing particular occupational accidents, the rate of such accidents declined; there was no such trend in the control companies. By contrast, trends for other types of accidents were similar in the experiment and control companies. Changes in the accident rates of the experiment or control companies could not be explained by economic cycles or by changes either in the employees' work experience or in the duration of absences. It is highly probable that the positive trend with regard to occupational accidents in the experiment companies was related to improvement in the work environment and safety activities and that this in turn was a result of the advice given to these companies in 1990.
 
Article
Clothing and apparel are high value-added products, and body measurement standards are crucial industrial standards in apparel manufacturing. These standards enable manufacturers to predict sales of different sizes and set production quantities accordingly, resulting in accurate material control and production planning. Many standards use a range of approximate girth differences based on anthropometric data to determine figure types, but these figure types cannot be accurately classified. Moreover, little research has been done to apply the girth ratio approach to identify figure types. This study proposes an accurate girth ratio approach to identify figure types for middle-aged women; the approach can then be used to develop industrial standards. By applying these findings, figure types can be precisely classified. New body measurement standards can then be developed. These industrial standards can help manufacturers improve the fit of mass-produced apparel, and their application in manufacturing can reduce production costs and increase market competitiveness. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Traditional approaches to defect reduction in manufacturing environments rely heavily on the introduction of technology-based detection techniques that require significant investments in equipment and technical skills. In this article, the authors outline a novel, alternative approach that utilizes the largely untapped abilities of assembly-line operators. Targeting zero-defect manufacturing, the SEISMIC (stabilize, evaluate, identify, standardize, monitor, implement, and control) methodology developed herein is a sociotechnical-based system built on the decentralization of technical knowledge and the transfer of responsibility for product quality from technical staff to manual operators. Along with defect reduction, important secondary goals of the SEISMIC methodology are improved operator performance and job satisfaction. The SEISMIC methodology provides a quantitative approach for classifying assembly environments and determining their required skill sets. Effective methods for transferring the identified skills throughout the production team are also provided. A pilot application of the protocol in an automotive assembly environment has achieved promising results in the target areas of defect reduction and operator performance. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 137–148, 2007.
 
Article
ERGO_X is a fuzzy expert system that supports workstation ergonomic analysis and provides advice on corrective measures aimed at improving the overall quality of the ergonomic design. ERGO_X was designed in a modular way to make further developments easier and to allow the selection of different ergonomic analysis contexts. The modularity feature mainly is a result of the knowledge base modular structure. Each module was built as a multilevel tree fuzzy relation. This relation reflects the interaction between attributes that are used to evaluate the level of severity of the relevant risk factors that are present at the analyzed workstation. The aim of this study is to address some aspects related to the knowledge acquisition process involved in the development of the ERGO_X knowledge base. In this regard, the author refers to her knowledge engineering activities in the development of a work-related musculoskeletal disorder module. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 149–162, 2007.
 
Article
In 2008, The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) reported that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were the most common work-related health problem in Europe. Females are considered more susceptible to MSDs than are males, and older workers are more vulnerable than are younger workers. Factors specific to the job, work organization, and individual have been implicated as potential risk factors, with current interest focusing on psychosocial risk factors and the pathology of disorders. Although there is some disagreement in the literature, there is growing support that, after controlling for exposure, females have a predisposition to MSDs. More is known of the role of psychosocial risks in MSD etiology, but it is unclear if there are differences in exposures across gender and age and if this has a resultant effect on injury rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MSDs and trends with psychosocial risks, across age and gender. The study group consisted of 200 female and 132 male employees from varied occupations within Ireland, ranging from age 18–66 years. The most prevalent symptoms of MSDs were for the lower back, shoulder, and neck regions. Age and gender differences in prevalence were evident for these regions. There was a general trend for increasing prevalence with age. For the psychosocial risks, significant differences in job content exposures were observed across age groups for males (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.0005). There were also differences in scores across the age groups for mental health (p < 0.0005) and insecurity at work (p < 0.0005) for the females. The conclusions are that there were not sufficiently strong differences in exposures to relevant psychosocial risks both between genders and across age for a resultant effect on MSDs. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of pneumatic power tools altered electrophysiologic properties of the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist during the work shift. Sensory nerve conduction velocities were measured in hands of workers before work and then at 2-hour intervals during the workday. Ten workers exposed to pneumatic power tool use and 10 workers not exposed to intensive hand activity were evaluated. The conduction velocities slowed significantly across the wrist in the median and ulnar nerves among workers using pneumatic tools but not among control workers. This investigation demonstrated that short-term exposure to highly intensive hand tasks causes significant slowing in nerve conduction velocity across the wrist. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 339–352, 2005.
 
Article
To obtain maximum benefit from the implementation of industrial robots, it is necessary to identify specific ergonomics problems and provide answers to such problems. Special features of a typical industrial robot are described. Specific ergonomics problems are identified and discussed: sociopsychological factors, systems safety design, communications, training, and workplace design. For the successful implementation of industrial robots, management should take timely action with regard to advanced planning procedures, user involvement plans, communication channels, company labor policies, and continuous training programs. The technological change from conventional to advanced manufacturing, such as industrial robots, must be jointly supported by all levels of management and workers. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation of the Action Plan. The assessment of the Action Plan indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing that new management strategies focusing on human resource development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that—under certain conditions—a combination of state regulation and industrial relation agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
This article analyzes the Danish approach to workplace assessment (WPA) following European requirements to establish legislation on occupational health and safety. Quantitative studies show that WPA can be interpreted as a success within the larger Danish firms. However, data from qualitative studies modify this picture by showing how attention has been focused on physical working environment problems while wider psychosocial problems have been ignored. The article claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that WPA—even though positively evaluated—has become a recurrent activity within firms. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
Although the use of continuous improvement (CI) is widespread today, many organizations face problems maintaining high and sustained employee involvement in such programs. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing employee involvement in submitting suggestions within a suggestion system in a Swedish production company. The company had maintained a successful suggestion system for about 10 years. The study builds on a database containing all the suggestions submitted (2343 in number) within the suggestion system. The following factors were identified to influence employee involvement in submitting suggestions and hence the sustainability of the suggestion system as well: (a) Situations when the employees had a personal benefit from submitting suggestions, e.g., concerning their own work environment, contributed to long-term sustainability of the system; (b) campaigns emphasizing different themes encouraged employees to become more active within the suggestion system; (c) employees having some of their suggestions rejected were more active in submitting suggestions than employees having most suggestions rejected or accepted; (d) a high monetary reward (80 euros and above) was not found favorable for submitting new suggestions, compared to lower rewards; (e) increased support of group suggestions contributed to a sustained and high level of activity of the suggestion system. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 79–94, 2007.
 
Article
This article examines the development of the professionalized working environment activities as they are executed in the Danish Occupational Health Service (OHS). In an historical analysis of OHS, the development of professional approaches to the working environment is shown to have shifted in focus from: an early concern with the control of occupational diseases and machine safety, to a more technical prevention emphasis in the early 1980s, through to a change agent and process consultant approach. The article concludes that we are entering a new era for cooperation with new role models for working environment professionals. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
The safety and availability of sociotechnical critical systems still relies on human operators, both through human reliability and human ability to handle adequately unexpected events. In this article, the authors focus on ergonomic field studies of nuclear power plant control room operator activities, and more specifically on the analysis of communications within control room crews. They show how operators use vague and porous verbal exchanges to produce continuous, redundant, and diverse interactions to successfully construct and maintain individual and mutual awareness, which is paramount to achieve system stability and safety. Such continuous interactions enable the operators to prevent, detect, and reverse system errors or flaws by anticipation or regulation. This study helps in providing cues for the design of more workable systems for human cooperation in nuclear power plant operation. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 43–78, 2007.
 
Article
The Internet connects millions of computers worldwide, and provides a new potential working environment for remote-controlled telerobotic systems. The main limitation of using the Internet in this application is random delays between communicating nodes, which can cause disturbances in human–machine interaction and affect telepresence experiences. This is particularly important in systems integrating virtual reality technology to present interfaces. Telepresence, or the sense of presence in a remote environment, hypothetically is positively related to teleoperation task performance. This research evaluated the effect of constant and random network (communication) delays on remote-controlled telerover performance, operator workload, and telepresence experiences. The research also assessed the effect of using a system gain adaptation algorithm to offset the negative impact of communication delays on the various response measures. It was expected that with gain adaptation, system stability, performance, and user telepresence experiences would improve with a corresponding decrease in workload. Results indicated that gain adaptation had a significant effect on the performance measures. The study demonstrated that gain adaptation could reduce deterioration in telepresence experiences and improve user performance in teleoperated and telerobotic control. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 15: 259–274, 2005.
 
Article
Recently, with the progress of computer technology, the digitalization of human–system interface (HSI) in the main control room (MCR) of advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) has become an important issue. A higher level of automation means that the computers execute the greater part of the task. The frequency, however, of automation-induced system failures, including human errors, prompts us to more closely investigate the influences of automation. The objective of this study is to measure the effects of adaptive automation on the primary task performance, operator situation awareness (SA), and workload in an advanced MCR of an advanced NPP to reduce the number of failures and improve human performance. This study selects automatic mode and semi-automatic mode to compose five different types of automation allocations. The experiment scenario is a reactor shutdown task. A personal computer transient analyzer (PCTran) is used to simulate the HSI of an MCR. Twelve participants are required to perform the experiment scenario on the automation allocation types. The dependent variables were the primary task performance; the subjective workload was measured using an NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire; and three levels of SA were estimated by SA queries. Experimental results revealed that the automation allocations made up of higher ratio automatic modes led to superior primary task performance, lower operator workload, and lower frequency of human errors. In the high ratio automatic mode allocation, the operators have the lowest SA queries score. This study provides additional information for future digital HSI design in the MCRs of advanced NPPs. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The integration of product data management (PDM) software tools into a manufacturing company requires both technical and organizational considerations. Using an information processing paradigm, the impact of PDM on the design process and group activities are assessed. Using ongoing work with the furniture industry in the Southeastern United States as an example, the relationship of job design and the product development process to the introduction of PDM is examined. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Inc.
 
Article
In 2 studies, each with 5 test series, physiological costs of the hearing due to legally tolerable noise exposures of 94 dB (A) for 1 hr have been measured audiometrically. The temporary threshold shifts (TTS) and their restitution time, as well as cardiovascular responses in work-related heart rate increases, of 10 and 8 subjects (Ss), respectively, could be shown to be modulated by additional physical stress and combined exposure to alcohol (Study 1) and cigarette smoke (Study 2). Moderate dynamic muscle work (50 W) administered via a bicycle ergometer either immediately after noise, or simultaneous to the noise exposure, significantly reduced restitution time as well as the integrated restitution temporary threshold shift (IRTTS). A physical stress to 100 W—which exceeded the endurance level when demanded simultaneously to the noise exposure—did not show any favorable effects. However, if the same physical stress succeeded the noise exposure, and when it was interrupted several times for the audiometric measurements, it also brought about significant accelerations of the restitution processes. Some reductions in physiological costs of the hearing were found due to an intervening alcohol consumption (blood alcohol concentration ∼ 0.08%) prior to the noise exposure and a simultaneous physical load of 50 W. Smoking 10 cigarettes instead of the consumption of alcohol was associated with a reduced TTS, but a prolonged restitution time. IRTTS as total physiological costs of the most unfavorable combination of noise, simultaneous high physical workload, and preceding smoke exposure was increased. The results of the test series with cigarette smoke—probably due to the small group of just 8 Ss and the counteracting effects of the agents carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine—were not statistically significant, but these exposures were associated with a substantial activation of the cardiovascular system. Significant heart rate increases are evidence that CO and nicotine must not be neglected as influential factors in the context of physiological costs that the organism, and especially the hearing, has to pay for noise exposures. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
Several reviews have attempted to establish whether there is an association between adjacent segment disorder and spinal fusion. None of these studies used an evidence-based approach or solely focused on studies utilizing controls. The goal of this article is to identify any significant link between lumbar or lumbosacral spinal fusion and development of adjacent segment disease using literature with more than a 10-year follow-up, at least 15 subjects, and a control with no exposure to fusion. The published articles were obtained from a search of electronic databases and bibliographies of identified articles. The critical appraisal was performed using an epidemiological appraisal instrument. Five articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. From the literature, no definitive conclusion could be drawn regarding adjacent segment disorder as an outcome of spinal fusion. The failure of the literature to link adjacent segment disease to spinal fusion at least suggests the problem may not be widespread, but also fails to disprove the myriad of biomechanical concerns. Device manufacturers should address these concerns by furthering the development of motion preservation instrumentation and other innovations. Helping to drive this technology will be a larger data set of research with sound methodological quality and inclusion of accepted radiographic and functional outcomes. The reported findings underscore a need for information on spinal fusion and require a strategy for moving forward. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
This study explodes the relationships between the height adjustment of bed sectors and subjective comfort depending on three types of sleeping positions. An adjustable bed system that regulates the heights of 8 adjustment sectors of the bed was developed. To evaluate the comfort of 9 body areas, subjective ratings were requested from 64 subjects ranging in age from 25 to 50. The subjects included 29 males and 35 females. For an objective evaluation, the patterns of pressure distribution were investigated according to the three sleeping positions. During two separate states (before bed adjustment and after bed adjustment), measurements of the adjusted bed height and pressure distribution, and subjective ratings according to three sleeping positions were performed. Based on the results of the adjusted heights of the 8 sectors in the bed, the subjects preferred the W-shaped sleeping posture in both the supine and side positions. However, the U-shaped sleeping posture was preferred in the prone position. With respect to these sleeping positions, the heights of sectors significantly correlated with the subjective ratings presented by the subjects, as well as the ratios of pressure. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
The research presented in this paper aims to support the macroergonomics adoption improvement process by developing a broader understanding of relationships between key macroergonomics factors and management styles. The methodology involves knowledge acquisition, identifying, and categorizing a holistic set of key criteria about the macroergonomics adoption process. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is suggested as a multi-attribute decision-making methodology to effectively enhance adoption of macroergonomics and to improve management decision performance in measuring and comparing the overall performance of different management styles based on macroergonomical criteria. The study found that in terms of company culture, participation, human capability, and attitudes, the best management style in improving macroergonomics adoption is Management by Values. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 14: 353–377, 2004.
 
Article
Although the industrial quality inspection task has been extensively studied, the effect of multitasking on the performance of the operator in a hybrid inspection system is still unknown. The experiment described in this article compared the quality inspection performance for participants performing a single task, 3 multiple tasks, and 5 multiple tasks. The results of this research indicate that the performance of the operator in the quality inspection task while multitasking in an advanced manufacturing system will be determined by the interaction between the number of different types of defects that can be presented at the same time in the inspected parts and multitasking. The best performance will be obtained when the load created by additional tasks minimizes the monotony of the quality inspection task without interfering with the processing resources needed for the memorized quality criteria. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
This article reports a study that was carried out in 6 German advanced mechanical engineering organizations. The research investigated the wider role of the CNC machine operator against the background of an increased focus on quality management issues and lean production. Fifty-one interviews were carried out with individuals from different professional groups. The results showed that operators had an important function in compensating for variations in the manufacturing process. The choice of operator actions was influenced by several production-related factors (e.g., tolerance limit). Furthermore, we identified several organizational boundaries that indicated a considerable potential for efficiency gains if collaboration across these boundaries could be improved. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Article
As computer-based design features are adopted in main control rooms of nuclear power plants, a human reliability analysis (HRA) method dealing with the effects of these design features on human behavior is needed. This article provides experimental results of human diagnostic performance characteristics in a computer-based, full-scope, dynamic simulator to inform some insights on developing an HRA method for a computer-based advanced control room. In comparison to the performance time for diagnostic actions, it showed more or less faster performance in the computer-based control room with a computer-based emergency operating procedure (EOP) for an event scenario with an apparent diagnostic symptom than in the conventional control room with a paper-based EOP, but it is also revealed that the diagnosis time is highly dependent on the situational characteristics of simulated events. Regarding the aspect of human error occurrence, a decision maker showed the potential for leading to a wrong conclusion regarding the plant state when he makes a situational assessment or makes a decision based on abnormal information by himself without communicating or consulting with other operators. Finally, regarding the aspects of error recovery, it showed that the error recovery potential becomes much higher for the advanced control room than for the conventional control room due to the information sharing and access capability of the advanced control room between and for all the crew members. It is expected that an HRA method for an advanced control room environment should adequately reflect these characteristics of human behavior in a computer-based control room. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
For al main control room (MCR) in advanced nuclear power plants (ANPPs), a team of three operators has been adopted to enhance the safety of all the operating conditions, including general, abnormal, and emergent. Therefore, to evaluate the workload of team operators in the MCR of NPPs would be one valuable issues in human factor engineering (HFE) research. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) has been selected to measure the workload of operators in past studies. Some studies, however, indicated that the workload measured by the NASA-TLX did not have significant correlation with team performance. That is, assessing team workload using NASA-TLX alone may be a problem, and its sensitivity needs to be verified. In this study, a measurement called Team Workload Assessment (TWA) was developed to evaluate the team workload by characteristics of teamwork. The important characteristics of teamwork, including coordination, communication, support and leadership, and time sharing were developed in the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's α coefficient were used to examine the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Finally, the team workload scores of the TWA were compared with the team workload scores of the NASA-TLX and the task performance was obtained from an experiment designed to verify the suitability of the TWA. As a result, it was found that the team workload scores of the TWA are more sensitive to task performance than are those of the NASA-TLX. Therefore, the TWA is available to measure the team workload in the MCR of NPPs. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Article
This article presents an integrated approach combining the strategic, economic, and analytic justification methodologies to evaluate the tangible and intangible benefits for the selection of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT). A strategic approach called the manufacturing map is applied to determine the consistency among the proposed technology, the company objectives, and the manufacturing strategies. An analytic evaluation technique called the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is also introduced. During the AHP analysis, an economic evaluation tool called the state-price net present value (SP-NPV) is applied to provide financial data. Finally, a budget/network chart is employed to monitor and outline the project in greater detail. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
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